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Topic 17 of 99: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule

Tue, Aug 3, 1999 (12:03) | Marcia (MarciaH)
Influences in climate changes and geological upheavals have caused entire Civilizations to disappear; the ongoing investigation of these causes and their effect on the environment.
1283 responses total.

 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 1 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Aug  3, 1999 (17:25) * 1 lines 
 
With drought prominently featured in the newspapers currently, it is wise to remember how important a reliable source of water is to a civilization. The final failure of water replenishment caused the downfall and/or dispersal of the Hohokam and Anasazi cultures in the American West. Many other places on earth since the dawn of man have had these very problems as in Mohenjo-Daro in the Middle East. We would be wise to study and learn.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 2 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Jan 16, 2000 (19:43) * 43 lines 
 

Baffling Viking Artifacts Found in Cave
DUBLIN (Reuters) - A hoard of Viking
artifacts found in a cave in southern
Ireland is baffling archaeologists.
The hoard discovered by a heritage
worker cleaning the cave comprises
coins, bronze and silver ingots and
conical objects made of silver wire.
``Nothing like these have been seen
anywhere, let alone in the Viking world.
There is no parallel,'' Andrew Halpin,
keeper of Irish antiquities at the National
Museum in Dublin, told Reuters Friday.
``We think they could be ornaments for
garments, or some kind of cloak
fastener, but we're not sure. It's a
very important find for academics studying
this era,'' he said.
The hoard, found in county Kilkenny,
south of Dublin, also includes
Anglo-Saxon coins dating from 940,
confirming historical evidence that the
Vikings maintained settlements in both
Ireland and northern England at the
time.
Halpin said the cave may have been
used as a refuge and the artifacts
probably formed part of someone's
personal wealth stashed for safe keeping
during some kind of emergency.

A Viking presence at the site had been
well established, he said, and there
were records of a massacre of 1,000
people in the cave about 40 years before
the earliest date on the coins.

Vikings first carried out hit-and-run
raids on Ireland in 795 and later founded
settlements, including most of
Ireland's existing major towns, around 840.



 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 3 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Jan 16, 2000 (19:43) * 3 lines 
 

Oops!




 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 4 of 1283: lidya maccarthy  (livamago) * Sun, Jan 16, 2000 (20:42) * 7 lines 
 

Is not there a theory about the Vikings reaching the Americas long
before Columbus? It seems quite possible; they seem to have been
everywhere. Great article! I will take the liberty of searching for
pictures of my own country's Copan Ruins. I will post them as soon as
I can find them.



 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 5 of 1283: lidya maccarthy  (livamago) * Sun, Jan 16, 2000 (22:14) * 5 lines 
 

And here is the first...if it wishes to appear. Spring is not
behaving normally, imo.





 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 6 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Jan 16, 2000 (23:52) * 1 lines 
 
Brava, Amiga Mia. Lovely Copan stela you posted. The first archaological photograph. Who better than you to post it?! Muchas Gracias, Es muy interesante. (now correct my Spanish as I check your English...)


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 7 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Jan 17, 2000 (00:06) * 1 lines 
 
Not only is my Spanish bad, I also mixed in Italian. I had better stay with the jumble English of my Mother tongue. Perhaps you could add some Gaelic?!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 8 of 1283: lidya maccarthy  (livamago) * Mon, Jan 17, 2000 (10:05) * 6 lines 
 
I see no errors in your lovely Spanish salutation! How wonderful to read! I see no Italian anywhere, though...

"Copán, located in western Honduras, was once a Classic Maya royal center, the largest site in the southeastern part of the Maya area. Covering about 29 acres, it was built on the banks of the Copán River on an artificial terrace made of close to a million cubic feet of dirt. Over time, people spread out from the central core and built homes in outlying areas that had formerly been used for crops. Copán's nobles built smaller, rival complexes on sites that were increasingly further from the core.

In spite of its wealth, power, and size, Copán collapsed. No monuments seem to have been produced after A.D. 822." This from the learner.org site.



 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 9 of 1283: lidya maccarthy  (livamago) * Mon, Jan 17, 2000 (10:06) * 1 lines 
 



 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 10 of 1283: lidya maccarthy  (livamago) * Mon, Jan 17, 2000 (10:07) * 1 lines 
 



 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 11 of 1283: lidya maccarthy  (livamago) * Mon, Jan 17, 2000 (10:14) * 1 lines 
 



 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 12 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Feb  2, 2000 (21:38) * 24 lines 
 
Missing posts from changing servers:

Response 12 of 13: Ginny (vibrown) * Mon, Jan 31, 2000 (12:11) * 6 lines
Archaeology has always interested me, but I haven't had a chance to do much research on it.
When I went to Bolivia for the 1994 solar eclipse, I remember reading that the Inca civilization covered most of Peru,
Bolivia, Ecuador, and northern Chile. Apparently Bolivia had a pre-Inca civilization near Lake Titikaka; I think they were
called the Aymara.
Where were the Maya and Aztec civilizations located?

Response 13 of 13: Marcia (MarciaH) * Mon, Jan 31, 2000 (12:55) * 7 lines
The Maya peopled the southern area of Mexico, The Yucatan Peninsula, and most of Central America. They were in
power from pre-1000 BC until the Spanish Conquest in the 1500's AD. The Aztec were succesors of the Toltecs from
about 1300 AD until the Spanish conquest.
In the 1200-1521AD period the Aztecs established an empire and constructed their capital on a marshy island beneath
what is now Mexico city. Their empire extended south to Guatemala. Their terms for the ancient cultures in the area are
the ones we use today.
The Mayan civilization encompasses Pre-classic 1000BC - 250AD when they were mostly an egalitarian civilization. The
rise of shaman priest-kings led to Classic Mayan time of 250AD - 900AD which saw the creation of city and village
systems, math using a zero,(They had no Millennium problems!) and a vast network for overland trade. Post Classic
Mayan 900AD-1521AD population became too vast for natural resources to sustain which brought about the decline of
the cities and central power. Source: The National Geograpohic Mesoamerican timeline.

back to regular programming



 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 13 of 1283: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Sat, Feb 12, 2000 (15:44) * 1 lines 
 
A really good book on the impact of geology on archaeology is "Unearthing Atlantis" by Charles Pellegrino, highly readable and informative, even if you know next to nothing about either discipline. The Atlantis of the title refers to the Minoan culture of the eastern Mediterranean. One of the sites of Minoan habitation was the island of Kalliste, the most beautiful. Well it was until one of the most violent and loudest vulcanic eruptions blew 2/3's of the island away, and may possibly have been the cause of the Biblical 10 Plagues on Egypt.(That's Pellegrino's assertion). The island then got the name it would be known by until past classical times, Thera, the place of fear. The excavation on the island, now called Santorini (St. Irene), has been riddled with infighting and backbiting on the of the academic establishment and the Greek government.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 14 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Feb 12, 2000 (15:49) * 1 lines 
 
Yes! I am familiar with this book. He is an adherent of the Thera origin of Atlantis. One of the saner books in this wide open to wild theories discussions. Whatever happened there, it did in more than just the enormous Volcano which blew itself into oblivion along with an entire culture.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 15 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Sun, Feb 13, 2000 (13:41) * 1 lines 
 
Just watched a really good archeology TV programme. Must be the season fro them cos there are several on different channels at the moment. This one is called Time Team (they have a web site if i find the address I'll post it). They do a three day dig together with local archeologists who have called the team in. todays programme was in Coventry, England and they were escavating part of the original cathedral there trying to find the cloisters. They use geophysics to take ground soundings as well as conventional archeological 'digging'. They found the cloisters, lots of medieval floor tiles, a skeleton, that at first was thought to be modern and murdered, but turned out to be medieva, and an artist gave his impression of the scene. They also did a virtual reality tour of the cathedral.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 16 of 1283: World Builder  (MarciaH) * Sun, Feb 13, 2000 (14:16) * 2 lines 
 
How neat! Thanks for sharing that. Would love to work with that team. Gotta come back as a British Archaeologist in the next life (just before the one in which I come back as a geologist... and the one as an anthropologist...)
Whilst I was visiting Canterbury Cathedral, they were replacing the most eroded scuptures on the outside. There was a flatbed truck full of small pieces of the old Caen stone. I asked the loader what was going to happen to these pieces. He said they were going to the local landfill. I asked for a piece and he let me select the one I wanted. In my rock collection not boasts a little part of the original Canterbury Cathedral (but not the one St Augustine built...)


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 17 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Sun, Feb 13, 2000 (16:02) * 3 lines 
 
Did you see the Roman exhibition there? we went once when I lived in kent and I thoght it was very impresive.

Just recently we were in Winchester for a weekend, and in the shopping Centre (Mall) as you came out of the car park into the Mall there was a walk through exhibition of the excavation that had been done before the shopping centre could be built. It even had light up scenarios and a sound track! All freee!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 18 of 1283: World Builder  (MarciaH) * Sun, Feb 13, 2000 (17:26) * 1 lines 
 
Gads! They'd have to drag me away with a block-and-tackle! Yes, visited the Kent site some years ago. That must have been SOME villa! The mosaics are reknowned world-wide, I believe!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 19 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Mon, Feb 14, 2000 (12:49) * 1 lines 
 
there's another one near Cirencester that we've been to. It seemed massive and there was a surprising amount above ground (just), and they marked out the bits that weren't. I love visiting those sort of places.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 20 of 1283: World Builder  (MarciaH) * Mon, Feb 14, 2000 (13:31) * 4 lines 
 
If I lived over there, I'd have climbed every hillfort, crawled through every fogou, peeked into every dolmen and chambered long "burial" mound, pondered the significance of every stone circle and ditch-and-mound monument...*sigh*
Oh, and I'd have been through every little and giant church and cathedral. There is nothing quite like walking through Salisbury Cathedral at dusk and looking at a small casket containing the bones of someone buried in 616. Incredible!

Cirencester ("Sisister" yes? Or is it "Sinsister"?) is on my "next time" list.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 21 of 1283: World Builder  (MarciaH) * Mon, Feb 14, 2000 (13:32) * 1 lines 
 
Make that ditch-and-bank. Got it confused with Motte and Bailey which should also be on that list...


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 22 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Mon, Feb 14, 2000 (14:57) * 1 lines 
 
Trouble is it's like living in London - you get so used to it you don't notice what's on your doorstep.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 23 of 1283: World Builder  (MarciaH) * Mon, Feb 14, 2000 (15:33) * 1 lines 
 
Yes, I know...I grew up in suburban New York City, and the only time I was ever to the top of the Empire State Building was with a tourist. Never been to the Statue of Liberty...!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 24 of 1283: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Mon, Feb 14, 2000 (17:55) * 5 lines 
 
I once went to the Statue of Liberty on a ferry full of teenage French girls, Japanese heavy-metal kids, and Greek-Americans from Astoria, Queens. I forgot the Dutch tourists in sensible shoes. My favorite part was when Lady Liberty could be clearly seen from the right side of the boat, they announced that it would be best if people didn't head to the right side of the boat. So of course everyone ran to the right side of the boat, I didn't, but English is my native tongue.

Sorry, that had nothing to do with archaeology. But there are interesting archaeological finds made in New York City, particularly if there is excavation in Lower Manhattan. The city grew from south to north. Aaron Burr once lived in what now is Harlem; it was the country then. Some of the things which were found include colonial era ships and a slave cemetery.

I honestly wasn't trying to sully your discussion with mention of "Unearthing Atlantis". I bought my copy of the book from A Common Reader, and they don't really sell crackpot books. I mentioned it because I've always been fascinated by Minoan civilization, Arthur Evans' excavation at Knossos and other sites. It was one of the world's great eary civilizations, dazzling and sophistocated. The Egyptians traded with the Minoans and treated them with honor, by not referring to them as "barbarians in the presence of Ra". That was the usual Egyptian term for foreigners. All of this was ended for most intents by the Thera eruption/explosion, a geological event both extrodinary and catastophic. An event of that magnatude would not only be disasterous to the local area, but on a worldwide scale. And I liked Pellegrino's collection of data worldwide to posit his argument.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 25 of 1283: World Builder  (MarciaH) * Mon, Feb 14, 2000 (18:03) * 8 lines 
 
Yup! There were farms all over Manhattan and Brooklyn, and the Bronx was wilderness.

Please tell us what you discovered in the book you are reading, although Wolf would probably welcome it in her Paraspring Conference
http://www.spring.net/yapp-bin/restricted/read/paraspring/13/new

See you there!

Hey, did anyone notice I finally figured out how to put that cute graphic back on my title page??? Yay!!!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 26 of 1283: World Builder  (MarciaH) * Mon, Feb 14, 2000 (18:09) * 2 lines 
 
Cheryl, there is nothing crackpot from that bookshop. I know! I buy stuff from their catalog and read it like it was as good a book as the things they sell!
I really think this is a great place to post a discussion of that book. It certainly was a geophysical event of gigantic magnitude which caused the upheaval in the first place Have you, by chance, ever read "Gods, Graves and Scholars" by C. W. Ceram? If not, please get yourself a copy. It was my first archaeology book and I was hooked. (Actually, "living" in the American Museum of Natural History and the Metropolitan Museum of Art is what really convinced me that I needed to be an archaeologist. I visited there so often as a child I knew my way around as though it were home.)


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 27 of 1283: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Mon, Feb 14, 2000 (18:23) * 3 lines 
 
Yes, I do own a copy of "Gods, Graves and Scholars". I got and interest in archaeology from 2 sources, my father and my maternal grandfather. I remember going to the museum with my Dad to see the mummies. He was fascinated by ancient Egypt, and the Meso-Americans, and the African kingdoms, and the classical cultures of Greece and Rome. On a note closer to home, we used to walk in the woods and look for Indian (Native American) arrowheads. My maternal grandfather was Greek Cypriot, and very aware of his native island's very ancient history.

On the subject of another island, Manhattan, I'll check at the library for that particular information. It wasn't one of my own books.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 28 of 1283: World Builder  (MarciaH) * Mon, Feb 14, 2000 (18:54) * 1 lines 
 
Fascinating! Have you antiquities around your home in your collection? We have the making of a new topic for collecting conference! Where we lived in New Rochelle, N.Y. it was farmed so long that nothing was still around from ancient times, but I did find a chunk (2"x3"x1") of massive garnet tranported there from upstate NY by the last glaciers!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 29 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Tue, Feb 15, 2000 (13:07) * 2 lines 
 
Wow!
Apparently the area around my part of the village was a pig farm from the Danish invasion of southern England (last millennium). we also think there are some plague mass graves somewhere. However, I've never turned anything up yet.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 30 of 1283: World Builder  (MarciaH) * Tue, Feb 15, 2000 (14:10) * 2 lines 
 
Those Mass Graves must be just about everywhere considering half of the population of Europe died in the plague.
That garnet mass I found measures 8cm x 5cm x 2.5cm.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 31 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Tue, Feb 15, 2000 (14:23) * 1 lines 
 
I think it's quite surprising we don't dig up more. There's also a mass of ley lines in this area. I think one goes through the house two doors up from me.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 32 of 1283: World Builder  (MarciaH) * Tue, Feb 15, 2000 (15:13) * 3 lines 
 
Ah, Ley lines. Yes! Alfred Wadkins and "The Old Straight Track" Shall we discuss these here or in Paraspeing where Wolf has just created crop circles and other such things. I think these'd fit right into that topic, no?

I'd love to hear of your experiences concerneing Ley lines...


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 33 of 1283: World Builder  (MarciaH) * Tue, Feb 15, 2000 (15:15) * 1 lines 
 
I can crreate it here...Never mind - going to create Geomaganetism!!!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 34 of 1283: World Builder  (MarciaH) * Thu, Feb 17, 2000 (14:38) * 25 lines 
 
Egyptians Find Tomb of Ancient God Osiris
GIZA, Egypt (Reuters) - Sinking water levels have revealed a granite
sarcophagus of the ancient Egyptian god Osiris in a 30-meter (98 feet) deep
tomb at the Giza pyramids, Egyptian archaeologist Zahi Hawass said
Wednesday.
Osiris was one of the most important gods of ancient Egypt who according to
mythology was murdered by his wicked brother Seth. He was buried by Isis,
his sister-wife, and brought back to life as judge of the dead and ruler of the
underworld.
Hawass said the sarcophagus, which he dated to 500 BC in the New
Kingdom, was surrounded by the remains of four pillars built in the shape of a
hieroglyphic 'Bir' or 'House of Osiris'.
The excavation unearthed 3,000-year-old bones and pottery found in the
underground water, he said.
``I never excavated this shaft because it was always full of water. But when
the water went down about a year ago, we started the adventure,'' he told
Reuters.
After dirt and most of the remaining water were cleared from the shaft, located
between the Sphinx and the Pyramid of Chefren (Khafre), archaeologists
found three underground levels, with the submerged Osiris sarcophagus at
the lowest.
``Many people believed there were tunnels going to the Sphinx and another
leading to the Great Pyramid but only when we sent a young boy into a
tunnel in the west wall (of the tomb shaft) did we find this exciting discovery,''
said Hawass.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 35 of 1283: World Builder  (MarciaH) * Thu, Feb 17, 2000 (16:06) * 7 lines 
 
From a friend who would like opinions of the readers herein (Now, if I can ever get this guy to post for himself I'll be esctatic!)

according to a friend of mine, ancient Maya carvings
predict the inundation of the NY/NJ area by quake and tsunami in/around
2012. How? fun speculations may abound. Post it yourself and see what
others say.




 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 36 of 1283: Ginny  (vibrown) * Sat, Feb 19, 2000 (23:59) * 6 lines 
 
The excavation at Santorini is called Akrotiri. I visited the site when I went to Greece in 1991. According to the guidebook, the excavations began in 1967 by Prof. Spyridon Marinatos. (He's actually buried at the site.) It's supposed to be a Bronze Age settlement from about 1500 BC. They found a lot of Minoan pottery and frescoes, similar to those found in Knossos, Crete.

The theory is that there was a big earthquake before the eruption, and that the eruption caused tsunamis that hit Crete. They never found any bodies in Akrotiri, so the population managed to leave before the eruption, probably after the earthquake. I don't know if anyone has finally figured out where the people went; they had no idea back in 1991.

The theory of Akrotiri as Atlantis is obviously controversial. I took a course in Greek Civilization back in college, and the professer mentioned the Atlantis theory as a load of rubbish. Who knows? Schliemann was convinced he found Troy, but all we really know is that he found 9 levels of a very big city (and he wound up destroying most of it). There's usually some small grain of truth to most legends, though.



 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 37 of 1283: Ginny  (vibrown) * Sun, Feb 20, 2000 (00:01) * 1 lines 
 
By the way, I love the new graphic for the conference, Maria! Looks great!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 38 of 1283: World Builder  (MarciaH) * Sun, Feb 20, 2000 (02:09) * 2 lines 
 
Thanks, Ginny - it was the original grahpics, which were placed there for me as a surprise by my programmer who taught me everything I know, which I just got back up - they had to set me up with new space on Terry's hard drive, I then ftp'd all of the stuff out of my old files onto my hard drive here at home then back to the new place then locate the url for the graphic and repost it. Not all that difficult, but it took time and some thinking and care. I am happy to see it up again, also.
I am delighted you are posting this here. Akrotiri is as good a place for Altantis as is currently available. Actually, it is the only place that makes sense to me.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 39 of 1283: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Sun, Feb 20, 2000 (14:37) * 7 lines 
 
Back to Atlantis, is it? I'm in agreement with those who think that the Minoan civilization was the basis for the Atlantis legend. Something had to have happened. The Minoans were an actual civilization, and the Thera eruption was an actual event.

Marcia, you asked if I had any items of archealogical interest in my home. Unfortunately no. I've moved a lot since completing school. All my Dad and really ever found were arrowheads. I grew up in central Pennsylvania, there is farming there, but there are also the wooded slopes of the Alleghenies. (We lived on the western edge of central PA.) Anyway if you know what to look for, you can still find some arrowheads or maybe a spearpoint.

The closest archealogical site to Pittsburgh is Meadowcroft Rock Shelter, which is to the north. The site was discovered in the 1970's and was very controvesial. Why? Because the dating of the artifacts placed them at atleast 14,000 years old. American Indians weren't supposed to be east of the Mississippi River, much less in Pennsylvania 14,000 years ago. That was the conventional wisdom at any rate. Then in the 1980's a site was excavated in Brazil that was dated at 30,000 to 35,000 years. They're still trying to sort all this out.

Concerning Pittsburgh, 2 new stadia are being built. When the foundations were being prepared, they found farming artifacts from the early 19th century and everyday artifacts from after industrialization. Yes, they even found a few American Indian items. The current 3 Rivers Stadium is built on land that was once an island in the Ohio River. There was a narrow channel seperating it from the shore. When the first Europeans got there, they reported that human sacrifices took place there. Could be propaganda or not.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 40 of 1283: World Builder  (MarciaH) * Sun, Feb 20, 2000 (14:53) * 3 lines 
 
I graduated from Penn State, the daughter of Philadelphians. Married a guy from Williamsport, dated a guy from New Kensington, and am now with a guy from south of Pittsburgh. I do know about Pennsylvania. Current house male says they picked loads of American Indian arrowheads of out the plowed fields (of course they are long gone.) By the time I got to Pennsylvania I was on fossil hunts and I still have the lovely examples of dolomite and limestone goodies I found.

Three-rivers confluence was a very powerful place (see water lines and ley lines). In Hawaii, such sources commanded human sacrifice. In Britain and Western Europe the same thing happened!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 41 of 1283: Ginny  (vibrown) * Mon, Feb 21, 2000 (12:30) * 4 lines 
 
Hmm, I wonder if there are any interesting archealogical sites around here? (Besides the ongoing "big dig" fiasco, I mean. ;-)

Marcia, I know it takes time to move files around, but it's worth the effort. Looks great!



 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 42 of 1283: World Builder  (MarciaH) * Mon, Feb 21, 2000 (12:55) * 3 lines 
 
Thanks, Ginny. I am almost done getting graphics back onto the place - at least the ones I can do easily. It looks so different from the other conferences that I like to rest in here and admire when I am not off finding other goodies to share with everyone.

Boston area should have all sorts of good stuff going on because the place was inhabited for so long. You mean that under-the-highway subway they are digging is not a Good thing? In Hawaii, the theory is "build a highway and dig it up again to put the sewers and power lines. Then patch it unevenly." Not sure why they do it that way, but it is bone-jarring! About the only good things we find in this exercise is charred tree remnants which yield Carbon-14 to tell the age of the lava flow through which they just blasted.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 43 of 1283: Ginny  (vibrown) * Mon, Feb 21, 2000 (14:22) * 6 lines 
 
The Bid Dig is supposed to relieve all the traffic problems in Boston when it's finished...*if* it's ever finished. As usual for government projects, this one is way over budget (to the tune of $1.4 billion), and in danger of having its federal funding cut off. Apparently the feds are starting an investigation into the shortfall.

They have dug up most (if not all) of the existing highways in Boston for this project, so they certainly can't leave the project unfinished; the governor and the head of the Mass Turnpike Authority would both be lynched! Fortunately, I live and work outside of Boston; the only impact on me is my wasted tax dollars, which is bad enough!

There's a Big Dig website that describes the project at http://www.bigdig.com. It includes a link to the "Archaeology of the Central Artery Project: Highway to the Past" exhibit at the Commonwealth Museum. Apparently archeologists did find a lot of artifacts before construction started.



 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 44 of 1283: World Builder  (MarciaH) * Mon, Feb 21, 2000 (15:01) * 1 lines 
 
OK, went into BigDig and noted the Bechtel is doing the job. You DO know how prominently they figure in the trilateral commission and other pseudo or really nefarious-minded world movers and shakers! Somehow I am not surprised. I'll go back and hunt through that teeny-print pulldown for the archaeology stuff. Thanks! Is it gonna be a road rather than mass transport system like the BART?


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 45 of 1283: Ginny  (vibrown) * Mon, Feb 21, 2000 (16:29) * 5 lines 
 
From what I understand, it's a new set of highways and tunnels, replacing most of the major roads in Boston. The Ted Williams tunnel is already finished and in use. I haven't heard anything about replacing/expanding the MBTA lines, but they probably are digging near some of the lines, anyway.

Hmm, I've never heard of Bechtel. Should I be happy, or more worried than ever? :-)

That little window they give you is pretty annoying, isn't it? Haven't found a way to enlarge it, yet.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 46 of 1283: Ginny  (vibrown) * Mon, Feb 21, 2000 (16:41) * 14 lines 
 
From the Big Dig FAQ (also at http://www.bigdig.com):

What are you building?

The project includes two main elements -- the extension of Interstate 90 (the Massachusetts Turnpike) from its current terminus south of downtown Boston under Boston Harbor to Logan Airport, and the replacement of Interstate 93 through downtown Boston, including a tunnel through the heart of the city. The I-90 extension includes the first major project milestone, the Ted Williams Tunnel under the harbor, which opened in December 1995. Other major elements include four major highway interchanges; a two-bridge, 14-lane crossing of the Charles River on the northern edge of downtown Boston; the world's largest highway tunnel ventilation system; the world's most advanced electronic traffic management and incident response system; demolition of the existing elevated Central Artery (I-93) downtown; and 150 acres of new parks and open space, including 27 acres downtown where the elevated Central Artery now stands. An important feature of the project is keeping the City of Boston open for business throughout more
han a decade of construction, which involves (among many other things) holding up the six-lane elevated highway while tunneling for an eight-to-ten-lane underground expressway directly underneath. See the project summary, "Gee Whiz" (about engineering marvels), Mitigation, and Facts and Figures for more information.


Are you nuts ??

The project may look like an unbelievable challenge but with design virtually complete and construction past the half-way mark, the amazing vision is becoming a reality. The fact is that there is really no other way to solve Boston's
legendary traffic problems. The city's downtown highway, the Central Artery, can't be expanded in place. There is no other place to put a new highway (we can't plow down another neighborhood, and we can't put a new road on top
of the waterfront, for example), so the only alternative is to build the new highway underneath the old one. Because the work takes so long, there is no choice but to invest in the techniques that will keep the city open for business during construction. Because the project's two highways (I-93 downtown and I-90 to Logan Airport) thread their way through an old and often fragile city, there is no choice but to adopt the engineering marvels that take the tunnels down 120 feet to pass under a subway line, solidify pudding-like soils so that the road can be built under a channel off Boston Harbor, or protect historic brick buildings and towering modern skyscrapers from construction taking place just a few feet from their foundations. Traffic is so bad on and around the elevated Central Artery that it would be nuts not to build a new highway system for the people of Boston and New England.



 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 47 of 1283: Ginny  (vibrown) * Mon, Feb 21, 2000 (16:48) * 3 lines 
 
Here's the link to the "Highway to the Past: The Archaeology of the Central Artery". It was under "Dirt on the Dig"...cute, eh?

http://www.bigdig.com/thtml/dod_arch.htm


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 48 of 1283: World Builder  (MarciaH) * Mon, Feb 21, 2000 (16:50) * 3 lines 
 
Can't do anything with pop-up boxes except to close them. Can't even bookmark most of them.

Bechtel? You can die happy not knowing anything about them, but if you think there is an evil plot afoot to take over the world by the Gnomes of Zurich, you need to read up on them. They have their clickable logo there - or if you are Really interested in dirt, do a web search...heh...heh...! (Shall read the rest of what you wrote as soon as I feed the house male his lunch)


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 49 of 1283: Ginny  (vibrown) * Mon, Feb 21, 2000 (16:56) * 3 lines 
 
Now I'm curious! I will have to check out Bechtel later.

Signing off for now...catch you later!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 50 of 1283: World Builder  (MarciaH) * Mon, Feb 21, 2000 (17:31) * 6 lines 
 
Yeow! I could not wait to drive through a tunnel surrounded by pudding-consistency soil overlaid by a subway traintracks surmounted by a roadway. Never mind, I think!

That archaeology site was really interesting. Love the old bottles they found.
And, North America's oldest Bowling Ball. It is a really nicely setup interactive website and, having done some of that, I appreciate the good ones a whole lot. Archaeology fans, take the virtual tour! Thanks, Ginny.

Oh, Bechtel built Hoover Dam and the Oakland Bay Bridge amongst other things...


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 51 of 1283: World Builder  (MarciaH) * Mon, Feb 21, 2000 (20:42) * 34 lines 
 
Response 65 of 67: World Builder (MarciaH) * Mon, Feb 21, 2000 (20:09) * 9 lines


NEW STONES AT AVEBURY
new series of slabs at Avebury stone circle in western England, discovered under a farmer's field, probably formed a
causeway linking the circle, or henge, to a contemporary burial site at Beckhampton, a mile to the southwest. University of
Leicester and Southampton archaeologists now believe that the complex, whose main circle was last excavated in 1930,
covered a much larger area than originally thought and was probably built in several stages.

The existence of buried avenues was first suggested in the 1720s by the English antiquarian William Stukeley, although
many dismissed his theories as guesswork. Some years ago, however, an avenue was uncovered leading from Avebury
to nearby West Kennet, and the latest find appears to confirm Stukeley's beliefs and the notion that Avebury was
connected to other ceremonial sites.

Avebury, constructed between 2800 and 2700 B.C., includes the world's largest stone circle (1,401 feet in diameter),
numerous barrows, and the 130-foot-tall Silbury Hill, the largest man-made mound in Europe. Evidence of a "woodhenge"
has also been unearthed at the site. Large holes, six feet deep and arranged in circles, are thought to have supported
giant wooden pillars up to 17 feet tall. While the pillars might have formed part of a ritual building, they are much larger and
closer together than necessary to support a roof and are more likely to have been a free-standing wooden henge, possibly
one of 40 similar structures in Wessex, the Anglo-Saxon kingdom that in the late ninth and tenth centuries included much of
southern England. The latest discoveries have major implications for Stonehenge. If there were other wooden structures in
the region, then Stonehenge may not be as unique as was once thought. Henges, in stone or (more usually) wood, were
simply part of the religious landscape of the period.


The idea of henges dotting ancient Britain is reinforced by the discovery of the so-called "Seahenge," a remarkably
well-preserved timber circle, on a remote Norfolk beach in November 1998. Comprising 55 timber posts, with an upturned
oak stump in the middle, it was exposed by winter gales that swept away a peat dune covering it. Seahenge is the first
circle to be found with an intact oak stump at its center. Other sites have revealed hollows in their centers but until now no
one knew what had caused them. Seahenge is extremely fragile and was only preserved thanks to its peat covering. This
past summer archaeologists from the Norfolk County Council's Archaeological Unit excavated and dismantled the circle.
Once cleaned, studied, and treated, it may be reconstructed near its original site.--CHRIS HELLIER
http://www.he.net/~archaeol/



 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 52 of 1283: World Builder  (MarciaH) * Mon, Feb 21, 2000 (20:43) * 8 lines 
 
These are the pictures which apply to the article just above about Avebury Stone Circle. They are visible in the aerial
photograph - and for scale, there is a pub in that henge. In fact, they built the village - church and all - and never noticed the
henge and stones! Anyway, each of those stones is the size and weight of a car. Stuckey's drawing shows the "avenues"
which were considered pure conjecture for decades. Now they are reassessing his drawings.






 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 53 of 1283: World Builder  (MarciaH) * Mon, Feb 21, 2000 (20:50) * 1 lines 
 
If you flip the drawing above top to bottom, it is aligned with the photograph at the bottom. Silbury Hill is the whitish mound in the left center background, and the left to right street in the photograph are aligned on the stone "avenues" This is one of my most favorite places in Britain. We have had lunch of apples and cheese in the town museum's carpark, and I have walked every inch of the place. I long to go back...


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 54 of 1283: Ginny  (vibrown) * Mon, Feb 21, 2000 (23:27) * 4 lines 
 
Awesome pictures!! How the heck could they build in the middle of that big circle and not notice it?

Now I gotta look at my pictures from Stonehenge again. How close is Avebury to Salisbury plain?



 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 55 of 1283: World Builder  (MarciaH) * Tue, Feb 22, 2000 (10:30) * 2 lines 
 
I think it is just about 20 miles (hunting through my several books on the topic I can't find it at the moment,) on Marlborough Downs just north of Salisbury Plain. It is near the place where the Sarsen stones were left by glaciation 10,000 years ago and was the source of both Avebury and Stonehenge Sarcens. The most remarkable thing is the momuments all around Avebury. The oldest known trackway, the Great Berkshire Ridgeway runs right by it. Silbury Hill, the largest man-made earthen hill in the world, is adjacent. Then, on the skyline from Avebury, two of the longest and largest long barrows are silhouetted against the sky. Calling them "burial chambers" is like having someone excavating a cathedral at some remote future point and calling it a burial house just because the edifice contains the remains of famous (to us) people. Actually, from south of Stonehenge to north of Avebury, where you will find the Uffington White Horse, it is pretty much full of ancient monuments and burial chambers of var
ous sorts. I'll hunt up a map which detail what all can be found there. Wiltshire is a very special place, indeed!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 56 of 1283: Ginny  (vibrown) * Tue, Feb 22, 2000 (10:52) * 3 lines 
 
When I went to Stonehenge, I picked up a small tourist book that gives a brief description of a lot of ancient monuments, burial mounds, chalk drawings, and the like. It does seem like Wiltshire has the largest section in that book. Fascinating!

I never got to Avebury, but hopefully one day I'll go back...there's a lot more I would love to see in Britain!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 57 of 1283: World Builder  (MarciaH) * Tue, Feb 22, 2000 (11:04) * 2 lines 
 
There are so many goodies on that Blessed Isle... The first time we drove north on the 345 roadway I was consulting my map (I am navigator) and Frank asked if the stones out my window indicated anything. I looked up, and it was a jaw-dropping experience. The stones were HUGE and we were about to enter the henge, itself. I had no idea it was going to be anything like that monumental.
Btw, the ditch is now about 9' (2.7M) deep but originally was about twice that. Rain and erosion have silted it up a bit. It was dug by our ancestors with pick and shovel made from deer antlers and shoulder-blades! Of course, chalk is softer than most other stones, but this is not your blackboard slate variety of chalk...


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 58 of 1283: World Builder  (MarciaH) * Tue, Feb 22, 2000 (11:14) * 1 lines 
 
Make that ditch originally over 30' deep (over 10 M) The resulting bank was as high making the entire ditch-and-bank from the outside a daunting 60+ feet (20M).


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 59 of 1283: World Builder  (MarciaH) * Tue, Feb 22, 2000 (11:17) * 1 lines 
 
I am consulting the definitive book on Avebury (which I purchased there): Avebury by Aubrey Burl. It is a book which I would own whether or not I had been there. I recommend it highly.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 60 of 1283: World Builder  (MarciaH) * Tue, Feb 22, 2000 (16:09) * 5 lines 
 
Prehistoric Avebury is the book by Aubury Burl (I have every book and guide he has written, I think!).
Here is an excellent webpage with links and pictures of and about Avebury
http://easyweb.easynet.co.uk/~aburnham/eng/aveb.htm

I am still hunting for a good map of the area and my old bookmarks are no longer valid and working. I begin the hunt anew.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 61 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Tue, Feb 22, 2000 (16:19) * 1 lines 
 
I saw the Seahenge dig (on TV)- the Time team (I wrote about earlier) were involved as well as English Heritage and the Norfolk Archeology team. The oak trunk in the centre was actually installed upside down (roots in the air). There was a lot of opposition to the dig by druids and others, despite the fact that the site was being badly eroded. They erected a facsimile site nearby as they thought it might have looked. It was amazing with wooden pillars higher than a man and a low arch entrance with the big oak stump in the middle. The name seahenge is really a misnomer because it was not underwater. The sea levels have risen and the early sealine was quite a distance away.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 62 of 1283: World Builder  (MarciaH) * Tue, Feb 22, 2000 (16:22) * 4 lines 
 
For a good look-see at the goodies in the "Stonehenge Area"
http://www.amherst.edu/~ermace/sth/nearby.html

Good links and photographs for you to ponder while I hunt up the map I have IRL in my hot little hands. Aaarrrrrgh!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 63 of 1283: World Builder  (MarciaH) * Tue, Feb 22, 2000 (16:30) * 1 lines 
 
I had never heard of the Seahenge until I read and posted that article. Must do a search for that, as well. These henge monuments, let me state emphatically, had and have NOTHING whatsoever to do with Druids, ancient or modern. They worshipped in groves of trees. These henge momuments were long abandoned by the time of the Keltic inmigration to Britain in 500 BC. These Henges are thousands of years old!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 64 of 1283: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Tue, Feb 22, 2000 (17:05) * 3 lines 
 
Thanks for the Avebury article and all the attendant information on henges. I was familiar with the concept of "woodhenges", but Seahenge is new. You do know that visitors can no longer walk up to or touch the stones at Stonehenge. It would seem that there was a problem with tourists carving into and writing grafitti on them. Did you know that in the 19th century there was a suggestion that Stonehenge be incoporated into a railway station. It's true!

On the subject of Celtic stone monuments, does anybody know much about Carnac or Kerrec in Brittany? All I know is there are lot of megaliths there, row upon row of them.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 65 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Tue, Feb 22, 2000 (17:27) * 41 lines 
 
From http://www.channel4.com/nextstep/timeteam/2000seahenge.html

The wooden 'henge' rescued from the sea off the Norfolk coast. UPDATE

In the spring of 2050BCE, a huge oak tree was felled and its stump upturned and half-buried on a site near to what is now Holme-next-the-Sea in Norfolk. The following year, a number of smaller oaks were felled and cut into 56 posts, which were arranged in a circle around the central stump. The Bronze Age monument, hailed by some modern archaeologists as among the most exciting ever discovered, could have formed some kind of ceremonial site, perhaps with special astronomical or other significance. Alternatively, it has been proposed that it could have been a place of ‘excarnation’, where bodies were laid out after death to hasten the process of decomposition and speed the spirit on its way to the afterlife.

Both the circle and the people who built it were long forgotten before the land on which it stood became submerged by the sea. Its existence had vanished even from folk memory until, almost 4,000 years after its construction, the shifting sands off the East Anglian coast moved again to reveal its presence. ‘Seahenge’, as the monument was to become known, turned into a minor archaeological cause celebré as Druids and modern-day pagans organised sit-in protests against English Heritage’s decision to remove and preserve it.
Agreement was eventually reached over the future of the ‘henge’ and, in the summer of 1999, it was finally recorded and removed to the Flag Fen Bronze Age Centre, near Peterborough. There, as well as being preserved, the ancient timbers were subjected to detailed dendochronology (tree-ring dating) and carbon dating techniques. It was from these that such a precise date could be arrived at for the felling of the trees that make up the Seahenge circle. The tree rings gave three possible dates, which were narrowed down to just one -- 2050BCE -- after statistical comparisons with a series of carbon dating tests. The time of year -- beween April and June -- was obtained by an examination of the final growth ring of the main stump, which showed that the tree had been felled in the spring.

Time Team’s visit to Seahenge helped cast some fresh light on the circle, the people who built it and the techniques they used. It included the construction of modern replica, which it is hoped will be found a home in the area permanently. As the first Bronze Age monument that has ever been precisely dated, Seahenge provided an exciting special venture for the Team.

Web resources

http://www.flagfen.freeserve.co.uk/index.html
The Flag Fen Laboratories, Bronze Age site and visitor centre, near Peterborough, is where the main oak stump and posts from Seahenge are being preserved and studied (not yet on public display). This website provides further details of the centre, its excavation work and visitors’ facilities. For example, Flag Fen’s Visitor Centre houses the Museum of the Bronze Age containing artefacts found on site, including the oldest wheel in England on permanent display. Guided tours of the ongoing excavations at the site are available in the spring and summer.

http://www.norfolk-now.co.uk/Content/Features/New_Seahenge/default.htm
Useful site produced by Eastern Counties Newspapers with help from the Norfolk Archaeological Unit, providing a great deal of background information, including about the kind of people who might have constructed the circle, and a useful Q&A section. Not updated with latest details following the removal and study of the timbers, though.

http://druidry.org/obod/text/news/woodhenge.html
The Order of Druids’ ‘Woodhenge News’ site has an extensive selection of press articles and public statements relating to Seahenge, as well as a few high-quality photographs.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/sci/tech/newsid_544000/544947.stm
The BBC has a number of news reports relating to Seahenge, including how it was dated to spring 2050. Its site includes a Realplayer video report on the lifting of the timbers, audio interviews with Alex Bayliss of English Heritage on dating the timbers; and archaeologist Maisie Taylor describing preservation work at Flag Fen.


Further reading

Bronze Age Britain by Michael Parker Pearson (Batsford/English Heritage, 1996)
Based on the prehistoric evidence, as well as current research and debate, this book examines how life in Britain changed during the period 4000-900 BC. Illustrated with lots of maps, plans, reconstructions and photographs.

Flag Fen by Francis Pryor (Batsford/English Heritage, 1991)
Fascinating account of the discovery of this Bronze Age site. The Flag Fen Laboratories are where the Seahenge timbers are being studied and preserved. An exciting archaeological adventure story.

The Significance of Monuments by Richard Bradley (Routledge, 1998)
The author traces the history of Neolithic and Bronze Age burial mounds, henges, stone circles and barrows since their first appearance 6,000 years or more ago. He provides insights into what they might have meant to and their role in the lives of prehistoric people in Europe.







 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 66 of 1283: World Builder  (MarciaH) * Tue, Feb 22, 2000 (18:00) * 3 lines 
 
Oh Maggie!! You dear, dear lady! Now, to find an image to post. If they have one, I shall post them!

As to the Megaliths in any part of Europe, they seem to hgave been raised by the same cultures - the Beaker People (because they buried their dead with beaker-shaped pottery). Britain's culture came from the Iberian peninsula, most likely. At least, that was the theory last I looked. I'd be delighted to learn of new ones. I knew that Stonehenge was no longer accessable. in '77, '79' and '81 when we were there we could walk right up to the stones. Alas, during WW2 a general wanted it removed for an airport runway (tanks are all over the place and are trashing Salisbury Plain at an alarming rate. In the 1800's they rented sledge hammers so one could break of parts of the stones for souvenirs! Amazing!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 67 of 1283: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Tue, Feb 22, 2000 (18:12) * 1 lines 
 
It's amazing there's anything left of Stonehenge at all. I remember reading about 2 years ago that some Pagan religious groups were protesting because the only people allowed to go into Stonehenge on their holidays were the Druids. The other Pagans found this grossly unfair.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 68 of 1283: World Builder  (MarciaH) * Tue, Feb 22, 2000 (18:20) * 5 lines 
 
SEAHENGE from the website Maggie posted in her article:






 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 69 of 1283: World Builder  (MarciaH) * Tue, Feb 22, 2000 (18:22) * 4 lines 
 
SEAHENGE





 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 70 of 1283: World Builder  (MarciaH) * Tue, Feb 22, 2000 (18:32) * 1 lines 
 
That is the tiniest woodhenge I have ever seen. Woodhenge near Stonehenge is much larger and was probably the ritual place used while building the more durable Stonehenge. Durrington Walls is a H U G E monument with a housing estate obliterating a lot of it, but that is probably where they lived.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 71 of 1283: Wolf  (wolf) * Tue, Feb 22, 2000 (19:20) * 3 lines 
 
re: post #34, i saw that show! they said they couldn't go into the other halls because of the water. amazing!! i was waiting with bated breath to see where all the tunnels led!

because i was trying to catch up, didn't catch up on everything, scanned through. so what is the seahenge? i can't see anything in that picture but sand bags and butts!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 72 of 1283: World Builder  (MarciaH) * Tue, Feb 22, 2000 (22:49) * 1 lines 
 
Seahenge is like a stone circle but the uprights are oak. Most of it has either rotted away or has been silted in. You can see them poking up about a foot or so. Henge means a circular monument around which is a bank and ditch. Lots of henges never had stones or uprights, but Stonehenge is the prototype and there is no other like it. It has shaped, mortise and tenon lintels and shaped sarsens. Most of the others are just stones chosen for their natural shape and set in alignments. Anything you can add about the Egyptian tomb? Sounds wonderful and amazing and breathtaking to watch. I'll watch the journals to see if they leak anymore information to the public. Fascinating!!!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 73 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Wed, Feb 23, 2000 (01:55) * 1 lines 
 
There was another dig quite recently on Salisbury plain when the army wanted to build a new tank track. They found two sites, one was bronze age. I'll see if I can 'dig' up some details. There was an 'epic' book on Salisbury I read ages ago - same guy who wrote 'Hawaii', Marcia you must know it.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 74 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Wed, Feb 23, 2000 (02:12) * 19 lines 
 
http://www.bbc.co.uk/education/ancestors/ser3pro6.shtml

Hunter of the Plain
To the north of Stonehenge, lies the vast expanse of the Army's Salisbury Plain Training Area, over 25,000 hectares (60,000 acres) of largely untouched downland. Last year, during the upgrading of one of the many tank tracks that cross the Plain, a prehistoric burial was discovered, lying in apparent isolation within a deep chalk cut pit. What made this burial so unusual was that, resting in the skeleton's hand was a clue to it's age, a finely worked flint arrowhead dating to the time of the first building of Stonehenge. This meant that the burial had to be late Neolithic, some time around 2500BC.
There was an additional puzzle though. Next to the burial was a short length of curved ditch, but with our burial outside it. A magnetometer survey showed that it was part of a circular ditch, about 35m in diameter, but excavation provided no clues about its date or its function. To me there were two options, it could either be a small henge, a roughly circular temple of Neolithic date, which would fit in well with the date of the arrowhead or, what seemed more likely to me, a levelled round barrow. These are burial mounds of Bronze Age date, many from about 2000 BC to 1500BC and they cluster in their hundreds around the Stonehenge area. Their shape and size varies enormously but I felt that our circular ditch was probably a ploughed down 'disc' barrow, a beautiful shape that looks like a target or shield from above. So, I thought that we had a Neolithic burial (about 2500BC) and a barrow from the Bronze Age, a few centuries later, say around 1800BC. However - when a radiocarbon date came back from a sample
of bone from the burial it was around 1600BC and snails from the circular ditch, analysed by Mike Allen, suggested that it was of Neolithic date. Why can't archaeology sometimes be a bit more simple!

But did the arrowhead mean that we had found a prehistoric archer? When the skeleton was examined by bone expert Jackie McKinley she found that it was of a very well built man aged about 35 when he died, certainly powerful enough to have used a prehistoric bow. There were no clues about how he had died, but the arrowhead did not seem to have been the cause, unlike the famous 'murder victim' from Stonehenge whose bones still had the tips of flint arrows embedded in them 4000 years after his death.

To find out more about prehistoric archers we enlisted the help of Alan Course and Hilary Greenland. Under Alan's expert tuition I made a flint arrowhead similar to our man's (although far less finely worked, I must add) while Hilary made us a replica of a Neolithic bow from yew, the perfect bow wood. Her pattern was the oldest surviving bow from this country, from Meare Heath in Somerset.

Initial tests showed that Hilary's bow was very powerful and so, to test its strength, and the effectiveness of my arrowhead (now fitted to a shaft by Alan) we took them both to the Defence Evaluation Research Agency (DERA) where the Army's modern weapons are put through their paces. The speed and drag of the arrow, its penetrative power and the power of the bow suggested, when fed into the computer programme that calculates the performance of a bullet, that the arrow would fly no more than 65 metres when shot from Hilary's bow. But this calculation does not take into account the human factor involved in archery and, in the field, the arrow flew for nearly 100 metres, rising to around 160 metres when the feather fletchings were trimmed to reduce drag.

So who was our man? Was he an archer, a hunter who roamed Salisbury Plain in the Bronze Age and why was he buried outside the henge or barrow that must have been the reason for choosing his burial place? What is certain is that he lived and died at a time when Salisbury Plain, with its temples and burial mounds, clustering around the magnificent and by now ancient Stonehenge, was the spiritual heart of prehistoric Britain. Our man would have known Stonehenge, he may have made the pilgrimage there at Midsummer and, perhaps more importantly, at the Winter Solstice, the turning of the year when life is renewed. He may even have helped to build Stonehenge...







 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 75 of 1283: Gi  (patas) * Wed, Feb 23, 2000 (11:12) * 1 lines 
 
Marcia, didn't you say I would find Portuguese petroglyphs here?


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 76 of 1283: World Builder  (MarciaH) * Wed, Feb 23, 2000 (11:17) * 1 lines 
 
I am still awakening. I shall post them for you as soon as I get through the posts in Geo (I think we are giving Drool a run for the most popular right now!)


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 77 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Feb 23, 2000 (13:08) * 17 lines 
 
http://www.he.net/~archaeol/

PORTUGUESE PETROGLYPHS

When construction workers laboring on a bridge in northeastern Portugal's Côa Valley lowered the Pocinho Dam lake by nine feet in early December, archaeologists and rock art experts jumped at the chance to nose around.
Their investigations were rewarded with the discovery of a new petroglyph panel to add to the array of local rock art dating from Palaeolithic times to the 1950s (see "Rock Art Saved," March/April 1996).
The latest discovery, at Fariseu, is a vertical outcropping incised with bovine and horse images, some sporting two or
more heads on single bodies to suggest animation. The Fariseu panel, covered at the base by undisturbed Palaeolithic
strata, has been dated to 21,000 years before present.
"Until now," Joao Zilhao of the Instituto Português de Arqueologia told ARCHAEOLOGY, "the dating of the stylistically
Palaeolithic Côa Valley rock art to the Palaeolithic was supported only by indirect evidence. This was very strong
evidence, but, in the language of the courts, only circumstantial. Now we have the strongest possible evidence:
stratigraphy. After the Fariseu finds, no one in good faith can question the Palaeolithic chronology of the Côa Valley rock
art."
At the end of December the art was reburied and water levels restored. Archaeologists hope to lower the lake again
this summer.--ELIZABETH J. HIMELFARB



 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 78 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Wed, Feb 23, 2000 (13:32) * 113 lines 
 
This is right near me but I haven't seen it in the 'flesh' yet. The WWW site http://www.etoncollege.com/lake.html has photos.

Eton College is constructing an Olympic sized rowing lake on the north bank of the river Thames at Dorney, Buckinghamshire. In advance of the construction a major archaeological investigation is taking place, organised by the Oxford Archaeological Unit.

Aerial Photography

Aerial photography shows that alongside the present river there is a series of gravel islands divided by ancient, relict river channels. Cropmarks reveal some of the evidence of past human activity on the dry islands: an early Bronze Age barrow cemetery (about 1800 BC), later Bronze Age field systems (about 1000 BC) and a Romano-British farmstead.

Evaluation

To supplement the evidence of aerial photography a large number of evaluation trenches were cut by machine across the 150 hectare site. These showed that the historic landscape was even more complex than first thought.


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Aerial view of the Roman farmstead showing the rectangular enclosure ditch upstanding in the growing crop. Inside the enclosure the circular ditch surrounding a house and various blobs indicating storage pits are also visible.



Plan of the site on the north bank of the modern River Thames, with former channels of the river and its tributaries shown in blue. The cropmark sites, which show on the dry gravel terraces alongside the river, are also marked (dark green on yellow).


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The most significant discovery was a major channel of the Thames which was active in the late prehistoric and Roman period. On the banks of this channel were Mesolithic (about 8000 BC) and Neolithic (c. 4000 BC) settlements. Alterations were made to the design of the rowing Lake construction in order to preserve some of the most important of the archaeological deposits, particularly the rare, waterlogged Mesolithic sites.


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Flint arrowheads found on the alluvial floodplain next to the former course of the river Thames. These arrowheads date from the Neolithic (4000-2200 BC) and Early Bronze Age (2200-1600 BC).


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The Thames Channel

The River Thames has been called `liquid history'. On its banks are countless royal palaces and of the most important historic towns in Britain from London to Abingdon and Oxford.

Since the last century the Thames itself has been continuously dredged. Large numbers of prehistoric weapons and prestige objects such as the Battersea shield (now in the British Museum) have been found, indicating the wealth of material deposited in the river.

Unfortunately little now remains in the river itself owing to the dredging. The channel has been scoured clean. So the discovery of a 2km long section of prehistoric Thames is of major importance.

Surviving within the Channel are prehistoric trees, the remains of a beaver dam and the layers of silt which act as a guide to past climate, river flow and human activity in the catchment area.


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Wattle trackway laid upon horizontal timbers between the uprights of another timber bridge crossing the former Thames. Only the tops of the uprights are visible; these were over 2 m long.



Late Bronze Age pot found in the former channel of the river Thames next to upright wooden posts around a sandbank. This was probably a deliberate offering made when the posts were driven in.


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Alluvium

The silt or alluvium deposits are a particularly important indicator of human activity. As the natural climax woodland was cleared from about 4000 BC there was increased run-off into the river valley. Alluviation is particularly evident from about 2000 years ago as arable farming intensified and the population increased. The Eton Rowing Lake alluvial sequence is one of the most complex so far observed in the Thames Valley. Dating by Optical Stimulated Luminescence and C14 is helping to define the sequence.


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Uprights of a timber bridge crossing the former channel of the river Thames. The timbers have not been fully excavated, and the figures are standing on the river silts. This particular bridge dates to c. 600 BC; part of an earlier bridge dating to c.1300 BC is visible to the left of the person farthest from the camera.


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The Earliest Bridges over the Thames

The most interesting human artefact found in the Channel are the remains of six prehistoric timber bridges, dated from about 1300 BC to 300 BC. They probably indicate a favoured crossing point of the river between two spits of dry gravel. These are the earliest bridges known over the Thames and the largest complex of its kind in Britain.

One of the bridges had carefully laid wattle hurdles running between two lines of uprights. These were clearly later than the bridge and suggest that a trackway had been laid as a ford over the silted channel.

Parts of two human skeletons and large numbers of animal bones were found alongside the bridge. These support the theory that human remains and offerings were deliberately placed in the river in late prehistoric times. The strongest evidence for this came from a sandbank where human and animal bones had been placed between upright posts along with a late Bronze Age pot (about 800 BC).

Other finds from the prehistoric channel include a 2m long oak mallet or pile driver, perhaps used in the bridge construction, and the head of a wooden ard or simple plough.


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Oak pile-driver or mallet found in the former Thames, perhaps used to drive in the upright supports for the bridges.



Bronze Age ring-ditch under excavation in 1996. The edge of a second ring-ditch is visible in the foreground. These ditches originally surrounded burial mounds, now ploughed away.



Crouched inhumation burial found around one of the Bronze Age ring-ditches, dating to c. 1800 BC. This is the burial of a woman aged between 25 and 30, who stood around 1.57 m tall.


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The Bronze Age Cemetery

In 1996 the ring ditches of four Bronze Age barrows were excavated, along with a cluster of crouched inhumation burials and cremations. Some of the original barrow burials had been damaged by the modern agriculture and drainage ditches. However one burial included a highly decorated middle Bronze Age globular vessel (about 1500-1200BC). Several of these rare pots have been found on the site.


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The Neolithic Midden

A remarkable find was made in 1996. One of the glacial river channels was used as a rubbish dump, or midden in the early Neolithic period (about 3500 BC). A small sample has so far produced 16,000 finds- flint tools, broken pots and animal bones. This is the period of the first farming communities in Britain. Artifacts and biological evidence from the earliest agricultural communities are extremely rare. This is one of the largest such deposits ever found in Britain.


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 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 79 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Feb 23, 2000 (13:43) * 3 lines 
 
Maggie, what great things you have posted this morning. Incredible for one little lady to post on my most favorite of topics. I had not heard of the man buried so differently near Stonehenge. That is fascinating and I will pass it on to family who were there with me. I have not had time to digest it yet, but I will and have more to say then.

The Thames channel is amazing bit of history going back to the Mesolithic! There are not a whole lot of mesolithic remains around. They were built over, grown over, the sea took them or whatever, but this find is so exciting. Now, I don't have to wait for Antiquity to publish the report. We have Maggie on the scene. Get thee over there and let us know what you can see (a soggy trench, no doubt!)


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 80 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Wed, Feb 23, 2000 (15:48) * 1 lines 
 
Unfortunately it's on very private land (after all Prince William goes to Eton!) I've craned my neck as we go past on the motorway, but haven't seen anything yet.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 81 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Feb 23, 2000 (16:02) * 1 lines 
 
How disappointing. It looks as though it is on the seacoast, but Eton is not. Hmmm...is it a very wide river (gotta get my Ordnance Survey Atlas out!)


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 82 of 1283: Ginny  (vibrown) * Wed, Feb 23, 2000 (23:08) * 5 lines 
 
Wow, you folks have been busy! What great links and pictures!! I never realized how many different "henges" existed.

How did the Druids end up getting associated with these circles, anyway?

Maggie, do you live near any of these places?


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 83 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Feb 23, 2000 (23:35) * 1 lines 
 
They did not at all. Unfortunately, a prominent Antiquarian a few hundred years ago (having more money than brains, unfortunately) stated that it was a temple erected by the Druids...I shall cite it better in the morning, but it was a fanciful notion which gathered cult status after his death. I have Aubrey Burl's first book, which enumerated and describes all stone circles in the British Isles as his published PhD thesis. It is a wonderfully readable book, and I wish I could have tagged along on his research treks. He is the one who wrote the book on Avebury which I cited earlier. There are several hundred stone circles; I will get the exact number in the morning when I can see better.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 84 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Thu, Feb 24, 2000 (09:52) * 1 lines 
 
I live about 25 mins away from the site at Eton, an hours drive from stonehenge. But it's little use going there now you can't get to it.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 85 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Feb 24, 2000 (11:14) * 2 lines 
 
That is so sad - on both accounts - that you cannot get into it. Do you like Avebury? Actually, the town is Amesbury. I always thought that weird since it is halfway inside of that gigantic henge. Y'know, if it weren't for those latter-day bogus "druids" (objectivity has nothing to do with it), we'd all be able to get much closer to Stonehenge. I can recall sitting on the grass in the shade of one of the largest Sarsens for the longest time and just absorbing the feeling of the place. I was there long enough to see the teeny daisies blooming in the cropped grass and to remember the ambience of the place. It was lovely and we were the only ones there most of the time aside from the guards.
Fortunately, the Sarcen is an extremely hard form of sandstone and almost impervious to human battering on the usual scale of activity. Those stones are still there almost 4000 years on...


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 86 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Feb 24, 2000 (11:19) * 1 lines 
 
A little aside: I wondered how Maiden Castle (a colossal iron-age Hillfort and not a castle at all) and the rest of the "monuments" were kept so neatly groomed. After we'd climbed to the summit, we discovered why. The momuments are kept well trimmed by the biggest and healthiest sheep I have ever seen. They are moved from place to place as needed, and the only residuals are the "meadow muffins" you have to be careful not to tread on.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 87 of 1283: Ginny  (vibrown) * Thu, Feb 24, 2000 (13:46) * 5 lines 
 
I visited Stonehenge in 1995. We weren't able to get right up to the stones, but we were able to walk by and get some pictures. If you were careful, you could keep the fences out of the frame. I don't know if it's been closed off even more than that.

Still have to take another look at my slides from that trip...

Never got to Maiden Castle; where is that?


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 88 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Feb 24, 2000 (14:28) * 1 lines 
 
Maiden Castle is in Dorset. I believe it is the largest hillfort and the one the Romans had to conquer to conquer Britain and bring baths, indoor plumbing and straight roadways to the Barbarians...!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 89 of 1283: Gi  (patas) * Thu, Feb 24, 2000 (14:52) * 1 lines 
 
I feel very lucky to have visited sites that are now closed, or have been in a long while. Stonehenge is one of them. Wonderful place.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 90 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Feb 24, 2000 (15:25) * 1 lines 
 
Funny thing about Stonehenge...I had read so much hype and "New Age" stuff about the place that I did not even want to stop there the first time. The pleading of son David made me get out of the car. We walked up to that back stone, the biggest and tallest of them all. (We had just seen "2001, A Space Odyssey" prior to leaving for Britain.) We stood within inches of it looking up at it silhouetted against the sky. Suddenly, both of us had a hair-raising experience and we backed away together. That Black monolith in the movie HAD to have been in Clarke's mind when he wrote the book on which the movie was based. Stonehenge has held my interest ever since and I have a rather large collection of books on the subject.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 91 of 1283: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Thu, Feb 24, 2000 (16:56) * 1 lines 
 
I never really got into the "New Age" things concerning Stonehenge or the Pyramids for that matter, but I digress. I remember reading that one of the very remarkable things about Stonehenge is that is a lunar calculator. It was constructed to be in alighments with and to predict lunar eclipses. This wasn't known until the 1970's and was discovered with the help of (then) recent developments in computer science. The striking thing about this is that it takes a higher degree of mathematical sophistocation to construct a lunar calculator/observatory than a solar one. Not bad for people who apparently didn't have writing.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 92 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Feb 24, 2000 (18:05) * 8 lines 
 
Indeed! Thanks for bringing that up about Stonehenge's alignments. I have that book, too. Stonehenge Decoded by Gerald S. Hawkins. He ran all of the coordinates of alignments of the stones. (There is more than a circle of stones at Stonehenge.) If Stonehenge had been erected anywhere else on earth the alignments would not have worked! A great overview with images is available:
http://witcombe.sbc.edu/earthmysteries/EMStonehengeD.html

"Floor plan" of Stonehenge:






 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 93 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Feb 24, 2000 (18:12) * 1 lines 
 
Note that in the aerial view at the top right a wide white band appears. That is the 345 Highway. When Stonehenge was first offered to the nation for £7000. It was considered too much money for an old pile of stones, even though it included many acres of land around it. When it became available again and purchased by the National Trust, it included only the immediate land around it. You can see the result - a highway ! If you walk away from the monument and look back, you will see that it is built on a slight hillside...but the top of the lintels is dead straight level. It is the most incredible place and unique in all the world.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 94 of 1283: MarkG  (MarkG) * Fri, Feb 25, 2000 (02:46) * 1 lines 
 
Sorry to be pedantic, but Stonehenge is at the junction of the A303 and the A360. In most ways it is outrageous to build a road so close, but on the other hand, it's great that you can get your fill of wonder every time you drive down to Devon & Cornwall.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 95 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Feb 25, 2000 (12:06) * 2 lines 
 
Thanks, Mark I have a very bad map in front of me. Getting out the OS maps again. (Every so often I slip in an error to see if anyone catches it - but that was not one of them.) The 345 goes through Amesbury, no? The nearest town to Stonehenge? Btw, That is a great drive to Cornwall - full of "leylines" and ancient goodies for those with a discerning eye and an interest in the subject.
Please, continue to be pedantic. I need to have the right information out there.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 96 of 1283: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Fri, Feb 25, 2000 (15:54) * 1 lines 
 
It would seem that in some respects, Stonehenge is a bit like the Rodney Dangerfield of ancient monuments -- it don't get no respect. Well it's getting more than it used to anyway.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 97 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Feb 25, 2000 (16:17) * 1 lines 
 
It has gotten respect. During WW2 it was considered so important that it was ringed with tangles of barbed wire and search lights so the Nazi bombers would see it and not destroy it (Hitler wanted British Heritage intact when he conquered the place...) The obscenities did not happen (except for the loss adjacent land) until the latterday "druids" started buring their dead in the henge and slaughering chickens on the "altar" stone (an upright which has fallen flat)... Nowadays it is getting all the respect it can handle and still be approachable. I purchased a Tower Minted commemorative coin of Stonehenge last time I was there and the obverse has the "floor plan" engraved upon it. It is one of my very most prized possessions!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 98 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Feb 25, 2000 (16:19) * 1 lines 
 
But, Cheryl, upon thinking of them renting out sledge hammers to bash off your own souvenirs, you are right. I get furious every time I think about it!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 99 of 1283: Gi  (patas) * Sat, Feb 26, 2000 (14:49) * 2 lines 
 
(Marcia)renting out sledge hammers to bash off your own souvenirs
What was this??


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 100 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Sat, Feb 26, 2000 (15:17) * 57 lines 
 
Here's some more for you
from http://www.eng-h.gov.uk/archaeometry/StantonDrew/
There are some great pics on the site.

STANTON DREW STONE CIRCLES (Somerset, England)

[ Please note : the sites of these stone circles, although in the care of English Heritage, lie on private land. You are welcome to visit them during daylight hours on payment of an entrance fee of £1.00 (please leave the money in the honesty box at gate from the car park). However, please do not take dogs with you, do not leave litter, and respect the country code.]

Stanton Drew lies off the beaten track and it is perhaps for this reason that its remarkable prehistoric stone circles have not received the same level of interest and exploration as their more famous relatives at Avebury and Stonehenge. This obscurity, and the lack of modern intrusions into their surroundings, has protected the solitude and character of these sites. Very little is known about them. The great stones (or megaliths), and the patterns they make in the landscape, remain mysterious; no excavations are recorded, nor have any modern surveys been made - that is, until very recently. This note provides you with a very brief background to the site and of the results of this new research.

The megalithic sites

There are three stone circles at Stanton Drew: the Great Circle being one of the largest in the country. The other two, to the south-west and north-east respectively are smaller. Both the great Circle and the north-east circle were approached from the north-east by short `avenues' of standing stones. Most of the stones have fallen, although a few still remain upright. In the garden of the village pub is a group of three large stones called The Cove, and to the north, across the river Chew, is the site of a standing stone called Hautville's Quoit.

Their proximity to each other, and alignments between some of them, indicate that these sites are related as a single complex, and it is a fair assumption that Stanton Drew was once a place of primary significance during the later Stone Age.

History and folklore

The circles are thought to have been originally noted by the famous antiquarian John Aubrey in 1664, and the first plan of them was published by William Stukeley in 1776. Although several other observers have written about them, they remain very much as first recorded over three hundred years ago. In the absence of many facts about the sites, the stones have attracted a considerable tradition of folklore. The most persistent tale is that the stones represent the members of a wedding party and its musicians, lured by the Devil to celebrate on the Sabbath and thus becoming petrified in their revels.


Archaeology and recent survey

Stone circles such as those here are known to date broadly to the late Neolithic and early Bronze Age (approx 3000-2000 BC), and many examples are known, mostly from western and northern Britain. In southern England the stone circles and avenues at Avebury and Stonehenge testify to a long and complex history within a landscape dense in other evidence of prehistoric activity. The circles are believed to have played an important part in contemporary social and religious life, and there is evidence that some were aligned with major events of the solar and lunar calendar. They are difficult subjects to tackle archaeologically, though, and their interpretation is the subject of much discussion, a debate much enlivened by the interests and theories of the `New Age'.

Apart from the certainty that the stone settings at Stanton Drew share an affinity with ritual complexes such as Avebury, there is little material evidence to take this interpretation further. Contemporary prehistoric sites seem to be rare in the vicinity although they probably await discovery. In order to try and lift this veil of ignorance a little, and also to help improve the day-to-day management and presentation of the circles, English Heritage have recently initiated geophysical research at the site.

Geophysical survey

Geophysical survey is a method of examining an archaeological site without having to dig it up. Several techniques can be used, but the one that has so far proved most effective at Stanton Drew is magnetometry. This relies on the fact that all soil is slightly magnetic and that this magnetism is concentrated and enhanced in many types of archaeological feature. Measurements made with a portable magnetometer, carried across the site at regularly spaced intervals, allows a picture of the local magnetic field to be built up. Magnetic `anomalies' are revealed in the subsequent computer plots as patterns which indicate the presence of buried features such as pits, ditches and hearths.



Fluxgate gradiometer survey of Stanton Drew [67.5Kb GIF]

This year the Ancient Monuments Laboratory of English Heritage has carried out a magnetometer survey [67.5Kb GIF] of the large field which contains the Great Circle and the north-east circle. The results have been astonishing and have, at a stroke, demonstrated that the megalithic remains at Stanton Drew are but the ruin of a much more elaborate and important site than had previously been dreamed of. Lying under the pasture within the Great Circle are the remains of a highly elaborate pattern of buried pits. They are arranged in nine rings concentric with the stone circle at the centre of which are further pits. The rings of pits vary in diameter, from about 23m to 95m. Although the magnetic signal is extremely weak, and it is difficult to make out individual features, it appears that the pits are about a metre or more in diameter and are spaced about a metre apart on the outer circle.


Left: Caesium gradiometer survey in progress [90.5 Kb JPEG].
Right: Caesium gradiometer survey of part of the area within the great circle [65Kb GIF].
This more sensitive instrument resolves the individual pits more clearly.

Just as remarkable is the discovery that the Great Circle is itself contained within a very large buried enclosure ditch (approximately 135m outer diameter). This is about 7m wide and has a broad gap or entrance facing to the north-east. Such enclosures, or henges, are a well known feature of later Neolithic Britain and are assumed to be the foci of ritual activity. Several henges enclose stone circles, and rings of pits are also a feature of some of them. Sites which bear the closest similarity to the patterns emerging at Stanton Drew include Woodhenge, near Stonehenge, and the Sanctuary, near Avebury. At these and other sites, the pits are known to have held timber uprights although it is not clear whether these were part of roofed or open structures. It seems probable that at least some of the pit circles at Stanton Drew once held massive posts. The circles are the largest and most numerous yet recorded at any site and surely indicate the investment of immense effort and enterprise in the service of preh
storic beliefs as yet only dimly perceived.


Interpretation plan of magnetometer surveys [10.5Kb GIF]

The magnetic survey also covered the area of the north-east stone circle and found at its centre a quadrilateral of four pits aligned with the opposing pairs of the 8 stones that comprise the circle. Here again is evidence of hidden elaboration: perhaps these are ritual pits, or they might be the holes of stones that have since been removed.


Comparison of Stanton Drew with other henges with timber circles [19.5Kb GIF]

These results are thus very remarkable and will thrust Stanton Drew well into the limelight of research as scholars come to terms with the details and their implications. Although no excavation at the site is foreseen at present, further survey work is planned which will aim to explore other parts of the site (the south-western circle, for instance) and will try and refine details of the main henge complex.

Paul Linford (P.Linford@eng-h.gov.uk),
Copyright © Historic Buildings & Monuments Commission for England.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 101 of 1283: Mike Griggs  (mikeg) * Sat, Feb 26, 2000 (15:31) * 3 lines 
 
neat!

any pictures of the stones??


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 102 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Sat, Feb 26, 2000 (16:19) * 6 lines 
 
Yes, on the site - I'm not clever enough yet to patch them in. Marcia probably will when she sees it. I'd not heard of this site at all, but then I don't know Somerset much, I usually pass through on my way to Devon.

http://www.eng-h.gov.uk/archaeometry/StantonDrew/





 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 103 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Feb 26, 2000 (21:06) * 2 lines 
 
I'll post 'um just as soon as I eat something (long day at the ball field.)
Maggie, you have discovered one of my most favorite sites. Thanks for posting the URL.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 104 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Feb 26, 2000 (21:39) * 11 lines 
 
Stanton Drew is near Bristol, England...across the Bristol Channel from South Wales.
From: http://www.stonepages.com/England/Inglese/StantonDrew.html
and http://easyweb.easynet.co.uk/~aburnham/eng/stant1.htm










 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 105 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Feb 26, 2000 (21:43) * 3 lines 
 
No, Stanton Drew is not a recumbent stone circle in which a specially-placed stone was placed on its side lengthwise. These simply fell over. All, if I remember correctly, recombent stone circles are in Scotland.

Gi, it was in the 18th and 19th century when they rented out sledge hammers at Stonehehenge. The barbarity of the very idea offends me to the soul.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 106 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Feb 26, 2000 (22:48) * 63 lines 
 
From the BBC - Friday, October 15, 1999 Published at 09:48 GMT 10:48 UK

Stonehenge face mystery
Silently watching us for 4,000 years?
By BBC News Online Science Editor Dr David Whitehouse

Has the face of the creator of Stonehenge been staring
at us unrecognised for more than 4,000 years?

A British archaeologist claims to have seen a face
carved into the side of one of the mighty stones at
Stonehenge.


It is the first face ever seen on the Neolithic monument
and one of the oldest works of art ever found in Britain.

It was recognised by Terrence Meaden, an archaeologist with a
fascination for the ancient standing stones of the British Isles.

"I just happened to be there at the right time of day
because only when the light is right can you see it
properly. During the summer months it is only obvious for
about a hour each day around 1400."

It is amazing that it has never been recognised before.

Dr Meaden believes that it was missed because previous
researchers concentrated on the fronts of the standing
stones and not their sides.


The particular viewing conditions to see it at its
best will have also played a part in it not being seen.

"But once you see it it's obvious," he says.
It seems to carry a serious expression, almost a frown,
as it looks across the Salisbury plain.

Stonehenge was built about 2450 BC but why does Dr
Meaden believe the carving was made at the time and
was not done much later.
"Why would anyone do that?" he asks, "The type of
stone, Sarsen, is the hardest stone know to man. It
would have taken hundreds of hours working on a
platform to do it. Why bother?"
Meaden's photographs are being evaluated by other
archaeologists.
He also claims that other faces can clearly be seen on
the Avebury stones not far from Stonehenge.
But who is the face of Stonehenge?
"We will never know," says Meaden, "He could be the
patron of the monument or even its architect. Perhaps
the designer of Stonehenge has been looking at us for
four thousand years and we didn't see him."
Terence Meaden can be contacted by email at
terence.meaden@stonehenge-avebury.net.








 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 107 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Feb 26, 2000 (22:51) * 1 lines 
 
That most curious article was found at URL http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/sci/tech/newsid_474000/474977.stm


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 108 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Feb 26, 2000 (23:16) * 2 lines 
 
Curiouser and curiouser...
http://www.stonecentric.connectfree.co.uk/aveburyi.html


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 109 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Feb 26, 2000 (23:23) * 5 lines 
 
Remember how much I applauded the work of Aubury Burl? Here is the Megalithic web site with which he is associated:
http://www.megalith.ukf.net/

From that site this map of Megalithic Britain - there are a lot of stone circles and other alignments out there!



 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 110 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Sun, Feb 27, 2000 (09:29) * 4 lines 
 
OK, England's back on line and awake (actually it's mid-afternoon!).
Drats, I thought I'd discovered stonepages.com only to find you already knew!!!

In the above map it's the clusters that interest me. Why? Is there any connection with the geomagnetism lines? Is the pattern continued in mainland Europe? I've got a book somewhere on early settlement patterns, maybe there's a connection somewhere.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 111 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Feb 27, 2000 (11:25) * 4 lines 
 
Maggie, I have been at this for more than 5 years...I began with a Commodore 64
where everything was done is Dos, you used lynx to surf the web and emailed using Pine. I can still do all of that, but how primitive it all is! However, I discovered some more good new URLs last night when I was posting all of the above, so Keep finding them and letting me know. I am always delighted when you find new things or discover ones which are truly worthy which I already knew about.

I was having trouble figuring out which place to post that map. Perhaps I should post it both places? From the Bronze Age onward the tin in Cornwall was much sought after to harden the copper found on Cyprus. That's why the Romans needed Britannia. More on that after breakfast...


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 112 of 1283: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Mon, Feb 28, 2000 (15:34) * 3 lines 
 
Cyprus and Cornwall, we're kind of back to the Minoans. Yes, well a lot of Bronze Age people sailed out of the enclosed Mediterranean, hugging the coast of Western Europe, to Cornwall. Britain was the tin island. I'm a bit partial to the Minoans as they were extraordinary artists, and even had indoor plumbing. Seriously, what survives of Minoan art is remarkably beautiful.

About the face on Stonehenge -- it may be a face, but it looks as though it might be a natural formation in the rock. Seeing a face there might be analogous to seeing pictures in the formations of clouds. Only clouds are fleeting.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 113 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Feb 28, 2000 (15:40) * 1 lines 
 
Of course, those faces are tricks of lighting and good imagination. Be sure to check the link I posted ("stonecentrics") at Geomagnetism. Very odd, indeed. He even admits to retouching some of the pictures. Go figure! Those who WANT to see them will see them everywhere!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 114 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Feb 28, 2000 (15:41) * 1 lines 
 
Who can we recruit to check it out?! Mark? Maggie? Mike, how about a weekend at the White Hart in Salisbury?


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 115 of 1283: Wolf  (wolf) * Mon, Feb 28, 2000 (16:02) * 5 lines 
 
i know i know this post refers to one from way back:

what's a petroglyph? *grin*

oh, and they should've brought me along on that stonehenge thing, i would've seen the face right away (good imagination, i guess).....love the pics!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 116 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Feb 28, 2000 (16:25) * 3 lines 
 
Like a heiroglyph or any other sort, glyph means carved work. Petros is Greek for rock (thus St Peter) It simply means rock carvings. They are all over Hawaii, as well. New Grange (In Ireland)has spectacular ones and the Aborigines in Australia have theirs, as well as Amerindians, theirs. I think even we have them on our public buildings...!

Love to get you to Stonehenge You'd feel vibes and all kinds of fun things!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 117 of 1283: Wolf  (wolf) * Mon, Feb 28, 2000 (19:40) * 3 lines 
 
imagine what a child would feel in a place like that? you know, children are so oblivious to adult rules (no ghosts, can't see angels, etc.) that they'd be bound to feel something there.

one day, i'll see stone henge in the flesh!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 118 of 1283: Wolf  (wolf) * Mon, Feb 28, 2000 (19:40) * 1 lines 
 
thanks for the definition, that's the idea i had but wanted to make sure!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 119 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Feb 28, 2000 (19:56) * 5 lines 
 
...thanks for being interested and asking *Hugs*

I know you will feel things all around Stonehenge and Salisbury Plain which is one huge antiquity which the military should get off while there is still something there. I told you the experience David and I had...it was palpable the feeling that we should not be so close to the stone and not to touch it.

They drive tanks all over the place there and fire live ordnance for practice. I know it is important to practice and our guys go into the saddle between Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea to do it - where there is just about nothing but bleak lava fields.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 120 of 1283: Wolf  (wolf) * Mon, Feb 28, 2000 (19:58) * 1 lines 
 
usually they practice out in the deserts and such. didn't know stonehenge was in the middle of such a field. i certainly hope the practice is for those in the know and not beginners who'd be sure to knock a stone or two over. geez!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 121 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Feb 28, 2000 (20:13) * 1 lines 
 
Tell me about it. Some General wanted the stones removed so he could build a runway there during WW2. Britain is small, but they don't need to do that. Sheesh! Just lucky the Gods were looking over it. Between the sledge hammer renters and the generals...I am amazed that it is still there. Remember Avebury? The Huge Henge with the village inside of it? Guess where they got the stones for all of those houses, the church, walls everywhere?! Arrrrgh!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 122 of 1283: Ginny  (vibrown) * Mon, Feb 28, 2000 (23:33) * 5 lines 
 
Seems like a lot of significant archaeological sites have been destroyed through sheer ignorance. Happened a lot in Greece and Turkey...

The experience you and David had at Stonehenge sounds really eerie, Marcia. Can't get close enough to the stones to feel anything like that now, though.

I was also thinking that those faces are more tricks of lighting and imagination than anything else, like the face on Mars. I think we have a natural tendency to look for patterns in things, anyway. Isn't that how our brain tries to process and organize the sensory input we receive?


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 123 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Feb 28, 2000 (23:40) * 1 lines 
 
I agree with you, Ginny, but we are pragmatists and scientists. Others may be more sensitive to other things we cannot even imagine. My ESP does not even work.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 124 of 1283: Ginny  (vibrown) * Mon, Feb 28, 2000 (23:47) * 3 lines 
 
My ESP has never worked, either...though I admit that sciense doesn't have a clue what the human brain is fully capable of.

The temple of the sun at Tiwanaku in Bolivia had some very definate faces carved in the walls, but I don't think that site is as old as Stonehenge.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 125 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Feb 29, 2000 (00:07) * 1 lines 
 
The temples at Malta are the oldest Megalithic structures, as I recall with the Boyne Valley 'tombs' in Ireland of which New Grange is the best restored are also very old. 8000 years old. There in one on Cornwall which just might be as old...More tomorrow on Ballowal.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 126 of 1283: MarkG  (MarkG) * Tue, Feb 29, 2000 (04:38) * 3 lines 
 
Unlikely to make it out to Salisbury Plain myself for a few months - don't think one can get close enough to the stones to check out the "sculpting" anyway.

On Newgrange, I was listening to a phone-in at Christmas where as recently as the Sixties, members of the public could just borrow the key to the gate off the farmer who owned the field with the passage burial-chamber, and go for a look. It wasn't till 1975 or so that a professor of archaeology suddenly wondered about the winter solstice, and went to camp out in the burial chamber for the longest night. Lo and behold, come the dawn the place was flooded with natural light for the first time that anyone modern had ever seen.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 127 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Feb 29, 2000 (10:02) * 1 lines 
 
Incredible! I do wish they had a better name than passage burial-chamber or chambered barrow or whatever. I think there are just a few of them in Ireland and a few on Anglesey (which you also had to go to the farmer for the key when we were there in the late 70's and early 80's). Just as St Paul's Cathedral is not a chambered passage tomb, neither is Newgrange or its ilk. I shall post pictures and goodies about the Boyne Valley "tombs" as soon as I awaken and catch up with the overnight posts. Thanks, Mark!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 128 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Feb 29, 2000 (12:52) * 53 lines 
 
Newgrange and the Bru na Boinne
Newgrange is a passage-grave that overlooks the valley of the Boyne river in County
Meath, Ireland. It is widely considered to be one of the most significant archaeological
sites in Europe. In Irish tradition the Bru na Boinne (the Gaelic for "Valley of the Boyne") is
sacred in and of itself, a reason why several other passage grave complexes, such as
Dowth and Knowth, were built there. Newgrange, though, is special.
Newgrange is the only passage-grave ever excavated that is aligned so as to allow the
light from the Winter Solstice sunrise to enter and light the main chamber deep within the
mound. This has significant spiritual meaning, as the Winter Solstice is the time of the
longest night, and the sunrise after this night (as the Druids would have celebrated it)
would mark the beginning of the return of light to the world. Building a passage-grave so
that the light of the beginning of the sun's annual resurrection may fall on the remains of
the ancestors is a powerful symbol, and serves to show the ancient Celts' considerable
theological, astronomical and architectural sophistication.
The purpose behind the construction of Newgrange remains, to a degree, a mystery.
While the excavation of the barrow earlier in this century revealed the remains of several
individuals within the central chamber, whether interment was the initial and sole intent
behind Newgrange is uncertain. The alignment with the Winter Solstice and the white
quartz facing of the monument suggest that this monument was constructed with more
than burial in mind, but the inner chamber is too small for more than a handful of
individuals to witness the brilliant Solstice sunrise. Would the highest of the Celtic elite
celebrate the holiday within, while others gathered outside for a group ceremony? Or
could Newgrange have been constructed for the exclusive use of a very high-ranking
noble family, as a private catacomb and worshipping space? The remains found had few
grave goods to support the second theory, but unsupervised access to the mound for
decades before the excavation could explain the lack of luxurious artifacts. The state in
which the remains were found also leads to some speculation, a mix of burnt and unburnt
bones, in some disarray. Were all of an individual's remains brought here, or just part?
Were remains left here forever, or were they circulated yearly, removed after the Solstice
light had imbued them with the spirit of resurrection? Unless some startling resource is
found, speculation may provide the only answers to the many questions.
In Irish mythology, Newgrange is the home of Aenghus mac Og, god of love. He won the
site from his father, the Dagda, by means of a trick. Aenghus had been away when the
magical places of Ireland had been parcelled out to the various gods, and upon returning,
begged his father that he might have Newgrange for only the space of a day and a night.
When twenty-four hours had passed, the Dagda returned to claim his own, only to have
Aenghus refuse to give up Newgrange, claiming that all of time could be divided into the
space of day and night, and that Newgrange was therefore His until the end of time, by
the terms of the agreement. Aenghus is supposed to have lived quite happily there for
some time, with his wife, Caer Ibormeith, whom he wooed and won in the form of a swan,
as she was enchanted into that shape.
Newgrange is well worth visiting, and is a very popular site with tourists to Ireland. There
is a waiting list for as long as ten years for the privilege of being inside the mound at
sunrise on the morning of December 21, the Winter Solstice. The freedom to walk within
this sacred monument is now in danger, however, as moisture from the breath of the
hundreds of daily visitors has been found collecting on the stones inside the mound,
risking irreparable damage - the monument is as weatherproof as the day that it was
built, but the pervading humidity from tourists' breath was not a force that was forseen or engineered against.







 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 129 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Feb 29, 2000 (12:56) * 61 lines 
 
Winter Solstice Sunrise at Newgrange
by Will Hurley
Many years ago, my maternal grandfather led me into a large man-made earth and stone
mound, in county Meath, Eire. Being raised in the U.S.A. and only 14 at the time, I did not
appreciate where he was taking me or why. During the previous eight or nine years, he
had often told me he wanted to show me a wonder of the ancient world. Every morning
before sunrise on the solstices and equinoxes he would wake me up and make me go
outside with him. For most of those years I would whine and complain about it -- I wanted
to stay in bed, it was cold outside, I didn't feel like getting up so early. But he made me do
it anyway.
We would stand facing east to watch the first rays of the sun. The first year he had me
stand in a specific spot, and he wrote in a notebook exactly where the sun appeared on
the horizon. He also had me watch other spots on the horizon, by holding my thumb
upright while closing one eye and then the other. When I reached the age of ten, he made
me write the notations. Each year afterwards, he had me compare the previous years'
spots to those of the new year. The first couple of years I did not see a difference. Maybe I
really didn't notice a difference, or maybe I was too young to care. Then I saw that the
point where the sun touched the horizon was slowly changing. It was not something I could
compare between sightings year to year, but over a few years a change was noticeable.
Granddad finally explained the earth science reasons that were behind this, and said he
would take me on a long airplane ride to show me why he had made me get up all those
mornings.
The night before we were to go into the mound, Granddad seemed very depressed.
When I asked him why, he told me the morning might be overcast, and we might not be
able to see the sunrise. I learned in later years he had called in many favors from his youth
in Ireland to do this with me. After a while he decided that we would go to the mound
anyway, just in case.
We met several other people just before we entered. Everyone seemed quiet to me, but I
sensed a great deal of excitement. We entered the mound about an hour before sunrise.
The first thing that I noticed was the odor. It wasn't a bad smell, but it seemed old to me,
like a mix of a stone cellar and a damp forest all at the same time. We used flashlights to
find our way to the rear of the passageway. The floor was not smooth, and someone
could have tripped and hurt themselves without the lights.
It was very dark after everyone turned off their lights. Completely dark. For a while this
made me uncomfortable. I knew I was standing next to Granddad, but I could not see him
or anyone else. I tried to calm myself down by taking slow measured breaths (an exercise
he had taught me). I began to hear the others breathing. Someone began to hum softly.
Others joined in. I realized it was a tune Granddad often hummed or whistled and I knew
how it went, so I joined in as well.
About twenty minutes later, while everyone was still humming, I noticed it was getting a
little lighter. I could just barely make out the shape of the people who stood between me
and the door. Then everyone went silent. A glow had begun to appear at the front of the
opening, over the door. Soon a ray of light was on the wall. I thought someone was
outside, shining a floodlight through a small hole. The light slowly kept moving toward us.
Then I realized what Granddad had been doing all those years. He had been preparing
me for this very moment. The sun was slowly making its way to the innermost chamber of
the mound, and finally reached it. The emotions of observing and participating in this age
old event are indescribable. Even though we had been prepared for disappointment if it
had been an overcast morning, this millenia old event had occurred again. All too soon
the sun had lit up the inner chamber and now it was beginning to dim. Feelings of regret
that nature and man's light show was over were nothing compared to the awe of this
marvel.
Over the years I have often remembered that morning. Through study I now know that this
only happens on the winter solstice. Occasionally the same effect can happen the day
before or the day after. What is amazing is that this has been happening every year for
over four thousand years. Built over a thousand years before the Egyptian pyramids, the
inhabitants of prehistoric Ireland created a monument to man's ingenuity and nature's
never-ending cycles.





 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 130 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Feb 29, 2000 (13:03) * 4 lines 
 
More of Newgrange





 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 131 of 1283: Wolf  (wolf) * Tue, Feb 29, 2000 (14:58) * 5 lines 
 
way kewl! *grin*

back to maggie saying scientists don't know much about our brains, i've read that humans use only 10% of their brain. can you imagine what we'd be capable of if we used 20%, 15%? kinda creepy. well, i think clairvoyance comes from a glimpse into that area. and because humans only want logical answers to everything, we logically call those folks crazy. we do seek patterns so things make sense to our brains, but i could never doubt that there IS a face in that stone!

i like patterns so this rock appeals to me, love the swirls! reminds me of snail shells or nautilus shells....


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 132 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Feb 29, 2000 (15:32) * 1 lines 
 
Spirals are some of the oldest petroglyphs (Yes!) known...and they occur all over the world in all cultures. Sacred dances are done sunwise directions and mazes in hedges (as well as the maze in the tile on the floor of Chartres Cathedral...they are very old, indeed! This more properly goes in Geomagnetism but is fascinating anywhere.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 133 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Tue, Feb 29, 2000 (16:05) * 1 lines 
 
Did I really say that? sounds too profound for me!!! *lol* I think there is a LOT that we don't understand. The more I see and hear about how people used to live, the more I feel I don't understand human life. At times it seems like an immense amount of knowledge has been lost, despite all our computers and technology and stuff. I don't think it's wierd metaphysical stuff either, but aspects of these brains of ours that we don't understand and therefore despise. (I'm not saying I despise it just that ....) I'll shut up for now.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 134 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Feb 29, 2000 (16:17) * 1 lines 
 
Well said (and please, don't shut up!) You did mention that when commenting on my suggestion that we had probably forgotten more of what we originally knew than we remember... No wonder we have problems if we are only using 10% of the available space. There are some people I know whose brains must be smooth and unwrinkled...


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 135 of 1283: Ginny  (vibrown) * Tue, Feb 29, 2000 (17:31) * 3 lines 
 
I was the one who made the comment about the human brain, and I have heard that same statistic, Wolf. I've always wondered what it would take just to tap into another 10% of our brainpower. Maybe that's what geniuses like Einstein were doing...just wish we knew *how* they did it!

I can totally believe that I have forgotten more of what I've learned than I can remember! I've tried ginko biloba, but it hasn't helped.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 136 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Feb 29, 2000 (18:21) * 1 lines 
 
Wail'll you get some age on you! Sometimes all we remember is stuff we do not need. It is most aggravating!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 137 of 1283: Wolf  (wolf) * Tue, Feb 29, 2000 (18:29) * 1 lines 
 
i'm sorry about the mix up of who said what *grin* i do that a lot! (talk about memory)....


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 138 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Feb 29, 2000 (19:07) * 65 lines 
 
http://www.paddynet.com/island/newgrange/ancient.html

Covering an area of one acre, Newgrange is one of the most impressive prehistoric monuments in Europe. The entrance,
which is almost sixty feet long, leads to the main chamber, which has a corbelled roof and rises to a height of nineteen feet.
The traditional name for Newgrange and the grouping of tombs to which it belongs, was Brugh na Bóinne; and it was
regarded as the otherworld dwelling of the divine Aonghus Mac Óg - Aonghus the Youthful.

Older than Stonehenge, the giant megalithic tomb of Newgrange was probably erected about
3,200 BC (in calendar years). It is one of a group of 40 passage tombs including Knowth and
Dowth, that are enclosed on three sides by the river Boyne.

Passage tombs are generally found in clusters giving rise to the theory that they were ancient
cemeteries, perhaps for leading families. They consist essentially of a round mound or cairn
with a long, stone lined passage leading from the outside to a chamber within. As with
Newgrange, which can still be seen by the naked eye from the Hill of Tara, some 15 miles
away, they tend to be situated on hill tops and commanding sites.

The mound is enclosed on the outside by a circle of standing stones of which twelve remain.
This gives the impression that the monument was built and designed to stand out from the
landscape - perhaps as a beacon for pagan worship. The present day reconstruction, aimed at restoring the site to its
pre-historic appearance, gives this theory further substance. Many have likened it to a grounded flying saucer; and it is the
subject of much controversy. However, during the Newgrange excavations between 1962 - 1965, much research focused on
the original shape of the cairn. This information was drawn from the accounts of those who had visited the monument in the
preceding centuries: all of them commented on its flat top. And the positioning of the white quartz stones that reinforce the
front of the mound is based entirely on meticulous engineering analysis of the cairn collapse.
The white quartz gives the monument a particularly startling facade and it is worth noting that this was only positioned at the
front of the cairn, facing the sun. White quartz is known for its energy-dispersing properties and it may, therefore, have been
used to absorb and channel its life-giving energy, or it may simply have provided further visibility to those wishing to reach
the site. In addition, there were large numbers of oval granite boulders found amongst the collapsed quartz facade. These
have been scattered randomly through the reconstructed facade, without acknowledgement to any possible use for these
dark stones as patterning elements within the quartz. The twentieth century restorers were not prepared to risk a spiral
pattern.

The reasons for the use of quartz and granite, and their design, must have been of consequence because the builders of the
Newgrange went to great lengths to put the stones there. They are not found locally. The nearest place that they could have
collected the quartz was from the Wicklow Mountains to the South; and such a journey would have taken them seven days
going by canoe along the Boyne and down the coast. The granite was probably collected around the Mourne Mountains,
some days to the North.

The cairn itself is reinforced at its base by a continuous circle of stones, called kerb stones. Many of these are ornamented.
The most spectacular of these are the entrance stone, and the stone opposite the entrance on the other side of the mound.
There is much speculation as to the meaning of these complex designs and many consider them to have solar symbology as
sun worship was the most widely spread cult in pre-historic Europe.

One of the most interesting features of the mound, particularly in view of the fact that it is a feature unique to Newgrange, is
the roof-box above the entrance to the passageway. It consists of two low side-walls, a back corbel and a roofstone; and it is
through this gap that the dawn sun beams on the winter solstice. Its purpose is unknown, but some have speculated that the
builders: must have held the sun in such high regard that they gave it a separate entrance.

Entering the passage tomb is a remarkable experience: the corbelled roof extends to
19ft and the central chamber has three recesses which contain massive stone basins
that are thought to have been receptacles for cremated remains, but they may also
have had other ceremonial functions. Many of the orthostats or standing stones lining
the passage-way are decorated. The eastern recess shows the most decoration and
once again this points to sunworshipping as the sun rises in the east.

The pre-Celtic inhabitants had no written language. This has lead to the thinking that
the artwork at Newgrange, comprising mainly of three-dimensional geometric designs,
must have described the world in which they lived. Their complex patterns of loops,
spirals, diamonds, zig zags and lozenges reveals a concern for harmony and balance of pattern, rather than with
anthropological / representational art; and in this sense, it seems quite spiritual in nature. Some interpretations of the
symbols give substance to the argument that its builders were probably sunworshippers. The suggestion that Aonghus was a
sun deity lends further support to this interpretation.




 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 139 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Feb 29, 2000 (19:10) * 30 lines 
 
Natural Features

Newgrange, on the ridge of Brugh na Bóinne, lies between the valleys of the Boyne river and
the little tributary river Mattock. On the ridge, each mound is set on the top of a knoll, as it may
have been necessary for ritual purposes to set the mound on a high point. The site is a
splendid vantage point looking straight down on the Boyne, which is one of the great rivers of
Ireland, flowing through a fine fertile valley.

Newgrange was first brought to broad modern attention after 1699 by the Welsh antiquarian,
Edward Lloyd. Until then, it was simply a huge, yet somehow 'magical' grass-covered mound.
The landscape of Ireland is peppered with many such mounds, also known as Sídhe.

The Valley of the Boyne is effectively the Northern boundary of the Central lowland plain of
Ireland. To the North lies the undulating hill country of County Louth, and the line of drumlins
which mark the borders of old Ulster. The drainage basin of the river Boyne coincides with the
fertile pastureland of County Meath where, today, grazing cattle, coppiced woodland and
prosperous farms help to create a scene not unlike the Cheshire Plain on the opposite side of
the Irish Sea.

But six thousand years ago, this was all forest. If we stand on the top of Newgrange and look about us in every direction, we
overlook a basin of about 50 square kilometres before rising ground cuts off our view. Then if we imagine this basin as
completely cleared of trees, we can get some idea of the kind of clearance that would have been required to produce a
Neolithic farming community large enough to undertake the enormous task of building the complex of monuments at Brugh
na Bóinne.

By about five thousand years ago, everyone working within this radius could either see the monuments, or feel that he ought
to be able to see them, and could have a sense of devotion or commitment to these mysterious and sophisticated structures,
which were constructed more than a thousand years before the pyramids of Egypt.

http://www.paddynet.com/island/newgrange/natural.html#ridge


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 140 of 1283: Wolf  (wolf) * Tue, Feb 29, 2000 (20:28) * 1 lines 
 
this is neat!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 141 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Feb 29, 2000 (21:51) * 1 lines 
 
Never been there, but I most assuredly would like to go there. Wolfie, you'd love it!!!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 142 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Mar  1, 2000 (12:17) * 71 lines 
 
Barrows, chambered tombs and other antiquities in Stonejeng's immediate area:
http://www.amherst.edu/~ermace/sth/nearby.html

In Stonehenge's Vicinity

Although Stonehenge is a world-famous site, other "henges," stone (or wood) circles, and barrows abound in the area
surrounding "the Henge." Here is a map of the area around Stonehenge.



Barrows

Barrows are ancient burial chambers. There are two main types of barrows: long barrows, built in the Neolithic Period (4000
BCE - 2500BCE) and round barrows, built in the Bronze Age (2000 BCE - 1000 BCE). Stonehenge I, the first stage of
construction at Stonehenge, when it was just the Bank and Ditch (see map.), goes back to the time of the long barrows.
However, Stonehenge IV, the "version" that is most famous today, was built at a time when the round barrows were on the
declin e.

Long Barrows: Long Barrows can be found in Wessex and Sussex, and also in Lincolnshire and Yorkshire. They are most
numerous in the immediate area of Stonehenge. They were used for the burial of important people. Excavation shows that
the pe rson was kept above ground for a time, perhaps on top of a platform, until others died, and the bodies could be put in
the barrow and the barrow covered over with earth.



The Entrance to West Kennet Long Barrow
Photo Credit: Emily Mace.

Round Barrows: Round barrows, built at the time of Stonehenge IV, also surround the area of Stonehenge. In fact, within
the Henge's Bank and Ditch are two round barrows. There are four types of barrows: bowl, bell, pond, and disc. As with the l
ong barrows, round ones only housed important People buried in these barrows often had their possessions about them:
daggers, bronze maces, stone battle-axes, in the graves of the men, and in the graves of women, bead necklaces and other
ornaments. Origi nally bodies were buried in a crouched position, but later bodies were cremated.

Clusters of Barrows:

Normanton Down
King Barrows
Winterbourne Stoke cross-roads

Henges

Besides Stonehenge, there are three other monuments in the area which have earned the designation of "Henges:"
Woodhenge, Coneybury Henge, and Durrington Walls. Nothing except marks on the earth remains of these barrows, but
their existence has been disc overed by aerial photography, which revealed the post holes and the various ditches and
embankments.

Woodhenge:

Today they have filled in the post-holes with cement posts about waist high. Like Stonehenge, it had an outer bank, which,
like so many of these monuments, is very much flattened by ploughing. It was built about 2300 BCE. Inside the ditch were six
concentric oval rings, which once held wooden posts. Near the center there is a small grave, in which the body of a
three-year old with a split skull was found. Archaeologists think it was a dedicatory burial, and as such it would be t he only
evidence of human sacrifice in Neolithic Britain. The original use of the posts, whether as supports of a roof, or otherwise, is
unknown. Symbolic axe-heads found in two of the outer rings suggest that it was a temple.


Woodhenge. Source: Atkinson, p. 33.


Coneybury Henge:

All that remains of this henge, too, is a bank and ditch surrounding post holes and other pits. Some pits contain pottery. It
appears to have been used only a short time before it was abandoned, around 3500 BCE.

Durrington Walls:

This monument consisted of a huge oval bank 30 m wide, which too has been largely damaged by plowing. There were two
entrances on opposite sides. Inside the circle were two circular timber structures, one to the north, one to the south. In the
photos below, the left-hand drawing shows the northern structure, the right the southern. They are both only possible
reconstructions.



 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 143 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Mar  1, 2000 (12:19) * 2 lines 
 
The Durrington Walls structures look smaller by comparison with Woodhenge, but in fact they are huge. Woodhenge is intimate and would fit in one's side yard.
Well, almost...


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 144 of 1283: Wolf  (wolf) * Wed, Mar  1, 2000 (12:22) * 1 lines 
 
isn't it strange how they all use circles as their basis for construction? (does this play into it at all?)


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 145 of 1283: Wolf  (wolf) * Wed, Mar  1, 2000 (12:23) * 1 lines 
 
speaking of side yards, on hgtv, one show visited a garden where the owner built a mini stone henge. he uses a lot of celtic influences in his garden. it was quite lovely.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 146 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Mar  1, 2000 (12:44) * 0 lines 
 


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 147 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Mar  1, 2000 (12:52) * 36 lines 
 
The latest insult to Stonehenge - from The Times

Good News: this page seems to have had an effect!

Thanks to the effect of much campaigning and many letters sent through this page in 1996, the disastrous plans for
Stonehenge have been dropped. However, an equivalently barbaric project is being carried out in America with regard to
the traditional native Apache Indian peoples. http://www.wolflodge.org/urgentnews/apache1.htm has teh details.

John Birchall writes to us to say "Independent p.3 on Friday (June 6) gave the new alternative plans for Stonehenge which
involve Madame Tussauds paying for removal of modern accretions and grassing over of nearby road; new carpark; and
in return Mdme Tussauds would get the right to run a commercial 'interpretation centre'. Access to the monument to be
free of charge and unrestricted; the Independent billed it as a populist move motivated by the new government. I am sure
your faxes were worthwhile - it is important for us to constantly remind quango's (English Heritage included) that they are
under public scrutiny, even if unelected. I am writing to The Chairman of English Heritage to express support - this should
also help to keep them up to the mark!
July 20 1996 GENERAL NEWS Stonehenge to be £163.65m theme park
STONEHENGE is to become a £163.65 million theme park using private investment and lottery cash. The plan
includes a visitors' centre with a virtual reality tour, shops, restaurants and a monorail to the stones (Peter Foster
writes).

For the first time, English Heritage, which is responsible for the monument, will use the Government's Private
Finance Initiative under which business puts up part of the money. The centre, with 8,000 square metres of floor
space and parking for 3,000 cars, is expected to attract 1.8 million visitors a year, nearly double the present
number. Finances permitting, work should start next year and be completed by the end of the decade.

Opponents say that the plan will destroy Stonehenge's mystical appeal. Paul Sample, a Liberal Democrat Wiltshire county councillor, said: "This abhorrent commercialism is out of keeping."


Click here if you want to write a letter of protest
mailto:remote-printer.Department_of_National_Heritage_re_Stonehenge@441712116210.iddd.tpc.int,latrobe@mistral.co.uk,441719733001@faxaway.com

to the UK Department of National Heritage and English Heritage. It will get printed on their fax machines:
remember to give your snail mail address or fax number for reply - Please mark it re: STONEHENGE - and ask for a reply!

click here to write a letter of protest to the UK Department of National Heritage and English Heritage. latrobe@mistral.co.uk
Mark it Re: PLEASE FORWARD - Re: STONEHENGE and I (David Pinnegar) will manually fax it to them - remember to give your snail mail address or fax number for reply - and don't forget to ask for a reply!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 148 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Thu, Mar  2, 2000 (14:17) * 66 lines 
 
More Africa archeology - and Stone Heads!!!

Stone heads recall Africa's forgotten past
By: Matthew Bunce
Broadcasted on BICNews 10 February 1998

GOHITAFLA, Ivory Coast (Reuters) - When Bernadette Vouinan tripped over a rock with eyes and a nose in 1982, she unearthed one of the first of more than 1,000 ancient stone head sculptures to emerge from Ivory Coast's pre-historic soil.

The origin of the heavy granite and laterite stones of up to three feet high and 2,000 years old remains a mystery. But some villagers have no doubts, even challenging theories on East Africa's Rift Valley as the cradle of mankind.

``We believe they were created and placed in the earth here by God,'' said one farmer in the remote Marahoue valley in central Ivory Coast where many of the heads have been found. Such lore attributes flattened rocks found there to the creator's footprints as he stepped back to heaven.

Farmers are often less star-struck, selling any heads they find to tourists for a pittance.

Ivorian anthropologists staging an exhibition in the commercial capital Abidjan this month hope to dispel myths and spur a wider interest in promoting Africa's forgotten past.

``It means we have had art for a long time,'' said leading anthropologist Georges Niangoran-Bouah, chief researcher on Marahoue. ``And where there is art there is civilization.''

The problem is that West Africa's tropical climate means clues to history often rot, leaving only rich oral tradition.

GOD'S TEST-BED FOR HUMANS
``We Africans say man was not made in a day. And the most important part of man is the head,'' Niangoran-Bouah told Reuters.

Folklore says the myriad facial designs -- many Marahoue heads have no mouth, nose or eyes -- are but one sign of God's use of Marahoue as a human test-bed. Later carvings with busts and full figures show man's head at one third rather than one seventh of his height.

``African artists think God must have made a mistake,'' said Niangoran-Bouah, holding a giant-nosed head nicknamed Charles de Gaulle, one of his garden collection of 200 stones.

The faces, once used in mask rituals, are said to have been buried by God to protect women and children from seeing them.

But some village wives have more pressing domestic concerns.

``They are very good. They withstand the heat,'' said one cook who was using three around a fire to support her pots at Diacohou.

BEFORE OUR ANCESTORS
The heads have yet to be accurately dated but similar stones in Senegal date back as far as 2,000 years.

``No one knows what role the heads played in ancient times,'' Niangoran-Bouah said.

``They are not the work of men known to us or our ancestors,'' said Ta-bi-Tra, a hunter at Gohitafla, now inhabited by Ivorian President Henri Konan Bedie's ruling Baoule tribe. Baoule warriors arrived there under Queen Abla Pokou in the 17th century, displacing Gouro tribes who in turn had pushed out the Wan culture in the 15th century.

``The Wan consider them to be ancestral objects,'' said Niangoran-Bouah, citing the stories of nearby Wan descendants, including a theory that the heads betrayed them to the enemy.

The heads are also seen as grave charms for Wan warriors, homes for dead mens' souls or guardian spirits and talismans.

``We make offerings for a safe voyage, to find a good partner or fight off evil sorcerers, eaters of souls, jealous people and poisoners,'' said one soothsayer. ``We trust them.''

Animal sacrifices in cult rituals ensured successful childbirth and stone heads still play a part in ritual exorcisms and purification of adulterers. One man described being inhabited by a spirit from stones surrounding his house. ``I have 13 children, they all come from the stones.''

Prehistoric stone heads have been found around the world, from Africa to Europe and America. Marahoue's are thought to be among the largest and oldest along Africa's Atlantic coast.

Ivorian standing stones are larger than average and found deeper in the ground than similar African examples, suggesting a greater age of up to 7,000 years, Niangoran-Bouah said.

Such African megaliths weighing between half a ton and 15 tons are found in a northwestern strip on the Mediterranean and pockets in a wide west-east sub-Saharan band between Senegal and Kenya. Villagers showed Reuters a 19-foot rock said to be one of the largest African megaliths.

In Mali, to the north, anthropologists have been baffled by the Dogon culture's ability to predict cycles of an invisible satellite of the star Sirius, which appears every 60 years. The Dogon, whose God Amma is said to have thrown a ball of clay into space to create Earth, is just one example of deep civilization in Africa often brushed over by colonists.

``This civilization before the pre-colonial period honorsour country,'' Niangoran-Bouah said. ``During colonial times the stones were probably kept hidden in the forest. The whites did not see them.''

That, for better or worse, is no longer the case.

© Copyright 1998, Reuters News Service







 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 149 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Mar  2, 2000 (15:26) * 1 lines 
 
Amazing stuff. Maggie! Are there pictures anywhere that you know of? Or shall I make myself useful and search for them?


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 150 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Thu, Mar  2, 2000 (15:53) * 2 lines 
 
I haven't found any pics to go with this yet - there weren't any on the site.



 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 151 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Mar  2, 2000 (16:00) * 1 lines 
 
Guess I'd better get on it...whilst you get on with exorcising, exercising or just plain doing your PhD stuff (technical talk gets me all excited for the hunt for stone head pictures...)


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 152 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Thu, Mar  2, 2000 (16:19) * 1 lines 
 
(actually I've been trying to earn some money! Maybe I'll be able to get a good camera to take nice pics with)


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 153 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Mar  2, 2000 (16:27) * 1 lines 
 
Make it a digital and you will have the best of both worlds without having to worry about running out of film! (Still trying to get on your web thingy so I can join and give you credit, but I cannot - they are overhauling their website and told me to come back later.)


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 154 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Thu, Mar  2, 2000 (17:26) * 2 lines 
 
(I should be getting check from them soon - maybe it'll save my marriage! oops the phone bill's enormous again)
I'm a bit wary of getting only a digital camera not an ordinary one - I think I need both, oh yes, and a camcorder, wish, wish, wish


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 155 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Mar  2, 2000 (18:05) * 1 lines 
 
*Sigh* Yes, I know...!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 156 of 1283: Ginny  (vibrown) * Sat, Mar  4, 2000 (00:29) * 5 lines 
 
Fascinating about the stones in Africa! I had never heard of Newgrange before, either. Still learning a lot around here...

A digital camera and camcorder are on my wish list, *after* a negative/slide scanner. I have a lot of prints/slides that I want to scan in to put on my web page, but the hand scanner I have is such a pain. It also doesn't give as good an image as the ones scanned from the original film.

I still love my old SLRs, especially while digital cameras and photo quality printers are still evolving.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 157 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Mar  4, 2000 (00:43) * 2 lines 
 
You can't beat the old SLR's for sharpness, septh of focus and versatility. Iki's digital is about like an SLR and he has taken incredible pictures with it.
I am delighted to see you tonight...I was talking to myself for a while!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 158 of 1283: Ginny  (vibrown) * Sat, Mar  4, 2000 (01:02) * 7 lines 
 
Thanks, Marcia! Things were quiet at work for a little while, but now it's back to the usual hectic pace. (I just found out that Lucent is spinning off my group and a few others as a separate company. Looks like end of Sept. timeframe. I'm not sure if that's good or bad, yet.)

I'll try to check in on weekends, at least...when I'm procrastinating from homework. (I'm taking a C++ class that ends in May. It's fun, but it keeps me busy.)

I love all the info about the different henges!

It's almost 2am here, so I guess I better sign off for now. 'Night!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 159 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Mar  4, 2000 (01:18) * 1 lines 
 
G'night Ginny! Henges are my fav topic! Later!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 160 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Sun, Mar  5, 2000 (14:47) * 28 lines 
 
Four miles north of Hereford, adjacent to the River Lugg, a tributary of the River Wye, are the Suttons. Two small villages, located a mile or so to the south west of the Iron Age hillfort of Sutton Walls, they have long been associated with King Offa of Mercia, who ruled this powerful Saxon kingdom from 757 to his death in 796. Offa’s Dyke, the vast earthwork that marked Mercia’s western borders, is just a few miles away. And there is historical evidence to suggest that, three years before the end of Offa's reign, he came to a royal vill, or palace, in a place called Sutton. But no archaeological proof of its precise location has ever been found.
The area around the Suttons is rich in archaeological sites. The Sutton Walls hillfort has earthworks on a scale comparable with Maiden Castle. There is evidence of both Roman and Saxon occupation in the vicinity. And a medieval manor house, Freen's Court, complete with fishponds, artificial water channels, dams, a lake and a moat, is known to have existed on the site -- giving landscape expert Stewart Ainsworth more than his usual share of exciting ‘lumps and bumps’ to get worked up about when he arrived on the scene.

Then, perhaps most exciting of all, there were the tantalising results of an aerial photographic survey carried out in 1990. This produced some remarkable pictures of previously unrecorded parch marks on the grassy meadow next to the River Lugg and adjacent to the former manor house structures. These showed what appeared to be a series of post holes or stone pads on which posts would have been mounted to support a large aisled building. This could have been built of timber or stone and appeared to consist of up to nine bays, each approximately four metres wide. Next to this were further parch-mark outlines of a ‘multi-celled’ building, up to 60 metres in length and 10 metres wide.

Could either of these structures have been associated with King Offa's palace? Comparison with similar sites at Northampton and elsewhere suggested the structures may have had a Saxon origin. Certainly English Heritage was sufficiently convinced by the possibility to declare the whole area a scheduled ancient monument. With only a dozen Anglo-Saxon palace sites ever having been positively identified in Britain, the discovery of a thirteenth would have been a major archaeological find indeed.

As so often in this series, Time Team was treading new ground with this programme. The Project Design -- basically a very detailed breakdown of the proposed investigation of the site, which has to be approved by English Heritage in advance of any excavation of a scheduled ancient monument -- had been prepared not by the Team but the county archaeologist, Keith Ray. Time Team had worked with him before in his previous post, at Plympton in the 1999 series, and he was to act as project director on this occasion. He also brought along his deputy, Tim Hoverd, as excavation director and a team of experienced local diggers to work alongside the Team's usual crew. An English Heritage inspector, Paul Stamper, was present throughout to keep an eye on things and ensure that the Project Design was adhered to.

A diary of each day's dig, together with photos and details of some of the artefacts found was kept on the Timesite website [http://www.timesite.co.uk], which ran ‘live’ with the excavations as they took place last October. Suffice to say here that, as ever, things did not run exactly according to plan. For a start, a geophysics survey carried out by English Heritage eight years previously turned out not to be as useful as it might have been because the all-important grid reference details to locate it precisely had gone missing. Then the long, wet grass resulted in confusing readings being produced by Time Team's own geophysics survey. And to cap it all, after a half-day delay before the first turf could be lifted, all the digging in the main trenches -- involving the shifting of 17 tonnes of material, it was estimated -- had to be done by hand because permission to excavate scheduled ancient monuments stipulates that no machines can be used.

In fact, none of the excavations at the Suttons yielded artefacts or structures that could be definitively dated to the Saxon period. Trench One, a section cut through an earthwork bank, produced no finds at all, turning out to be part of a dam associated with the various water features that once stood on the site. Trench Two, when it finally got underway, quickly produced a stone post pad, but as Mick Aston suspected when it first emerged, it was of a later date. And Trench Three contained plenty of building material, nearly all of it post-medieval. The massive Trench Four was later dug on the site of a knoll some 300 metres from the main site, and two further trenches were later put in the area of an enclosure ditch and platform by the village church.

It was not until relatively late in the excavations that Trench Two uncovered an early wall, which could be dated by the presence of a piece of an earthenware cooking pot to the 12th century or earlier. And Trench Two saved up its buried treasures until the very last, when the charred remains of a wooden floor were discovered late on the final day. These were radio-carbon dated to almost 1,000 years ago, about the same age as the pottery sherd from Trench Two and another found in Trench Four.

Then, with the Team’s investigation winding down at the end of the third day, came the revelation that the post pads in Trench Two did not line up with the parch marks on the aerial photographs. In fact, there were signs of post holes on a slightly different alignment, something far more consistent with a high-status Saxon building -- such as a palace. There was no proof, of course, that this was what it was, but as Tony Robinson summarised, it was certainly ‘a strong candidate’ for future archaeological investigations to focus on.

The murder of Aethelbert and the founding of Hereford
In the bloody and tumultuous times of the late eighth century, both murders and marriages were common among the conflicting royal dynasties of Anglo-Saxon England. The surprise Viking raid on the monastic community of Lindisfarne in 793 gave an added spur to efforts to bring together and strengthen the different kingdoms, and King Offa of Mercia was always seeking out opportunities to enhance his own position.

In 792, King Aethelred of Northumbria had married Offa’s daughter, Princess Aelflaed. Then, in 794, King Aethelbert of East Anglia visited the Mercian court at the Sutton palace, with a view to marrying another of Offa’s daughters, Princess Aelfryth. There are various accounts of what happened next, ranging from the largely factual account in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle to the heavily embroidered reports contained in the hagiographies of the saints, dating from the 12th century and later. What is certain is that Offa had Aethelbert executed. One of these Lives of St Aethelbert took up the story thus:

‘Aethelbert, the holy and Christian King of the East Angles goes into Mercia to seek the hand of King Offa’s daughter Aelfryth. He is lodged in the royal vill called Sutton [hospitatur in regia villa Suttun nominata] where he has a vision, prefiguring his martyrdom. Offa is persuaded by his wicked wife Coenfryth and an East Anglian exile Winberht, that Aethelbert is plotting against him and allows Winberht to cut off his head. Aelfryth, horrified, makes a vow of virginity and declares her intention to become a hermit at Crowland.

‘On Offa’s orders, the body is thrown into a marsh beside the River Lugg [in paludem prope ripam Lugge fluminis]. As a result of a vision, Berhtferth, Offa’s chamberlain, and his friend Ecgmund retrieve the body and take it in an ox-cart to a place called Fernlage, by the River Wye [ad locum qui Fernlage dicitur propter ripan fluminis Waege]. They raise and wash the body and, after a long search, the head, and take it on the cart as instructed by the vision, but -- as pre-ordained by God, the head falls off the cart at a place called Lyde [Luda]; a blind man stumbles upon the head, recovers his sight and chases after the cart, catching it at Shelwick [Sceldwica]. The martyr's body is buried in a place marked with a column of light, and a minster is built on the venerated site.

‘This place ... was once called Fernlage ... but the name was afterwards changed ... [and] ... was called Hereford.’



 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 161 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Mar  5, 2000 (15:08) * 3 lines 
 
This is such great stuff. We Need to have this program in the US. I have been to Offa's Dyke. Re the Suttons, I expected Sutton Hoo to be nearby, but I was on the wrong side of the Island!

Please check that link again. I could not make it work!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 162 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Sun, Mar  5, 2000 (15:18) * 4 lines 
 
The URL is right, but it doesn't work.
Try http://www.channel4.com/nextstep/timeteam/update.html

The link to timesite is on there.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 163 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Mar  5, 2000 (15:35) * 1 lines 
 
Oh Boy! That link works just fine! Splendid and there are all sorts of goodies on that webpage. Mahalo plenty!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 164 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Mar  5, 2000 (16:44) * 3 lines 
 
If you have downloaded Quicktime, by all means go to this url and take a sweep around the diggings. It is fantastic!
http://www.channel4.com/nextstep/timeteam/2000waddon.html



 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 165 of 1283: viola  (viola) * Sun, Mar 12, 2000 (11:25) * 5 lines 
 
To all who have contributed on this page,
I'd like to say "HI" to all those who share an intellectual interest in this subject and I hope to visit again and share anything of interest which I may find during my studying.
I'm now off to watch Time Team. Let you know how it goes.
Bye.
From viola.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 166 of 1283: viola  (viola) * Sun, Mar 12, 2000 (11:28) * 1 lines 
 
Hi viola, nice to meet you - come again soon!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 167 of 1283: viola  (viola) * Sun, Mar 12, 2000 (11:29) * 1 lines 
 
oops - scrap that - it's maggie on viola's machine!!!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 168 of 1283: spanna  (spanna) * Sun, Mar 12, 2000 (12:13) * 2 lines 
 
hi viola and maggie! how was time team? anything interesting happen?



 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 169 of 1283: viola  (viola) * Sun, Mar 12, 2000 (13:27) * 21 lines 
 
Time Team found a Roman temple in sight of the Millennium Dome, near London.

The Time Team dig gets underway in Greenwich Park, the oldest of Britain's royal parks and birthplace of Henry VIII:

Henry VIII was born there, Elizabeth I played in its gardens and the meridian line runs right through it. Greenwich Park, in sight of the Millennium Dome in south London, is the oldest royal parkland in Britain, having first been enclosed in 1433. That means that, despite later landscaping, many archaeological features remain there, untouched by the buildings and other developments that have covered up most of the rest of London. Various earthworks are readily visible within the park boundaries, including a large number of Saxon barrows and a mound, surrounded by iron railings, that has long been associated with Roman remains on the site.
These remains were the subject of excavations during 1902-3. But all that was visible to visitors almost a century later were a few Roman tesserae, or mosaic fragments, stuck together in a clump of concrete. The precise locations of the three trenches dug at the beginning of the 1900s had not been properly recorded, and many of the finds made at the time had since disappeared. Nevertheless, enough had been discovered then to indicate the presence here of an important Roman structure. One of Time Team's principal objectives was to try to find out what it was.

The previous week's programme in search of King Offa's palace at the Suttons, near Hereford, had seen the Team's long-suffering geophysics surveyors joshed over their inability to give Phil a quick and exact location in which to dig his trench. One of their difficulties -- that the long, wet grass was interfering with the megnetronomy results -- led to one unkind visitor to the Time Team website forum asking whether this was geophysics' equivalent of Railtrack's 'wrong leaves on the line' type of excuse. Greenwich delivered further grist to the mill of those who like to tease John Gater, Chris Gaffney and Co when the geofizzers declared that on this occasion their readings were being upset not only by the metal railings that surrounded the few visible Roman remains, but also by the fact that the ground was too dry. 'Let's hope for rain,' they announced, to the general dismay of the rest of the Team.

The railings were taken down, but nothing could be done about the dry ground. This resulted in Chris Gaffney resorting to an unorthodox, but effective, method of locating the line of Roman walls beneath the surface. This involved tapping on the ground with an upturned pickaxe and judging the presence of stone beneath the surface by the change in sound. Meanwhile, some cynics questioned whether geophysics was needed at all, since the 'parch marks' in the grass provided clearly visible evidence of underlying structures anyway. 'Just dig on the dry bits,' as Tony Robinson's new archaeological dictum had it.
These marks indicated the presence of a substantial rectangular structure on the site. The nature of the finds made in 1902-3, which included more than 400 coins, high-quality pottery and statuary, had also suggested some sort of high-status building. Time Team wanted to confirm that the rectangular structure was indeed of Roman origin, and to find out whether the building had been a temple, a villa or a military or other establishment.

Two finds in particular, both made on the third day, were to provide important evidence. A Roman roof tile was found in Trench Two, which had been set up under Carenza's supervision on the line of the rectangular enclosure and soon revealed a Roman wall not far beneath the surface. The tile was inscribed with the letters PPBR, standing for Procurator of the Province of Britannia. The beginning of the letter L, which also appeared on the edge of the tile, was thought to stand for Londinium. The procurator was the second most important official in Roman Britain, responsible for much of the province's finances, military supplies and transport. The presence of his stamp on the tile indicated that there had been an important public building on the site associated with Roman London.

An even more significant find was made in the small Trench Five, on the west side of the mound. This comprised a piece of broken limestone on which the letters MIN and ILIV could be made out in two rows, one above the other. A further three letters CVS formed part of a third row underneath. The presence of the letters MIN led to immediate speculation that it referred to the Roman goddess Minerva. One of Time Team's Roman experts, Guy de la Bédoyère, was called upon to feed the letters into his computer database of inscriptions from Roman Britain to identify the words in which they appear most often.

Minerva turned out not to be the most likely word. Rather the inscription in which the letters MIN were most likely to be found was determined to be ET NUMINEB AUG, referring to the spirits or deity of the emperors. The letters ILIV were most likely to be found as part of the name CAECILIVS, and the letters CVS as part of the name PRISCVS. Both were common Roman names and Mark Hassall, Britain's foremost authority on Roman inscriptions, explained that the stone had probably been part of a dedication to the gods, perhaps placed there by a wealthy patron by the name of CAECILIVS PRISCVS.

Whatever the exact explanation, the discovery added weight to the other evidence from this and the 1902-3 excavations that this had been the site of a Roman temple. Because of its location on high ground on the line of Watling Street, the main Roman highway from Canterbury and the south east, it would have formed an important and readily visible landmark as that road approached London.




 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 170 of 1283: viola  (viola) * Sun, Mar 12, 2000 (13:30) * 1 lines 
 
Spanna, we enjoyed Time Team, you should have seen it! All the info has been included on the page- Enjoy!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 171 of 1283: spanna  (spanna) * Sun, Mar 12, 2000 (13:40) * 2 lines 
 
hi viola and maggie! how was time team? anything interesting happen?



 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 172 of 1283: Wolf  (wolf) * Sun, Mar 12, 2000 (14:33) * 1 lines 
 
hi viola and spanna!!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 173 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Mar 12, 2000 (15:14) * 2 lines 
 
Imagine my delight as Mama of this site to find my baby has not only grown up but is walking all by herself! Welcome all - and most especially to the "Frieds of Maggie" club. I am counting on your on-site-in-Britain accounts to made immediate the stuff I can only copy from the web and gather out of my memory banks. Feel free to take shoes off and make yourself comfortable. Again,
E komo mai - welcome!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 174 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Mar 12, 2000 (15:27) * 1 lines 
 
Been to Greenwich and I am trying to imagine where this dig is happening. There are lots of open grassy spaces there abouts and it is quite lovely, even on a leaden-skied late May day with the dank chill coming off the Thames. Viola, Spanna...Most delighted that you share our interest in Antiquities and will help add to my knowledge of the local digs....*wishful sigh* (Maggie, you are too funny! Welcoming Viola from her own computer. *lol* I wondered if traffic was so slow in here that she had to welcome herself!)


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 175 of 1283: Wolf  (wolf) * Sun, Mar 12, 2000 (20:05) * 1 lines 
 
i know, that's what i thought!! viola was talking to herself....


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 176 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Mar 12, 2000 (20:12) * 1 lines 
 
(Maggie sent me an email requesting I remove the Viola-to-Viola welcome, but by that time I had posted my comment and left it as she posted it.) Silly Me!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 177 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Tue, Mar 14, 2000 (01:21) * 1 lines 
 
I forgot to log in - classic mistake, I felt really silly!!!. We were having fun! We posted the origianal message at uni then went off and watched time team and came back to uni and posted it in for you. We thought of you all as we paddled (well, they did - I'm too old and the sea was too cold!) in the sea at West Wittering (isn't that a lovely name *lol*). Lots of flint on the beach but no interesting fossils, although viola found a rock with a hole in it which has dark crystals glinting inside. We were looking for rose quartz. (wrong topic, but i thought you'd like to know!)


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 178 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Mar 14, 2000 (11:59) * 2 lines 
 
Viola found a geode. Merlin's Crystal Cave! How exquisite. I am envious! I need a beach with something beside lava granules. crushed coral or peridots all over it. You have to row to get to the nearest Telly?! (I know abut you, and NO WAY are you too old for anything!!!) Thanks for the teaser, though. Looking forward to more Time Team reports. Thanks, Maggie! *hugs*



 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 179 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Thu, Mar 16, 2000 (10:11) * 1 lines 
 
Oh that's what a geode is, I never knew and meant to ask.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 180 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Mar 16, 2000 (12:14) * 1 lines 
 
Geode is a cavity (often entirely enclosed) which has perfect crystals formed in that space. They range from tiny with minute crystals to ones the size of large tubs and larger still. I have several of differing size with all sorts of crystal (one type for each geode) - usually of the quartz family.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 181 of 1283: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Thu, Mar 16, 2000 (14:51) * 1 lines 
 
I remember seeing a beautiful geode in my grade school science class. It was about 6" across and filled with amethyst crystals.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 182 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Mar 16, 2000 (15:15) * 1 lines 
 
They commonly are amethysts and two of mine are, as well. Plus parts of some which must have been absolutley staggeringly huge!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 183 of 1283: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Thu, Mar 16, 2000 (15:18) * 1 lines 
 
Staggeringly huge -- would that be anything like having your own cave if you had the whole geode?


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 184 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Mar 16, 2000 (15:24) * 1 lines 
 
From the merest hint of an arc on the largest one, I'd say yes - I am fairly small boned and can curl up into a small ball and tuck my long legs in, too. Not enough for a large man, I think, but Merlin in the Crystal Cave would have fit in just fine! Imagine finding one like that and opening it just enough to get inside! Incredible!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 185 of 1283: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Thu, Mar 16, 2000 (15:28) * 1 lines 
 
The boy Merlin would have fit; but if I remember the Mary Stewart books correctly, didn't he grow up to be rather tall?


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 186 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Mar 16, 2000 (16:28) * 1 lines 
 
Yes, but also some native Britain in him (Welsh) gave him light bone structure - much like the sort of Briton from which I spring. Of course, when the power was on him he rose to awesome stature...and paid for the privilege with a hangover of monumental proportions! I love those books, and I got shouted down by those posting with me in Books conf / Arthurian. *sigh* Those who must speed read and cast aside what which they cannot are missing out on so much!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 187 of 1283: Ginny  (vibrown) * Fri, Mar 17, 2000 (23:05) * 5 lines 
 
I never knew what a geode was, either. Now I have a great picture in my mind of Merlin lying inside one...

Marcia already knows I loved Mary Stewart's books, too. I didn't find her books difficult to read, but then I'm no speed reader by any means. Does that mean I can't talk about Stewart when I finally get to that Arthurian topic??




 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 188 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Mar 18, 2000 (13:43) * 1 lines 
 
Ginny, you gotta talk on the Arthurian topic! I was the only one in there upholding the Merlin Trilogy (which I adore) and trying to get Amy to read them. John, who had already read them for course work in college, accused me of evangelizing...so outnumbered and alone in the disucssion, I quit. Please come back and let us discuss it!!!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 189 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Mar 18, 2000 (13:46) * 1 lines 
 
David (my non-bookreading-for-pleasure son) and his father read them at the same time I did per my recommendation. We all loved them. Must be the speed readers of the world who cannot be bothered. They miss so much!!!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 190 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Sat, Mar 18, 2000 (14:59) * 1 lines 
 
Oops I'm out of this - which trilogy?


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 191 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Mar 18, 2000 (16:00) * 1 lines 
 
The trilogy in question takes the Arthurian legend and tells it from Merlin's point of view. It is a well- researched work and gripping reading. The best of its sort extant, IMHO. The books are in paperback (she is a Scotswoman) and consist of "The Crystal Cave," "The Hollow Hills," and "The Last Enchantment" followed by another taking the Mordred theme, "The Wicked Day." Author is Mary Stewart. If you have time for reading frivilous things, this set is splendid! I have read mine so many times that they are falling apart!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 192 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Sat, Mar 18, 2000 (16:06) * 1 lines 
 
Mmm read it many years ago - will look it out again. Have you read the stephen lawhead pendragon trilogy? Talliesin, Merlin, Authur. I have the first two.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 193 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Mar 18, 2000 (16:10) * 1 lines 
 
NO!!! I shall look for them! Oooh, Goody!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 194 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Sat, Mar 18, 2000 (16:18) * 1 lines 
 
I thought they were good. I had actually thought of sending them to you!!!!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 195 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Mar 18, 2000 (20:33) * 1 lines 
 
If I cannot find them here I shall reimburse you and if that is alright, I will agree. But, let me hunt for them online and here in Hilo, first. Thanks, dear!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 196 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Sun, Mar 19, 2000 (13:39) * 22 lines 
 
No time team report tonight - they've got technical problems and it won't be posted on the site until 27th.

More bedtime reading:

Earthworks

Wiltshire between two worlds shared time,
A suspended bridge circling ancient skyline,
Mindscape myriad of standing stones,
Shimmering spectres touched by pagan bones
Retrospective following footsteps of mystic migration
Ceremonial rites hypnotic chanting resonant vibration,
Suspended past turning spiral helix DNA,
Pay silent homage lost spiritual stairway,
Echoed voices woven tapestry threads connect,
Your tribe, my tribe earned respect,
Existing mingled, merged juxtapose yet unresolved,
Open book sentenced to be unsolved.
(Nicola Fowler)





 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 197 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Mar 19, 2000 (15:11) * 1 lines 
 
Oooh, I love that. Exactly how it is and how it feels!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 198 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Sun, Mar 19, 2000 (20:56) * 1 lines 
 
Thought you would. I like poetry!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 199 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Mar 20, 2000 (13:17) * 2 lines 
 
Wolfie has an entire conference dedicated to poetry...check it out sometime.
Lovely stuff. John has written some excellent stuff he posted in there and he posted one in Geo2 for the first time seen anywhere. It was an incredible privilege!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 200 of 1283: viola  (viola) * Wed, Mar 22, 2000 (05:55) * 6 lines 
 
Hi All,
Thankyou for your messages. Yes Maggie, the sea was lovely. Thankyou for a
lovely afternoon!
By the way, there was a brilliant documentary on the other night about the
infamous pirate Blackbeard and his sunken ship which they reckon has been found offshore. If I can download the info from the sight you can
all have a look. Watch this space...


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 201 of 1283: viola  (viola) * Wed, Mar 22, 2000 (06:03) * 11 lines 
 
Blackbeard's Revenge
Blackbeard the pirate is a figure who seems to belong more to legend than to fact. It is believed that he was English who may have come from Bristol. In order to frighten his enemies and crew, he was known for stuffing smoking fuses in his hair for dramatic effect. In one famous incident, he shot Isreal Hands, one of his most trusted men, in the knee. His excuse was that if he didn't kill one of his crew now and then, they would forget who he was. His ship, the Queen Anne's Revenge, was the most powerful warship and allowed him to rule the waves from the Caribbean to the North Carolina coast. However, this power was short-lived for he had the ship for less than a year before it sank.
According to an eyewitness, this was on the 10th of June 1718 at Beaufort Inlet, North Carolina. The ship had ran aground on a sandbar at the mouth of the inlet. It was obvious from the position of a ship anchor that Blackbeard had made strenuous efforts to pull the ship off but to no avail. It was then left to the elements. Blackbeard, promptly, abandoned some unwanted crewmembers on a barren island. They would have died if a ship hadn't passed by a few days later.
The 'Queen Anne's Revenge' was originally a French vessel called The Concorde. She was transporting African slaves to the Caribbean, when in 1717, Blackbeard had captured her off the island of Martinique. The pirate was fortunate because the Concorde crew were weakened with dysentery and the remaining healthy crewmembers were in no position to defeat the pirates after a long and tiring voyage.
Through the Queen Anne's Revenge and his three other ships, Blackbeard captured some 23 ships and stripped them of anything of value. Just the sight of his flag, which shows a skeleton of the devil carrying a spear and an hourglass, made many ships surrender without a fight. The Royal Navy was helpless because they had just ten ships to police the entire American coastline.
Later in 1718, Blackbeard sought shelter on the island of Ocracoke which is a hundred miles away to the north. On November 21st the pirates came ashore at Springer's Point. It is believed that they met up with other pirates and celebrated the night away. However, two vessels of the Royal Navy were lying in wait and attacked early the next day. Blackbeard fought furiously as he was determined never to surrender.
He died after being shot five times and had 20 sword cuts.






 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 202 of 1283: viola  (viola) * Wed, Mar 22, 2000 (06:05) * 2 lines 
 
I hope this is ok. I thought it was interesting, but there was so much more on the actual programme. It's a pity they have to condense it.
Thankyou Marcia for the information on my rocks. They are sitting at home on the arm of the sofa at the moment. ( I have nowhere else to put them at the moment!)


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 203 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Wed, Mar 22, 2000 (12:38) * 3 lines 
 
Hi viola, nice to see you back again.
Why does it not surprise me that you have nowhere else to put your lovely rock - hee hee! want some suggestions???). (Ignore me I'm just jealous!)
Which programme was that - I think I must have missed the listing.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 204 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Mar 22, 2000 (13:25) * 3 lines 
 
Viola, it might be a migratory rock from Hawaii and bad luck - I think I need to have it here for your safety and for my own collection (only fooling, of course because I am jealous, too)

Had to shoot Blackbeard 5 times? He was as hard to kill as Rasputin was! Thanks for the interesting read. I hope we get the program over here - eventually, as all things always are!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 205 of 1283: viola  (viola) * Sat, Mar 25, 2000 (09:58) * 7 lines 
 
The programme was on last monday night on BBC1 and is a series exploring
different subjects. Next week it had something to do with the exploration of Pandora's Box (?) if that means anything to you? The series is called
'Voyages to the Bottom of the Sea'. Enjoy!

The stone is still in the living room. I just hope the insane one doesn't
throw it away, (although that would be a first!) I shall treasure it and keep
my eyes open for any more.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 206 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Sat, Mar 25, 2000 (12:22) * 1 lines 
 
Viola, take it to Uni and scan it. Save it as a jpeg file and send it me. Put it on the scanner so the hole is pointing downwards and the scanner light can show up the crystals. I think we're coming down sometime next month so maybe we can go exploring again. Do NOT let the insane one get hold it !!!! Hide it or something. P.S. thump Spanna for me please - with pleasure, and tell her to stop messing with your email or else!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 207 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Mar 25, 2000 (12:38) * 1 lines 
 
Yes, Pandora's Box means something to me The only thing which did not get out was Hope. Famine, pestilence and all those good things did get out! The HMS Pandora is at the bottom of the sea...I wonder if that is the one which they will be exploring?!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 208 of 1283: viola  (viola) * Sun, Mar 26, 2000 (14:32) * 8 lines 
 
THE MYSTERY OF THE COCAINE MUMMIES.
The mystery that baffled Egyptologists and called into question whole areas of accepted scientific fact. In 1992, routine tests on a mummy in a Munich museum revealed high body levels of cocaine and nicotine. But such substances were not available in ancient Egypt, as they come from the Americas which were not to be 'discovered' for thousands of years after the passing of the Egyptian dynasties.
Are the mummies fakes? Were the substances from plants that have since disappeared? Or were there trade routes between Egypt and South America that predate accepted chronology?
If you have questions about any of the science subjects raised in the programme, or any other science topic, you can call the experts at Science Line on: 0808 800 4000. All calls are free and lines are open 1pm to 7pm Monday to Friday.

Sorry there isn't more. I have tried to access the site and the time team site as well but so far I have had no luck.
Thankyou for the messages. I will hit spanna very hard and let you know if she bruises.



 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 209 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Mar 26, 2000 (14:47) * 2 lines 
 
[Aren't you trying to get Spanna's attention rather than inflicting damage on her?!]
Viola, that is a teasing bit of information there. Most curious to know what they discover!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 210 of 1283: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Mon, Mar 27, 2000 (13:18) * 1 lines 
 
It is similar to the mystery concerning the golden peanuts found in an ancient Chinese tomb. Peanuts are New World plants and would have been unknown in China at that time. The golden peanuts were small pieces of gold worked into little sculptures of peanuts.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 211 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Mar 27, 2000 (15:06) * 1 lines 
 
Peanuts are native to Brazil. Most interesting! Maybe they have just not found the progenitor of the peanut we know today. There is no reason a similar legume could not have been native to China - many of these plants produce underground nodules which fix nitrogen in the soil.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 212 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Mon, Mar 27, 2000 (15:21) * 1 lines 
 
It's marine archeology evening here. Just seen underwater exploration in the dead sea looking for Sodom and Gomorrah, and the pandora's box/ship programme Viola talked about. I'll see if I can trace a URL for them as they were both so interesting.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 213 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Mar 27, 2000 (15:27) * 1 lines 
 
Thank you for that, Maggie - I'm far too claustrophobic to ever find underwater archaeology fun IRL, but I am fascinated by watching others do it.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 214 of 1283: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Mon, Mar 27, 2000 (15:35) * 1 lines 
 
I loved the special which ran last year on tv about underwater archaeology concerning the city of Alexandria in Egypt. They found pieces of the Pharos in the harbor.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 215 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Mar 27, 2000 (15:53) * 1 lines 
 
Oh yes....and lots of obelisks and other neat stuff. Everything but the Library...but don't get me started on that...*sigh*


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 216 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Mon, Mar 27, 2000 (16:38) * 1 lines 
 
MMmm we had that here too. I couldn't cope with being in a submarine though. I love watching it - but the thought of being shut up and under water - yuk! mind, the thought of being shut up anywhere ........ (Yes, I'm going to bed!!!)


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 217 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Mar 27, 2000 (17:22) * 1 lines 
 
G'night Maggie...*lol*


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 218 of 1283: viola  (viola) * Tue, Mar 28, 2000 (11:57) * 15 lines 
 
Just read all your responses. Sorry, that was all the info that was available
although I was able to get the info on Pandora's Box...

PANDORA'S SECRETS.

On the 28th of August 1792, the HMS Pandora sank off the northern coast of Australia when she had hit a reef, keeled over and sank. She was on her way back to Britain with 14 prisoners but hadn't found any trace of the Bounty. Her mission had started two years previously when she left Britain with orders to arrest the mutineers and bring the Bounty home. In 1789, the first mate, Fletcher Christian, had cast Captain Bligh and 18 others adrift in an open boat. However, the boat wasn't large enough to take all the crew members who wanted no part of the mutiny. Captain Bligh had noted their innocence so these crewmembers greeted the Pandora when it arrived at the island of Tahiti.
However the Pandora captain quickly slapped them in irons. He then sent soldiers to capture the six mutineers who had fled into the mountains. After eighteen days, they were all captured and brought to the ship. The 14 prisoners, guilty and innocent alike, were then caged in a specially built eleven foot wooden cell on the top deck. It was nicknamed Pandora's box and it was like a sauna with only two tiny gratings supplying the only fresh air.
In it's search of the Bounty, the Pandora came within two days sailing of Pitcairn Island where the Bounty mutineers had settled. However the mutineers fate was only revealed to the outside world when they were discovered some fifteen years later.
In the night that the Pandora sank, some thirty-five men lost their lives. The diving team discovered the remains of three men who had gone down with the ship. One of the skeletons was discovered in the Captain's cabin. His skull was intact and forensic anatomist Meiya Sutisno was able to reconstruct his face. It is believed that he was Robert Bowler who was the pursers steward.
The University of Queensland are keen to establish the identity of these three skeletons from the Pandora casualty list. To aid their research, they would like to hear from direct living descendants of the Pandora crew. If you are able to help, please find more details in their website address. It is in our Wrecks and Diving information guide.
The Pandora survivors managed to climb aboard tenders and reach the safety of a sand cay. After two days on the baking sand cay, the survivors climbed into four open boats and Captain Edwards took them to the Dutch island of Timor, a journey of some 1,000 miles. There, they purchased a larger ship and sailed back to England. It had been an epic journey of nearly 30,000 miles. Captain Edwards was court-martialled for the loss of his ship but acquitted. Of the prisoners, six were found guilty and two publicly hung. The remainder were acquitted or pardoned. Today, the descendants of the mutineers of the Bounty still live on Pitcairn Island.

Hope you find this interesting. I wasn't able to watch the programme about Sodom and Gomorrah but I hope it was good.
Gotta go, I shall try and trace Time Team for you.
Bye...


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 219 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Mar 28, 2000 (14:14) * 1 lines 
 
Viola, that was not only good..it was spectacular. Thanks for posting it. It is what was indistinctly remembered about the HMS Pandora saga. Time Team has an excellent website with panoramic scenes which are zoomable. Great stuff!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 220 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Wed, Mar 29, 2000 (13:01) * 1 lines 
 
Thanks Viola, I didn't get round to looking at the site. I sat curled up in bed watching all this, absolutely enthralled.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 221 of 1283: viola  (viola) * Thu, Mar 30, 2000 (14:14) * 3 lines 
 
Ta for your messages.
Please can you tell me if the new Time Team website is available yet as I was unable to access it. Also, I think that the series finished last week!!!!!
Now my Sunday nights will be extremely dull!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 222 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Mar 30, 2000 (14:57) * 3 lines 
 
Viola, Maggie posted this and it is bookmarked for all time in my Netscape

http://www.channel4.com/nextstep/timeteam/


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 223 of 1283: viola  (viola) * Sun, Apr  2, 2000 (14:19) * 3 lines 
 
Thankyou Marcia, that is brilliant!!!!!
By the way, did you get maggie's message from spanna? Her modem is down and will probably be broken for quite a while but she is hoping to visit in a few weeks and will hopefully be able to use the computers here.



 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 224 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Apr  2, 2000 (14:25) * 1 lines 
 
Yes, thank you! I am shortly to answer her note. Thanks for reminding me. *hugs* to her from me!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 225 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Mon, Apr  3, 2000 (04:33) * 1 lines 
 
I'm back on!!!! HI! We took the lid off (the computer silly!) and transferred the modem to another com port, and it seems my comport 1 has died not the modem. hence why I am online at 10.30 in the morning - with permission of course! Thanks Spanna and Viola for keeping me in touch!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 226 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Apr  3, 2000 (14:03) * 1 lines 
 
Aha!!! That is why you are here! Good news. I thought you have "borrowed" someone else's computer for the duration. Welcome back!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 227 of 1283: anne hale  (ommin) * Tue, Apr  4, 2000 (07:03) * 1 lines 
 
Is this the relevan spot to report findings of new Sphinxes in Egypt found just recently. Apparently they are in a row forming some form of road. Just a short paragraph reported on our teletext in Oz. Has anyone else more information. It looks quite fascinating what they have found


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 228 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Tue, Apr  4, 2000 (07:23) * 1 lines 
 
Thanks Anne, hadn't seen that, will look out for it now.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 229 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Tue, Apr  4, 2000 (08:02) * 3 lines 
 
Couldn't find reference to what Anne was saying, but I fouind this site which looks to have some interesting stories of discoveries.
http://www.earthchangestv.com/egypt/index.htm



 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 230 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Apr  4, 2000 (13:07) * 3 lines 
 
This is the place. The benefit of living where we get the morning last. It gives everyone else a chance to post neat stuff where I can find it when I awaken. I shall look for the sphinxes, too.

Maggie!!! I think you hit the Mother-lode of goodies. Will post things from that site I am sure. Mahalo, Dear!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 231 of 1283: viola  (viola) * Tue, Apr  4, 2000 (15:54) * 10 lines 
 
Hiya folks, just thought that this might interest you. It's the next episode in the series of Voyages to the Bottom of the Sea. This (and much more) can be accessed at www.bbc.co.uk/history.

Cromwell's Forgotten Wreck
In the summer of 1653, Oliver Cromwell sent a fleet of six vessels to finally crush the Royalist uprising in Scotland. One of these ships was the 'Swan' whose mission was to seize Duart Castle, a Royalist stronghold which overlooks the Sound of Mull. When the Swan arrived on the 5th of September 1653, the Royalists had already fled so the Castle put up no resistance.
The ship was sunk, eight days later, during a violent storm. Anchored in the bay, the ship was torn free and the wind drove her repeatedly against the rocks before she sank. She was to be lost for some 300 years before being discovered by a naval diver in 1979.
The Swan had been built in 1641 and started life in the King's service. However in 1645, while their captain was away, the crew did a deal with the Parliamentarians. In a ritual handover, they surrendered their weapons in a pledge of loyalty for Cromwell. The Parliamentarian authorities then ceremonially returned their weapons and the crew sailed for the Parliamentarian cause.
The wreck was identified as the Swan because of a wooden carving which had been raised from the wreck. On it, was the carved badge of the heir apparent to the throne. This proved that the ship had been under the command of Charles I. After sifting through the archives, a letter from the 1600's was discovered which helped pinpoint the wreck's identity. It was from the Scottish Parliamentarian Commander, Robert Lilburn to Oliver Cromwell. Robert Lilburn mentions three Parliamentarian ships including the Swan which were sunk in Scottish waters at this time. However, the Swan was the only one which had been 'captured' from the Royalists. Clearly the wreck must be the Swan.
Now, the wreck is the subject of painstaking research by leading marine archaeologist, Colin Martin, who has written our History of marine archaeology. In order to protect the fragile wreck, it has been designated as a protected wreck which means that there is a exclusion zone around it and no one can dive it without licence




 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 232 of 1283: viola  (viola) * Tue, Apr  4, 2000 (16:11) * 16 lines 
 
Just found some more interesting info from the same site...

The Black Hand
For over 30 years on a remote and isolated spot on the Cheshire Borders, a strange mound has caused some puzzlement. In 1962, farmer Gerry Fair, first had the idea that it may be of historical importance. Meet the Ancestors took up the baton and soon discovered that this was once the site of a chapel. Cistercian Monks had built an abbey here in 1158 and the fact that they were Cistercian held the key to the chapel's remote location. They loved wild places and part of their ethic was to convert wild, barren places into productive land.
An early 17th century map has the Poulton Chapel still standing, but was probably not used after Henry VIII's Reformation. The chapel and surrounding land had passed on to a local family called the Manleys around the 14th century.
A meeting with amateur genealogist Joyce Cook and a visit to the Cheshire Records Office put Julian Richards firmly on the trail of the Manleys. Carefully maintained local papers and documents, identified wealthy landowner Sir Nicholas Manley's will dated 1520. In it he states "My body will be buried in the chapel of Poulton in the church in the chancel, and after my death and my wife's. A priest to be found to sing there for my soul".
Armed with this new knowledge, Julian went back to locate the chancel. Site archaeologist Mike Emery had already discovered some graves here, but unfortunately the skeletons were not good enough to restore. However, in the middle of the chancel (what would be considered prime spot) a very well-preserved male skeleton had been found. Initial exploration indicated that it was dated around 1500 - the time of the Manleys.
All the bones were carefully removed and taken for analysis to Bradford University. Bone specialist, Charlotte Roberts confirmed the bones belonged to a man measuring 6'3", and probably in his late fifties. This was enough information for medical artist Richard Neeve to begin reconstructing his face.
Meanwhile Joyce Cook had established the Manley family tree from Sir Nicholas in the 1500's to present day. Julian managed to track down Michael Roger Manley, a direct descendant if DNA analysis linked the skeleton in the grave to him. Both Michael and his son Mark left body fluids for DNA testing. Unfortunately the special type of DNA they needed for testing could not be found in any of the bones.
However there was another clue which may have linked them. The Manley family crest was a black hand and it had been suggested by Joyce that the name Manley could have come from the French word "main" meaning hand. Michael and Mark Manley both have very large hands and so did our man in the grave.
Although, not conclusive, many of the pieces of the ancestral jigsaw do fit together, the modern day Manleys may well have found their ancestor.
Footnote:
All of the burials from the Poulton chapel site will, after study, be given a Christian reburial at a Cistercian monastery
Many people have asked if we tried to use DNA to prove the link that had been established by genealogical research. Yes we did. At Glasgow University Dr Will Goodwin is still working on the samples of ancient and modern DNA. This was always going to be difficult though as male lineage can only be determined by using Y chromosone DNA of which there is much less than the mytochondrial DNA that is passed through the female line. Although Y chromosone DNA is widely used to determine paternity, there are great difficulties in trying to use it in a case where as many as 16 transfers from father to son may have taken place.




 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 233 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Apr  4, 2000 (16:16) * 1 lines 
 
OOOOOOOOOO! Neat stuff. Thanks Viola. Btw, when you want to post a link, put the http:// in front of the www stuff and it will auto-magically make it a hotlink as in http://www.bbc.co.uk/history.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 234 of 1283: anne hale  (ommin) * Wed, Apr  5, 2000 (01:51) * 1 lines 
 
That programme Meet the Ancestors' is amazing - I watch it every week. The finds made in U.K. are quite amazing from Roman matron to Anglo Saxon 12 year old girl - this is where we are at present - I shall watch again tonight. The way they make up the skull into a face absolutely amazes me. Thank you to Viola for that special info.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 235 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Wed, Apr  5, 2000 (04:33) * 1 lines 
 
I missed the aquatic archeology on monday because of french class and we forgot to record it. Don't suppose you did Viola???


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 236 of 1283: viola  (viola) * Wed, Apr  5, 2000 (16:28) * 3 lines 
 
Sorry maggie,
The under water programme was not videoed although we did video meet the ancestors. (Is that any help?)
From viola.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 237 of 1283: viola  (viola) * Wed, Apr  5, 2000 (16:39) * 29 lines 
 
2000 series: York
26 March, 6pm
One thousand years of British history in three days
As if trying to discover all that can be discovered about a site in just three days wasn't challenge enough, when the Time Team Live programme went to York in September 1999, the Team set themselves three very different sites to investigate as well. 'I know,' you can imagine some bright spark at the Time Team planning meeting suggesting. 'York has got lots of remains from the Roman, Viking and medieval periods. Instead of choosing between them, why don't we go for all three?' And so it was that Tony Robinson and the team of experts found themselves faced with the challenge of explaining 1,000 years of British history over a sunny late summer weekend.
The three sites explored at York comprised:
A Roman cemetery under the lawn of the Victorian Royal York Hotel next to York railway station. Here the Team uncovered three skeletons -- belonging to a young man, a mature woman and, most poignantly, a four-year-old girl. Next to the young man were chicken bones, the remains of a 'feast for the dead' to mark his passage to the afterlife. Other finds included various coins and fragments of glass, similar to that made in a reconstruction of Roman glass-making techniques carried out for the programme.
A Viking 'tenement block' beneath a derelict plot at Walmgate. Similar to the building found at Coppergate during the 1970s, this excavation produced remains of wattle boundary fences, amber, leather-working and grains, seeds and nuts indicative of the Viking diet. It also yielded a superb glass bead, unlike anything found in Britain before.
The medieval hospital of St Leonard's, in the Museum Gardens by the River Ouse. This site was fully explored, making it possible to locate all the major structures of this large medieval complex. There was also a second world war air raid shelter, uncovered on the 60th anniversary of the outbreak of war and stretching the period covered by the Team excavations in York to the best part of two millennia.
The Team's trip to York was not only covered live on television. Events were reported as they unfolded on the Time Team Live website. By far the most ambitious such project yet attempted in British archaeology on the internet, this attracted hundreds of thousands of visitors during the course of the weekend. Even before the Team got to York, the website was up and running with a wealth of detail about the city, its history, past excavations and sources of further information and reading. And during the weekend, our cyber-team backed up what was appearing on the television screens with a huge range of material covering every aspect of the excavations.
RealVideo snippets revealed off-screen activity, while RealAudio interviews with the Team and other experts gave the lowdown on what was happening at the three main sites and in the incident room. In between the live broadcasts, a diary and regular updates provided detailed reports of what was going on. Questions were answered and discussions took place on the Forum. And photos and information about the finds were posted almost as soon as they were made. You can still access all of this information by exploring the Live web pages and reading through the 'Old Topics' on the Time Team Forum.
York Archaeological Trust is planning to run a training excavation at the St Leonard's hospital site, York (as featured on Time Team), in the summer of 2000. If you would like details of this, information will be posted on the York Archaeological Trust website www.yorkarch.demon.co.uk as soon as arrangements have been finalised; or send a stamped-addressed envelope to:

York Archaeological Trust Training Excavations 2000
Cromwell House
13 Ogleforth
York YO1 7FG
TIM TAYLOR, TIME TEAM SERIES PRODUCER ON THE YORK LIVE EVENT:
The live programme is now a regular event in Time Team's calendar. Because of the pressures and tight time scale, it is ultimate television of a particular kind -- the polar opposite in some ways of the documentary. It involves a huge technical and logistical support team -- more than a hundred staff, camera crews, edit suites, satellite vans, a website team and three teams of archaeologists alongside our presenters: Tony, Sandy Toksvig, our live 'stalwart', and, in York, Paul Thompson.
The financial investment is huge, as is the pressure for the archaeology to deliver. Although Time Team accept that we will not always find what we hope for, and that this is the reality of archaeology and part of the ethos of the programme, the atmosphere of a 'live' makes it difficult if there are too many archaeological dead ends. There were three sites in York and this, and the knowledge that wherever you dig there you are likely to find archaeology, gave us a certain amount of security.
Each transmission for live television has to be a specific length, and must be timed and scripted so that Tony can read the linking pieces to camera that introduce each new section on autocue. From the start, the script assumes a certain progress in the archaeology. The researchers and I try to be as realistic as possible, but there is something slightly unreal about a script, prepared a month before a shoot, that reads: '11-o-clock day one, locate remains of Roman burials on the cemetery site.' Somehow reality, technology and expectation have to be matched up.
The director, Jeremy Cross, has to attempt to keep a grip on the production, transmission and developing story lines, while the researchers, assistant producers and Philip Clarke, the executive producer, adjust the storyline, scripts and autocue pieces to camera so that they show what is actually happening. I keep them aware of where the archaeology is going and push or drag the excavations and discoveries in the direction that is best for the programme. I also have to make sure the archaeology is not misrepresented, which involves negotiating both the speed and the strategy of the excavations with the local archaeologists -- in York they were John Oxley from the City Council, Keith Emerick from English Heritage and the site supervisors, Nick Pearson, Patrick Ottaway and Barney Sloane. I also receive vital information from our Time Team diggers. We need to achieve the programme's archaeological goals without pushing the archaeology further than is appropriate.
On Day Two of the York dig we faced a situation that is typical of the issues that arise on Time Team excavations. A third burial had emerged at the Roman cemetery site and there was also additional evidence from geophysics -- who had, with their usual accuracy, located the first burial site for us. They had found a 'curved shaped' anomaly that might indicate a building. The local archaeologists were convinced that there was not enough time left to excavate both targets. At the end of the day, the key parties -- John Oxley, Keith Emerick, Nick Pearson, Mick Aston and I -- tucked ourselves into a cosy corner at the Royal York Hotel to go over the options. The script team and directors were meeting upstairs to develop the next day's story lines and needed to know, as soon as possible, the direction the archaeology would take. Despite a certain amount of pressure from them, Mick and I were determined to listen to what the archaeologists had to say.
After an hour we arrived at an agreement that allowed the excavation to expand into the new sites but ensured that the excavators would have as much time as they needed to do their job properly and record the results. With Time Team's diggers, York's experienced excavators and Margaret Cox and her team of osteoarchaeologists on hand, we made a good case that the work would be carried out to the highest standards.
This kind of discussion -- balancing programme requirements with archaeological need -- is a regular and vital event on Time Team shoots, and the fact that we achieved this within the pressure of a live programme is a measure of its importance.
A final memory of York illustrating another crucial element to the balancing act that is Time Team was at the end of Day Three. Everyone was exhausted as we approached our last segment of the transmission, at the Roman cemetery. I had walked through all Tony Robinson's next sequences with Phil Harding, Margaret Cox and the other archaeologists, checking responses and giving them a sense of how long they might have for spontaneous chat. When Tony arrived, surrounded by cameramen and sound crews trailing cables and accompanied by his autocue operator, he talked to Margaret about the first two burials and then turned to Phil who would be taking him on to the next trench.
Tony's opening question didn't get the usual obvious answer. Live sequences are usually high on adrenaline and scattered with words like 'amazing' and 'incredible', but Phil had been given space to respond. The crowds of local people who had looked on patiently for three days were attentive. Phil had been watching the excavation of a four-year-old child, who had died in Roman York more than 1,700 years ago. He commented on the smallness of the ribs and Tony told him that the results of DNA tests showed the skeleton was that of a girl. Phil, clearly moved, talked for a few minutes about his feelings about the child's death.
Watching Phil and Tony create that moment -- the cameras and microphones capturing it for transmission to an audience of millions -- was for me a defining event. We hadn't glossed over that small tragedy and rushed to the next item. In a way, the balance Time Team achieves between television and archaeology was encapsulated in that moment -- which happened because of the teamwork of the people who had taken part in the programme, and was made possible by the relationships that had been forged over three days with the local archaeologists and diggers, and the people of York who came in their thousands to see the sites.




 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 238 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Apr  5, 2000 (17:40) * 1 lines 
 
I can remember looking at York Cathedral from the train as we paused there on the way to Scotland...How I wanted to get out and look around. Alas, there was no time on our packed (by me) itinerary. *sigh* Perhaps one day I will get back and take the time to tour the digs in York. They sound fascinating!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 239 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Mon, Apr 10, 2000 (03:46) * 1 lines 
 
Thanks for posting that Viola, I totally forgot. I've never been to York , but I'd like to go sometime.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 240 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Mon, Apr 10, 2000 (11:13) * 12 lines 
 
This appeared in the Sunday Times yesterday. Marcia, I sent you the picture if you want to put it in.

Medieval Zoo found at the Tower of London

Excavation work beneath the ramparts of the Tower of London has revealed new evidence of a medieval menagerie which held an extraordinary array of animals. A dig under the Lion Tower and new research in royal, cathedral and university archives have produced proof that 100 different species were once housed within the walls of the palace. Bones of rhinoceroses, antelopes and tigers have been discovered as well as the skins of snakes and alligators. The remains of ostriches, brought by sailing ship from Africa have also been found. The huge flightless birds died after they were fed nails because their keeper thought that iron was good for them. One was found with 90 nails in its throat.

The menagerie was founded during the Crusades in the reign of King John (1199-1216) and was closed in 1835 when London Zoo opened in Regent’s Park. Never bigger than the size of a ‘largish suburban garden’ according to researcher, the Tower zoo stood beneath what is now the West Tower, near the Thames. Most of the early animals came through kings and some queens of Europe exchanging gifts. ….
The King of Norway sent his polar bear to Henry III in about 1250 and the elephant, a year or so later was from a French monarch, who in turn had taken it from the Middle East. The elephant walked from Kent to the capital, but died after it was plied with wine to keep out the cold. The polar bear fared better, swimming and living off fish in the Thames. A zebra also made it’s way to the Tower and was regularly ridden by a young boy as it paraded around a tiny yard. ‘Sometimes animals had been captured in wars, ‘ said Rory Browne (Professor of History at Harvard) “Captive lions, in particular, really appealed to kings. After all the king himself was the arch beast”. Hence Henry III during whose reign the Tower zoo was substantially built up, had three lions on his coat of arms. ….. Although experts had been aware of the existence of the zoo, the excavations, partly financed by BBC2s Timewatch programme, have revealed extraordinary details of the historic animal residents of one of England’s most famous i
stitutions.

The programme will be shown in the UK on BBC2 on Saturday 15th April at 8 pm



 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 241 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Apr 10, 2000 (13:23) * 3 lines 
 
Maggie's Scanned Photo




 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 242 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Apr 10, 2000 (15:00) * 7 lines 
 
A man approached a local in a village he was visiting.
"What's the quickest way to York?"
The local scratched his head.
"Are you walking or driving?" he asked the stranger.
"I'm driving."
"That's the quickest way!"



 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 243 of 1283: viola  (viola) * Mon, Apr 10, 2000 (15:01) * 1 lines 
 
That is quite bizarre!!!!!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 244 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Apr 10, 2000 (15:10) * 1 lines 
 
How so?


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 245 of 1283: viola  (viola) * Mon, Apr 10, 2000 (15:15) * 3 lines 
 
...the story I mean.
By the way, I've just visited the channel 4 website and there are quite a few interesting sites there. The site is http://www.channel4.com , then click on nextstep and you can visit all the history, eg Time Team. There is another good page called To The Ends of the Earth. All are highly recomended.
Also Marcia, did maggie send you a photo of me and spanna? If she did please believe me when I tell you that my teeth are nowhere near as big as they look in the photo.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 246 of 1283: viola  (viola) * Mon, Apr 10, 2000 (15:18) * 2 lines 
 
Oh my goodness!!!!!
I can't believe I'm actually writing to you at the same time as you are writing. Spanna has suggested that I change my pseudonym for a joke so I thought maybe I'd call myself something original...like...bananapants...???


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 247 of 1283: viola  (viola) * Mon, Apr 10, 2000 (15:26) * 4 lines 
 
...AND, for those who are interested, there is an article on http://www.bbc.co.uk/history about the history of Christian art and the images of Jesus. The programme is actually on tonight but for those who can't watch it I hope the website will be satisfactory.
Well gotta go, there is a programme I videoed this evening about the dead sea scrolls which I am going to watch now.
Goodnight!



 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 248 of 1283: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Mon, Apr 10, 2000 (16:57) * 2 lines 
 
The history of the depiction of Jesus is a really interesting topic. The earliest pictorial depictions of Jesus from the Roman Empire show him as a beardless young man. The convention of depicting a bearded Christ came about at about the time of the Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Empire. Jesus was always depicted as a beautiful young man, within the conventions of Byzantine Art. He was shown as having an oval face, wide eyes, a very straight, narrow nose, small mouth, and of course, a beard. Unfortunately, due to the efforts of the Iconoclasts very few icons remain from the Byzantine Empire. One of the most extraordinary and beautiful to survive is Christ Pantocrator from the Monastery of St. Catherine in Sinai. Pantocrator means judge, so Christ is shown holding the Book of Judgement. It is conventional in Eastern Orthodox Christian religious art to present Jesus as Christ the Redeemer or Christ the Judge. The St. Catherine's icon is notable because the the two halves of Christ's face are different. This was in
ended to present both the human and divine natures of Jesus. The icon is also the work of artist of extraordinary talent. As far as I know,the artist is unknown, and was probably one of the monks.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 249 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Mon, Apr 10, 2000 (18:01) * 1 lines 
 
Don't worry viola the directions to york were for me!! did you see the ark of the covenant programme this evening. i meant to phone you about it.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 250 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Apr 10, 2000 (18:10) * 1 lines 
 
Hang on... I need to check that link since it will be absolute ages before the US gets the program - if we do at all... Thanks for the URLs and the interesting articles. Now, if I could only get my sticky fingers into the good soil of England and muck about for a while....*sigh*


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 251 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Mon, Apr 10, 2000 (18:21) * 1 lines 
 
well you do it virtually alll the time!!! *grin* (Yes, I'm goinggggggg)


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 252 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Apr 10, 2000 (18:23) * 2 lines 
 
Picture is lovely, Viola. *Hugs* I am totally enchanted and shall not share with a soul if that is your wish. We gotta get back on tomorrow/later at the same time. It is fun and really amazing considering the distance involved.



 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 253 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Apr 10, 2000 (19:15) * 4 lines 
 
Maggie! It is Waaaaaaay past your bed time. You need adult supervision *grin*

Christ in Byzantine art is supposedly influenced by the classic Greek extant likenesses of Alexander the Great. From thence they were permutations thereof.
Russian Orthodox Icons were much different and most likely had and idealized image gleaned from many sources. Cheryl, do you know of any URLs where the Two-sided Icon might be found? I would love to see it and if I can get it small enough, to post it.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 254 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Tue, Apr 11, 2000 (02:49) * 1 lines 
 
ooo I fogot I've got a lovely little icon on my wall - i shall get it down and scan it. i found it in a junk hsop years ago. it's very old.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 255 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Apr 11, 2000 (11:15) * 1 lines 
 
Does it have jewels? Is it Russian Orthodox sort? I am most interested in seeing it. How interesting. Your Junque Shoppes have much nicer things in them than ours. Out here it is just that - Junk!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 256 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Apr 11, 2000 (11:18) * 1 lines 
 
Out here, Very Old and Prehistoric means before Captain Cook. Very old in Europe can be a whole other millennium. How old? Any maker's marks on the back?


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 257 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Tue, Apr 11, 2000 (13:39) * 1 lines 
 
No, nothing fancy, very plain in fact. It's orthodox, but I haven't traced it yet. I doubt it's valuable but I like it. It was almost black when I got it. i cleaned it with bread and grapeseed oil, and it has come up well. I'm scanning it now. I don't know how it will come up because it's not too bright.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 258 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Apr 11, 2000 (13:56) * 2 lines 
 
You know how to tend old things. I am used to people telling me they used abrasive cleanser or steel wool to get the "old stuff" off. *shudder*
I'll probably scan better than shiny-bright which causes flare.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 259 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Tue, Apr 11, 2000 (14:01) * 1 lines 
 
Have you got it yet?


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 260 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Apr 11, 2000 (14:41) * 3 lines 
 
Maggie's Icon: Please tell us of what material and method it is made.




 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 261 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Apr 11, 2000 (14:44) * 1 lines 
 
Can anyone read the Greek text? Maggie says she paid £1 for it!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 262 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Tue, Apr 11, 2000 (14:47) * 3 lines 
 
Quarter inch depth piece of wood. Just a little over 5 inches tall
by just under 4 inches wide. I think it is oils, although it may be some kind of print I suppose, the surface is very crackled. The edges are very worn. It has a rustic feel to it.



 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 263 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Apr 11, 2000 (15:16) * 1 lines 
 
Is there any other color but black outline? Might it be pen and ink? Or is the entire surface painted? (What do you want for £1 ?!)


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 264 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Tue, Apr 11, 2000 (16:26) * 1 lines 
 
I don't understand the question. what black outline? no it's definitely notpen and ink, it's antique paint surface of on oily kind. there is ia slight sheen to most of it if you tilt it - that came back after i'd restored it.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 265 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Apr 11, 2000 (16:40) * 1 lines 
 
The only color I can see is the background color and the black outline which details the image. I was just curious if there were other colors involved or is what we see what you see?!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 266 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Tue, Apr 11, 2000 (17:05) * 1 lines 
 
No I see the picture as it is normally. I think something is seriously wrong in how you are seeing it.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 267 of 1283: Ginny  (vibrown) * Thu, Apr 13, 2000 (00:56) * 4 lines 
 
I can't make out much of the greek text on the icon, but I think it starts out as "I am the light of the world", or something like that. I'll take another look when I'm less tired.

Here's a link to some Orthodox icons:
http://www.ocf.org/OrthodoxPage/icons/icons.html


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 268 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Apr 13, 2000 (01:04) * 1 lines 
 
Oooh, Ginny!!!! Thanks! How could I forget?!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 269 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Apr 13, 2000 (01:08) * 1 lines 
 
(Ginny is Greek!!! for those who do not frequent other topics on other conferences...)


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 270 of 1283: Ginny  (vibrown) * Fri, Apr 14, 2000 (00:38) * 2 lines 
 
I wish I had learned to speak Greek! My grandmother tried to teach me, and I got as far as learning the alphabet and pronunciation, but I never got the hang of Greek grammar. I do have a Greek-English dictionary, though...



 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 271 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Fri, Apr 14, 2000 (03:54) * 1 lines 
 
me too, from NT greek study days, but I've forgotten most of it. If I can figure out how to post speical characters in here I'll try and post the inscription. I think it's a well known bible verse, so once we've figured some key words I will be able to find it.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 272 of 1283: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Fri, Apr 14, 2000 (16:20) * 3 lines 
 
Thank you Ginny. Nobody ever tried to teach me to read Greek. My Grandfather could read it of course and all of his children can read it to some degree or other. They, however, never tried to teach their children.

Spoke to my mom, the semi-Luddite, she avoids computers as much as possible. Anyway, Mom can read some Greek, but since she avoids the internet like the plague, and I don't read Greek, I have to explain the icon as best I can over the telephone. Mom says from what she knows about icons the text is probably from the Gospel of John, as it seemed to be the most favored in some ways in the Orthodox Church. Mom also noted that the Eastern Orthodox Bible doesn't contain the Book of Revelations.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 273 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Apr 14, 2000 (17:02) * 1 lines 
 
Fascinating! Gotta blow up the texts of both icons and get them off to Ginny for further work. Remember this is old Greek, not contemporary stuff...!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 274 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Apr 14, 2000 (17:06) * 1 lines 
 
Maggie, your computer has a little handy program called Character Map and using it you can summon up the complete Greek alphabet plus stuff like ° Æ ² and the rest of the fun things in there.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 275 of 1283: MarkG  (MarkG) * Mon, Apr 17, 2000 (03:51) * 7 lines 
 
Just to confirm the conclusions already drawn, the Greek text says something close to: "Go eimi io phos tou kosmoi ho akolouthon emoi ou peripate dei en te skouia all' exei phos tes" (apologies for incorrect or obscured characters or transcriptions), and is unquestionably the original of John 8:12 "I am the light of the world; he that followeth me shall not walk in darkness, but shall have the light of life."








 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 276 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Apr 17, 2000 (12:08) * 1 lines 
 
Thank you for the translation, Mark. How extraordianry, An Englishman who not only is a whiz (yes, you are!) at Cricket, but also likes baseball, and can read Greek. Just your ordinary well-bred and educated Briton...*sigh* It makes sense that the passage quoted above is the one the icon makers would use.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 277 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Mon, Apr 17, 2000 (17:35) * 10 lines 
 
Thanks Mark, you got there just ahead of me. Here's my reading of it.

Ego eimi to phostou kosmou ho akalouthon emoi ou me peripatesei I am the light of world the companion/disciple my (pl)where -ve follow

en te skotia all exei to phos tes zoes
in the darkness but go out the light of life

The first E was actually in red and doesn't show up too well through the scanner, and the 'me' (-ve) was obscured by one of the hands.




 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 278 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Mon, Apr 17, 2000 (17:39) * 11 lines 
 
Oh blow - I had it nicely interleaved and it got mucked up. sorry

Ego eimi to phostou kosmou ho akalouthon emoi ou me peripatesei
I am the light of world the companion/disciple my (pl)where -ve follow

en te skotia all exei to phos tes zoes
in the darkness but go out the light of life

I'm trying again




 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 279 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Apr 17, 2000 (19:05) * 1 lines 
 
Understood! Yapp software does incredible stuff with neatly arranged stuff. It likes to make its own decisions and they are not usually the way we planned them to appear...*sigh* Thanks all, for the translations. I sent Ginny a vastly enlarged copy of just the book and hands. Have not heard from her, yet...


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 280 of 1283: viola  (viola) * Wed, Apr 19, 2000 (15:27) * 4 lines 
 
This all sounds rather interesting stuff. How comes I missed it all?
There seems to be lots more archaeology programmes on at the moment focusing on Christ and Biblical matters, but that's not really surprising considering the time of year!
I hope you all have a great Easter and I shall try and access more info on any of the programmes that I have seen.



 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 281 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Wed, Apr 19, 2000 (16:31) * 1 lines 
 
Nice to see you again Viola. Thanks for the treacle tart (it was yummy even if it was well done - my fault!). I'll show you the icon when you come to visit sometime!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 282 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Apr 19, 2000 (16:48) * 2 lines 
 
Oooh, I NEED a treacle tart!!! The nearest one is probably in New Zealand.
*sigh* I miss the stuff, too, Viola. Comeon over! We'll rent them when they come out on video...*grin*


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 283 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Fri, Apr 21, 2000 (14:36) * 4 lines 
 
(I hear she's gone home for the easter hols - she'll be back soon)
There's a history of archeology programme on TV now, but I'm finding it a bit boring, not sure why.

Out at dinner today, perusing my hosts bookshelves I came across the Watkins - the old straight track. Is that the one you were talking about earlier? T.s got interested now. I also picked up Wilcock -A guide to occult britain which I'm not sure about but will have a look. It does have some black and white photos.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 284 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Apr 21, 2000 (15:44) * 1 lines 
 
Schleimann boring? Not so! Mostly about Britons, I'd venture to guess. Just my sort of program, actually...


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 285 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Sat, Apr 22, 2000 (06:42) * 112 lines 
 
From: Timothy Troy, University of California Berkeley
Forwarded by: David Newbury, University of North Carolina
dnewbury@unc.edu


Prof. J. Desmond Clark, emeritus professor of paleoarchaeology at
the University of California, Berkeley, and one of the preeminent
paleoarchaeologist and Africanists in the world, has just shown
me a copy of a March 29, 2000 article from the Daily Telegraph
(London) entitled: "Last Record of African Explorers Faces
Ruin." The article was written by Ishbel Matheson in
Livingstone, Zambia. It reads in part:

"A priceless collection of books and documents, detailing the
earliest days of European exploration in Africa, is under threat
of destruction. The Livingstone Museum in southern Zambia has
hundreds of valuable books, written by the first missionaries,
adventurers and prospectors in central Africa. But the building's
leaking ceiling collapsed in recent heavy rains, and many
publications were damaged beyond repair. Others need expensive
conservation work to save them. Piles of ancient, sodden
volumes, with subjects as diverse as elephant-hunting and native
practices, have been left to dry in the tropical heat. Early
newspapers, with vivid descriptions of life in what was then
British-ruled Northern Rhodesia, can scarcely be opened, for fear
of tearing fragile, brittle pages. Flexon Mizinga, the keeper of
history at the museum, said: 'It means the whole history is wiped
out. When you lose this kind ofthing, there is no replacement.
You can't get copies anywhere else. These are the only copies we
have. Valuable historical documents, which escaped the flood, are
slowly disintegrating because the museum has no money for
conservation.

The original letters and journals of David Livingstone, the
Scottish missionary, are the pride of the collection. He was the
first European to discover the nearby Victoria Falls, and he is
remembered affectionately in the area as a Christian who
campaigned to stop slavery. His notebooks describing his second
Zambezi [River] expedition in 1858 are stored in the museum, with
those of his companions, even though the institution is ill
equipped to preserve them.

The journals of Sir John Kirk, a botanist, and Richard Thornton,
a geologist, which record their first impressions of the African
landscape and its commercial potential for the British Empire,
are in battered cardboard boxes. The acidity of the brown paper
which wraps the notebooks is slowly eating away the handwritten
testimony of these Victorian explorers. In the museum's clock
tower, amid a jumble of books and newspapers, is the work of
Thomas Baines, an artist and a member of the Zambezi expedition.
A beautiful first edition of his famous Victoria Falls
watercolours lies on a tabletop, vulnerable to the fierce heat
and high humidity of the southern Zambia climate.

Kinglsey Choongo, a museum curator, says, 'The documents will not
see the beginning of another century.' Family members of the
early explorers and settlers gave historical items to the museum
because they wanted their ancestors' contribution to this part of
Africa remembered. It seems, however, that in Livingstone and
Zambia the history of the whites in Africa is being erased from
the national consciousness.

Tim Holmes, an author, lives in Zambia and has written a
biography of Dr. Livingstone. He believes the museum has been
starved of funds because its collection is perceived as a relic
from the colonial past.'After independence came, what Zambians
wanted to know most of all, is their own history. The colonial
history was seen as an irrelevant burden.

But trying to ignore colonialaism is like trying to tell the
history of Britain without the Romans.'It is the former colonial
countries who are now trying to help the museum out of its
immediate crisis. The European Union has pledged 250,000 pounds.
Conservationists fear that the money is too late because so much
damage has been done. Nor will it be enough for the extensive
upgrade needed to preserve the collections."

Dr. Clark was the director and primary curator of the Livingstone
Museum in its early manifestations from 1937 to his departure for
Berkeley, California in 1961. In 1951 he raised the funds needed
for a major expansion of the museum complex and library in
Livingstone. A modest man, Clark neverless has told me in recent
oral history interviews I have conducted with him for the
Regional Oral History Office of the Bancroft Library, UC
Berkeley, that it was he who built the magnificent book and
manuscript collection for the museum's library. He personally
worked with the descendants of David Livingstone and others to do
so. Though now eighty-four years old, Clark can list practically
every rare book title, journal and manuscript collection which is
held in the Livingstone Museum library.

Curiously, however, Clark's great legacy to the world will be his
work as a paleoarchaeolgist in Africa. The paleolithic and
neolithic archaeolgical collections at the Museum are the result
of his work over the course of his years working in Central and
East Africa. It was always Clark's intention also to build the
museum's collections and library for the Zambian people. In the
1950s he instituted museum outreach educational programs in a
concerted effort to help the local peoples learn more about their
early history. Long before other museums instituted the
practice, Clark designed small, portable travelling exhibitions
for this purpose. Understandably it saddens him greatly to see
that the museum and its resources are falling into ruin.

I would hope that IFLA and its membership could rally support for
Flexon Mizinga, Kingsley Choongo and others in Livingstone who
are waging the uphill battle to preserve what remains of this
priceless library collection.

Thank you for spreading the word.




 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 286 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Apr 22, 2000 (13:41) * 1 lines 
 
This should be posted in Books conference...perhaps in the intro or conference business. Thanks, Maggie.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 287 of 1283: viola  (viola) * Sun, Apr 23, 2000 (17:11) * 10 lines 
 
Hi,
Yes, I am at home at the moment but I am at my parent's computer. I
return to Chichester tomorrow.
I'm afraid I haven't seen any more interesting programmes yet but I did
get the Time Team book for Easter. If I come across anything worth scanning
(which I probably will) I shall give it a try. There's loads of photos and
interesting info. I shall show you when you next visit Chichester maggie,
and I promise to make another treacle tart (this time cooked for just the
right length of time!!!!!)



 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 288 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Apr 23, 2000 (18:11) * 1 lines 
 
There you are! Yippee! Hope your Easter has been lovely, Dear...I am delighted to see you here if only for a moment. o created some new topics and posted a whizzo one on crop circles at Stonehenge...(no comment)


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 289 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Apr 24, 2000 (02:31) * 1 lines 
 
Tonight on the The Learning Channel they had a program on the Ark of the Covenant. I would like to hear from anyone who saw it. It covered all the bases from space men through the Knights Templar. Shades of Holy Blood, Holy Grail. It did not cover any new material, but it was interesting from the standpoint of seeing the places mentioned in all of the books on the subject. With the major omission of the Rennes-le-Chateau connection. They claimed (they being the Knights Templar and guardians of Rosslyn Chapel in Scotland) thatr there are no fewer than 5 Arks of the Covenant, and they are all still in existance. Of course, none of this could be proven, so it was an exercise in futility for those who wanted a definite yes or no to the question of its still existing. Please comment if you happened to see it.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 290 of 1283: Saskia  (Saskia) * Tue, Apr 25, 2000 (17:46) * 1 lines 
 
There's supposed to be an Ark of the Covenant still in existence in Ethiopia. It's at St. Mary's Monastery, I believe. I'm sorry I don't know exactly where in Ethiopia. The Ark is the life-long responsibility of one of the monks, at his death another is chosen from among the brothers.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 291 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Apr 25, 2000 (17:51) * 3 lines 
 
Yes! I have Graham Hancock's book on the subject. The TLC program I cited above was more current than the research GH did for his book. Neither of them got close to discovering its whereabouts. I suspect, for the devout, you will not change their belief of its whereabouts, and for those still searching, it will be like the Holy Grail...ever out of reach. Just...

Aloha Saskia..*hugs*


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 292 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Thu, Apr 27, 2000 (17:29) * 202 lines 
 
The latest history of Archeology programme was much better than the two earlier ones. I still don't like the presenter's style much. This one was Schiemann and Petrie. The earier ones were BORING - and we like archeo programmes.

Programme 1 Stones and Bones
Over the past 250 years archaeologists have completely changed our view of human history. Before archaeology became a scientific discipline, most people thought that the Bible, which has been interpreted as saying that God put Adam and Eve on Earth one day in 4004BC, was literally true.

Now, archaeologists have proved that hominids – that is, human beings and their immediate ancestors – have been around for about five million years. From the beginning, archaeologists have grappled with ways of answering the big question: where does the human race come from? Unlike other historians, they have had few documents to go on – instead, they have had to find answers through digging into the earth.

The following sections trace the development of archaeology from its early beginnings at Herculaneum.

1736
VENUTI AND HERCULANEUM
In southern Italy, which is divided into several independent states, a new king, Charles, begins his rule by buying a small estate on the Bay of Naples. He wants to have a large area on which to hunt. He is told that the farm is famous for its deep well, in which many ancient Roman statues have been found.

The king sends his royal antiquary, Count Marcello Venuti, to take a look inside the well. He’s been told that an ancient temple is buried there, but he discovers a curving set of stone steps that look like theatre seats. Then he finds an ancient Roman inscription which tells him that it was a theatre and gives him the name of the city in which it had been built: Herculaneum. Venuti tells Charles that he has an ancient city buried under his estate. It had been covered in lava and ash when the volcano Vesuvius, which still exists, erupted on 24 August 79AD. People had known from manuscripts and books that this had happened, but no one knew exactly where the buried city was.

Thirteen years later, Venuti discovers another buried city nearby. It is the now legendary Pompeii, which was covered by volcanic ash so rapidly that most of its buildings and all the everyday objects of its citizens were preserved.


These discoveries illustrate the birth of archaeology because they show that remains of the past life of our ancestors are always with us – they are buried under the accumulated layers of time and can be found by excavation.


1816
THOMSEN and COPENHAGEN

In Copenhagen, Denmark, Christian Thomsen – a pioneering coin-collector – is appointed keeper of the national archaeological collection. He discovers that although all the objects have been labelled, they have not been classified or arranged in any order.

Thomsen decides that because early humans probably used the most advanced materials for weapons, he should organise these ancient objects according to what they were made out of. He arranges the artefacts into Stone Age objects, Bronze Age objects and Iron Age objects.

By doing so, he invents a way of grouping what we find in the earth into a story, a history of progress from stone, through bronze and on to iron. His system of three ages is still used by museum curators.


1840s-1860s
WORSAAE and DENMARK

Christian Thomsen’s assistant at the national museum is Jens Jacob Worsaae. He’s been excavating since the age of 15 and he realises that by looking in Denmark’s ancient mound burials, he always finds the Stone Age burials below the Bronze Age burials and the Iron Age are always on top.

From this fact, he concludes that the Stone Age is the most ancient and the Iron Age the most recent, with the Bronze Age in between. From now on, archaeologists can argue that artefacts found in different layers of the earth can be dated to different historical ages.

Worsaae is appointed archaeologist royal, becoming the first professional archaeologist, and influencing scholars all over Europe.


1879
De SAUTUOLA and ALTAMIRA

In the cave of Altamira, on the north coast of Spain, an amateur archaeologist Marcelino de Sautuola excavates the entrance in the company of his daughter Maria. She wanders inside the cave, looks up at the ceiling and exclaims: ‘Papa, papa, there are painted bulls.’

At first, professional archaeologists don’t believe that such wonderful images could have been painted in the Stone Age, because they assume that early humans were barbarians. It is even suggested that de Sautuola faked them.
However, similar paintings are soon found in French caves which have been sealed since ancient times, so their authenticity cannot be doubted. Altamira is dubbed ‘the Sistine Chapel of the Stone Age’.

1881
PITT-RIVERS and THEBES

Augustus Henry Lane-Fox Pitt-Rivers travels up the Nile to the ancient city of Thebes, modern-day Luxor. He finds ancient flints embedded in cemetery walls that are known to be 4,000 years old. The flints had been scraped up when the ancient Egyptians took excavated earth to build these walls.

From this, Pitt-Rivers deduces that the flints are much older than the walls, and thus that the history of human beings goes back beyond the 4,000 years suggested by Biblical sources. These flints, he concludes, are older than the pharaohs.

As well as making beautiful drawings of the tombs at Thebes, Pitt-Rivers also organises archaeological digs at his estate in Cranbourne Chase in the West Country in 1885.


1927
LAMBERT and MOUNT CARMEL

The British administration in Palestine, which ruled the country in the days of Empire, decides to quarry rock from the biblical mountain of Carmel, which lies south of Haifa. Charles Lambert, a professional archaeologist, is sent to see if such work will damage any ancient remains.

Digging in some shepherds’ caves, Lambert finds a broken sickle handle which is carved with the image of an animal. It is the first piece of Stone Age art to be found outside Europe and proof that agriculture was being practised in ancient Palestine.

Lambert also finds ancient flint tools. His expedition is soon followed by that of Dorothy Garrod, the first female professor at Cambridge University, who finds skeletons preserved in lime, at the time the most complete remains of early humans ever found.

1976
LEAKEY and LAETOLI

Gradually, over the decades, archaeologists seek the origins of human beings outside Europe. Slowly, Africa emerges as the cradle of humanity.

At Laetoli in Tanzania, archaeologist Mary Leakey discovers a trail left by three people walking across a flat expanse of volcanic ash 3,500,000 years ago. They are by far the earliest human footprints known to science.

Dating them is made possible by the discovery of carbon dating, devised by Willard F Libby, a former atom bomb scientist, in 1946. He discovers that all organic materials have a tiny amount of naturally occurring radioactivity. One of these materials, called Carbon 14, loses its radioactivity at a constant rate from the moment the organism dies. By measuring the level of radioactivity remaining, the age of many objects can be established. Since the 1960s, such scientific dating methods have been developed and are now more accurate than ever.

From being a hobby for rich mavericks, archaeology has grown into a fully-fledged science, able to answer questions about how long ago our ancestors walked the earth.
Over the past 250 years archaeologists have completely changed our view of human history. Before archaeology became a scientific discipline, most people thought that the Bible, which has been interpreted as saying that God put Adam and Eve on Earth one day in 4004BC, was literally true.

Now, archaeologists have proved that hominids – that is, human beings and their immediate ancestors – have been around for about five million years. From the beginning, archaeologists have grappled with ways of answering the big question: where does the human race come from? Unlike other historians, they have had few documents to go on – instead, they have had to find answers through digging into the earth.

The following sections trace the development of archaeology from its early beginnings at Herculaneum.
















1736
VENUTI AND HERCULANEUM


In southern Italy, which is divided into several independent states, a new king, Charles, begins his rule by buying a small estate on the Bay of Naples. He wants to have a large area on which to hunt. He is told that the farm is famous for its deep well, in which many ancient Roman statues have been found.

The king sends his royal antiquary, Count Marcello Venuti, to take a look inside the well. He’s been told that an ancient temple is buried there, but he discovers a curving set of stone steps that look like theatre seats. Then he finds an ancient Roman inscription which tells him that it was a theatre and gives him the name of the city in which it had been built: Herculaneum. Venuti tells Charles that he has an ancient city buried under his estate. It had been covered in lava and ash when the volcano Vesuvius, which still exists, erupted on 24 August 79AD. People had known from manuscripts and books that this had happened, but no one knew exactly where the buried city was.

Thirteen years later, Venuti discovers another buried city nearby. It is the now legendary Pompeii, which was covered by volcanic ash so rapidly that most of its buildings and all the everyday objects of its citizens were preserved.


These discoveries illustrate the birth of archaeology because they show that remains of the past life of our ancestors are always with us – they are buried under the accumulated layers of time and can be found by excavation.


Back to time line



1816
THOMSEN and COPENHAGEN

In Copenhagen, Denmark, Christian Thomsen – a pioneering coin-collector – is appointed keeper of the national archaeological collection. He discovers that although all the objects have been labelled, they have not been classified or arranged in any order.

Thomsen decides that because early humans probably used the most advanced materials for weapons, he should organise these ancient objects according to what they were made out of. He arranges the artefacts into Stone Age objects, Bronze Age objects and Iron Age objects.

By doing so, he invents a way of grouping what we find in the earth into a story, a history of progress from stone, through bronze and on to iron. His system of three ages is still used by museum curators.


Back to time line



1840s-1860s
WORSAAE and DENMARK

Christian Thomsen’s assistant at the national museum is Jens Jacob Worsaae. He’s been excavating since the age of 15 and he realises that by looking in Denmark’s ancient mound burials, he always finds the Stone Age burials below the Bronze Age burials and the Iron Age are always on top.



From this fact, he concludes that the Stone Age is the most ancient and the Iron Age the most recent, with the Bronze Age in between. From now on, archaeologists can argue that artefacts found in different layers of the earth can be dated to different historical ages.

Worsaae is appointed archaeologist royal, becoming the first professional archaeologist, and influencing scholars all over Europe.


Back to time line



1879
De SAUTUOLA and ALTAMIRA

In the cave of Altamira, on the north coast of Spain, an amateur archaeologist Marcelino de Sautuola excavates the entrance in the company of his daughter Maria. She wanders inside the cave, looks up at the ceiling and exclaims: ‘Papa, papa, there are painted bulls.’

At first, professional archaeologists don’t believe that such wonderful images could have been painted in the Stone Age, because they assume that early humans were barbarians. It is even suggested that de Sautuola faked them.
However, similar paintings are soon found in French caves which have been sealed since ancient times, so their authenticity cannot be doubted. Altamira is dubbed ‘the Sistine Chapel of the Stone Age’.




Back to time line



1881
PITT-RIVERS and THEBES

Augustus Henry Lane-Fox Pitt-Rivers travels up the Nile to the ancient city of Thebes, modern-day Luxor. He finds ancient flints embedded in cemetery walls that are known to be 4,000 years old. The flints had been scraped up when the ancient Egyptians took excavated earth to build these walls.

From this, Pitt-Rivers deduces that the flints are much older than the walls, and thus that the history of human beings goes back beyond the 4,000 years suggested by Biblical sources. These flints, he concludes, are older than the pharaohs.

As well as making beautiful drawings of the tombs at Thebes, Pitt-Rivers also organises archaeological digs at his estate in Cranbourne Chase in the West Country in 1885.


Back to time line



1927
LAMBERT and MOUNT CARMEL

The British administration in Palestine, which ruled the country in the days of Empire, decides to quarry rock from the biblical mountain of Carmel, which lies south of Haifa. Charles Lambert, a professional archaeologist, is sent to see if such work will damage any ancient remains.

Digging in some shepherds’ caves, Lambert finds a broken sickle handle which is carved with the image of an animal. It is the first piece of Stone Age art to be found outside Europe and proof that agriculture was being practised in ancient Palestine.

Lambert also finds ancient flint tools. His expedition is soon followed by that of Dorothy Garrod, the first female professor at Cambridge University, who finds skeletons preserved in lime, at the time the most complete remains of early humans ever found.
Back to time line



1976
LEAKEY and LAETOLI

Gradually, over the decades, archaeologists seek the origins of human beings outside Europe. Slowly, Africa emerges as the cradle of humanity.

At Laetoli in Tanzania, archaeologist Mary Leakey discovers a trail left by three people walking across a flat expanse of volcanic ash 3,500,000 years ago. They are by far the earliest human footprints known to science.

Dating them is made possible by the discovery of carbon dating, devised by Willard F Libby, a former atom bomb scientist, in 1946. He discovers that all organic materials have a tiny amount of naturally occurring radioactivity. One of these materials, called Carbon 14, loses its radioactivity at a constant rate from the moment the organism dies. By measuring the level of radioactivity remaining, the age of many objects can be established. Since the 1960s, such scientific dating methods have been developed and are now more accurate than ever.

From being a hobby for rich mavericks, archaeology has grown into a fully-fledged science, able to answer questions about how long ago our ancestors walked the earth.

http://www.channel4.com/nextstep/ (click on great excavations picture)
(Marcia do you want to go and post in the pix? I'm running out of time, I meant to post the programmes so far)



 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 293 of 1283: GeoLady  (MarciaH) * Thu, Apr 27, 2000 (19:07) * 14 lines 
 
Archeologists Finish Roman Bath Restoration
CAIRO (Reuters) - Egyptian archeologists have completed the restoration of
the largest of five Roman baths found near the Mediterranean coast in the
northern Sinai, officials said Thursday.
``Restorations to a Roman bath, dating back to the Roman period in the third
century AD, took one year to complete,'' said Gaballah Ali Gaballah,
secretary-general of the Supreme Council of Antiquities, while inspecting the
restored baths.
Mohamed Abdel Maksoud, director of Sinai antiquities, said the baths were
built of red brick and included rooms decorated with mosaics of Indian design,
water tanks, a section for hot and cold bathing and a steam room.
The baths are said to have been used by Roman rulers. They are situated
outside the Pilosome Citadel on the Mediterranean coast road between
al-Qantara and al-Arish, some 130km (80 miles) northeast of Cairo.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 294 of 1283: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Fri, Apr 28, 2000 (15:52) * 1 lines 
 
I thought that Lescaux was the Sistine Chapel of the Stone Age. No matter, both sites are remarkably beautiful. I think the Lescaux paintings are slightly older than those at Altimira. Tourists can no longer actually view the actual cave paintings at Lescaux, due to the effect of the humidity from all the visitors breath on the cave environment and the paintings. You can, however, tour a reproduction of the famous cave paintings.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 295 of 1283: GeoLady  (MarciaH) * Fri, Apr 28, 2000 (19:22) * 1 lines 
 
Lascaux and Altamira are supposedly the most significant. But, we are nit picking here. It is subjective opinions on things so much more significant than that they are good art.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 296 of 1283: viola  (viola) * Sun, Apr 30, 2000 (15:32) * 2 lines 
 
Hi!!! Yep, I'm back!
Not really much to say. I recall seeing a good programme recently but I have been working hard and I am extremely tired thus causing my brain to want to sleep. When I have woken again I shall try and look up about the programme and post it onto this page. I think it was another channel4 prduction. Watch this space...


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 297 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Apr 30, 2000 (15:43) * 1 lines 
 
...watching... but have to go to a double-header baseball game in an hour, so take your time to get your brain well-rested and back into gear. I had heard that you were too busy to get into trouble (well, almost!) *hugs* Welcome back!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 298 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Thu, May  4, 2000 (05:41) * 5 lines 
 
If you're interested in Pompeii, check
http://jefferson.village.virginia.edu/pompeii/page-1.html
From the home page, click on the link to the forum. It gives you a large clickable map of the town plus images. It gives building plans, photos, and some explanations. A link in the section on the Imperial Cult Building brings up a study of how the room and roof might have been constructed, along with several fly-around animations of the sructure as it might have looked.
It's definitely worth a visit!
(One of my 'love to go there sometime' places!)


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 299 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, May  4, 2000 (13:03) * 1 lines 
 
Thanks for that. It is definitely one of my Gotta Go places...perhaps in another lifetime...*sigh*


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 300 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Sat, May  6, 2000 (07:02) * 1 lines 
 
me too *sigh*


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 301 of 1283: viola  (viola) * Tue, May  9, 2000 (16:01) * 2 lines 
 
I don't know, don't be a pair of doubting Thomas's. If you want to you will get there. If something is worth going for you'll do it. Positive thinking and enthusiasm and a LOVE of archaeology and you'll go ANYWHERE!
ENJOY!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 302 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, May  9, 2000 (16:20) * 1 lines 
 
For me it is not doubting, it is reality. Especially when financial obligations take priority and it is not easy to hitch a ride to Pompeii from the middle of the Pacific. However, I have not given up on going other places closer to home which call me clearly and insistently!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 303 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Sun, May 14, 2000 (02:49) * 3 lines 
 
OK Viola, when are we going? Come on, I need some cheering up!!!

I'm still trying to get to York, but that MAY be possible if we can find somewhere to stay on the way up to Scotland this week, and if someone does something about it! (shoulder surfers please note)


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 304 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, May 14, 2000 (12:45) * 1 lines 
 
Shoulder surfers in my experience are selective blind when looking at the monitor. If it is meant for him to see, you just might have to post it in something which might attract his attention. York would be a natural place to stop and peer at the past!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 305 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Tue, May 16, 2000 (04:17) * 2 lines 
 
*sigh* stopping in Sunderland instead. Maybe in August .....
now what archeo is going on there?? must do a search


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 306 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, May 16, 2000 (14:37) * 1 lines 
 
If you need help or come up empty, I know of some places for you to check..


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 307 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Tue, May 16, 2000 (16:34) * 2 lines 
 
Please let me know any suggestions.
Have arranged a stopover in Pontefract coming home the following week. We shall pass through York and do a reccy prior to a possible longer visit on the way up to scotland in August.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 308 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, May 16, 2000 (20:54) * 1 lines 
 
I shall investigate my archy guide books for the area and let you know if I find anything other than the odd castle. That's the place pronounced "pumfret" or something similar?


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 309 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, May 16, 2000 (20:55) * 2 lines 
 
check this url, Maggie
http://www.casandpont.freeserve.co.uk/front.htm


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 310 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, May 16, 2000 (20:59) * 11 lines 
 
Maps:
http://freespace.virgin.net/stuart.lonsdale/

Museum
http://www.wakefield.gov.uk/lifestyle/pontmuse.htm

Collieries
http://www.nce-league.freeserve.co.uk/pontefract_colls.htm

Calderdale - the best one on this post, I think:
http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/north_east_england_history_page/Calderdale.htm


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 311 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Wed, May 17, 2000 (04:54) * 1 lines 
 
Thanks. I think we will visit Pontefract. The castle and museum sound interesting. I'll post about it in Travel/england etc. when I get back.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 312 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, May 17, 2000 (17:19) * 1 lines 
 
Great! Have a splendid time!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 313 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, May 26, 2000 (11:02) * 6 lines 
 
when they discuss a dig, these measurements are the ones used:

Acres And Hectares
An acre is a measurement of area equal to 43,650 square feet or 4,840 square yards. Originally, an acre had to be a fixed-shape rectangle, 660 by 66 feet. But in current usage, it can be any shape as long as it has the same total
square footage. Some other countries, such as Ireland and Scotland, have traditionally used somewhat different definitions of the acre. There is also a metric equivalent--the hectare, which is 10,000 square meters, or almost 2.5 acres.



 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 314 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Sat, May 27, 2000 (06:30) * 22 lines 
 
Check out this site for loads on archeology in Mali.

http://www.ruf.rice.edu/%7Eanth/arch/mali-interactive/aboutproject/index.html

Here's a taste:
The archaeological site of Jenné-jeno is located within a huge, seasonally flooded basin called the Inland Niger Delta, in the West African country of Mali. Every year, after the rains begin further south, where the mighty Niger River has its source, the swollen river rushes downriver (towards the north!). When it enters the flat, Inland Niger Delta basin, the waters spread out and flood all the lowest areas to a depth of 2-3 meters. The floodwaters cover an area about 300 kilometers long by 100 kilometers wide! Needless to say, people who want to live in the Inland Niger Delta year-round have to build their houses on high ground, or create some high ground to live on. Many of the villages are on high mounds that have accumulated over centuries, with the surface getting higher and higher everytime a mud house is abandoned and decays. The mounds become like islands when the floodwaters rise. Sometimes they can be quite big. The modern town of Jenné, for example, has over 10,000 inhabitants settled on a mound
over six meters high. Jenné will be our home while we are digging at Jenné-jeno, located three kilometers away across the floodplain.

According to tradition, Jenné-jeno ("ancient Jenné) is the early site of Jenné. The town moved to its present location sometime around a thousand years ago, although we aren't sure why the inhabitants moved, finally abandoning Jenné-jeno totally by 1400 A.D. The fact that Jenné and Jenné-jeno are so closely related historically and share many features allows us to look at Jenné for clues to help us understand how the early Jenné-jeno people lived.

One of the main goals of the project is to do some excavation at Jenné-jeno to salvage, or rescue, information from several areas of the mound that are cut by huge erosion gullies.

Thousands of potsherds, beads, and many other kinds of artifacts are being washed out of the soil and into the gullies every year during the torrential rains in June and July. Along with them goes all possibility for the archaeologist to figure out when and how they were used. Earlier work at Jenné-jeno by the two American archaeologists on the project, Rod and Susan McIntosh, showed that town life in large, settled communities began over 1500 years ago in this region. At that time, in the late 1970's, people thought that town life in areas south of the Sahara only developed in the last few hundred years. The discovery that Jenné-jeno had grown very large soon after it was first settled in 250 B.C. came as a big surprise.

As the earliest known urban settlement south of the Sahara, Jenne-jeno is one of the very few World Heritage archaeological sites recognized by UNESCO in sub-saharan Africa.

Because it is an important site for our understanding of the development of civilization south of the Sahara, its slow destruction by erosion is a matter of grave concern. The World Monuments Fund has provided money to Malian archaeologists to rescue archaeological information in endangered sections of the site, and to fill in the gullies in order to stop further erosion. Malian and American members of the project team are working together toward this important goal.







 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 315 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, May 27, 2000 (12:47) * 1 lines 
 
Mali has been known for years as a very rich country as far as archaeology goes. Thanks for that url and the "taste"


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 316 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Sat, May 27, 2000 (14:33) * 1 lines 
 
there's also been an awful lot of 'poaching' of artifacts. There's more on that site about that too. There's an 'artifact' market in Bamako. I went past but didn't go anywhere near it!!!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 317 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Jun  3, 2000 (17:26) * 37 lines 
 
Ancient Cities Reported Found Under Sea Off Egypt
ALEXANDRIA, Egypt (Reuters) - Archaeologists on Saturday showed off
relics retrieved from the nearly complete ruins of ancient cities they said they
had discovered on the seabed off the Egyptian coast.
The joint French and Egyptian team said the cities of Menouthif and
Herakleion, submerged more than 1,000 years ago, lay in five to 10 meters
(15-30 feet) of water about six km (3.75 miles) off the Mediterranean city of
Alexandria.
``We are very excited because we are used to finding the remains of a tomb,
a church or a mosque, but this time we are finding complete cities cities that
were heard about from the classical writings,'' said Gaballah Ali Gaballah,
head of Egypt's Supreme Council of Antiquities.
``Most probably they disappeared because of seismic causes,'' said Franck
Goddio, head of the Paris-based European Institute of Marine Archaeology.
A rise in the Mediterranean sea level and sudden submersion caused by
earthquake, or climate changes, could explain the annihilation of the cities,
he said.
The cities were legendary in antiquity for their wealth and arts as well as their
many temples dedicated to the gods Serapis, Isis and Osiris.
An intricately carved 1.5-meter (five-foot) black granite statue of Isis was
shown to the media after being raised from the seabed.
``To me she looks 17 years old but in reality she is probably around 1,200
years old,'' Goddio said.
Gaballah said researchers were aware of the existence of the ancient cities
but could not pinpoint their exact location.
``Thanks to modern technology and the efforts of the Egyptian-French team,
we could pinpoint cities that were read about in Greco-Roman literature,'' he
told Reuters.
Also discovered during two years of undersea exploration were the head of a
pharaonic statue of a sphinx, jewelry and gold coins dating from the
Byzantine and Islamic eras.
The archaeologists said the coins showed the region had not been
submerged until the eighth century, although the cities had been founded
many hundreds of years earlier.
The archaeologists said they had also identified two other submerged cities in
the same area, Canopus and Thonis, but had not yet retrieved relics from
them.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 318 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Jun  3, 2000 (17:30) * 2 lines 
 
Maggie, grave robbers have been the bane of Archaeologists since mankind began to learn from their past. I know Britain had passed a Treasure Trove law, but some countries are so poor and their governments are so corrupt that it is almost useless to try. The best way to stop this illegal trade is to do as you did...stay as far away from it as possible. Things purchased better have
good and legal provenance sheets with them.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 319 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Sun, Jun  4, 2000 (10:59) * 36 lines 
 
Following what we are talking about - this appeared in the Sunday Times this morning.

Gangs smuggle best of Africa's art to Britain
Jon Ungoed-Thomas and Peter Watson

TRIBAL crowns, carvings and terracotta statues dating back more than 2,000 years are being plundered from Africa for British collectors, an investigation has revealed.

Organised gangs with up to 1,000 workers have dug up dozens of protected sites to satisfy demand in Europe. The Nigerian high commission in London has complained about the quantity of goods without any provenance being openly sold by auction houses and antique dealers.

The trade is so well established that artefacts that would have fetched £30,000 a decade ago are now on sale for a tenth of the price. The government is examining ways of cracking down on sales thought to be worth up to £500m a year.

Government officials in Africa are so concerned they have effectively banned the export of all treasures.

London outlet: Telfer-Smollett says he has no way of knowing if the art he sells is smuggled Michael Telfer-Smollett, a dealer in African art based in Notting Hill, west London, sold The Sunday Times a Yoruba tribal crown for £275, which Nigerian officials say would have been banned from export. The crown, decorated with wading birds, is believed to have been made early last century for the king in the walled city of Abeokuta. "It's an elaborate work and might have been used in ceremonies," Telfer-Smollett said.

Dr Patrick Darling, an archeologist who has worked extensively in Africa, said: "It's been smuggled out. It would never have been allowed to leave the country legally."

Telfer-Smollett said yesterday: "Most of my African stuff is bought to me by Africans. They come streaming over with bagfuls of stuff. I don't believe the crown was smuggled, but it's impossible to check. It's up to the authorities in Nigeria to check it before it comes out."

Artefacts are bought locally for a few pounds and smuggled out via neighbouring countries. Others are excavated or stolen from museums and temples.

The looters particularly target Nok terracotta figures, named after the village on the Jos plateau in Nigeria where the sculptures were discovered. These provide the earliest evidence of a sculptural tradition south of the Sahara.

Even artefacts in museums are not safe. Curators complain that items are "borrowed" and never returned amid allegations of corruption. The National Museum in Lagos has so few artefacts it displays replicas.

"It's a scandal the way in which archeological material is being lost because of systematic pillaging," said John Picton, of the School of Oriental and African Studies. "It's illegally smuggled out of Africa, but there is no law against selling it here." Archeologists are angered at Britain's refusal to sign the Unesco treaty, which aims to prevent the looting of antiquities.

The problem is so widespread that the Royal Academy of Arts had to withdraw several pieces from an exhibition of African art because of fears they were smuggled. "They included Nok pieces which could not have been acquired legitimately," said Picton.

The Nigerian high commission has also complained to the London auctioneer Bonhams about its tribal art sales, which regularly include items without provenance. In one sale in April 1997, the commission highlighted six lots that it considered suspect, including a Nok terracotta head.

Bonhams has assured the commission that it never accepts any material that has been illegally exported. The commission believes that any item without a detailed history should be removed from sale.

Nigeria now wants stricter controls in Britain against illegal imports. "This is the history of Nigeria which is being stolen and sold to art collectors in Europe and the United States," said Greyne Anosike, cultural attaché at the commission.




 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 320 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Jun  4, 2000 (15:01) * 1 lines 
 
That is truly horrifying. They are stealing and voiding any direct evidence of our past. Items found en situ are about as objective as "history" can be without coloring by the author. Now, that part of it is rendered as just another antiquity with no provenace, no value but what the black market will bear. How tragic!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 321 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Jun  4, 2000 (15:25) * 5 lines 
 
Stephen, welcome to Geo and most especially to Archaeology. I talked to Maggie and she told me about you. I am so envious of your working on restoring stone circles; would love to hear about the one in Scotland. A recumbent?
My "bible" of Stone circles of the British Isles is by Aubrey Burl and what a thesis that was! How I wish I could have carried his stuff around - and just admire the places. After three trips to Britain crawling through fogous in Cornwall and through sheep paddocks to climb Windmill Hill, it is good to have someone here who know of what I am speaking. Aloha!


If you need to contact me in Yahoo, I am kilauea83.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 322 of 1283: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Mon, Jun  5, 2000 (16:26) * 1 lines 
 
Studying artifacts "in situ" is a fairly new development even among archaeologists. At one time the object was to gather as many relics as possible, which were themselves as valuable as possible.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 323 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Jun  5, 2000 (17:29) * 1 lines 
 
Not in the last too centuries. Before that, it was considered treasure and so much for history. In situ is the best scenario and the devoutly wished-for situation for all artifacts...


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 324 of 1283: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Mon, Jun  5, 2000 (17:58) * 1 lines 
 
But just imagine the knowlege that was lost, in addition to the damage done.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 325 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Jun  5, 2000 (18:26) * 1 lines 
 
Just a look at the tombs of Egypt is enough to make you cry. In the US, we managed to level the largest mound of the Woodland folk and build St Louis on the site. Obscene. It makes me very angry then proundly sad at the loss. I would almost rather not know.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 326 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Jun  5, 2000 (18:28) * 1 lines 
 
...and they levelled a large Hillfort outside of London to build Heathrow.....


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 327 of 1283: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Mon, Jun  5, 2000 (18:45) * 1 lines 
 
At least Rome doesn't have a subway. It was decided not try and build one, for archaeological reasons.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 328 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Jun  5, 2000 (19:04) * 1 lines 
 
Yup - the catacombs beat them to it - fortunatly! However, when they were tunnelling under London for the Undeerground, they found hippo bones and elephant and ancient extinct wonderments there. Who'd have thought!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 329 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Tue, Jun  6, 2000 (14:28) * 1 lines 
 
Come on in - the water's fine! *grin* (and the Pirhan's don't bite)


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 330 of 1283: Stephen C. Appleby  (StephenA) * Tue, Jun  6, 2000 (14:49) * 1 lines 
 
Hi Marcia, Thanks for the greeting to this completely new experience. I have been meaning to post a message, but my technological capabilities ended with flint tools...I will e-mail you soon....Stephen.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 331 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Tue, Jun  6, 2000 (14:55) * 1 lines 
 
Come on in - the water's fine! *grin* (and the Pirhan's don't bite)


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 332 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Jun  6, 2000 (16:05) * 1 lines 
 
...and so he did... Thank you and Aloha Stephen! We all started out in here much as you are now - and I worked my way up to what you see now. It just takes persistence, a lot of mistakes and some guidance - all of which I am happy to provide *smile*


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 333 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Jun  6, 2000 (16:46) * 1 lines 
 
I feel the sudden urge to float over the conference strewing frangipani (plumeria)and ginger blossoms in his way... Am I happy to have a *real* archaeologist here? You'd better believe it! *Hugs*


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 334 of 1283: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Tue, Jun  6, 2000 (17:11) * 1 lines 
 
A real live archaeologist. I'm now too petrified to post here again. Okay, petrified is the wrong word. Embarassed is more accurate.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 335 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Jun  6, 2000 (17:59) * 1 lines 
 
Don't do that to me! I NEED you here. I shall never again mention who the new people posting are. Besides, we need to keep his interest here and if I have to dance to do it, we'll all be embarrassed. (Maybe he is kidding...maybe I am kidding...maybe...) Cheryl, Please don't desert me! I NEED your insight!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 336 of 1283: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Tue, Jun  6, 2000 (18:25) * 1 lines 
 
I'm not leaving. I was just kidding. Actually, it's great to have a real archaelogist. Now we can all be enlightened in our dabbling.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 337 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Jun  6, 2000 (22:47) * 2 lines 
 
That's what I thought, actually! This man is man of charm and cultivation. He will correct us most kindly and gently



 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 338 of 1283: Stephen C. Appleby  (StephenA) * Thu, Jun  8, 2000 (02:12) * 1 lines 
 
Who is this real live archaeologist? Perhaps I had better keep my incoherant ramblings about the origins of monuments to myself then. We wouldnt want anyone to get the wrong end of the stick would we? A man of charm and cultivation? That doesnt sound like many of the field archaeologists I know. Who is this mystery man Marci?


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 339 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Jun  8, 2000 (15:31) * 1 lines 
 
Oh, not to worry abut him....he is someone who got bored and decided not to enter the commentary. Boring! Unimaginative and totally unresponsive. I think we are well done with him....probably just someone with ill humor and no affection in his heart for anything.......*smile*


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 340 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Jun  8, 2000 (15:32) * 1 lines 
 
Your incoherent rambling are enchanting this reader. Please continue as thoughts enter your mind....*hugs*


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 341 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Jun  8, 2000 (15:38) * 1 lines 
 
Stephen, Dear, anytine you wish to comment on your origin of monuments please do. My mind is travelling back to the places so familiar to my heart and I need to meet you there and for you to tell me what you are thinking.....please?!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 342 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Jun  8, 2000 (18:45) * 1 lines 
 
...*out of body experience*... wonder if I can summon up one for Wiltshire...


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 343 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Jun  9, 2000 (13:54) * 1 lines 
 
Does anyone know if anymore has been discovered about the Henge monument at Marden? It was reputed to be the biggest yet known.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 344 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Jun  9, 2000 (13:57) * 1 lines 
 
On one of the trips to England we investigated what was visible, but there is precious little remaining of surface visibility and much of that was in a small wooded area.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 345 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Fri, Jun  9, 2000 (14:42) * 12 lines 
 
There was another of the 'Secrets of Lost Empires' programmes on last night in he UK. I just checked, and they showed in the US earlier this year on PBS. Go and check the following URL for details. there's some really good photos and video footage.

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/lostempires/

The programme I saw was about 'Pharaoh's Obelisk'
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/lostempires/obelisk/raises.html
The soaring stone monuments known as obelisks were the Egyptian pharaohs' way of capturing a ray of revered sunlight in stone. In this section, follow NOVA's ultimately successful attempts to raise an obelisk of its own. Also, learn where ancient Egypt's obelisks have ended up today, explore other Egyptian monuments using QuickTime VR, and more.

this really is worth a look - GO SEE!!!!





 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 346 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Fri, Jun  9, 2000 (14:50) * 47 lines 
 
(Yup i'm back on form - finding all sorts of stuff again)
This sounds interesting. No pix though. Found it when I was looking up on your earlier query. There's also a good Bibliography at http://csweb.bournemouth.ac.uk/consci/text_kn/knbiblio.htm
_______________________________________________________________________________
From http://csweb.bournemouth.ac.uk/consci/text_kn/knintro.htm



Introduction to the Knowlton henge complex
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The group of Late Neolithic henge monuments at Knowlton is generally recognised as one of the five most important enclosure complexes in Wessex at this time (Renfrew 1973; Wainwright 1989). These complexes consist primarily of massive earthwork enclosures up to 480m across, and often associated with other Late Neolithic monuments such as timber circles and monumental mounds. The importance of these complexes is demonstrated by their continued role in the Early Bronze Age when they became the focus for round barrow cemeteries. Nonetheless, despite their obvious significance, their function remains poorly understood.

Their role as the effective centres of Wessex have been stressed by several authors (Bradley and Chapman 1986; Wainwright 1989, 147), whilst it has also been noted that they may have acted in the maintenance of relations with other distant communities via the axe trade (Bradley 1984, 54). In terms of the activities which occurred within the henge enclosures, Burgess (1980, 326) argues that the Wessex henges may have held a permanent population of holy men or retainers to a chief. This view is supported by Mackie (1981) who goes a stage further by suggesting that we should compare the large henges of Wessex as being similar to Early Christian monastic sites, combining a ritual role with the domestic life of a resident population. The idea of both a domestic and a ritual role to henge enclosures appears to be supported by the evidence recovered from excavation at Durrington Walls, although the excavators were more cautious in their interpretations (Wainwright and Longworth 1971).

The potential for display at henge sites is also a popular theme in the interpretation of their function. This is a corollary of their design which places the bank outside the ditch thereby creating a grandstand effect from which audiences could view activities taking place in the centre (Burgess 1980, 237). If this is the case we could therefore argue that the role of the ditch was to act as a physical barrier between the observers and the observed, allowing a view, but not access. The suitability of henges to this role is amply shown by the Roman conversion of the henge of Maumbury Rings, Dorchester, into an amphitheatre. Nonetheless, we cannot assume that since we can see the value of henges as auditoriums that their builders held similar views. In this respect it should be noted that at Mount Pleasant the site was, for a time, surrounded by a timber palisade, which would have obstructed both visibility and access to the interior from the banks (Wainwright 1979). With such equivocal evidence, perhaps we
hould take the view of Darvill (1987, 81-2) that it is likely that henges fulfilled many functions, and indeed changed their role through time.

Extensive fieldwork has been carried out at and around four of these henge enclosures: Avebury (Smith 1965; Ucko et al 1991), Stonehenge and Durrington Walls (Wainwright and Longworth 1971; Richards 1990; Cleal et al 1995); Mount Pleasant (Wainwright 1979), and Marden (Wainwright 1971). At Knowlton however, little or no fieldwork has been carried out and, when this latter complex is mentioned in discussions of henge monuments, it is usually considered by analogy with these better known sites. The extent to which these analogies are accurate is unclear, and can only be resolved by considerable fieldwork in this little understood part of Wessex.

At first sight the lack of fieldwork at Knowlton is curious since just 500m to the north lies Cranborne Chase, where there has been considerable work in recent years in the examination of Neolithic landscape patterns (see Barrett et al 1991; Tilley 1994). These studies have demonstrated the importance of Cranborne Chase in the Early Neolithic, with the long barrows and the Dorset cursus forming obvious focal points for activity. Nonetheless, it seems equally clear that in the Later Neolithic, the local communities ceased building major monuments in Cranborne Chase and diverted their attention to the construction of the henge complex at Knowlton, just to the south (see area plan). That this geographical shift has been so little studied can be explained by examining the history of research in this part of Dorset.

Cranborne Chase is well known as the proving ground for the modern approach to archaeological fieldwork pioneered by General Pitt Rivers in the late 19th century (Barker 1977, 13). His excavations in the area included many famous sites such as Wor Barrow, South Lodge, and the Martin Down enclosure (Pitt Rivers 1898). Unfortunately for the study of British prehistory, the extent of the General's lands ended at the boundaries of Cranborne Chase, and Knowlton lay just outside of this area. The legacy of Pitt-Rivers' fieldwork appears to have acted as a magnet for archaeologists whose new research could refer back to the wealth of evidence he collected. As this level of data for the Neolithic of Cranborne Chase has increased, it seems to have become increasingly difficult to fit the relatively unknown complex at Knowlton into the picture. It is certainly apparent that it will be many years before the quantity of data concerning this latter area compares with that currently available in Cranborne Chase.

In order to make some first steps in rectifying this imbalance Bournemouth University has begun a series of free-standing projects at the Knowlton complex aiming to enhance the general level of knowledge in the area. Through this program of targeted research it is hoped to examine all of the major monuments in the immediate area through detailed survey and small excavation projects. This work will provide a framework, both for the interpretation of the role and extent of the Knowlton complex within the Allen valley, and also its relationship to the wider landscape of Cranborne Chase.

http://csweb.bournemouth.ac.uk/consci/text_kn/knback.htm
Background to the henge complex
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Site location
The complex of monuments at Knowlton lies in the parish of Woodlands which is in turn within East Dorset District Council (centred on SU02450994). It is situated c.2 miles south of Cranborne and c.6 miles north of Wimborne, around the junction of the B3078 and Lumber Lane which meet beside the bank of the Southern Circle. The most prominent site in the complex is the Church Henge which still survives as a substantial earthwork, and at which there is limited parking.

Complex period/type
Knowlton Rings consists of 4 earthworks: the North Circle, Church Circle, Southern Circle, and the 'Old Churchyard'. In addition to these sites, to the east of the Church Circle is the Great Barrow, the largest round barrow in Dorset, and almost certainly directly related to the henges. Within a one mile radius of these earthworks there are also a large number of barrows and ring-ditches with particular foci to the SSW and NE of the henges see site plan.

The Central and Southern Circle are generally seen on morphological grounds as being classic henges, while the North Circle was regarded by Harding and Lee (1987) as a 'possible henge'. The status of the 'Old Churchyard' is also uncertain although documentary research suggests that it pre-dates the medieval period.

Within the Church Circle is the ruin of Knowlton church which contains architectural features dating from the twelfth to the sixteenth centuries.

Detail of the church from southwest
A plan of the complex is included in the RCHM volume for East Dorset (RCHM 1975) which shows the four circles, the Great Barrow and the clusters of barrows and ring- ditches to the SSW and NE. Since this survey was completed further study in the area (Grinsell 1982, Papworth 1988) has revealed a number of new ring-ditches. In addition, the dry summer of 1995 has added considerably to our knowledge of sites within the Knowlton area, with two further enclosures being located by aerial photography, as well as confirmation that the outer ditch of the Great Barrow is discontinuous (Green pers. comm.).

Aerial view of henge complex
Previous work
The only published excavation within the area of the Knowlton complex prior to Bournemouth’s work was an examination of a pipe trench which cut a chord through the outer ditch of the Great Barrow revealing a skeleton dated by the excavators to the Anglo-Saxon period (Field 1962). More recently, in 1986 a programme of fieldwalking was carried out by the Allen Valley Fieldwalking Group. This focused on eight fields to the east of the B3078. Although it has not been possible to examine the material personally, interim publication noted a lithic scatter c.800m to the south of the Southern Circle (Hall 1988, 154-5).




 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 347 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Fri, Jun  9, 2000 (14:58) * 44 lines 
 
Even more ..... Hey I found the Journal British Archeology is freely available online - full articles. The following item is from Issue no 43, April 1999. and follows the discussion we had earlier about barrows and a Time Team excavation. Check it out.

http://britac3.britac.ac.uk//cba/ba/ba43/ba43feat.html


Bury the dead in a sacred landscape
Bronze Age barrows are often found near rivers, lakes and springs. David Field explains why

Where did Bronze Age people bury their dead? Where were the favoured locations for their round barrows? For years, there has been an unquestioned assumption within archaeology that over 3,000 years ago people preferred to site barrows on the tops of hills and ridges, or on the `false crests' of prominent hills, as these were places that commanded the widest view.

Quite why this incorrect assumption has prevailed may be partly because it offers an enduring image of funeral ceremonies taking place at visually dramatic points in the landscape. Archaeologists have also tended to focus on the relatively few surviving barrows on the chalk downs, while paying less attention to the greater number of flattened barrows in lower locations such as lower hill slopes and river valleys.

Recent surveys of the evidence as a whole across large tracts of southern England suggest, in fact, that relatively few barrows were positioned on the highest points in the landscape. Most were rather built on sloping ground, usually on the middle or lower slopes of a hill, where drainage is good. Remarkably large numbers were also sited close to springs, lakes, or rivers, sometimes in the valley floor but often along the upper reaches of the river. It is difficult to escape the conclusion that water and well-drained soils were deliberately sought out for the location of Bronze Age barrow cemeteries.

These observations allow us to revise our interpretation of certain aspects of Bronze Age funeral practice. The idea of the existence of `ritual landscapes' in prehistory is now well-established, and from ethnographic records we know that many non-western societies regard the whole landscape as imbued with sacred or mythological significance. It is easy to imagine how features such as caves and springs might be thought to provide a point of contact with the spirit world.

Seen in this light, the positioning of barrow cemeteries may suggest a funeral practice in the British Bronze Age as much concerned with the sanctity of the landscape as with status display, leaderveneration and other such traditional interpretations.

It has long been thought that surviving barrow cemeteries tend to cluster in certain restricted areas - such as, for example, around Stonehenge and Avebury. This clustering has been said to reflect the location of the summer pastures of a transhumant community, or the presence of settlement nearby, or even the existence of a property or territorial boundary. It has also been argued that earlier monuments attract later ones around them.

The assumption has been, however, that these concentrations are genuine. In fact the areas where barrows exist today as earthworks appear to be amongst the few that have escaped episodes of intensive cultivation during the Roman, medieval and later periods.

Recent research by the English Royal Commission in North-East Yorkshire indicates that there is greater chance of survival where barrows are located on steeper ground rather than on gentler slopes, and this is likely to be the case for the southern chalk too. Many large clusters may have been lost long ago. Air photography has revealed many such levelled cemeteries and the emphasis has shifted as a result. The concentration of ring ditches on the Isle of Thanet in Kent, for example, compares with extant barrow distribution around Stonehenge.

Pioneering work by Peter Woodward and Stephen Green in the Great Ouse valley of Cambridgeshire during the 1970s helped to draw attention to the number of levelled round barrows along river valleys. Here, over 400 ring-ditches, most of them likely to be levelled barrows, occurred in often quite large clusters at intervals along the river terrace.

Along the Avon valley, in Wiltshire, air photographs show that a string of levelled barrow cemeteries extend all the way to the river's source, close to the great henge at Marden. A similar pattern can be seen around other rivers, for example the Wylye, Nine Mile River, and the Kennet, all in Wessex, as well as elsewhere.

Other water features may also have been important markers. In Hampshire, for example, some barrows tend to focus on lakes and meres.

New surveys of surviving barrows in the south-east of England, Salisbury Plain, and the Marlborough Downs have also offered a different perspective. Even among surviving examples, few are found on the highest points in the landscape. Instead barrows are found on middle or lower slopes or around the foot of a hill. Sometimes low ridges in the lee of higher hills were used. Many cemeteries of barrows on the chalk - such as Ladywell Barrows, near Imber on Salisbury Plain, Rockley on the Marlborough Downs, and the Seven Barrows at Lambourne in Berkshire - can in fact be interpreted better as groups located around the heads of valleys or at places where springs formerly emerged.

If we accept that barrows may have been placed near rivers and springs for sacred reasons, it remains to ask what those sacred reasons might be. No answer is certain. But it is nonetheless interesting that in China, cemeteries have for centuries been placed in carefully chosen positions in the landscape. Ideally such sites are well-drained - to allow the life-force to `drain away' - being situated on slopes with a water feature or sump at the foot, and sheltered from supposedly evil north winds by a mountain or hill. These factors are considered of such importance that where no natural drainage feature is present a ditch is often dug to provide one.

In a sacred landscape, prominent landscape features often develop their own mythology. In this light, it may be no accident that the many barrows along the South Downs escarpment are not mirrored by a similar distribution on the North Downs. The South Downs escarpment faces north, the North Downs face south. The North Downs escarpment therefore receives more light - encouraging different vegetation - and the complementing opposites of light and shade, north and south, could perhaps have had some sacred significance; albeit one whose exact meaning may no longer be recoverable.

It also seems that a concept of harmony within the landscape may have played some part in the placing of burial mounds. Barrow cemeteries are rarely geometric, but are often aesthetically pleasing. The final plan often seems to have been deliberately arranged, even though individual barrows may have been constructed over centuries.

A number of barrow cemeteries may also have been aligned on celestial features, along a north-east/south-west axis. The barrow cemetery at Winterbourne Stoke crossroads, near Stonehenge, is perhaps the best known example. This is the same alignment incorporated in Stonehenge itself, in a number of other stone circles and also in typical middle Bronze Age co-axial field systems (see BA, November 1997, May 1998).

The Bronze Age landscape, therefore, appears to have been arranged according to a cosmological plan that was widely understood and accepted. Now, the latest survey work suggests that the burial mounds of the dead, like the monuments, field systems, and possibly even domestic architecture of the living, were ordered according to a system in which the landscape itself played a defining role.

David Field is an archaeologist with the English Royal Commission (RCHME), which merged this month with English Heritage



 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 348 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Fri, Jun  9, 2000 (15:02) * 2 lines 
 
Comments on any of this anyone?????
One bit that stuck out for me in the above article was 'In a sacred landscape, prominent landscape features often develop their own mythology'. That seems to link in with the item we had earlier in geomyth about Aboriginal 'songlines' in Australia. I haven't come across this in Africa yet but I will ask questions when I am in Mali in October.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 349 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Jun  9, 2000 (15:10) * 1 lines 
 
In the January/February 2000 issue of Archaeology Magazine new findings at Avebury, one of which is a woodhenge similar to the one near Stonehenge were discussed. Near Stonehenge there are several including Durrington Walls which has quite a large one and a smaller one which will never be fully excavated because a housing estate was built squarely atop most of the entire area. Has anymore informations come out of the study of Avebury's newly rediscovered woodhenge or the Beckhampton / West Kennet Avenues? I have Burl's book on Avebury but it was written before any of these new finds. Would appreciate an update if you have one!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 350 of 1283: Stephen C. Appleby  (StephenA) * Wed, Jun 14, 2000 (13:15) * 1 lines 
 
I have read the above postings on ritual and scared landscapes....a lot of the ideas I have researched for my thesis...so as soon as I cut out the technical jargon I will try and post something coherant on the subject...


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 351 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Jun 14, 2000 (14:10) * 1 lines 
 
Aloha Stephen. We await your posting with great anticipation (having read the entire thesis with great pleasure) and encouraging you to take your time as we exercise patience. I am delighted that you are posting here *smile*


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 352 of 1283: Curious Wolfie  (wolf) * Wed, Jun 14, 2000 (14:35) * 1 lines 
 
oh new blood! haha, welcome stephen. don't mind me, i'm just a little wolfie.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 353 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Jun 14, 2000 (14:44) * 1 lines 
 
Vampire Wolfie strikes again...*grin*


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 354 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Jun 14, 2000 (14:47) * 1 lines 
 
sorry.....off topic drift again.....*sigh*


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 355 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Wed, Jun 14, 2000 (16:55) * 1 lines 
 
(Now where's Buffy when we need her? guess the house male's monopolising her again! - sorry, it's late and I'm goofy!)


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 356 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Jun 14, 2000 (18:20) * 2 lines 
 
*laugh* Oh dear, second childhood or just burgeoning manhood there? He is in good company. There is an entire topic for the program in the TV conference...
(Am surprised there is not a Babes conference one as well...I have one there!)


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 357 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Thu, Jun 15, 2000 (01:36) * 1 lines 
 
(I don't!)


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 358 of 1283: Curious Wolfie  (wolf) * Thu, Jun 15, 2000 (09:24) * 1 lines 
 
(yet!)


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 359 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Jun 15, 2000 (13:21) * 1 lines 
 
I think the creator of same is no longer creating. Mine for John was the last one of that sort I did in Screwed...and Male Babes taught me not to do that again..!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 360 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Jun 15, 2000 (17:30) * 9 lines 
 
From NASA's children's site:

For several days following June 16, the Moon will appear nearly full and, of
course, there's another full Moon every month. Each one hovers above the
horizon for a while as it rises, triggering the 'Moon Illusion.' The
illusion simply lasts longer for northern observers near the time of the
summer solstice.

(Oh to be at any stone circle in the British Isles about now...*sigh*)


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 361 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Jun 15, 2000 (17:31) * 1 lines 
 
It has the same effect on the recumbent stone in the Scottish circles?!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 362 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Fri, Jun 16, 2000 (09:56) * 5 lines 
 
I cut this out to post ages ago - and lost it in the debris. From the Sunday Times April 14

Bespectacled warriors who terrorised ancient Britain
The mere sight of their double horned battle helmets was enough to strike fear into the hearts of the Brits. But as archeologists have discovered the Vikings who rampaged across Britain and Europe also wore something a little less daunting on their heads - spectacles! Clear disks uncovered at Viking settlements in Sweden, which were at first thought to be jewellery are in fact sophisticated lenses. German scientists who examined the finds were astounded by the standard reached by ancient opticians who were working between 700 and 1000 AD. the principles they used to make these lenses were not really understood until many centuries later, yet these people managed to employ these principles to create lenses that were perfect for a wide variety of uses. Their cut is practically perfect and the surface is almost perfectly elliptic. The optical quality can be compared with that of modern spectacles. But the archeologists who found the lenses at settlements in Gotland say that they don't prove the Vikings were a
y more civilised than previously thought. It is thought that they probably stole the lenses from merchant caravans that travelled across from eastern Europe or the Byzantine Empire. The Vikings were always raiding the Byzantines and once they realised what these lenses could be used for they would have been much prized. The size of the lenses also indicates that some were used to make the first crude telescopes, 500 years earlier than the Dutch opticians thought to have invented them for seafarers. the largest had a radius of 50mm and a thickness of 30mm.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 363 of 1283:  (sprin5) * Fri, Jun 16, 2000 (11:53) * 1 lines 
 
Interesting image, big hulking Vikings wearing glasses. I wonder if they had shades too?


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 364 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Jun 16, 2000 (12:06) * 1 lines 
 
That is amazing. I am wondering how the ground the lenses and how they calibrated them one with the other. Nothing is worse than glasses whose lenses do not match. It makes me seasick-feeling. Despite my favoring gentlemen who wear them, I somehow cannot imagine how it helped their image as fearsome warriors (from whose loins the Hemming lineage arose.) I am wondering why it did not get more press. That is amazing, as I said...


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 365 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Fri, Jun 16, 2000 (16:33) * 1 lines 
 
there was a rather fanciful line drawing attached, but my scanne is offline just now, and I wasn't convinced!!! I think the Byzantine point of origin would be an interesting line to follow and see if there is more anywhere on their techniques and use of telescopes.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 366 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Jun 16, 2000 (18:14) * 23 lines 
 
This from Reuters which is probably old news to some but new to me:

Scientists Probe Riddle of Stonehenge Skeleton

LONDON (Reuters) - The skeleton of a man executed up to 2,100 years ago at Stonehenge, Britain's greatest prehistoric monument, was shown in public for the first time Friday.

The bones, which date from between 100 BC and 1000 AD, were first unearthed in 1923 and stored in London, where they were thought to have been destroyed in
the Nazi Blitz in 1941, according to government conservation body, English Heritage.

The skeleton was found to have survived by author Mike Pitts during research for a book about the giant stone circle in western England.

After using modern forensic techniques, scientists have concluded that the man did not die of natural causes as had been thought but was the victim of an execution.

Archaeologist Jacqueline McKinley said the man, who was about 35, died from violent beheading. There is a small nick on the lower jaw and a cut
on the fourth neck vertebra, indicating he was beheaded by a sharp sword.

"Why he was executed is not known," English Heritage said. "But it is
possible that he was singled out for special punishment, as Stonehenge clearly represents a dramatic and important site for the event and the man's burial."

Scientists are using carbon-dating techniques to try to find out exactly when the man died. It is only the fourth complete skeleton to have been found at Stonehenge, a World Heritage Site built between 3050 BC and 1600 BC.

http://news.excite.com/news/r/000609/09/science-britain-stonehenge-dc/



 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 367 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Sat, Jun 17, 2000 (03:31) * 1 lines 
 
I think i must hae missed that too. curious!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 368 of 1283: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Sat, Jun 17, 2000 (10:23) * 1 lines 
 
Bespectacled Vikings. Now there's an image. It has been surmised that a lot of the reason for the bad press the Vikings got was due to the fact that they weren't Christians. At least not in the early stages of their entry onto the world stage. They particularly favored raiding monasteries and church, as the Church was rich. Since monks were virtually the only people who were literate then -- it was they who wrote what survives from that time.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 369 of 1283: Stephen C. Appleby  (StephenA) * Sat, Jun 17, 2000 (13:12) * 43 lines 
 
Cognicized, Conceptualized and Cultural Landscapes - Some brief thoughts on new
approaches to landscape archaeology.

The concept of ‘ritual landscape’ is one which still runs through much of the writing on
prehistory. This term is, however, outmoded and outdated for the very reason that it
attempts to compartmentalize prehistoric landscapes into the ‘economic’ and the
‘ritual’, the ‘sacred’ and the ‘profane’. There is, however, no evidence that such a
demarcation existed in the past and we should really be looking at landscapes as a
whole and not attempting to categorize them into areas that, although they may make
life easier for the archaeologist, had little or no relevance in prehistory. So where are
we to start when attempting to understand prehistoric landscapes? As mentioned
already the term ‘ritual landscape’ is not one that should be relied on too heavily.
Neither should interpretations based on the breaking down of landscapes into the
‘normal’ categories of Neolithic, Bronze Age and Iron Age landscapes be approached
uncritically. In the past landscapes, and the monuments contained within the landscape,
have been approached mainly in terms of the monuments themselves. So much has
been written about sites such as Stonehenge and Avebury in Britain, and comparable
monuments in America, such as Cahokia, that it is often easy to forget that the
monuments themselves are only a small part of the picture. We must never lose sight of
the fact that what we are looking at is a ‘cultural landscape’, a landscape that is not
only a product of human activity and manipulation, but is conceptualized and perceived
in the minds of the people interacting with their lived environment. This idea of
‘cognitive landscapes’ is one that may take some time to come to terms with, but the
lived landscape is as much a cultural and cosmological construct as a more easily
recognizable piece of material culture. The crux of this argument is based around the
idea that manipulation of the landscape, and the construction of monuments is not
solely related to the kind of economic determinizm suggested by Colin Renfrew
(1973). If we look beyond the monuments themselves, at the landscape, the scatters of
artefacts around unaltered ‘natural’ places and at anthropological study of significant
places in the landscape, it is possible to see that the concepts that up until relatively
recently have been associated solely with the construction of the earliest monuments,
have their origins much further back in prehistory. If we look at studies of Australian
Aboriginal culture (see especially Josephine Flood - The Archaeology of the
Dreamtime), and various studies of Native American society, we can see that the ideas
more normally associated with the building of monuments within the landscape are
much more concerned with developments in human thought patterns and cognitive
evolution than in any kind of economic determinizm. If we want to study the
development of landscapes over time it is much more important that from now on we
look at the landscape as an evolving entity rather than as a series of monumental sites
associated with specific periods in prehistory. If we use this approach in conjunction
with more recent work on developments in human cognition, then we may have a
much better chance of understanding, not just prehistoric landscapes, but of prehistory
as a whole.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 370 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Jun 17, 2000 (14:57) * 2 lines 
 
Stephen, Thank you seem hardly adequate to express my delight with your posting.
It is fascinating. Being able to walk the places they walked must be almost a religious experience, for those who have the ability and empathy to feel their presence. One day I shall return and feel that once again.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 371 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Jun 17, 2000 (15:57) * 27 lines 
 
Woven cloth dates back 27,000 years

Clay bearing a textile imprint together with a cast
By BBC News Online science editor Dr David
Whitehouse

Woven clothing was being produced on looms 27,000
years ago, far earlier than had been thought, scientists
say.

It had been thought that the first farmers developed
weaving 5,000 to 10,000 years ago.

But Professor Olga Soffer, of the University of Illinois,
is about to publish details in the journal Current
Anthropology of 90 fragments of clay that have
impressions from woven fibres.

Professor Soffer revealed some her findings recently
when she said that a 25,000-year-old figurine was
wearing a woven hat.

If confirmed, her work could change our understanding
of distant ancestors, the so-called Ice Age hunters of
the Upper Palaeolithic Stone Age.

More at......http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/sci/tech/newsid_790000/790569.stm


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 372 of 1283: Stephen C. Appleby  (StephenA) * Sun, Jun 18, 2000 (07:29) * 247 lines 
 
Domesticates, Monuments, Death & Society.

Some brief thoughts on the adoption of agriculture in Neolithic Europe.

One of the great paradoxes and debates surrounding interpretations of
Neolithic society in Europe is to what extent did the adoption of agriculture create the
hypothesized ideas of social stratification deemed by some necessary for the
construction of the earliest monuments. Colin Renfrew (1973) suggested that in order
to create the correct social and economic stratification necessary for the construction
of the earliest Neolithic monuments, it is necessary to have an agrarian economy in
place before hand. At the opposite end of the spectrum Julian Thomas (1999) argues
that at the time the earliest monuments were constructed in Britain, the evidence for an
economy based almost solely on agriculture is practically non existent. As usual the
real truth lies somewhere these two polar opposites, although my own opinion on
reassessment of the evidence (evidence which admittedly Renfrew would not have had
access to) is that the ‘truth’, if indeed truth is a concept applicable to prehistory, is
probably much closer to the Julian Thomas view than to Renfrew’s. So how are we to
solve this problem that has caused so much debate and controversy in the past?
Perversely it is not to the biological remains that we should turn first, but to the
monuments themselves, but first we must look at ourselves, and at the development of
the human mind.

Steven Mithen (1996) has pointed out that the cognitive abilities to produce
not just functional stone tools, but also items of quite breathtaking beauty, were in
place as far back as the Upper Palaeolithic at least. The adoption of agriculture then
can not be seen as a quantum leap in human cognition as has sometimes been
suggested in Childesque ideas of some form of ‘Neolithic Revolution’. What we are in
fact seeing is a very small part of a long term process, a process that may not
necessarily, in its initial stages at least, have been consciously embarked upon at all.
This raises another question as to who domesticated what? Did prehistoric
communities domesticate plants, or was it the other way round. The major change in
the Mesolithic / Neolithic transition was not the beginnings of the use of domesticates
per-se but the construction of the first monuments. This has in turn led to deterministic
theories about environmental and economic change being responsible for the social
change and the social stratification thought necessary for the origins of monumentality.
By looking at a couple of case studies it is hoped to show that the transition from a
hunter / fisher / gatherer (HFG) based economy, to an economy based on agriculture
was a much longer term event that did not really reach an intensive level into well into
the Iron Age.



The table above shows some of the arguments put forward both for and against
continuity and change in the Meso. / Neo. transition. Archaeology, however,
obstinately refuses to fall into such neat columns.

Let us now examine some of the changes that occurred in the earlier Neolithic
to see whether or not we can identify the origins of ideas most usually associated with
the Neolithic back into the Mesolithic. In my own research into the origins of
monumentality, I have suggested that perhaps the concepts associated with
monuments at least can be traced back into the forest environment of the Mesolithic
(Appleby, 2000). I have also suggested that perhaps manipulation of woodland in the
Neolithic may not, in fact, be purely for economic reasons but that perhaps Neolithic
communities were creating a kind of ‘aesthetic of landscape’ associated as much with
phenomenology and cosmology as with economy (ibid.). Rather than outlining the
main points of that paper again I now propose to look at some of the more general
concepts associated with the Neolithic in Britain and Europe, and see how these can be
used to fit in with the idea that adoption of an agrarian economy was somehow a
determining factor in the construction of earlier Neolithic monuments.

The first monuments to appear in the British Neolithic are the long barrows and
long cairns associated with ritual disposal of the dead. Writers such as Renfrew (1973)
have postulated that perhaps these can be seen as boundary or territorial markers in the
landscape. These in some way define the boundaries between different groups of early
agriculturalists, and were primarily built by utilizing an agricultural surplus to feed the
people building the monuments. This suggests a certain amount of social hierarchy and
complexity, with the elite at the top being able to co-opt and coerce their social
underlings. Robert Chapman (1981) was also suggested that perhaps the building of
early Neolithic burial mounds in some way marks out not only territory, but also
creates a sense of ‘belonging’ to a certain place, and therefore to a certain territory by
the placing of the ancestors into these mortuary monuments. In this sense the ancestors
almost become a separate species, still living in the landscape inside the monuments.
These socio-economic views are very much a product of their time, and very
processual in origin. Other than the monuments themselves there is no real evidence to
back this theory up. The pollen diagrams for this period suggest that at the time the
first mortuary monuments were constructed around 90% of the British Isles would
have been covered in primary woodland (Bennett, 1989). This immediately discounts
certain aspects of the theory on two counts. Firstly, by its very nature primary
woodland is not really conjusive to any intensive form of agriculture, other than a
shifting garden based agriculture. Also the idea of early mortuary monuments being a
kind of ‘visual boundary’ between the territorial claims of different social groups does
not really work either because, unless you are Superman and have some sort of highly
developed x-ray vision, getting clear lines of sight through areas of primary forest is
impossible. Certainly, these monuments would not have been constructed at random,
but at places that had significance to the communities that built them. This significance,
however, can not really be equated to the adoption of agriculture as the evidence
suggests otherwise. What we need to do is look at the symbolism associated with these
monuments and try and base our interpretations on this.

The symbolism associated with eralier Neolithic is notoriously difficult to
interpret and it is not our place here to really try and understand the whole sequence.
Very basically what we see in the earlier Neolithic is burials of groups of individuals
under long mounds or lang cairns, some of these, such as Waylands Smithy in
Berkshire, are built on top of earlier burials. Richard Bradley (1998) has suggested that
these long mounds can be seen as symbolic ‘houses of the dead’, and indeed, at some
Linearbandkeramik sites on the edge of the loess in continental Europe, there is
evidence that suggests that houses of the dead were constructed directly on top of the
foundations of earlier dwelling places. Certainly these ideas have a number of
ethnographic parallels where houses of the deceased are destroyed and avoided, as
they are still associated with the presence and spirit of the dead person. Perhaps then
this is a more feasible explanation, with symbolic aspects of the ‘house of the dead’
being more important than associations with social hierarchies and the rise of the
individual. The individual does not really become visible in the archaeology of the
Neolithic until much later, with the introduction of single inhumations in the later
Neolithic and early Bronze Age.

What I am not suggesting here is that in some way domesticates came to be
adopted much later than has previously been suggested. Certainly, there is evidence
from the earlier Neolithic that domesticated animals had been introduced from
continental Europe in the 4th Millenia BCE. My argument is based around the idea that
in the earlier Neolithic there was not the wholesale adoption of domesticates as
previously theorized. What we see is a rather more gradual adoption of domesticates,
and in the intial phases at least, these would have been used alongside collected natural
resources. There are many ideas that can be brought into this equation, not only for the
building of monuments and the adoption of agriculture, but for the social ideas in place
at the time. Gender theory is one approach that needs to be considered. Watson and
Kennedy (1998) have forwarded the idea that even if we use the traditional
androcentric man the hunter / woman the gatherer roles for prehistory, it is still
possible to see that perhaps women’s role in the adoption of agriculture was greater
than has previously been realized. Also by looking at the symbolism associated with
changes in material culture over time, and by looking at this in its landscape context,
inculding studying how landscape usage changed over time, it should be possible ot get
a much better idea of the role changing exploitation changed over time. By looking at
how concepts of time, space and place developed as societies developed from a HFG
economy to an agrarian one, and how this manifested itself in material culture and in
developing ideologies and cosmologies, we should hopefully better be able to
understand not just the economic and environmental implications of an increased
reliance on domesticates, but the social implications too.

These are no more than random thoughts, based on my own past research. I
have not tried to back much of what I have said up with any in depth studies of
excavation reports and recent theoretical developments. These thoughts were mainly
pulled in a fairly incoherant form off the top of my head. Hopefull though there are
some ideas here that can be used in your paper in conjunction with other evidence. The
bibliography below will also hopefully be of some help.

Bibliography:


Allen, M.J. 1997. Environment and Land Use: The Economic Development of the
Communites who built Stonehenge (an Economy to Support the Stones), in
Cunliffe, B. & Renfrew, C. Science and Stonehenge: 115-144. Oxford: Oxford
University Press.

Appleby, S.C. (2000) Beetles, Bones & Standing Stones - An archaeological and
anthropological study of the origins of monuments is a wooded landscape.
Unpublished BA Dissertation, University of Reading.

Barrett, J.C. 1994. Fragments from Antiquity - An Archaeology of Social life in
Britain 2900 - 1200 BC. Oxford & Cambridge (MA): Blackwells.

Bell, M. & Walker, M.J.C. 1992. Late Quaternary Environmental Change: Physical
and Human Perspectives. Harlow: Longman.

Bennett, K.D. 1989. A Provisional Map of Forest Types for the British Isles 5000
Years Ago, Journal of Quaternary Science 4: 141-144.

Bradley, R. 1984. The Social Foundations of Prehistoric Britain: Themes and
Variations in the Archaeology of Power. Harlow & New York: Longman.

Bradley, R. 1993. Altering the Earth: The Origins of Monuments in Britain and
Continental Europe. Edinburgh: Society of Antiquaries of Scotland
Monograph Series No. 8

Bradley, R.J. 1998. The Significance of Monuments. London and New York:
Routledge.

Bradley, R.J. 2000. An Archaeology of Natural Places. London & New York:
Routledge.

Caseldine, A.E. 1984. Palaeobotanical Investigations at the Sweet Track, Somerset
Levels Papers 10: 65-78.

Caseldine, A. 1988. A Wetland Resource: The Evidence for the Environmental
Exploitation in the Somerest Levels during the Prehistoric Period, in Murphy,
P. & French, C. (eds.), The Exploitation of the Wetlands: 239-265. Oxford:
B.A.R.

Chapman, R. 1981. The Emergence of Formal Disposal Areas and the ‘Problem’ of
Megalithic Tombs in Prehistoric Europe, in Chapman, R., Kinnes, I. &
Randsborg, K. (eds.), The Archaeology of Death: 71-81. Cambridge, New
York and Melbourne: Cambridge University Press.

Cleal, R.M.J., Walker K.E & Montague, R. (eds.). 1995. Stonehenge in it’s
Landscape: Twentieth Century Excavations. London: English Heritage
Archaeological Report No. 10.

Coles, B. 1988. Fossil Insect assemblages from the Somerset Levels: The work of
Maureen Girling, in Murphy, P. & French, C. The Exploitation of the
Wetlands: 5-20. Oxford: B.A.R.

Coles, B. & J. 1995. Enlarging the Past. Edinburgh: Society of Antiquaries of
Scotland Monograph No. 11.

Coles, B. & J. 1989. People of the Wetlands - Bogs, Bodies and Lake Dwellers.
London: Thames & Hudson.

Coles, B. & J. 1986. Sweet Track to Glastonbury. London: Thames & Hudson.

Coles, J. 1984. The Archaeology of Wetlands. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

Conkey, M.W. & Gero, J.M. 1991. Tensions, Pluralities and Engendering
Archaeology: An Introduction to Women and Prehistory, in Gero, J.M. &
Conkey, M.W. (eds.), Engendering Archaeology: Women and Prehistory:
3-30. Oxford & Malden (MA): Blackwells.

Conkey, M.W. & Spector, J. 1984. Archaeology and the Study of Gender, in
Hays-Gilpin K. & Whitely, D.S. (eds.), (1998) Reader in Gender Archaeology:
11-45. Oxford & New York: Routledge.

Darvill, T. 1987. Prehistoric Britain. London & New York: Routledge.

Darvill, T. 1997. Ever Decreasing Circles: The Sacred Geographies of Stonehenge
and it’s Landscape, in Cunliffe, B & Renfrew, C. (eds.), Science and
Stonehenge: 167-202. Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press for The
British Academy.

Edmonds, M. 1999. Ancestral Geographies of the Neolithic. London & New York:
Routledge.

Evans, J.G. 1999. Land & Archaeology - Histories of Human Environment in the
British Isles. Stroud & Charleston (SC): Tempus.

Hirsch, E. 1995. Landscape: Between Place and Space, in Hirsch E. and O’Hanlon,
M. (eds.), The Anthropology of Landscape: Perspectives on Place and Space:
1-30. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Mithen, S. 1996. The Prehistory of the Mind. London: Thames & Hudson.

Orme, B. 1981. Anthropology for Archaeologists. London: Duckworth.

Parker-Pearson, M. 1993. Bronze Age Britain. London: Batsford.

Richards, J. 1990. The Stonehenge Environs Project. London: English Heritage.

Richards, J. 1991. Stonehenge. London: Batsford / English Heritage.

Thomas, J. 1999. Understanding the Neolithic. London & New York: Routledge.

Tilley, C. 1994. A Phenomenology of Landscape - Places, Paths and Monuments.
Oxford & Providence (RI): Berg.

Watson, P.J. & Kennedy, M.C. 1998. The Development of Horticulture in the
Eastern Woodlands of North America: Women’s Role, in Hays-Gilpin &
Whitely, D.S. (eds.), Reader in Gender Archaeology: 173-190. Oxford & New
York: Routledge.



 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 373 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Jun 18, 2000 (14:59) * 1 lines 
 
Where do I begin...?! Stephen, this is wonderful stuff. Many questions are tumbling around in my head which are vying for answers and attention. I seem to need to be brought up to date with the literature much as the authors do whose books I rely on. Your sharing your expertise with us makes me both delighted and aware of the gaps in my understanding of the most recent findings and interpretations. More when I absorb this posting, and thank you for including the bibliography.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 374 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Jun 18, 2000 (21:44) * 3 lines 
 
If you can email me the file containing the table I will post it for you.
American education standards fall so far below English standards that your BA thesis would probably be worthy of a MSc or higher. I wish you would publish in a journal and get proper credit for your insight and analysis. I am stunned and amazed by your brilliance. ...and, you quoted from "The Hobbit"
Thank you!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 375 of 1283: anne hale  (ommin) * Mon, Jun 19, 2000 (07:55) * 2 lines 
 
Thank you Stephen for that erudite theory, I have read about and looked at with much interest, iron age forts on the North Downs and the Harrow Way, a roadway across the top of the downs, and in particular the prominent roadway not far from Boxhill and Mickleham. Also have seen and pondered the many standing stones and barrows in Wales. I certainly found what you had to say most interesting and found it answered some of the queries I have held. Now a question -
I have read somewhere and have spoken too about the subject a late lamented friend who was quite knowledgable having travelled to many different places(Roger Price)- about the possibility of a great civilisation before the great flood which took place in the middle east many thousands of years ago. I have been to the end of the great rift valley just outside Eilat in the Negev and witnessed for myself the proof of such a flood which actually happened in ancient times. Our Israeli guide made a great show of pointing out the sea shells and marine debris embedded in the rock. How do you all think on this?


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 376 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Jun 19, 2000 (14:20) * 1 lines 
 
Anne, not trying toaddress the Archaeolgy, but rather the geology... there are sea fossils in the rocky mountains. Mountains are push-up of ancient sea beds. This does not necessarily mean The Flood did not happen but that there are other reasons for the shells atop the mountains in Israel.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 377 of 1283: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Mon, Jun 19, 2000 (15:41) * 1 lines 
 
There is a theory that the Flood was actually an account of the drastic rise in the level of the Black Sea at the end of the Ice Age.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 378 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Jun 19, 2000 (16:38) * 1 lines 
 
That epoch was full of such disastrous flooding and land transformation. It was during this time that Britain became islands separate from Europe.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 379 of 1283: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Mon, Jun 19, 2000 (16:40) * 1 lines 
 
Which is why they are known as continental islands, having once been part of a larger continent, but later seperated from the larger land mass.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 380 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Jun 19, 2000 (16:43) * 1 lines 
 
Yup *smile*


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 381 of 1283: anne hale  (ommin) * Mon, Jun 19, 2000 (20:50) * 1 lines 
 
I fear I did not explain myself properly. The sea shells and other marine detritus was in a line two inches deep more than half way down the valley. It was situated at the King Solomon's Mine (copper I think from memory) It was a strange place - slaves worked there and graffitti from that time was carved into the rock walls on either side of an ancient roadway. A temple of sorts was situated half way up where the slaves worshipped their gods. Well worth a visit.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 382 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Jun 19, 2000 (20:59) * 1 lines 
 
Fascinating, Anne...Have you pictures or shall I hunt for some?


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 383 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Jun 19, 2000 (21:08) * 1 lines 
 
Stephen, feel free to return to your subject (of which you have much more to say!) or wade in on this...


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 384 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Jun 20, 2000 (15:00) * 78 lines 
 
Been there and was revolted when we guess the wrong day for the solstice travesty at Stonehenge and landed right in the middle of it.

Tuesday June 20, 3:09 PM BBC News

The lure of Stonehenge
The public can celebrate summer solstice at Stonehenge on Wednesday
for the first time more than a decade. What is the appeal of this
ancient stone circle?
Perhaps none have expressed the magic and mystery that is Stonehenge
quite so, er, eloquently as mock rock gods Spinal Tap.
In the imaginatively titled Stonehenge, the band thrash out a tribute
to the ring of stones:

"Stonehenge, where the demons dwell, where the banshees live and they
do live well,Stonehenge, where a man is a man and the children dance
to the pipes of pan,Stonehenge, 'tis a magic place where the moon
doth rise with a dragon's face."

Come the dawn of midsummer on 21 June, members of the public can try
to tap into the magic for the first time in 15 years.
About 10,000 people - curious tourists, New Age revellers and pagan
worshippers - are expected to mark the summer solstice at sunrise,
free to wander in and around the stones.

English Heritage banned solstice celebrations in 1985, and later
threw up a perimeter fence crowned with barbed wire, following a
nasty showdown between riot police and revellers.
The demonstrators had taken exception to the National Trust
injunction against their plans to stage a free festival in and around
the World Heritage Site. The resulting clash, in which 700 people
were arrested, became known as the Battle of the Beanfield.
Trouble also brewed at last year's invitation-only event, when
gatecrashers clambered onto the stones.

Secrets of the ancients
What is it about this 5,000-year-old ring of moss-covered stones with
a scenic view of the A303 that exerts such strange pulling power?
Perhaps it is the mystery that shrouds the origins of the monument.
It remains unclear to this day for what purpose the stones were
erected on Salisbury Plain - was Stonehenge intended to be a temple,
a burial ground or a calendar?

Almost the only common belief among Stonehenge scholars is that the
stones are aligned with both the winter and summer solstices.
When the midsummer sun rises directly over the heel stone, it marks
the turning of the season and the approaching harvest season. At
midwinter, the sun rises over a stone on the opposite side of the
circle.

Haul halted
The site is thought to date back to about 3100BC, when it was little
more than a ditch and a circle of round holes cut into the chalk.
Cremated human bones have been excavated from the site.
It was abandoned soon after, and left untouched for more than 1,000
years.
Some experts believe bluestones from the Preseli Hills in southwest
Wales were heaved 240 miles on sleds and boats to the Wiltshire site
in about 2150BC.

It is this journey that the ill-fated Millennium Stone project has
attempted to recreate. The three-tonne stone is now 17m under water
off the Pembrokeshire coast after sinking over the weekend.
By 2000BC, sarsen stones were erected, with the largest weighing in
at 50 tonnes. Modern calculations show that it would have taken 500
men to pull one stone.

Within 150 years, the bluestones were rearranged in the horseshoe and
circle seen today. Originally, there were 60 stones in the circle but
many have since crumbled.
The joint chief of the British Druid Order, Greywolf, explains on the
order's website why worshippers beat a path to the ancient site.
"Having felt the resonance of the stones responding to the beat of a
drum, having heard the voices of our ancestors join in the Awen
chant, having seen the priests and priestesses of elder times walk
among the stones, I could hardly fail to recognise the power of the
place."




 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 385 of 1283: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Tue, Jun 20, 2000 (18:13) * 1 lines 
 
This is as good a place as any to post this as any. Happy Summer Solstice, unless of course you're in the southern hemisphere, then Happy Winter Solstice. In Europe the Summer Soltice became associated with the Feast of St. John the Baptist, actually June 23. The association is similar to that of the Winter Solstice with the Feast of Christmas, Dec. 25. Traditionally in rural France St. John's Day was when marriage proposals were made.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 386 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Jun 20, 2000 (18:30) * 1 lines 
 
I was going to look for something appropriate like the sun rising over the "heel" stone...I just might yet. Thanks for reminding me...


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 387 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Jun 20, 2000 (18:44) * 1 lines 
 
(Yes, Stephen, I know that the only reason the sun rises over the "heel" - or "hele" - stone is because it has fallen out of the upright position at which it originally stood... and that neither name is appropriate for the stone, anyway.)


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 388 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Jun 21, 2000 (18:42) * 0 lines 
 


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 389 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Jun 21, 2000 (18:48) * 44 lines 
 
Millennium project to move bluestone from Wales to Stonehenge

A six-month journey to discover how the builders of Stonehenge
transported giant Welsh stones from the Welsh mountains is set to get
under way.
It remains a mystery how the huge blue stones from the Preseli
mountains were dragged 200 miles to the ancient ceremonial site.

But a group of volunteers from The National Trust and Pembrokeshire
College are attempting to finally discover the methods used to move
the stones using a rock called the Millennium Stone.
They plan to re-enact a possible route of the Stone Age builders
using methods they will first rehearse at Withybush Aerodrome, near
Haverfordwest.

International engineering company Whitby Bird and Partners and
economic development body Menter Preseli will oversee the volunteers
using 21st century knowledge.

Inner circle
The puzzle centres on how the builders of Stonehenge created the
inner circle of bluestones which originate from north Pembrokeshire.

From April the Millennium Stone will be moved over land and water
using methods that would have been available in the Stone Age.
The modern day volunteers will use ropes, sleds and runners, while
the trip across water will be made using replica Stone Age boats that
have already been built.
The route the stone will take begins in the Preseli Mountains then
down to the Cleddau Estuary to the Bristol Channel at Milford Haven.
The sea journey will end at Bristol.

Marathon trek
From there, the stone will travel along the route of the River Avon
to Dolemeads and then along the Kennet and Avon Canal before a final
overland stage to Stonehenge.
It is anticipated the stone will reach the ancient site by September.

The £100,000 Millennium Stone project has been funded by the Heritage
Lottery Fund as part of the Millennium Festival.
Menter Preseli put the idea forward under the European Union Leader
II programme and the scheme is linked in with the Celtic Voyage 2000,
also taking place in Pembrokeshire.



 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 390 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Jun 21, 2000 (18:50) * 14 lines 
 
Millennium project to move bluestone from Wales to Stonehenge
continued...

The ambitious Millennium project to transport a Pembrokeshire
bluestone from the Preseli Hills to Stonehenge has hit further
problems.
The three-tonne stone is now lying off the Pembrokeshire coast near
Dale after sinking over the weekend.
It has been abandoned by volunteer rowers because of strong winds.

go to
http://news6.thdo.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/uk/wales/newsid%5F794000/794299.stm
for story and pix



 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 391 of 1283: anne hale  (ommin) * Wed, Jun 21, 2000 (23:54) * 1 lines 
 
Marcia I am afraid I do not have any photographs but I am sure somewhere in Israel there are some.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 392 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Jun 22, 2000 (00:34) * 1 lines 
 
I will do a Google search for it. Thanks! I am instructing a new seismologist on logging in......Yay!!!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 393 of 1283: MarkG  (MarkG) * Thu, Jun 22, 2000 (05:23) * 3 lines 
 
Of course, as explained in #384 above, the bluestone is now lost underwater after a fraught journey in which volunteers gave up on wearing "authentic" animal skins as it was too cold, insisted on wearing "unauthentic" protective gloves as the stone and rope surfaces were too rough, and then many pulled out through boredom.

Meanwhile the real Stonehenge was at last re-opened to the public for the Solstice, and 6,000 turned up to see in the dawn. The Times carries a humorous report on the lunatic fringe.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 394 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Jun 22, 2000 (12:52) * 3 lines 
 
Thanks, Mark......have to hunt on The Times website to see if they have the article available. I shudder when I think of the trash heap of humanity which showed up the time we misguessed the solstice.

Amazing how easy it is to pull out of a difficult project when the "religious" or whatever it was motivation is missing!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 395 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Thu, Jun 22, 2000 (13:30) * 75 lines 
 
2000-06-22
EGYPT: TOMBS CAST FRESH LIGHT ON EGYPT PYRAMID BUILDERS
By Reim Bashir
GIZA, EGYPT, June 22 (Reuters)
- Restoration of tombs at
the pyramids of Giza is casting fresh light on the builders of
the towering monuments, an Egyptian archaeologist said on Thursday.
Zahi Hawass, director of the Giza plateau where the pyramids
are located, told Reuters work on tombs of workers and their
supervisors, found by Egyptian archaeologists 10 years ago,
had revealed two cemeteries designed as mini-replicas of the
complex around the pyramids.

"This discovery proves that the builders of the pyramids of
Giza were Egyptians and that they were not slaves as some
archaeologists have claimed," Hawass declared.

"They prepared the tombs just like they did for the pyramids
complex, with the funerary temple to the east of the pyramids
and a causeway leading from it to an offering basin at the
foot of the causeway," he said.

"They prepared these tombs to last forever just like they
would do for the queens and kings. Slaves would not do that."

The tombs, located to the south of the Sphinx at the eastern
foot of the three great pyramids, were built at the end of the
4th Dynasty in the reign of the pharaoh Khufu (Cheops).
The upper-level tombs were built of solid limestone for
technicians, craftsmen and artisans, along with their families.
The lower-level tombs, made of less durable mudbrick and
rock such as granite and basalt left over from pyramid
construction, were built for the workmen who moved the huge
stone blocks used for the great pyramids 4,600 years ago.
Sometimes workers were buried with the supervisors in the upper-level tombs.
Archaeologists have found curses inscribed in the tomb of a
man named Pety and his wife, warning unwanted visitors that
crocodiles would eat them if they entered the tomb.

ANCIENT MEDICAL TREATMENT
Hawass said that among the skeletons found at the site, 12
had broken arms, with wooden boards placed on them as
splints. One was of a man with an amputated leg who lived
for 14 years after completion of the pyramid. The skull of a
man who survived for two years after that date showed signs of brain surgery.
"These discoveries prove to us that medical treatment took
place at the time and workers received good care," Hawass said.
Workers were five to six feet (1.53 to 1.83 metres) tall and did
not live past 35 years of age. Bilharzia, a disease still prevalent
in Egypt that is caused by parasitic worms and transmitted from
water-snails, was the commonest cause of death.

Archaeological evidence showed the workers wore clothes very
similar to the traditional garb of Egyptian farm workers.
"Men used to dress in galabiyas, or flowing robes, tied around
the waist and held sticks in their hands just as peasant workers
dress today," Hawass said.

He said the cemeteries and settlements indicated that the
workforce that constructed the pyramids was smaller than the
100,000 workers estimated by some researchers.

"Around 20,000 workers helped build the Giza pyramids based
on the size of the settlements we discovered," Hawass argued.
Near one causeway, archaeologists found an unfinished
double statue of a man and a woman with the man's right
foot placed in front of the left, reversing the normal pattern.
"In ancient Egyptian times, statues were built with the man's
left foot placed in front of the right symbolising him leaving
home to go to work, while the woman's two feet were placed
side by side symbolising her place in the home.

"This discovery shows that this statue was constructed by an
unprofessional craftsman and had a flaw, which explains why
it was placed in the workers' tombs," Hawass said.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 396 of 1283: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Thu, Jun 22, 2000 (19:00) * 1 lines 
 
I'm not surprised that the current observation is that the Pyramids weren't consctructed by slaves. In one of my history classes I remember the teacher saying that Egypt was not a slave society, as the later classical cultures of the Greeks and the Romans would be.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 397 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Jun 22, 2000 (19:30) * 1 lines 
 
This is true. Motivation is important (so is staying alive)... Never did think that sort of construct could have been accomplished with slaves.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 398 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Jun 25, 2000 (19:18) * 55 lines 
 
Ancient gold treasure found
By Ramdutt Tripathi in Lucknow
Indian archaeologists say that gold treasure found
early this month in the northern state of Uttar Pradesh
could be highly significant.
The treasure belongs to the Indus Valley civilisation
and may be about 5,000 years old.
A farmer in the village of Mandi in Muzaffarnagar
district found the treasure while levelling his field.
Archaeologists are now planning a proper excavation
of the site, in the hope of finding more about the lost
civilisation of Harappa and Mohenjo-daro.

Accidental discovery
The treasure was in some containers found buried in
the field.
It is believed that a part of the treasure was removed
by the land owners and other villagers.
Later, the authorities managed to recover about 10kg
of the jewellery.
A joint team of the state's Department of Archaeology
(DoA) and the federal Archaeological Survey of India
inspected the materials.

Precious jewellery
DoA Director Rakesh Tewari said the jewellery found
from the site comprises mainly beads made of gold,
banded agate, onyx and other semi-precious stones.
Two copper containers, one circular in shape and the
other rectangular, were also found.
Mr Tewari says that this material is comparable to the
jewellery found from the Harappan phase of Lothal and
Mohenjo-daro.
There are several sites related to the Indus Valley
civilisation in Pakistan and India, but Mr Tewari says
this is the first time that such a huge quantity of gold
jewellery has been recovered .

Archaeological significance
This also means that the area of the Indus civilisation
is much larger than previously presumed.
In his report to the government, Mr Tewari has
emphasised that the new site is of great
archaeological significance.
He has recommended further investigation of the
Mandi village site.
The report also says that the residents of Mandi village
are curious about the gold and may try to dig the site
up again.
The district administration has deployed the police
force to protect the site.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/world/south_asia/newsid_797000/797151.stm




 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 399 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Jun 26, 2000 (17:00) * 85 lines 
 
In the Guatemalan jungle, a Brigham Young University
professor has unearthed one of the most significant
pieces of Mayan culture ever discovered -- a rock
panel scrawled with hieroglyphics about a coldhearted
warrior who ruled a city.
"It's easily one of the biggest panels ever found of this sort,"
said BYU anthropology professor Stephen Houston. "It probably
is the champion panel."
The professor and other archaeologists discovered the slab
April 15 while digging at a Mayan excavation site once called
Piedras Negas in the northwest part of Guatemala. The
limestone slate is believed to be more than 1,200 years old and
was originally placed at the top of a pyramid that was the burial
site of the city's ruler, King Itsam K'anahk, who reigned from 639
to 686, more than 800 years before Columbus sailed to
America.
The dig, which started in 1997, is run and funded in part by
BYU, the Guatemalan university Universidad del Valle, and the
National Geographic Society.
The stone tablet is 7 feet by 5 feet, about a foot thick and
weighs so much -- 3,500 pounds -- that it had to be airlifted out
by helicopter. It is now on display at the national museum in
Guatemala City.
The panel was found at the base of one of two pyramids next
to the acropolis, the city's palace, and has more than 100
hieroglyphics. The carved writings surround a scene in which
horrified captives are brought before the king.
"You can see them moaning and screaming, and they're kind
of clutching themselves in terror," said Houston, who helped
decipher Mayan hieroglyphics at Yale University before moving
to BYU in 1994. "In contrast, the king and his two head warriors
are shown with an utter lack of emotion."
In other words, Houston said, don't mess with those three.
Houston described the Mayans of that time as "brutally
warlike." After all, they would sacrifice humans by chucking them
down the steep 100-foot pyramid stairs.
But they were "paradoxical," he said. "You have this brutally
warlike people, but you have this exquisite art style. They would
be sniffing bouquets of flowers but think nothing of throwing
captives down bloody pyramid steps. This is what makes them
so alluring and strange."
The panel, which most likely was commissioned by the king's
son, was sculpted to be a central symbol for the city and the
king's burial at the bottom of the pyramid, Houston explained.
"This tomb marked by this panel would have been the most
striking feature in the royal palace," he said. "It's encapsulating
his life as a warrior. He seems to be very proud of the misery he
is causing to his enemies."
George Stuart, an expert in Mayan culture in North Carolina
and former vice president of research and exploration for the
National Geographic Society, agrees the find is important.
"It's really rare to find them in good shape, and they were lucky
this time," he said. "This seems to be one of the biggest ones
and one of the more interesting because of the inscription on it.
It's nice to find a record of someone's reign."
The slab apparently toppled down the pyramid after a warring
kingdom called Yaxchian invaded the city sometime in the year
800. While smashing the palace, the enemy must have struck
the panel down.
"It slid down from the top of the pyramid on what must have
been a wild toboggan run to the base," Houston said. "We were
fortunate because it had fallen face down. If it had fallen face up,
all of the hieroglyphics would have eroded."
Houston and staff archaeologist Ernesto Arrendondo
discovered the slab buried only 10 to 15 inches below dirt and
loose stone.
"I stuck my hand in to feel the hieroglyphics, and I knew we
had something amazing," Houston said.
In three years, Houston and Guatemalan archaeologists have
unearthed hundreds of ceramics, jewelry, tools made of bone,
and figurines from the site, which is surrounded by rain forest
and is a four hour hike and mule ride to the nearest town. And
because of the nearly constant rain the rest of the year, they can
excavate only from March through May.
"Otherwise, it's like digging fudge," Houston said.
Last season, there were 25 archaeologists and 85 workers at
the site, but they might not have the funding to continue next
year.
"This site has one of the richest and most beautiful collections
of Mayan culture," Houston said. "This panel is the cap of the
dig. This is what we had hoped to find. This is why I do this. It's
an experience not a lot of people have."

http://www.sltrib.com/2000/Jun/06242000/utah/61570.htm



 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 400 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Jun 28, 2000 (14:47) * 88 lines 
 
Leonardo's second sitting for
Last Supper

FROM RICHARD OWEN IN ROME
A HITHERTO unknown second version of The Last
Supper which Italian art experts believe Leonardo
da Vinci painted two years after his masterpiece
has come to light in a parish church near Milan.
The fresco, to be unveiled today so that
international art experts may examine it, includes a
self-portrait which suggests that the Renaissance
master had a squint.

After the fresco was painted in the 15th century in
the apse of the Church of San Rocco at Inzago, a
small town northeast of Milan, it was partly
plastered over. Those sections of the painting
which remained visible were later obscured by an
"undistinguished" 18th century altarpiece.

Father Davide Mazzucchelli, the parish priest, said
that he had been struck by the "sheer beauty" of
the head of Christ in the fresco after he took over
the parish ten years ago. He called in Massimo
Peron, a restorer from Varese, who in 1998 began
cleaning and repairing the painting, which has
been dated to 1499.

Experts from the office of the Superintendent of
Arts in Milan believe that it is by Leonardo's
workshop, with "key contributions", including the
heads of Christ and the apostles, by the master
himself.

Martin Kemp, Professor of the History of Art at
Oxford University and a leading authority on
Leonardo said that in 1499, the year Milan was
invaded by the French, Leonardo was "never in
one place for long", and had returned to Florence
by the next year.

Professor Kemp said he could not give an opinion
without seeing the fresco, but it was "plausible"
that Leonardo had allowed his workshop to
complete the design.

In a trick of perspective which suggests a painter
of high calibre, the fresco, measuring about 19
square yards, is painted on a curved wall, although
the table appears to be a perfect rectangle.

The "supper" in the painting includes potatoes,
confirming a date after 1493, when potatoes were
introduced to Europe from newly discovered
America. There are also two-pronged forks, a
sophistication known to have been introduced by
the court of Duke Ludovico Sforza, the Duke of
Milan. Some restorers are convinced an Apostle
on the far left of the painting is a self-portrait of
Leonardo with long, silver hair and a pronounced
squint.

"The left eye is looking at Christ but the right one
looks straight out at us" Father Mazzucchelli said.
"This may finally explain why Leonardo painted the
world the way he did". Another clue is that none of
the figures has a halo, one of Leonardo's
"signatures".

Leonardo (1452-1519), who began his career in
Florence, entered the service of the Duke of Milan
in 1482, deploying his genius not only as a painter
and sculptor but also as architect, military and
hydraulic engineer, town planner, and organiser of
sumptuous court entertainments. In his 18 years in
Milan he was thought to have produced only six
paintings, including The Last Supper.

Last year it was unveiled after a controversial
20-year restoration, with critics noting that
restorers had "filled in gaps" and only 20 per cent
of the work could be said to be "original". Father
Mazzucchelli said experts had used computer
imaging and infrared techniques to compare the
heads in the Inzago fresco with those in Milan, and
had concluded they were "by the same hand".

more....http://www.sunday-times.co.uk/news/pages/tim/2000/06/24/timfnffnf01002.html


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 401 of 1283: _cosmo_  (aa9il) * Thu, Jun 29, 2000 (19:36) * 26 lines 
 
A little modern archeology pondering....

Today I wandered to one of the big buildings in downtown Chicago
for lunch - was reading Ley Hunter and wondered if there were
any sacred alignments in the big cities - stuff that was done
on purpose that was subliminally integrated into the cityscape.

If you look at the big city - you have plenty of modern 'ley'
lines - the roads and other paths that lead in from the country.
For those who are of the cult of the dollar, there are some
temples were the shaman, dressed in ceremonial garb (the suit...),
wave their arms, chant, and jump about with the hope that their
divinations will turn a profit... But, I digress....

What I was looking for was the modern ley with links to a sacred
path - very sublime but still focusing power or guiding to a
sacred site. A point where during the Solstice or Equinox, the
stars and planets would align and would transform the cold and
impersonal concrete into something mysterious and part of the
great Earth grid - even for a brief moment.

Lunch was over and I wandered back through the crowded streets
which lined up with more than just the normal....

de Mike



 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 402 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Jun 29, 2000 (20:46) * 1 lines 
 
The chase for the Almighty Dollar has replaced the hunt for the White Stag, Holy Grail, and the interface between this and the Otherworld. Any river is a sacred line of power. E lines radiate across the entire earth for those who believe and can sense them. In the beginning of this topic I placed maps you might wish to check, and if you are truly interested (Stephen has gone missing....) I will hunt more on this subject for you. There are fascinating first person accounts early in this topic, as well, by those who have lived near and trod the ley lines in Southern England. Check Geo 27 for discussions and maps


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 403 of 1283: MarkG  (MarkG) * Fri, Jun 30, 2000 (02:34) * 1 lines 
 



 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 404 of 1283: MarkG  (MarkG) * Fri, Jun 30, 2000 (02:37) * 1 lines 
 
I saw the restored Last Supper in Milan last year, and even if it isn't mostly original any more, it's still wonderful. Fascinating news about the "workshop"


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 405 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Jun 30, 2000 (13:14) * 1 lines 
 
There has been a lot of discussion about that restoration of Last Supper. I am delighted to hear you think it is still wonderful. Nothing like getting the grime off of the paintings we thought we knew...


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 406 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Jul  2, 2000 (01:01) * 51 lines 
 
The Stonehenge Haul Saga continues.....


Ancient stone's modern hitch

BY SIMON DE BRUXELLES
VOLUNTEERS using prehistoric techniques to
take a three-tonne rock from west Wales to
Stonehenge yesterday received a helping hand
from a crane, a salvage tug and a team of divers
from the Royal Maritime Auxiliary Service.

The stone from the Preseli mountains plunged into
the sea two weeks ago while being carried on a
platform between two leather-hulled Stone Age
boats.

However, yesterday divers from the RMAS's tug
Moorfowl placed a harness around the stone 17
metres down on the seabed and a crane winched
it to the surface. The tug then sailed to Gelliswick
Bay where the stone was taken ashore. It will be
hoisted back on to the original vessel and resume
its 240-mile journey at the weekend.

The volunteers involved in the project had been
awarded £100,000 by the Heritage Lottery Fund to
follow in the footsteps of the prehistoric
monument's builders.

Phil Bowen, who helped to organise the operation,
said: "I am absolutely delighted. I was worried we
would never see the stone again."

The stone will be rowed along the coast towards
Bristol and then transferred to a replica neolithic
barge for a short journey up the River Avon to Bath.
The barge will then drift along the Kennet and Avon
Canal as far as Honey Street near Devizes. The
final stage will see it dragged overland 26 miles to
the Stonehenge site.

The Millennium Stone project, organised by Menter
Preseli, the rural development organisation, has
been plagued with mishap and delay since it
began in March.

Dillwyn Miles, the Welsh historian, said: "They have
used modern methods to help the stone on its way
and that totally invalidates what they claim to be
doing."


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 407 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Jul  2, 2000 (16:55) * 23 lines 
 
The First Pen and Ink?
Famed Lindisfarne Gospels
Yield Hidden Sketches
By Reagan Duplisea

What may be the oldest metal-point sketches — drawings in an
early version of pen and ink — have been discovered hidden
under the texts and elaborate embellishments of the famous
Lindisfarne Gospels manuscripts of Britain.

Sixty previously undetected drawings were found under the
Latin manuscript at the British Library by curator Michelle
Brown. They were spotted through a microscope and appear
to be made by a metal-tipped pen that left imprints on the
calfskin pages.

The ancient sketches appear to be practice drawings that were made on the back of each page.
The manuscript was mostly written about A.D. 698 by the monk Eadfrith on the Holy Island of
Lindisfarne off the coast of Northumberland. The gospels were then taken to Durham Cathedral
for safekeeping from Viking raiders. They now make their home in the London museum.
Before this discovery, the oldest metal-point drawings were from the twelfth century. The
manuscript is one of Britain's greatest treasures.



 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 408 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Jul  2, 2000 (17:49) * 45 lines 
 
Archaeologist uncovers
6th century crozier in
Offaly



Archaeologists working in a Co Offaly bog have
discovered a wooden crozier which may be the earliest
of its kind recovered in Ireland, dating from the 6th
century AD.

The find was made by Ms Ellen O' Carroll of
Archaeological Development Services, working for
Bord na Móna in advance of its peat harvesting
programme at Leamanaghan.

The crozier, which is being examined by experts in
Dublin, has been preliminarily identified as
cherrywood. It was found stuck vertically in the peat
beside an ancient track through the bog.

Ms O' Carroll said the crozier was carved longitudinally
from a stem or branch and then polished. Although
broken at several points along its length, it can be fitted
together.

"When it is fitted it would appear to be 1.25 metres in
length and 25 mm in diameter. It would probably have
been held along the shaft as its height would inhibit
holding it at the crook," she said.

"What is really interesting about the crozier is that the
crook itself has a Greek cross located in a circle
incised into the wood and the tip of the shaft is stepped
and pointed.

"There may have been a metal point originally
positioned on the end but we cannot be sure of that.
But we do believe that this is probably the earliest
dated in Ireland so far." She explained the crozier was
unearthed beside a wooden togher, or pathway, which
had been dated by dendrochronology to AD 596.
More http://www.ireland.com/newspaper/ireland/2000/0622/hom5.htm




 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 409 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Jul  4, 2000 (16:47) * 21 lines 
 
First tower of London built by the Romans


EVIDENCE that a Roman "tower block" stood in
the City of London 1,700 years ago has been
unearthed by archaeologists.

Excavations have revealed the remains of a
massive high-status domestic building on a
sprawling site near the present Leadenhall Market.
The dimensions suggest that the house, up to 131ft
wide, could have had four or five floors plus a tower
reaching 82ft above the ground.
At a time when Roman London was less than safe,
a wealthy family could have found refuge there. The
discovery has been linked to a 4th-century
aristocratic woman whose elaborate sarcophagus
was found a year ago in a nearby cemetery at
Spitalfields.

More... http://www.sunday-times.co.uk:80/news/pages/tim/2000/07/01/timnnfnnf01003.html


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 410 of 1283: MarkG  (MarkG) * Wed, Jul  5, 2000 (03:00) * 3 lines 
 
Hard to see how site dimensions found in a dig can suggest an 82ft tower.

I hope the archaeologists aren't getting a little too speculative. I saw the above sarcophagus as my company for a while owned the site in Spitalfields. Also found in one of the cemeteries on the site (which had repeatedly been used as a cemetery age after age) was a 15th century syphilitic bone, refuting the accepted wisdom that syphilis was brought back to Europe from the Americas.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 411 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Jul  5, 2000 (11:29) * 2 lines 
 
Thanks for your first hand report. How did they ever keep you out of the dig? One of the most poignant memories of London was a dig on the Bank of Westminster site which bore the sign "volunteers wanted". I had to be dragged away protesting before I plunged into the very deep hole they has excavated. It still haunts me.
I always wondered how the syphilis got to the Americas before the Europeans. Thanks for that update, too. Between BJD lurking and digs outside your business, it must make for a busy day!!!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 412 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Jul  6, 2000 (22:55) * 47 lines 
 
DISCOVERING ARCHAEOLOGY
Newsletter for July 5, 2000
http://www.discoveringarchaeology.com/newsletter.shtml

--- Feature Stories ---

- CANADA'S ICEMAN REVISITED
Research Begins on Human Remains Found in a Glacier
http://www.DISCOVERINGARCHAEOLOGY.COM/articles/070300-iceman.shtml

- THE FIRST PEN AND INK?
Famed Lindisfarne Gospels Yield Hidden Sketches
http://www.DISCOVERINGARCHAEOLOGY.COM/articles/063000-pen.shtml

- EGYPTIAN TREASURES IN EUROPE (CD-ROM)
Reviewed by Bob Partridge
http://www.egyptrevealed.com/062800-statues.shtml

Plus these Feature Reports:

- The Titanic...Finders Keepers?
http://washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A47686-2000Jul4.html

- American Archaeology Professor Detained in Greece
http://www.lasvegassun.com/sunbin/stories/w-eur/2000/jul/02/070200981.html

- Rising Water and Turkish Treasures
http://www.msnbc.com/news/427265.asp

- They Got the Wrong Jesse James
http://www.foxnews.com/science/063000/jessejames.sml

- Desert Cave Pictographs May Not Be Real
http://www.foxnews.com/science/063000/egypt_drawings.sml

- Season of Discovery
http://www.usnews.com/usnews/issue/000710/lost.htm

-----

The Discovering Archaeology Newsletter finds the week's most
interesting archaeological stories and presents them to you in a
simple, easy to read format on the web. Read these and other
interesting features, including Readers Polls, Book Reviews,
Archaeological Event Calendars and much more at:

http://www.discoveringarchaeology.com/newsletter.shtml


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 413 of 1283: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Tue, Jul 11, 2000 (19:38) * 8 lines 
 
On the subject of the Biblical Flood. There is a new theory concerning it. The authors of this theory are William B.F. Ryan and Walter C. Pitman, two senior geophysicists at Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory. They hypothosize that the deluge might have occurred in the area of the Black Sea. Using sound waves and coring devices to probe the sea floor, they found that 7600 years ago, the Black Sea was a freshwater lake lying hundreds of feet below the level of the world's rising oceans. When the Mediterranean spilled into the Sea of Marmara causing it to finally burst through the narrow Bosphorus, causing 10 cubic miles of seawater a day to pour into the Black Sea, which was then 500 feet lower. The farms and villages around the shore of the Black Sea were swept away. The sea would have pushed inland for up to a mile each day, causing the inhabitants to flee. Perhaps survivors dispersed across Europe and Asia Minor, carrying their languages, their genes, and their memory of the catastrop
e with them?

Last summer Robert Ballard found the remnants of a beach near the sea's south shore under 500 feet of water. In the sediments were lakeshore rocks and shells; there were freshwater shells of an age of 7,800 years and saltwater shells of 7,300 years old. Indicating freshwater being inundated by saltwater. Ballard is planning to search for evidence of human settlements along the drown shore.

Here is a link to read more about Robert Ballard's expedition:

http://www.nationalgeographic.com/events/releases/pr991117.html


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 414 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Jul 11, 2000 (20:52) * 1 lines 
 
Thanks for that, Cheryl. I had heard he was planning this expedition but did not know when or for whom. I am delighted that National Geographic is his sponsor.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 415 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Jul 12, 2000 (21:49) * 42 lines 
 
Scientific American Discovering Archaeology Weekly

DISCOVERING ARCHAEOLOGY
Newsletter for July 12, 2000
http://www.discoveringarchaeology.com/newsletter.shtml

--- Feature Stories ---

- INTRODUCING KIDS TO THE PAST
A Project Takes Archaeology to School and Puts Youngsters in the Field
http://www.discoveringarchaeology.com/0900toc/9randn11-past.shtml

- Pinning the Worth of an Ancient Theft

About 3200 years ago, give or take a few hundred years, the merchant
Wenamun had a pretty bad trip to Phoenicia.
http://www.egyptrevealed.com/051200-wenamun.shtml

Plus these Feature Reports:

- The Hunt for Ghengis Khan's Tomb
http://www.discovery.com/news/briefs/20000706/hi_genghis.html

- Chefren's Pyramid Reopens
http://dailynews.yahoo.com/h/nm/20000706/sc/egypt_pyramid_dc_3.html

- Restoring Archimedes' Manuscript
http://cbc.ca/cgi-bin/templates/view.cgi?/news/2000/07/11/archimedes000711

- Pacific Island Colonists Via Taiwan
http://www.discovery.com/news/briefs/20000630/aw_pacific.html

- Glyphs Tell of Mayan Horror
http://www.discovery.com/news/briefs/20000630/aw_maya.html

- Pack Rats as Preservers
http://dallasnews.com/texas_southwest/108650_packrats_09tex.html

- The Search for Sunken Lands, Gods, and Civilizations
http://www.franckgoddio.org/english/projects/backtolight/default.asp




 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 416 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Jul 13, 2000 (00:24) * 43 lines 
 
Tuesday July 11 10:00 AM ET

Scientists Find Archimedes' Words

ROCHESTER, N.Y. (AP) - Scientists at Rochester Institute of
Technology are restoring a 10th century manuscript - the only known
copy in the original Greek of some of the writings of mathematician
Archimedes.
The text, which scholars believe was copied in the 10th century by a
scribe from Archimedes' original scrolls, was erased 200 years
later by a monk who reused the parchment for a prayer book. It was
purchased anonymously at a 1998 auction for $2 million.
Using digital cameras and processing techniques as well as
ultraviolet and infrared filters, the scientists captured images of the
original words and drawings that were washed away and then
covered with a new text.
``There is always a residual, traces of what was there,'' said Robert
Johnston, an archaeologist and RIT professor emeritus. ``It's
amazing what can come out. Soon, nothing will be secret or
hidden.''
Archimedes lived from about 287-212 B.C. The manuscript is the
only copy in the original Greek of Archimedes' theory of flotation of
bodies, which holds that the buoyant force on an object immersed in
a fluid is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced.
The text and diagrams also detail his mathematical treatises and
mechanical theorems and contain the roots of modern calculus and
gravitational theory.
The team is working on five pages from the text as part of a
competition that will determine who will analyze the entire
manuscript, which contains more than 170 pages.
``This book is Archimedes' brain in a book,'' said William Noel,
curator of the Walters Arts Gallery in Baltimore, where the
manuscript is kept. ``What we need to do is X-ray that brain.''
RIT's scientists plan to finish their work by September. The gallery
expects to make a selection by the end of the year.
The text is on vellum, a writing surface made from animal skin. It
was cleaned off in the 12th century and the valuable parchment was
reused in a Greek prayer book.
The book disappeared from the Convent of the Holy Sepulchre in
Constantinople in the 1920s. It resurfaced in the possession of a
French family in the 1930s and was sold by the family in 1998.




 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 417 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Jul 14, 2000 (20:29) * 3 lines 
 
The latest assault on Stonehenge's environment:

http://www.britarch.ac.uk/cba/stone1.html


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 418 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Mon, Jul 17, 2000 (13:48) * 1 lines 
 
There's a forensic archeo programme on TV soon this evening looking at a possible ancient murder at Stonehenge. I'll see if I can find anything on it on the net later.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 419 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Jul 17, 2000 (14:08) * 1 lines 
 
Have read about it on the net and posted about it above - a sacrifice as they all were back then...


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 420 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Jul 27, 2000 (17:30) * 56 lines 
 
DISCOVERING ARCHAEOLOGY
Newsletter for July 26, 2000
http://www.discoveringarchaeology.com/newsletter.shtml

--- Feature Stories ---

- RESTORING THE MAP OF ANCIENT ROME
Scientists and Computers are Reassembling a Huge Depiction
of the Old City
http://www.DISCOVERINGARCHAEOLOGY.COM/articles/072600-rome.shtml

- Face to Face with Pharaoh
Ever since the first tourists and travelers visited Egypt, one aspect
of the ancient culture has been of particular fascination - the
preserved bodies of the ancient dead.
http://www.egyptrevealed.com/071500-mightypharaoh.shtml

Plus these Feature Reports:

- Dateline... Mesa Verde
http://abcnews.go.com/sections/us/DailyNews/mesaverdefire000722.html

- The Monkey Lives
http://abcnews.go.com/sections/us/DailyNews/scopestrial000723.html

- Holy Land Rest Stop
http://www.eurekalert.org/releases/cu-amp072400.html

- An African-American Business in the Old West
http://www.lasvegassun.com/sunbin/stories/nevada/2000/jul/23/510540502.html

- Titanic Salvagers Race against Time
http://www.discovery.com/news/briefs/20000724/hi_titanic.html

- Let the Games Begin
http://www.ngnews.com/news/2000/07/07212000/firstfans_2862.asp

- Studying Things Passed
http://www.academicpress.com/inscight/07212000/graphb.htm

- The Emperor's Private Battleground
http://www.discovery.com/news/briefs/20000725/aw_hi_colosseum.html

- The Monk's Remains and Syphilis
http://www.ananova.com/news/story/heritage_health-diseases-syphilis-uk_916540.html
-----

The Discovering Archaeology Newsletter finds the week's most
interesting archaeological stories and presents them to you in a
simple, easy to read format on the web. Read these and other
interesting features, including Readers Polls, Book Reviews,
Archaeological Event Calendars and much more at:
http://www.discoveringarchaeology.com/newsletter.shtml





 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 421 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Aug  3, 2000 (00:54) * 47 lines 
 
Scientific American Discovering Archaeology Weekly

DISCOVERING ARCHAEOLOGY
Newsletter for August 02, 2000
http://www.discoveringarchaeology.com/newsletter.shtml

--- Feature Stories ---

- WHEN THE RAINS STOPPED
Constant Shifts in Climate Molded Much of Human History
http://discoveringarchaeology.com/0900toc/9focus1-rains.shtml

- Archaeology Live!
It's midnight in the middle of the eastern Sahara Desert. Cairo lies
some 230 miles to the northeast — and in-between is nothing but four
hours of sand.
http://www.egyptrevealed.com/073100-archlive.shtml


Plus these Feature Reports:

- Chinese Toilet
http://www.foxnews.com/science/072600/sky_toilet.sml

- Another Civilization's Remains Discovered in Iran
http://sg.dailynews.yahoo.com/headlines/entertainment/afp/article.html?s=singapore/headlines/000801/entertainment/afp/3_000-year-old_remains_discovered_near_Tehran.html

- Finland's Undersea Museum
http://www.latimes.com/news/asection/20000728/t000070685.html

- Raising the Hunley
http://www.ngnews.com/news/2000/07/07262000/hunley_2869.asp

- Civil War Blockade Runner Excavated
http://dailynews.yahoo.com/h/ap/20000729/us/civil_war_ship_1.html

- The Roman Open Aire Museum
http://www.villa-rustica.de/indexe.html

- Calculate like an Egyptian
http://www.bigchalk.com/cgi-bin/WebObjects/WOPortal.woa/wa/HWCDA/file?fileid=161183&flt=CAB


-----





 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 422 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Aug 10, 2000 (00:45) * 44 lines 
 
Scientific American Discovering Archaeology Weekly

DISCOVERING ARCHAEOLOGY
Newsletter for August 09, 2000
http://www.discoveringarchaeology.com/newsletter.shtml

--- Feature Stories ---

- THE EARLIEST MUMMIES
Were Mothers in the Andes Trying to Preserve Lost Children?
http://www.discoveringarchaeology.com/articles/080400-mummies.shtml

- STONE FOR THE EMPERORS
Purple Porphyry Carved from Egypt Surrounded Roman Royalty
http://www.discoveringarchaeology.com/0900toc/9feature1-emperors.shtml

Plus these Feature Reports:

- The National Underwater and Marine Agency
http://www.numa.net/

- The Remains of the Titanic
http://www.usatoday.com/usatonline/20000807/2525421s.htm

- The First Americans
http://www.sciam.com/2000/0900issue/0900nemecek.html#further

- China's Other Great Wall
http://www.latimes.com/news/asection/20000804/t000073045.html

- Tut's Butt
http://www.ngnews.com/news/2000/08/08032000/0175-0564-britain-tutankhamen.asp

- Creationists Lose in Kansas
http://www.academicpress.com/inscight/08022000/grapha.htm

- The Oracle at Delphi
http://www.sltrib.com/08032000/thursday/8890.htm

- Ishi Goes Home
http://www7.mercurycenter.com/premium/local/docs/ishi06.htm





 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 423 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Aug 11, 2000 (19:41) * 37 lines 
 
Shall we speak of the glamour of Archaology? Stephen has spent his summer working on this project. Nothing like excavating Thames muck. It is hard labour as well.

The Archaeology of the Eton Rowing Lake
SUMMER EXCAVATION
26th June to 18th August 2000
A large area on the north bank of the river Thames is being excavated in a series of
summer seasons in advance of the construction of the Rowing Lake. The site, which is
situated in open countryside next to the village of Dorney in South Buckinghamshire, is
unique because of the preservation of a substantial channel of the prehistoric river
Thames, within which waterlogged wooden structures have been located. The
floodplain alongside contains a sequence of Mesolithic, Neolithic and Bronze Age in situ
occupation horizons with flint knapping scatters, hearths and other artefact spreads
sealed within the alluvium. On the gravel terraces the cropmarks indicate probably the
best surviving Bronze Age landscape in the Middle Thames valley, with settlement, field
systems and burials in barrows, flat graves and cremation urns. An enclosed Roman
farmstead overlies Bronze Age settlement alongside the former course of the Thames.

Results from the work in 1995, 1996 and 1997 exceeded expectations. Six Bronze
Age and Iron Age waterlogged timber bridges were found, while a pair of Neolithic
middens came to light in a channel. On the floodplain Neolithic knapping areas have
been revealed, while on dry ground Bronze Age barrows and waterholes and an Iron
Age and Roman farmstead have been excavated.

The project is headed by Tim Allen from the Oxford Archaeological Unit. The
professional team invites assistance from students from British universities, local
archaeological societies, and other interested groups and individuals. A wide variety of
experience of archaeological fieldwork and finds is available working with one of the
foremost professional Units in the country. The 2000 season will examine the extensive
Bronze Age enclosure system and settlement.

The site lies west of London close to Windsor Castle, and is easily accessible by rail
from London Paddington and by road from the M4, A4 or M40, while Heathrow
Airport is also nearby. There are no on-site facilities, but details of local campsites are
available. Work will be Monday to Friday, with the weekends off; the standard working
day will be from 8 am to 4.30 p.m.

http://www.oau-oxford.com/eton.htm


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 424 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Aug 11, 2000 (19:43) * 15 lines 
 
The Eton Rowing Lake

The Oldest Bridge across the River Thames


The oldest bridge on the River Thames was discovered last summer in excavations at the Eton rowing lake at
Dorney in south Buckinghamshire. In fact, the possible remains of two bridges were discovered, one Bronze Age,
one Iron Age. The earlier consisted of two lines of timbers on opposing banks of the channel - the surviving
timbers did not go right way across. There were unfortunately too few rings for tree-ring dating, but two timbers
have been radiocarbon dated by the British Museum, one to 1100 ± 50 bc, the other to 1200 ± 40 bc which
between them calibrate to between 1300 and 1400 BC. Alongside were two parallel lines of timbers forming the
later structure, this time running right across the channel, a distance of approximately 35 metres. Again, samples
from two of the timbers were sent to the British Museum and radiocarbon dated at respectively 500 ±50 bc and
470 ± 50 bc. However, as these dates fall into the notorious radiocarbon ‘wiggle’ in the Iron Age, they can only be calibrated loosely to between 800 and 400 BC.
http://www.archaeology.co.uk/hilites/eton.htm


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 425 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Aug 11, 2000 (19:55) * 7 lines 
 
Photos and interesting commentary by the head of the dig:
http://wtin.simplenet.com/lake.html

Best writeup of the history and findings so far (1998)
http://www.wargrave.net/history/jun98.html

(Would love to see a picture of the guy digging the huge holes and excavating all those "very old snail shells"...)


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 426 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Aug 16, 2000 (22:57) * 33 lines 
 
Scientific American Discovering Archaeology Weekly

DISCOVERING ARCHAEOLOGY
Newsletter for August 16, 2000
http://www.discoveringarchaeology.com/newsletter.shtml

--- Feature Stories ---

- THE EARLIEST MUMMIES
HIDDEN HISTORY OF CENTRAL PARK
http://www.discoveringarchaeology.com/articles/081500-central.shtml

Plus these Feature Reports:

- Ice age planetarium
http://www.numa.net/

- Dateline... Israel
http://abcnews.go.com/sections/science/DailyNews/hominid_000811.html

- Ancient Sarcophagus Discovered in Iran
http://www.sciam.com/2000/0900issue/0900nemecek.html#further

- Minoan Tupperware
http://www.abcnews.go.com/sections/science/DailyNews/minoanpots000809.html

- Archaeologist Buries Findings:
http://detnews.com/2000/metro/0008/10/d09-103210.htm

- China to Spend $12 million to Save Relics
http://dailynews.yahoo.com/h/ap/20000812/wl/china_three_gorges_1.html




 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 427 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Sun, Aug 20, 2000 (03:29) * 1 lines 
 
A medieval wall painting that was unknown has been discovered in a church near me - at Checkendon near Henley, Oxfordshire. It was found when they removed the old organ. Apparently the victorians stripped a lot of plaster off to get to the brickwork in the rest of the church, stripping the wall paintings at the same time (BTW they did more 'vandalism' then Henry VIII and reformation!). This fragment escaped ob,iteration because they didn't bother to strip behind where the new organ was to go. Part of the painting depicts a man on horseback outlined in red. It's being restored by English Heritage and the Churches Trust. It's supposed to be one of the most important finds of this kind for a lONG while. I haven't been able to get to see it yet as it's not on public display while the restoration takes place.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 428 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Sun, Aug 20, 2000 (03:45) * 5 lines 
 
Took a trip down the length of Hadrian's Wall from Carlisle to Newcastle. Visited a couple of sites.
Go visit http://www.vindolanda.com
This is the current area of archeological excavation. Vindolanda is one of the forts along the wall. We were surprised to find how much excavation still needs to be done. If you visit the site click on visitor information and then find 'Archaeology and Excavation News' - that will take you to the digs. Look at 'earlier 2000' and you will see the early british huts that have been discovered. The excavation of these is continuing as they find more of them. I saw one entire one which had just been unearthed and two guys were still working on on a further one. The bath house which is the current dig is not open to the public yet, but we could see it clearly.

On our trip up to Scotland we visited the Temple of Mithras along the wall. It was amazingly preserved and surprisingly small. The fort by which it stood is no more than a big grass mound now and has not been excavated. However, the temple has the three altar pillars intact. One of these has carving which goes right through the stone and is amazingly fine.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 429 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Aug 20, 2000 (13:15) * 1 lines 
 
Maggie, thanks for theses goodies. I have a HUGE problem with the Victorian treatment of antiquities. One of the biggest abuses was their fondness for planting copses of trees atop long barrows for "aesthetics". It has made a mess of the interiors with the roots rearranging the structures therein. If they had only stuck to constructing "Follies"


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 430 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Aug 23, 2000 (21:56) * 49 lines 
 
Scientific American Discovering Archaeology
Newsletter for August 23, 2000
http://www.discoveringarchaeology.com/newsletter.shtml

--- Feature Stories ---

- PRESERVING POTS
Huge Collection of Southwest Pottery Wins Grant for Conservation
http://www.discoveringarchaeology.com/articles/082200-pots.shtml

- ONLINE CONTEST!
Answer the question correctly and win great prizes from Egypt Revealed! Just for kids!
https://orion.he.net/%7Esaa49000/onlinecontest.shtml

Plus these Feature Reports:

- A Cable Car At Machu Picchu
http://www.usatoday.com/usatonline/20000818/2563775s.htm

- Research Supports Anasazi Cannibalism Theory
http://www.cortezjournal.com/1news699.htm

- Dateline... Bulgaria
http://dailynews.yahoo.com/h/ap/20000822/wl/bulgaria_archaeology_1.html

- The Modern Saga of Spirit Cave Man
http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/news/local/html98/cave17m_20000817.html

- Dateline... South America
http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/world/americas/newsid_842000/842442.stm

- Sweden's Ancient Crematorium/Temple
http://dailynews.yahoo.com/h/nm/20000820/wl/sweden_temple_dc_1.html

- Searching for Buried Secrets
http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/world/south_asia/newsid_890000/890163.stm

- Drought And The Americas
http://www.ngnews.com/news/2000/08/08212000/climatetrip_2954.asp

- Archaeology on Antelope Island
http://www.sltrib.com/08202000/utah/14100.htm
-----
The Discovering Archaeology Newsletter finds the week's most
interesting archaeological stories and presents them to you in a
simple, easy to read format on the web. Read these and other
interesting features, including Readers Polls, Book Reviews,
Archaeological Event Calendars and much more at:
http://www.discoveringarchaeology.com/newsletter.shtml


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 431 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Aug 24, 2000 (12:16) * 56 lines 
 
This article will probably offend someone I used to know and love, but it is from The Times, So hang the cost!

RETURN OF THE NATIVE

An open stones policy at Stonehenge
Yesterday came the summer solstice and with it the return
of a time-honoured tradition to Stonehenge: it rained. Who
knows? - perhaps the sun had spotted all those would-be
druids ironing their bedsheets the day before and so
decided to join in the general festivities and get out some
linen fancy dress of its own. It made its 4.43am entrance
swathed in damp sheets of stratus which, judging from the
drizzle of accompanying rain, must have been pulled still wet
from some celestial washing machine. Not that that
mattered to the covens of witches and warlocks, wizards
and weirdos who had gathered to welcome it under
Stonehenge's triluthon lintels. They tootled their greetings on
seaweed-stem horns.

Worshippers were grateful, quite simply, to have been
permitted entrance, for yesterday was the first time in 16
years that Stonehenge has been admissible to anyone but
the man with the mower. Seven thousand or more gathered
to give gratitude to the great gods of English Heritage:
hordes of hippies and tribes of transcendentalists, scrums of
spiritualists, armies of new agers. Some were pagan, others
were simply practical: some came with their oak leaves,
others with picnic hampers; some with bongo drums, others
with umbrellas.

But then the only truly traditional thing about the entire event
was the rain - which was just as well for, in probably the
only first hand account that exists of druidical ceremonies,
Pliny describes a ritual slaughter of two white bulls which, in
this day and age, would have gone down as badly with the
EU abattoir regulators as it would with the animal rights
protesters who were very probably among the festive
groups. Certainly the only human sacrifice that appears to
have been performed, was that made by one, Bob, who
disapparelling himself of all but his bobble hat poured out
libations of Ice Dragon Cider on the grass.

Bogus it certainly is. Today's ancient orders of the druids
date back about as far as the Celtic revival of the 1970s
which - though that might seem to some readers like remote
history - is but the whisk of a dreadlock on Stonehenge's
4,000 year timescale. But still the fact that a horde of
would-be barbarians managed to mark the solstice so
jubilantly without a single arrest being made, or any damage
being done to the site, vindicates the open stones policy of
English Heritage. And although cacophonies roused by
warring styles of celebration may have broken in on the
peace preferred by some druids, at least it would have
drowned out the modern rumble of early morning traffic on
the A303.



 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 432 of 1283: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Thu, Aug 24, 2000 (18:55) * 3 lines 
 
Witches, warlocks, wizards, and wierdos -- that sounds like a show on the Discovery Channel or maybe the History Channel.

Did the man with the lawnmower show up eventually?


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 433 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Aug 24, 2000 (19:25) * 3 lines 
 
Wondering that myself.

What a job! Been there and I would volunteer to mow the place just to absrob the atmosphere!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 434 of 1283: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Thu, Aug 24, 2000 (19:35) * 1 lines 
 
I can imagine you with putting the finishing touches on the job by neatly trimming around the stones with garden shears.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 435 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Aug 24, 2000 (20:45) * 1 lines 
 
There you go! All neat and tidy. You do not think I would pollute such sacred space with a weed whacker...*gasp* Then maybe they would let me play with the archaeologists who arrive from time to time...


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 436 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Aug 24, 2000 (21:02) * 1 lines 
 
(I can't believe I actually posted that. It is one thing to think things. Quite another to post it...)


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 437 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Fri, Aug 25, 2000 (05:25) * 1 lines 
 
(yeah, well I didn't get to play with the archeologists working at Vindolanda on Hadrian's Wall - they were too busy for the likes of me.... *sigh*)


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 438 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Aug 25, 2000 (11:45) * 1 lines 
 
Understood... and I understand the *sigh* too. *HUGS* Maggie


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 439 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Fri, Aug 25, 2000 (15:28) * 4 lines 
 
There are very few hands-on 'public' digs where a visitr can join in. At Vindolanda one can become a friend of the Vindolanda Trust and apply for a place on one of the digs. Both the guys working there when I visited were local - from their Geordie accents.

Talking of digs: here's a site to go and look at. This is an ongoing archeological project in Mali. I think the team go back each year.
http://www.ruf.rice.edu/~anth/arch/mali-interactive/index.html


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 440 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Aug 25, 2000 (16:12) * 1 lines 
 
Each spring, Archaeology Magazine and Biblical Archaeology Review pubish digs which take volunteers, inluding contact people and what it will cost you. I was jesting in my comment on Stonehenge. Somewhat poignantly, however...


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 441 of 1283: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Sat, Aug 26, 2000 (14:25) * 1 lines 
 
Maggie, I'm sorry you didn't get to work with the archaeologists at Hadrian's Wall.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 442 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Aug 26, 2000 (19:08) * 1 lines 
 
...me, too! Then I could have visited her...and...and...! *sigh*


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 443 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Sun, Aug 27, 2000 (04:00) * 3 lines 
 
Well, it nearly happened this trip - maybe we'll get it (and the money) together one year!!! I did get to stand and watch the hunky males though. First time IRL, only ever seen active digs on TV.

Time Team Live are on TV this weekend. They are working in Canterbury. I'll try and find the URL and post it (lost my links on this machine so have to start over...)


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 444 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Aug 27, 2000 (14:21) * 0 lines 
 


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 445 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Aug 27, 2000 (14:22) * 2 lines 
 
Oh *sigh* Now you are telling me that archaeologists are hunks, too?! I think neither of us would be safe if I were there. Perhaps digging a hole in a drained rowing lake? Screening the diggings for artifacts...or very old
land snails...I hear there are hunks there, too.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 446 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Mon, Aug 28, 2000 (03:51) * 2 lines 
 
Well, you'd have liked the two guys working at Vindolanda .....Anyway, I had a chaparone ....
Haven't heard any more about the Eton rowing lake. Did drive past a while back though.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 447 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Mon, Aug 28, 2000 (04:09) * 1 lines 
 
Was really fed up yesterday afternoon. The Time Team live main 1 1/2 hour broadcast was cancelled because the Benson and Hedges cricket cup final was being played - postponed because of rain from Saturday. Even my husband was annoyed (and he loves cricket...). The excitement of TT live is just that that it is live and you see things as they happen. He's just told me that for some reason the video recorder did not even record the later short Time Team report. Oh well, back to the website for info.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 448 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Mon, Aug 28, 2000 (04:42) * 122 lines 
 
Check out http://www.channel4.com/ and click on the time team picture to get to the current reports site. Just found out from there that there is an extended programme at lunchtime today, so we'll watch that and I'll report on that later ...
Here are the reports so far from Canterbury...Chronology of the digs at the three sites opened up: Greyfriars, Blue Boy Yard, Tyler Hill

Greyfriars - Saturday 26 August, Sunday 27 August
Saturday 26 August

Trench One
Trench One is situated over the cloisters of the church.

10am
Opened up.

11am
Top of wall uncovered, possible first sighting of the Friary.

12.20
Sheets of polythene are unearthed, coverings from the 1970s Louise Millard excavations. When Millard finished her dig, she covered the walls with polythene before filling the earth back in.


Trench Two
Trench Two is situated over the chancel of the Friar’s church. The trench is divided by a wall and split into two parts: Trench 2a - south of the wall, Trench 2b - north of the wall.

10.30
Opened up.

11.30
A bone handle to a knife is found in Trench 2b, probably dated around the 15th/16th century.

12.30
A coin is found in Trench 2b, given a provisional date of the 15th century.

14.00
Two structural supports made of brick from a late 19th century, early 20th century forcing house (greenhouse) are uncovered.

Trench Three
1pm
The archaeologists begin debating where to start a third trench.

Sunday 27 August

Trench One
9.15
Extended trench by one metre so that the wall on the other side of the cloister can be uncovered.

10.15
Carved stone window mullion found


Trench Two
9.30
In Trench 2b, two pits are uncovered containing tiles, Mark Horton, the tile specialist from Tyler Hill, suggested that the tiles have been produced locally, possibly Tyler Hill and are dated circa 15th century.

10.00
Uncovered possible chancel wall.

10.15
Trench 2a, the diggers have removed, photographed and recorded the greenhouse so that they can continue digging down to medieval layer.


Trench Three
10.30
Tiles unearthed last night are identified as being identical to those from Tyler Hill and dated circa 13th century.

Blue Boy Yard- Friday 25 August,Saturday 26 August,Sunday 27 August

Friday 25 August

18.25
The mechanical digger makes its first inroads into the concrete-covered site at Blue Boy Yard. A 5 metre-square trench is to be dug on the site.


Saturday 26 August

12.00
Mechanical digger halted as first finds – of early 16th-century blue and white glazed pottery – are uncovered.

13.00
The first Roman find at Blue Boy Yard – a pottery shard.

14.30
A piece of 12th-century Tyler Hill pottery is uncovered. It is followed by possibly fifth-century Anglo-Saxon pottery shards.

16.00
A coin from the reign of King Cunoblinus (Cymbeline), who died in 42 AD, is found in the spoil heap by a metal detectorist.


Sunday 27 August

15.30
The results of soil sample tests by soil scientist Dr Richard MacPhail confirm that the Roman temple precinct area was probably used as a cattle corral after the Romans left.

A bone lice comb find, together with large quantities of human hair, sets off the team on a search for lice in the cess pit refuse. The cess pits in general are yielding a wide variety of finds.

16.20
As the finds dry up, the mechanical digger is brought in to clear the final debris from the trench. The non-Roman material is now cleared to prepare for the investigation of the Roman layers tomorrow.

18.00
The team finds its first lice -- in human hair from the cess pits.

Tyler Hill

Saturday 26 August

8.30 am
The security guards open the site for the production crew. Everybody prepares equipment before the archaeologists and cameo specialists arrive.

9.00am
The Time Team diggers arrive, led by Mick-the-dig Worthington. Regular Time Team digger Ian Powesland also appears, ready to co-ordinate work with some local Canterbury archaeologists.

9.30am
Deturfing (removing the top layer of grass) commences on the first trench. It’s at this stage that features could appear so the diggers follow up deturfing with cleaning back the underlying soil.

9.32am
Everyone discovers that the soil here is like concrete!

11.15am
Things are a bit stalled on site as the archaeologists and even the mechanical digger are struggling with the soil conditions. More later…







 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 449 of 1283: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Mon, Aug 28, 2000 (18:38) * 3 lines 
 
Ah, neither Marcia nor Maggie would be safe with those hunky archaeologist milling about. Would it rather be that said archaeologists wouldn't be safe? Just being silly.

Thanks for the detailed posting, Maggie.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 450 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Tue, Aug 29, 2000 (03:26) * 3 lines 
 
They did a special 1 hour Time Team programme lunch time yesterday and a later report back. The finds at Canterbury have been spectacular. They have uncovered an intact medieval tile factory, and excavation will continue to uncover this unique factory site. It is truly immense!

Last night was 'Roman' night again on the TV and there was a really good programme about Nero. Then there was another programme about Gladiators which was fascinating, and a further one on Trajan's column which depicts the Dacian wars and is a history of Roman warfare. By 10.30 pm I was completely Roman'd out *grin*


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 451 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Aug 29, 2000 (12:31) * 1 lines 
 
I am so jealous!!! All I have of Canterbury is a small chunk of the original Caen Limestone exterior which they were replacing.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 452 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Aug 29, 2000 (12:36) * 1 lines 
 
I understand from someone who is on a dig, that it gets to be an old thing. Scholarship calls when your supervisors will only let you dig. I guess that is part of the apprenticeship process (or grad student.) Makes for fantastic physiques, however!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 453 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Tue, Aug 29, 2000 (13:33) * 1 lines 
 
Hmm, physique is a male thing I think!!! Ah, so that's why there are so many hunks on digs....To be truthful I don't think I have the energy to dig really .....Just like the thought of it.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 454 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Aug 29, 2000 (13:39) * 1 lines 
 
Nit picking in my thing. I'll wash and screen the diggings but I'd really rather pick over the screenings. Digging is not for me. I am far too slender to do heavy digging!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 455 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Aug 31, 2000 (22:15) * 48 lines 
 
SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN - DISCOVERING ARCHAEOLOGY
Newsletter for August 31, 2000
http://www.discoveringarchaeology.com/newsletter.shtml

--- Feature Stories ---

- SWALLOWED BY THE SANDS
Archaeologists Hope to Solve the Mystery of Persia's Lost Army of Egypt
http://www.discoveringarchaeology.com/articles/082800-sands.shtml

- ONLINE CONTEST!
Answer the question correctly and win great prizes from Egypt Revealed!
Just for kids! This week's prize is the Pharoah game CD-Rom by Sierra.
https://orion.he.net/%7Esaa49000/onlinecontest.shtml

Plus these Feature Reports:

- Discovery at Lake Titicaca Questioned
http://dailynews.yahoo.com/h/ap/20000823/wl/bolivia_titicaca_ruins_1.html

- Cambodia's Army Profits From Archaeo-Tourism
http://www.ngnews.com/news/2000/08/08292000/cambodia_2982.asp


- Titanic Salvager's Erie Haul
http://www.accessatlanta.com/partners/ajc/read/titanic0816.html

- Ming Dynasty Bowl Recovered From Spanish Shipwreck http://sg.dailynews.yahoo.com/headlines/world/afp/article.html?s=singapore/headlines/000830/world/afp/Ming_dynasty_bowl_found_in_wreck_of_Manila_galleon.html

- Excavating in Aphrodisias, Turkey
http://www.nytimes.com/library/national/science/082900sci-archaeo-turkey.html

- This Old House
http://www.denverpost.com/news/news0828c.htm

- Venice is Sinking
http://www.nytimes.com/library/national/science/082900sci-venice-flooding.html

- Do Graffiti, Go to Jail
http://www.vernal.com/aug16/fr.defacing.p1.html
-----
The Discovering Archaeology Newsletter finds the week's most
interesting archaeological stories and presents them to you in a
simple, easy to read format on the web. Read these and other
interesting features, including Readers Polls, Book Reviews,
Archaeological Event Calendars and much more at:
http://www.discoveringarchaeology.com/newsletter.shtml



 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 456 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Wed, Sep  6, 2000 (02:19) * 10 lines 
 
(http://www.volcano-hawaii.com/petroglyphs.htm)
Petroglyphs
Ancient Hawaiian Rock Art

Want to get a true picture of the history of Hawai'i? You can learn a lot from Hawaiian petroglyphs - ancient rock carvings that tell stories about early life on the islands.

The Hawaiian petroglyphs is a great mystery of the Pacific. No one knows who made them or why, but it seems that perhaps ordinary people, not artists, etched the linear and triangular figures into the pahoehoe lava. These graphic carvings, more than 3,000 of them, were probably made as part of ritual or prayer and speak of spiritual phenomena - mana.

Upon approaching a petroglyphs field, a wonderful cast of characters leap to life. There are dancers, paddlers, fishermen, and family groups. Turtle, dog, ship and horse symbols are also depicted, as well as fish hooks, spears, poi pounders and canoes. There are 135 different petroglyphs sites on six inhabited islands, but most of them are found on the Big Island of Hawai'i.



 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 457 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Sep  7, 2000 (12:58) * 37 lines 
 
Scientific American Discovering Archaeology Weekly

Newsletter for September 06, 2000
http://www.discoveringarchaeology.com/newsletter.shtml

--- Feature Stories ---

- THE REAL VIKING LEGACY
Trade, not Terror, was the Hallmark of the Norse
http://www.discoveringarchaeology.com/articles/090100-vikings.shtml

- ONLINE CONTEST!
A Contest for kids! Answer the question correctly and win great prizes
from Egypt Revealed. This week's prize is the Pharoah game CD-Rom by
Sierra.
https://orion.he.net/%7Esaa49000/onlinecontest.shtml


Plus these Feature Reports:

- Thawing Out Mr. Cool
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/et?ac=000405944438668&rtmo=r2QbXF3X&atmo=99999999&pg=/et/00/9/3/wmum03.html

- Russia's Oldest Book
http://www.sptimes.ru/current/news/n_dig.htm


- Archaeologists Find Bronze Age City
http://dailynews.yahoo.com/h/ap/20000831/sc/bulgaria_bronze_age_1.html

- Dateline: Siberia
http://www.abc.net.au/news/newslink/weekly/newsnat-3sep2000-31.htm

- Excavations at Olonski, Poland
http://www.princeton.edu/~bogucki/oslonki.html




 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 458 of 1283: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Sun, Sep 10, 2000 (13:38) * 1 lines 
 
Marcia aren't you glad to know that some of your Danish ancestors had real business acumen and weren't blood-thirsty thugs. Well, some of them might have been that too, as Europe was rapant with blood-thirsty thugs at that time. It was called the Dark Ages. I think the Vikings got really bad press because their favored targets were monasteries. The monasteries were rich, but monks were just about the only people who could write then in Europe. Hence, the Vikings were attacking the very people who wrote the history.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 459 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Sep 10, 2000 (20:30) * 1 lines 
 
Believe it or not...(funny you should mention it)...in the 1910 Encyclopaedia Britannica there is an article on King Hemming (spelt precisely that way) who managed amongst other things to limit Charlemagne's nothern conquests and King Hemming's southern conquests by treaty. According to them (I Xeroxed it for posterity), he was the only one who was strong enough to limit Charlemagne by treaty. Thanks for noting that some had more than muscles between their ears. Like the Irish slave raiders who took Partick to Ireland, there were bullies in every crowd - even nowadays...


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 460 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Tue, Sep 12, 2000 (03:54) * 45 lines 
 
Friday September 8 2:02 AM ET
Scientists Uncover Mayan Marketplace
http://dailynews.yahoo.com/htx/ap/20000908/sc/guatemala_lost_city_1.html

By WILL WEISSERT, Associated Press Writer

GUATEMALA CITY (AP) - Scientists and looters ignored the ruin for nearly a century because it appeared devoid of temples and burial sites that might yield valuable treasures and artifacts.

They had no idea what they were missing.

Underneath the jungle curtain of mud and dense foliage was a sprawling lost city called ``Cancuen,'' (can-ku-win), one of the most important commercial centers of the Mayan world for more than 1,200 years.

Cancuen has been rediscovered by Guatemalan and American scientists working deep in the country's northern jungles. They believe it will take 10 years to fully unearth the city, which dates to 400 B.C.

It is buttressed by a 270,000-square-foot Mayan palace. With three floors - each 66 feet high - and 170 rooms, it is among the most grandiose Mayan structures ever discovered, the National Geographic Society announced Friday.

The society is a chief sponsor of the Cancuen excavation project.

``We started off working with what we thought was a small palace, part of a small Mayan settlement,'' said Arthur Demerest, a Vanderbilt University archaeologist and head of the Cancuen project. ``What we found was a palace 20 times as large as we were expecting and an important Mayan marketplace that had been forgotten for almost 100 years.''

Built in the shadow of the hulking palace, the 5-square-mile city featured a crowded rectangular layout of heavy stone walls, 11 spacious stone-tiled patios and buildings with cubbyhole-like rooms and thick, multileveled roofs.

While Demerest said scientists aren't sure how many Mayan merchants traded in Cancuen, the city is thought to have attracted thousands from nearby highland settlements, including the sprawling, majestic city of Tikal, 85 miles to the northeast.

Cancuen, an ancient Maya word meaning ``Place of the Serpent,'' became a key trading post because of the sprawling River Passion in what is known today as southern Peten, Guatemala's northernmost province, Demerest said.

First discovered in 1905 by Austrian explorer Tobert Maler, scientists and looters ignored the site for years.

``A city that was built only for commercial purposes and not for religious ones seemed uninteresting to a lot of academics and worthless to a lot of looters,'' Demerest said, adding that the city is now overrun with such jungle-dwelling animals as howler monkeys.

Cancuen lacked the breathtaking temples that dominate Tikal and other Mayan sites because its inhabitants worshipped and buried their dead in surrounding highland areas.

``All of the fantastic temples you see at other sites are an effort to copy the altitude of the highlands that surrounded Cancuen,'' said Demerest, who said that being close to the heavens was the cornerstone of Mayan religious practices. ``In Cancuen they had the real thing.''

Though work at the site has been suspended until next spring because of the rainy season, scientists have already recovered dozens of artifacts in nearby mountain caves.

Cancuen remained shrouded by jungle until 1967, when a group of Harvard graduate students returned to the city for less than a week and brought back crude sketches of what they thought was waiting to be discovered there.

Demerest and scientists from Guatemala's City's Valley University were drawn back to the area in April because hieroglyphics inscribed in artifacts recovered in Tikal and Dos Pilas, the ancient Maya's largest commercial center, made reference to a marketplace called Cancuen and its powerful fourth-century B.C. ruler, Tah Chan Wi, or ``Celestial Fire.''

Frederico Fahsen, the foremost Guatemalan authority on deciphering Mayan hieroglyphics and the Cancuen project's co-director, said the Cancuen ruler married his daughter to the king of Dos Pilas, 55 miles to the northeast, to establish relationships with surrounding settlements rather than go to war with them.

``Mayan cities have been in constant war, with their constructions dedicated to the gods and the heavens,'' Fahsen said. ``Here we have exactly the opposite.''




 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 461 of 1283: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Tue, Sep 12, 2000 (18:10) * 3 lines 
 
Marcia, I feel certain that you are a descendent of the astute and diplomatically capable King Hemming.

The story of the Mayan discovery is striking news. My Dad was very interested in the great cultures of Mesoamerica, particularly the Maya. It is also a great find in that it is not a ceremonial center, rather a commercial Mayan settlement.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 462 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Sep 13, 2000 (01:38) * 1 lines 
 
Indeed! about the Mayan ruins... If I were not feeding enough mosquitoes here I would hunger more for the Belize and Guatamala - Yucatan area. Alas, there is so much blood I have to give... It is rare to find non-royal or ritual sites anywhere. Careful study should yield much information on those whose labor kept the kings and priests in the status to which they were accustomed.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 463 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Sep 13, 2000 (01:44) * 53 lines 
 
News from Ancient Sites Directory 9th September 2000

Hello Everybody,

I've been spending quite a lot of my spare time updating The Ancient
Sites Directory recently. I've overhauled the "look and feel" of the
pages, hoping to make them friendlier to use and navigate (especially
for those using 800x600 screen resolutions - which is most of you).

New sites are what you'll be wanting to hear about, and I have quite a
few of those on-line after our recent trip to Orkney. Some of the new
sites were visited on the journey up to get the ferry:-

Aviemore - stone circle
Cairn O'Get - chambered tomb
The Camster Cairns
Carn Liath - broch

Once on the Orkney Islands we had some old favourites to visit again
and some sites on other islands to see for the first time. Plus we
were among the first members of the general public to explore the
enigmatic Mine Howe, re-discovered just about a year ago. New sites
added to the directory from Orkney so far:-

Holm of Papa Westray North - chambered tomb
Holm of Papa Westray South - chambered tomb + excellent prehistoric
carvings
Mine Howe - subterranean passages
Quoyness - chambered tomb

To access any of these pages click on the "contents" button from the
home page (http://www.henge.org.uk) and then find "Highland" and
"Orkney" in the menu.

I have many more sites to add as and when time allows.

Shortly after we returned from our visit the discovery of a new
chambered tomb on the island of Westray was made public. This is a
repeat of our previous visit in 1998 when about a week after we got
home the discovery of a tomb at Crantit, just outside Kirkwall was
announced. I'm beginning to feel that we're jinxed!

For anybody wishing to read more about the Orkney Islands I can highly
recommend a visit to Orkneyjar (http://www.orkneyjar.com) a site
published by Sigurd Towrie. He covers all aspects of the heritage of
the island from the depths of the prehistoric past through local
folklore and dialect.
Cheers for now,
Chris
--
Chris Tweed - ICQ: 71688382
For PGP Public Key email pgp@henge.org.uk with subject of "*send pgpkey"
Ancient Sites Directory - http://www.henge.org.uk


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 464 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Wed, Sep 13, 2000 (04:03) * 17 lines 
 
Tuesday September 12 7:02 PM ET
Yemeni Temple Could Uncover Queen of Sheba
http://dailynews.yahoo.com/htx/nm/20000912/sc/discovery_yemen_dc_1.html

By Rajiv Sekhri

TORONTO (Reuters) - A Canadian archeologist said on Tuesday that his team was slowly unraveling the secrets of a 3,000-year-old temple that may have belonged to the Queen of Sheba. Half-buried under the sands of the southern Arabian desert in northern Yemen, the Mahram Bilqis or Temple of the Moon God contains priceless documents and artifacts from the time of the biblical queen. The temple was a sacred site for pilgrims in Arabia from around 1200 BC to 550 AD, the time that fits with history's record of the Queen of Sheba and her visit to King Solomon of Israel. ``To have such historical, religious and cultural connection to one site is tremendous. Not often in archeology do we have that.'' Professor Bill Glanzman told Reuters. Glanzman, who teaches archeology at the University of Calgary and is the project's director, said: ``We've probably excavated less than one percent of the site, with many of its treasures still buried far beneath the sands.''

The discovery and excavation of the temple began in 1951 by the late American archeologist Wendell Phillips. But it was halted abruptly a year later because of political unrest. Work was restarted in 1998 by the American Foundation for the Study of Man, a nonprofit organization that spearheads such projects.

Glanzman said the temple could become an ``eighth wonder of the world,'' attracting people from around the world. ``We think it has the potential to become a world-class tourist site, where tourists can walk around and really feel what happened thousands of years ago.''

But another expert disagrees. ``This is the most optimistic of statements at the moment, given the economic and political situation and the problem of raising money for such things,'' said Edward Keall, senior curator of Middle Eastern Archeology at the Royal Ontario Museum in Toronto. ``I do not expect to see it in my lifetime,'' he said. ``As of the moment, the Yemeni government does not have control over the various tribal groups that live in the country and who believe that they own the land,'' Keall said.

But Glanzman tries to sell the importance of the excavation, saying it is as important a discovery as the ruins of Pompeii, the pyramids of Giza or the Acropolis. ``The sanctuary is packed with artifacts, pottery, artwork and inscriptions, opening a new door to the ancient civilizations of southern Arabia,'' he said. Glanzman said his team could be finished with the excavation within 15 years.




 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 465 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Sep 13, 2000 (15:22) * 86 lines 
 
Thanks again, Maggie - this is fascinating! Maybe even more than digging land snails out of Eton Rowing Lake...*sigh*

Sources: Reuters | SPACE.com | AP

Wednesday September 13 2:16 AM ET
Explorer Finds Evidence of Life Before Great Flood

By Sue Pleming

WASHINGTON (Reuters) - U.S. explorers said on Wednesday they have found signs of human habitation
hundreds of feet below the Black Sea where a catastrophic flood occurred about 7,500 years ago, which some
scientists say is linked to the biblical story of Noah.

Explorer Robert Ballard, famous for discovering the wreck of the Titanic, said his National Geographic expedition
found a ''rectangular structure,'' possibly that of a building, about 310 feet (90 meters) below the sea's surface,
indicating people lived there before a massive flood inundated the area.

``We now know people were living on that surface when that event (the big flood) took place because we are now
finding evidence of human habitation,'' said Ballard in a telephone interview from the Northern Horizon research
ship, about 12 miles (20 km) off the Turkish shore.

``This is an incredible find. It's clear a vast amount of real estate is under water and that a vast amount of people
were living around the Black Sea,'' said Ballard, adding that it was far more significant than his Titanic discovery in
1985.

Ballard said his team made its finding three days ago, in the second week of a five-week expedition. They hope to
make more findings and will do precise mapping and photo documentation before anything is brought up to the
surface.

``Our job is to find as many structures as we can, to explore them and to see what they tell us about the people that
lived here and present that to the world and let the world draw it's own conclusions,'' he said.

Ballard said it was too soon to say whether there was a link between the great flood he believes occurred in the
Black Sea and the one depicted in the Bible.

``What we are trying to do is gather facts. We are testing that theory and so far we have not found any holes in it.
We will continue to gather data,'' Ballard said.

The artifacts found by Ballard's team were captured by sonar and on pictures taken by a roving vehicle called
Argus that is about the size of a washing machine and attached by fiber-optic cable to the research ship.

The rectangular structure measures about 12-feet (4 meters) in width and is 45-feet (15 meters) long, with carved
wooden beams, wooden branches and stone tools collapsed among the mud matrix.

``It's architecture and artifacts were of the Neolithic bronze age, which is from about 7,000 years ago,'' said
Ballard.

The team's chief archeologist, Fredrik Hiebert, described the finding as the ``Pompeii of landscapes'' and said it
was typical of the wattle and daub homes seen on land.

``This is a major discovery that will begin to rewrite the history of cultures in this key area between Europe, Asia
and the ancient Middle East,'' said Hiebert, an archeologist from the University of Pennsylvania.

``This looks to me, as an archeologist familiar with this region, like the typical architecture of the people who lived
around the Black Sea,'' he said.

The cataclysmic flood in that area was tentatively linked to the biblical story of Noah in the book of Genesis by
U.S. geologists William Ryan and Walter Pitman of Columbia University in their 1997 book ``Noah's Flood.''

The two geologists believe Noah's flood took place not in the Middle East, as might be assumed from reading the
Bible, but in the area around the Black Sea.

The geologists theory of a great flood in the Black Sea was based on their discovery of a drowned landscape as
seen in seismic profiles and sediment cores.

Pitman said he had ``never been so excited in his life'' as he was with Ballard's finding, adding that it would
probably revive debate over his Noah's Flood theory.

``I certainly believed that there had to be people living there but finding the structure was like finding a needle in a
haystack,'' Pitman said from his home in New York.

Ballard said the extraordinary state of preservation of the wood and other organic materials of such great age was
most likely due to the site's closeness to the Black Sea's deeper, oxygen-free waters.

Hiebert said it was possible human or animal bones could have survived in the waters because organic material that
would typically disappear would have been preserved.

``We do think that human remains would be extremely well preserved, opening up the whole Pandora's box of
DNA and discovering who these people truly were,'' said Hiebert.

Scientists believe the Black Sea was a freshwater lake until it was flooded by the Mediterranean Sea about 7,000
years ago. Ryan and Pitman's research showed today's Black Sea was transformed when melting glaciers raised
the level of the Mediterranean, causing water to break through the strip of land separating the Mediterranean from
the smaller freshwater lake.




 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 466 of 1283: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Thu, Sep 14, 2000 (19:25) * 1 lines 
 
I read somewhere that Bosphorus means "ox crossing". It seems a litte deep to cross oxen there now, unless the bovines are excellent swimmers.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 467 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Fri, Sep 15, 2000 (06:53) * 63 lines 
 
Canoes Show Life in Neolithic Paris
http://dailynews.yahoo.com/h/ap/20000914/wl/france_neolithic_canoes_1.html
(picture via link)
Thursday September 14 2:33 PM ET
By MARILYN AUGUST, Associated Press Writer

PARIS (AP) - Thousands of years before the Bateaux Mouches began
plying the Seine with sightseers, Neolithic Parisians cruised the river in
dugout canoes, fishing and trading with their neighbors upstream.

Three 6,000-year-old canoes, unveiled Thursday, suggest human
settlements were set up at the location of present-day Paris up to 1,500
years earlier than had been believed.

The 20-foot canoes, each hewn from a single oak log, will be the
centerpiece of a new wing of the Carnavalet Museum scheduled to open
later this year.

The dugouts, the earliest of which experts say dates to 4,500 B.C., were unearthed along with
thousands of artifacts by French archaeologists in 1990 during a major urban renewal project on
the banks of the Seine at Bercy, in southeastern Paris.

``The site is the most spectacular of its kind ever found in Paris and shows that the city is much
older than we had thought,'' said Philippe Velay, archaeology curator at the Carnavalet.

Other Neolithic remains were found under the courtyard of the Louvre Museum in central Paris
when it was undergoing renovations in the early 1980s, he said. But that find, much smaller than
the Bercy one, was not studied in depth at the time.

Together, the finds suggest two Neolithic communities a few miles apart that had contact with
each other via the Seine, which at the time was over a mile wide in parts. Experts had previously
put the earliest settlements in the Paris region to around 3,000-2,500 B.C.

The Neolithic period, characterized by polished stone tools, pottery and agriculture, ranges from
8,000-3,500 B.C.

The Bercy site could have had between a few hundred and a thousand people living in it at one
time. Along with a total 11 canoes, archaeologists found some 50,000 objects - including perfectly
preserved fragments of ceramic bowls and cups, a flint and a millstone. A double tomb was
unearthed containing the skeletons of two children, aged 9 and 5, curled in the fetal position.

Also found were a polished ax, wooden bow and a fish hook, as well as beaver, turtle and wolf
remains, Velay said. ``This suggests that the earliest city dwellers were concerned primarily with
their own survival, and hunted and fished for food,'' he said.

The canoes - some large enough to hold six people - were found about 26 feet underground,
perfectly preserved in the soil. One boat was split in half inadvertently by a bulldozer working on
the site.

``The biggest challenge was figuring out a way to make sure that their discovery was not the first
step towards their disappearance,'' said archaeologist Philippe Marquis, who made the discovery
in September 1990.

``We had to make sure they didn't just dry out and crumble, and basically, we just kept them wet
using an ordinary lawn sprinkler,'' he said.

Marquis said that if archaeologists had had the opportunity to stay and excavate longer, they could
have unearthed more of the settlement. A public park has since been built over the site.

Since their discovery, which was not made public at the time, the canoes underwent a $280,000
treatment at a laboratory in Grenoble to stabilize the condition of the wood. They will be displayed
in temperature- and humidity-controlled cases.



 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 468 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Sep 16, 2000 (12:45) * 1 lines 
 
Wow, neat! Bet there are handsome and intelligent archaeology grad students digging holes in the sludge there too. Wondering why they do not use undergrads for peon labor. Oh well... I wouldlike a update o n the Eton Rowing Lake but think I wil have to search it out for myself. Mahalo Maggie!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 469 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Sat, Sep 16, 2000 (12:53) * 17 lines 
 
As you wished - http://www.oau-oxford.com/eton.htmThe Archaeology of the Eton Rowing Lake
SUMMER EXCAVATION
26th June to18th August 2000
A large area on the north bank of the river Thames is being excavated in a series of summer seasons in advance of the construction of the Rowing Lake. The site, which is situated in open countryside next to the village of Dorney in South Buckinghamshire, is unique because of the preservation of a substantial channel of the prehistoric river Thames, within which waterlogged wooden structures have been located. The floodplain alongside contains a sequence of Mesolithic, Neolithic and Bronze Age in situ occupation horizons with flint knapping scatters, hearths and other artefact spreads sealed within the alluvium. On the gravel terraces the cropmarks indicate probably the best surviving Bronze Age landscape in the Middle Thames valley, with settlement, field systems and burials in barrows, flat graves and cremation urns. An enclosed Roman farmstead overlies Bronze Age settlement alongside the former course of the Thames.

Results from the work in 1995, 1996 and 1997 exceeded expectations. Six Bronze Age and Iron Age waterlogged timber bridges were found, while a pair of Neolithic middens came to light in a channel. On the floodplain Neolithic knapping areas have been revealed, while on dry ground Bronze Age barrows and waterholes and an Iron Age and Roman farmstead have been excavated.

The project is headed by Tim Allen from the Oxford Archaeological Unit. The professional team invites assistance from students from British universities, local archaeological societies, and other interested groups and individuals. A wide variety of experience of archaeological fieldwork and finds is available working with one of the foremost professional Units in the country. The 2000 season will examine the extensive Bronze Age enclosure system and settlement.

The site lies west of London close to Windsor Castle, and is easily accessible by rail from London Paddington and by road from the M4, A4 or M40, while Heathrow Airport is also nearby. There are no on-site facilities, but details of local campsites are available. Work will be Monday to Friday, with the weekends off; the standard working day will be from 8 am to 4.30 p.m.

Application forms may be obtained from the OAU . The telephone number is O1865 243888 and Fax number 01865 793496, or you can email postmaster@oau-oxford.com.







 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 470 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Sat, Sep 16, 2000 (12:55) * 2 lines 
 
ou may want ot check out http://www.oau-oxford.com/news.html
lots of news of digs


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 471 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Sun, Sep 17, 2000 (17:00) * 4 lines 
 
Visited the Rollright Stone Circle in the Cotswolds today. I think it is probably my favourite stone circle....you can walk round them and touch them. Across the road is the King stone. Can't get near that, but it is impressive. There is another group of stones in a field near the Rollrights.

Here is a site to visit that has lots of pictures for you to see, and info.http://atschool.eduweb.co.uk/carolrb/rollright/rollright1.html



 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 472 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Sep 18, 2000 (00:30) * 1 lines 
 
As I said before to this lady, if she were not such a special friend, I would be jealously hateful of her treading the sacred ground of my ancestors...*sigh* I am delighted you are appreciating what I can only remember through pictures taken by me ages ago. Thanks!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 473 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Mon, Sep 18, 2000 (03:31) * 3 lines 
 
What really surprised me was the way Hannah remembered it all ...she and I had a special time there yesterday --while house male was taking pix for you ...the last time we were there was when she was 13. For anyone planning to visit ...the stile opposite the king's men stones leading to the king stone is badly broken ...there is a much better, hidden, stile a few yards down the road. The King stone is surrounded by iron fencing and you can only stand and look ...which is a pity becuase it is the one I am most drawn to and would most like to touch. We couldn't find an access point to the whispering stones ..maybe it was further down the road than we looked. They are in the middle of a farmer's field.

When you come over next Marcia, we'll definitely go there ... I promise. At least you have been there .....(which is more than I have been for HAWAII!!!!!!! *grin*)


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 474 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Sep 18, 2000 (16:41) * 33 lines 
 
Taking you up on that offer one day, my dear....and the standing invite to the volcano stands... *sigh* one of the delights of hiking to the long barrows and other things on the hilltops is climbing over stiles. No one in the US knows what they are anymore - we use ugly barbed wire everywhere - and I had not seen one until I climbed over my first one. Just more added joy and data for my memory banks!

Updated: Wednesday, Sep. 13, 2000 at 09:51 CDT

Archaeologists in London may have found woman gladiator's grave
By ROBERT BARR
Associated Press
LONDON -- No one knows her name, or how she died, but archaeologists think she was a gladiator in Roman London.
And, from the evidence, a very popular one.
The existence of female gladiators in Roman times has long been known to historians, but now what are believed to be the first remains of one -- a young woman in her 20s, buried with high honors -- have been unearthed at a Roman cemetery in London.
The Museum of London displayed the evidence for the first time Tuesday.
Only a piece of the young woman's pelvis escaped the flames of her funeral pyre -- enough to say that she was in her 20s.
The belief that she may have been a gladiator comes from the ceramics buried with her in what was a walled cemetery on the south bank of the River Thames, in present-day Southwark.
One dish was decorated with a fallen gladiator and other vessels with symbols associated with gladiators, said Hedley Swain of the Museum of London.
Three lamps found in the grave were decorated with images of the Egyptian god Anubis. This jackal-headed deity was associated with the Roman god Mercury, and Swain noted that slaves dressed as Mercury were employed to drag away the bodies from amphitheaters.
"The fact that we have this association with gladiators indicates that she was a gladiator, or someone deeply involved with gladiators," said Jenny Hall, curator of early London history at the London Museum.
"It is obviously quite a wealthy burial," she added.
Hall says its "70 percent probable" that the woman was a gladiator.
"It is always the case with archaeology, that you are left with tantalizing glimpses," she said.
The grave was excavated in 1996 and the analysis was completed recently.
"There is evidence of a very exotic and high-status feast, including dates, almonds, figs and a dove," Swain said.
There were also remains of pine cones imported from the Mediterranean, which apparently were burned as incense.
It has long been known that women fought as gladiators. An inscription in Pompeii refers to women in the arena, and the Emperor Septimius Severus, who ruled from A.D. 193 to 211, allowed combat by women.
Graves excavated at Trier, in Germany, may have remains of male gladiators. Hall said she knew of no other gladiator graves excavated anywhere else in the world.
A show opening Oct. 21 at the British Museum includes a second-century relief carving of two women fighting. Each has a short sword and a shield.
The inscription, which says that both were granted "an honorable release from the arena," identifies one as Amazonia, the other as Achillea, a feminine form of Achilles.
Ralph Jackson, curator of Romano-British antiquities at the British Museum, said he was not convinced that the London Museum had found a woman gladiator.
"I would characterize it as possibly a gladiator," he said. "I would say that it is a very notable find, to have a female burial with eight lamps."
Jackson noted that gladiators, in general, had a very low status. "The only lower thing was an actor or an actress," he said.
Archaeologists from the museum also continue to analyze the results of their excavations of the Roman amphitheater found near the present Guildhall in the financial district.
That amphitheater, discovered in 1986, had room for 7,000 spectators, which would have been about a third of the population of Roman London.
http://www.Museumoflondon.org.uk



 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 475 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Sep 19, 2000 (23:04) * 3 lines 
 
"An archeologist is the best husband any woman can have. The older
she gets, the more he is interested in her!" --Agatha Christie



 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 476 of 1283: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Thu, Sep 21, 2000 (18:00) * 1 lines 
 
But can't he always dig up her past? Sorry, that is a really old archaelogy joke.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 477 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Sep 22, 2000 (00:43) * 1 lines 
 
*laugh* Um... yes...but there is something totally charming about younger Archaeologists. They have a passion that is difficult to replicate elsewhere!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 478 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Fri, Sep 29, 2000 (18:10) * 29 lines 
 
The Most-Complete Hominid Skull
A 2 million-year-old Skull Emerges From a New South African Site

http://www.discoveringarchaeology.com/articles/042600-skull.shtml

by Robert Locke

South African Journal of Science

The nearly complete skull of an early hominid has emerged from a rich, new treasure trove of hominid fossils discovered in South Africa.

Andre Keyser discovered the skull while working under the auspices of South Africa's University of Witwatersrand. He said Wednesday (April 26) that the skull, which dates to 1.5 million to 2 million years old, is the most complete ever to be scientifically described.

The skull, along with its lower jaw (or mandible) and complete set of teeth, is attributed to Paranthropus robustus, which other scientists refer to as Australopithecus robustus. Also found was a second, larger mandible from the same species. Keyser said the smaller specimen probably is that of a female and the larger one of a male.

Robustus is generally considered a dead-end species that is not a human ancestor. The hominid had a rather flat face, with a protruding, ape-like jaw and mouth. Its molars were very large, probably to accommodate a vegetarian diet, while the front teeth were quite small.

Keyser said the just-reported skull was found in October 1994 at the previously unreported site of Drimolen, about 7 kilometers (4.3 miles) northeast of the famous hominid site of Sterkfontein. The sites are within 100 kilometers (62 miles) of Johannesburg, South Africa.

Discovered by Keyser and Rosalind Smith, the fragile pieces of skull were reconstructed by Ron Clarke. The Drimolen site has so far yielded 79 fossil-hominid specimens, including some early species of Homo. Many animal fossils and 24 items identified as bone tools also were reported.

Keyser is a retired geologist formerly with the Geological Survey of South Africa. The excavations were under the direction of the University of Witwatersrand's Bernard Price Institute for Palaeontological Research.


Also of interest:
http://www.cnn.com/TECH/9712/16/baby.skeletons/

Prominent hominid fossils
http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/homs/specimen.html


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 479 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Sep 30, 2000 (14:56) * 1 lines 
 
Ah...where DO we put hominid fossils? Paleo? With the Coprolites and gastroliths and petrified wood??? Perhaps they do belong in Archaeology since it deals with humankind. Thanks, Maggie!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 480 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Sep 30, 2000 (15:18) * 46 lines 
 
Potentially Toxic Artifacts Found

By CHRISTINE HANLEY, Associated Press Writer

SAN FRANCISCO (AP) - David Hostler learned the troubling
news when he journeyed more than 3,000 miles from his Hoopa
Valley reservation, California's largest, to dig through troves of
tribal artifacts on display and in storage at Harvard University.

Arriving at the Ivy League school's Peabody Museum of Archaeology and
Ethnology, which owns the
largest collection of American Indian remains outside the Smithsonian,
officials suggested he don a pair of
gloves and a dust mask before sifting through the collection.

``That's when I found out some of the artifacts had been
contaminated,'' said Hostler, a director of the Hoopa museum and a ceremonial
leader of the tribe, which has 4,000 members and an 89,000-acre
reservation about 40 miles outside the northern California coastal city of
Eureka.

Two years later, Hostler and fellow Indians across the United States
remain unsettled by the notion that human remains and sacred objects
being returned to them under the Native American Graves Protection and
Repatriation Act, or NAGPRA, may be poisoned with heavy metals
and pesticides that were used as preservatives.

On Friday, representatives of California's 110 tribes began arriving
at San Francisco State University for a three-day workshop aimed at
raising awareness of the potential health risks that scientists
consider especially acute because many of the artifacts - steeped in
spiritual
significance - have been or will be returned to their traditional use.

``For people who are only hearing about this for the first time, it's
only human to be scared and angry,'' said Lee Davis, an anthropology
professor at SFSU and consultant for the Hoopa tribe.

Pesticides and other toxins, including mercury and arsenic, have been
routinely used on all kinds of artifacts to preserve them and keep
insects away, with the idea that the objects would only be displayed
under glass.

But that changed when the repatriation act, passed in 1990, required
museums to return headdresses and other regalia to their rightful tribal
owners.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 481 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Sep 30, 2000 (15:21) * 48 lines 
 
...the rest of the message begun above:


It is unclear how widespread the contamination may be, since most of
the evidence is anecdotal and no official empirical studies have been
conducted to determine whether mercury, arsenic, DDT and other toxins
used as pesticides or preservatives persist in harmful levels.

SFSU on Friday released preliminary findings of a study showing traces
of mercury in a handful of items that have found their way back to
the Hoopa tribe. There were also low levels of pesticides on some
samples, including DDT and naphthalene, an active ingredient in
mothballs.

But Peter Palmer, a chemical analyst who led the study, questioned
whether the results were reliable, saying he was ``not sure how they
would hold up in a court of law.''

He and other researchers noted how they are impeded by financial
constraints and limited in the types of testing they can do since a lot of
the
cultural material must remain intact, and removing toxins could be
destructive.

``There are no easy answers - a lot of uncertainties,'' Palmer told a
large group of other scientists, Indian leaders and observers during
one of
Friday's sessions, calling the study a ``best effort'' by students.
``At least we've done this much.''

Palmer and other scientists agree more in-depth studies are needed. On
Sunday, organizers plan to start drawing up a cohesive plan to address
the issues raised at the workshop.

``The ramifications are complex,'' said Jeff Fentress, coordinator of
SFSU's artifact testing lab. ``Where did all these contaminants come
from? What other contaminants are there? What exposure have we all had
all these years? And last, what do we do about it?''

For the tribes, the waiting could mean sacrificing tradition.

``Repatriation is important for preserving our culture and educating
our youth, and carrying on our religion as it always was,'' Hostler
said.
``At this time, hopefully we'll find solutions on how to get the
poisons out.''




 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 482 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Sep 30, 2000 (16:12) * 1 lines 
 
Three months after my marriage my new husband began teaching at a tiny college with an even tinier museum. The chemicals were so strong that you could smell them as soon as you entered the building. I wonder if any museums are toxin-free if they have been collecting for many years.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 483 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Mon, Oct  2, 2000 (03:00) * 20 lines 
 
Shrine untouched for 2,000 years found in Croatia
By Davor Huic
http://uk.news.yahoo.com/001002/80/al8ma.html

ZAGREB (Reuters) - An international team of archaeologists has uncovered what may be a pre- Roman pagan shrine that has lain undisturbed beneath the hills of southern Croatia for more than two thousand years. The Croatian-Canadian team says the site, dating from the third century BC, is the only shrine of the ancient Illyrian people ever found. They believe they are the first people to have set foot in it since it was sealed up as Rome's legions marched across Europe. The dramatic discovery was made deep inside a cave at Spila, near the village of Nakovana on the Peljesac peninsula in southern Dalmatia, about 100 km (60 miles) northwest of the Adriatic city of Dubrovnik. Pottery and a huge phallic stalagmite in the cave indicate that it was used as a shrine. "We believe that the centre of the cave served as an altar for some pagan ritual, probably linked to fertility or potency," Dr Staso Forenbaher of the Croatian Institute for Anthropological Research told Reuters. "To our knowledge, this is the only Illy
ian sanctuary ever found," he added.


MIGRATING SLAVIC TRIBES
The Illyrians inhabited the western Balkans before the Romans conquered the region and were assimilated by migrating Slavic tribes in the early Middle Ages. Albanians are their only modern descendants.

Forenbaher and Dr Timothy Kaiser of the Royal Ontario Museum discovered deeper channels in the Spila cave almost by accident, during excavations at the entrance in August 1999. They returned a year later to lead the project. The cave contains several layers of archaeological material dating from the early neolithic era, 6,000 years BC. The most valuable findings were hidden behind a mass of stones and earth deep inside. Forenbaher said he believed the entrance might have been sealed on purpose, at some point during the first century BC at the time of the Roman conquest, possibly to prevent the sanctity of the site from being broken. "It looked completely intact. The surface was crusty, and there was no evidence whatsoever that any human or animal had walked there for centuries," said Forenbaher. The fact that the shrine has been completely untouched for two millennia makes its significance even greater. "Hopefully, this will give us a chance to try to reconstruct what had been going on there," Forenbaher sa
d. As the team went into the cave, a corridor 50 metres (164 feet) in length and tall enough for a person to stand up in, opened up roughly in the middle of a circular area about 10 metres (32 feet) in diameter. In the middle of this stood a 60-cm (two-feet) tall red and white stalagmite in the form of a phallus. The team believe it played a central role in whatever rituals went on in the cave when it was used as a shrine.


PLATES AND CHALICES
"We dug around and under the stalagmite and found that it had not grown there naturally. It had to be brought in from someplace else -- perhaps even from the cave itself -- to be installed there by humans," Forenbaher said. Scattered around were hundreds of pieces of Hellenistic pottery, mostly plates and chalices, some of them bearing inscriptions in ancient Greek and Latin. Their function and position around the phallus indicate they were used in some sort of a ritual that included feasting, drinking and probably making offerings to pagan gods. Most pieces seem to have originated from Magna Graecia -- Greek colonies in southern Italy -- and from Greek settlements in the southern Dalmatian islands of Korcula (Korcyra Nigra), Hvar (Pharos) and Vis (Issa). The team dug out about three tonnes of material from the cave, taking everything they could find to the Dubrovnik Archaeology Museum for further research, Forenbaher said. They also found containers with what looked like remains of food that will be sent t
Britain to be analysed, while radioactive carbon dating will be done in Croatia. More than 100 kg (200 lb) of collected pottery will be sorted out and put together by local experts. "We expect first reports to come out within a year, and the whole project to take three years," Forenbaher said




 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 484 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Oct  3, 2000 (20:55) * 5 lines 
 
http://freespace.virgin.net/philip.dunn/knowlton.htm

Check out the aerial view of this Henge group. I remember driving past on the way to Bournemouth to spend the night, and it is startling the number of barrows around this henge group. You cannot miss it on the right as you drive south. TheChristaion church standing in the middle of the largest henge attracts your attenion immediately!

This entire site is worth visiting. Very interesting stuff in there - especially about the Gough Cave in Cheddar Gorge! Check it out!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 485 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Oct  6, 2000 (17:13) * 41 lines 
 
Scientific American Discovering Archaeology Weekly
DISCOVERING ARCHAEOLOGY - Newsletter for October 04, 2000
http://www.discoveringarchaeology.com/newsletter.shtml

--- Feature Stories ---

- WORLD'S OLDEST BRUSH HUTS
Some of the Earliest Homes are discovered in Israel's Jordan
Valley
http://www.discoveringarchaeology.com/articles/100400-huts.shtml

FROM EGYPT REVEALED:

- Finding the Pharaoh's Vizier
More Secrets from the Valley of the Golden Mummies.
http://www.egyptrevealed.com/1000toc/100300-pharaoh.shtml


Plus these Feature Reports:

- The Questions in a Dazzling Tomb
http://www.nytimes.com/2000/10/03/science/03TOMB.html

- Roman Shipwrecks Discovered
http://www.worldnews.com/?action=display&article=3763371&template=worldnews/search.txt&index=recent

- A 2,000-year-old Shrine in Croatia
http://abcnews.go.com/wire/US/reuters20001002_79.html

- Hopis Dispute Cannibalism Theory
http://www.abqjournal.com/news/1hopis09-29-00.htm

- Outhouse Archaeology
http://www.sacbee.com/news/news/local02_20000929.html

- Sound Waves Hunt for Artifacts
http://unisci.com/stories/20004/1003002.htm

- Contaminated Artifacts
http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/2000/09/30/MN16969.DTL



 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 486 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Oct 12, 2000 (17:07) * 51 lines 
 
Scientific American Discovering Archaeology Weekly

DISCOVERING ARCHAEOLOGY - Newsletter for October 11, 2000
http://www.discoveringarchaeology.com/newsletter.shtml

--- Feature Stories ---

- THE "FOLSOM" COWBOY
The Remarkable Legacy of George McJunkin
http://www.DISCOVERINGARCHAEOLOGY.COM/articles/101100-folsom.shtml

FROM EGYPT REVEALED:

- Finding the Pharaoh's Vizier
More Secrets from the Valley of the Golden Mummies.
http://www.egyptrevealed.com/1000toc/100300-pharaoh.shtml


Plus these Feature Reports:

- Hyena Den Archaeology
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/et?ac=000579381554028&rtmo=aqJJK9aJ&atmo=99999999&pg=/et/00/10/6/nden06.html

- Deep Mysteries
http://www.latimes.com/news/asection/20001005/t000094667.html

- The Father of Underwater Archaeology
http://www.discoveringarchaeology.com/0399toc/GeorgeBass.shtml

- Life Down On The Body Farm
http://www.deseretnews.com/dn/view/0,1249,195020050,00.html

- Virtual Palenque
http://www.virtualpalenque.com/

- Nordic Underwater Archaeology
http://www.abc.se/~m10354/uwa/

- Contemporary Guide To An Ancient Spice:
http://www.saffroninfo.com/

-----

The Discovering Archaeology Newsletter finds the week's most
interesting archaeological stories and presents them to you in a
simple, easy to read format on the web. Read these and other
interesting features, including Readers Polls, Book Reviews,
Archaeological Event Calendars and much more at:

http://www.discoveringarchaeology.com/newsletter.shtml



 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 487 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Oct 18, 2000 (18:50) * 48 lines 
 
Scientific American Discovering Archaeology Weekly

DISCOVERING ARCHAEOLOGY - Newsletter for October 18, 2000
http://www.discoveringarchaeology.com/newsletter.shtml

Discovering Archaeology Newsletter is sponsored by Rolex.

--- Feature Stories ---

- MISREADING THE BONES
A Brutal Conquistador was Innocent of a Georgia Slaughter
http://www.discoveringarchaeology.com/1000toc/10randn04-bones.shtml

FROM EGYPT REVEALED:

- Lost City of the Pyramids
A Complex Community Supported the Builders of Egypt's Greatest Monuments
http://www.egyptrevealed.com/1000toc/101200-pyramids.shtml


Plus these Feature Reports:

- Classic Greek City Found:
http://www.discovery.com/news/briefs/20001017/hi_helike.html

- Britain's Stone Age Atlantis
http://www.ngnews.com/news/2000/10/10162000/atlantis_3155.asp

The Lascaux Lunar Calendar
http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/sci/tech/newsid_975000/975360.stm

- Mega Etruscan City Unearthed
http://www.discovery.com/news/briefs/20001016/hi_etruscan.html

- Vance Haynes
http://www.post-gazette.com/neigh_washington/20001015wadave1.asp

- Archimedes' Ancient Text Revealed
http://dailynews.yahoo.com/h/ap/20001013/us/archimedes__words_1.html

-----
The Discovering Archaeology Newsletter finds the week's most
interesting archaeological stories and presents them to you in a
simple, easy to read format on the web. Read these and other
interesting features, including Readers Polls, Book Reviews,
Archaeological Event Calendars and much more at:

http://www.discoveringarchaeology.com/newsletter.shtml


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 488 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Oct 18, 2000 (19:23) * 42 lines 
 
Stone Age 'Atlantis' Found
in North Sea

By The Independent
October 16, 2000

SCIENTISTS ARE unearthing the long-lost secrets of
Britain's own Atlantis - a vast area of former dry land under
what is now the North Sea.

The investigations are revealing how ancient Stone Age
communities were wiped out by a series of apocalyptic
floods which, scientists believe, are a stern warning of the
devastation that global warming and rising sea levels can
cause.

After the last Ice Age, melting ice caused the southern
half of the North Sea to rise by some 65ft in 2,000 years,
submerging an area in the North Sea the size of modern
Britain.

But researchers at Durham University have now
established that Britain also suffered a series of shorter
term but catastrophic floods with terrible effects on human
communities, killing 2,000- 3,000 people at a time.

Whereas populations were able to adapt to long-term sea
level rise, they would have been unable to escape from the
periodic super- floods which resulted from it.

There were periods in which very large flat areas became
vulnerable to tidal surge inundation for several hundred
years before becoming permanently submerged.

Between 7600 BC and 5900 BC around 1,000 square
miles of North Sea region dry land would have been
overwhelmed by 15ft-high tidal and storm surges on
average four times a century - once a generation.

more... http://www.ngnews.com/news/2000/10/10162000/atlantis_3155.asp




 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 489 of 1283: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Thu, Oct 19, 2000 (18:55) * 3 lines 
 
Yet more background to support the widespread existence of the Flood Legend in many different cultures.

Wasn't the Baltic Sea once dry land, as well? I think that the Baltic is supposed to be a relatively shallow sea.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 490 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Oct 19, 2000 (20:12) * 1 lines 
 
About the Baltic, Yes! Mediterranean too. Probably much of the Caribbean was above seal level once, as well.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 491 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Oct 26, 2000 (17:04) * 35 lines 
 
Scientific American Discovering Archaeology Weekly

DISCOVERING ARCHAEOLOGY
Newsletter for October 26, 2000
http://www.discoveringarchaeology.com/newsletter.shtml

Discovering Archaeology Newsletter is sponsored by Rolex.

--- Feature Stories ---

- POTTERY, JAGUARS & HOLIDAY INNS
Familiar Images Grease the Wheels of Travel and Commerce
http://www.discoveringarchaeology.com/1000toc/10commentary1-holiday.shtml

FROM EGYPT REVEALED:

- Giza the Truth
By Ian Lawton and Chris Ogilvie-Herald
http://egyptrevealed.com/reviews/gizathetruth.shtml


Plus these Feature Reports:

- The Artifacts of Ancient Ur:
http://chicagotribune.com/news/metro/chicago/printedition/article/0,2669,SAV-0010190227,FF.html

- The Florida Canoe Caper:
http://dailynews.yahoo.com/h/ap/20001019/us/ancient_canoes_1.html

- The Vikings:
http://www.nytimes.com/2000/10/20/arts/20VIKI.html

- Royal Mummy Relocated in Raid:
http://dailynews.yahoo.com/h/nm/20001023/od/mummy_dc_1.html



 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 492 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Nov  3, 2000 (14:18) * 41 lines 
 
DISCOVERING ARCHAEOLOGY
Newsletter for November 02, 2000
http://www.discoveringarchaeology.com/newsletter.shtml

--- Feature Stories ---

- OBELISKS IN EXILE
Monuments of Stone Stand the Test of Time Around the World
http://discoveringarchaeology.com/articles/102500-obelisks.shtml


Plus these Feature Reports:

- Dateline... Egypt:
http://www.discovery.com/news/briefs/20001031/hi_royalboat.html

- The America's First Root Crop
http://www.nytimes.com/2000/10/31/science/31OBSE.html

- Divers Looting D-Day Remains
http://www.ngnews.com/news/2000/10/10312000/normandy_3233.asp

- New Anasazi Connection
http://www.cnn.com/2000/NATURE/10/30/anasazi.clues.ap/index.html

- The Restoration Of An Ancient Library
http://www.ngnews.com/news/2000/10/10302000/alexandria_3229.asp

- Hunting May Have Started Later Than Previously Thought
http://unisci.com/stories/20004/1027006.htm

-----

The Discovering Archaeology Newsletter finds the week's most
interesting archaeological stories and presents them to you in a
simple, easy to read format on the web. Read these and other
interesting features, including Readers Polls, Book Reviews,
Archaeological Event Calendars and much more at:

http://www.discoveringarchaeology.com/newsletter.shtml



 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 493 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Nov  5, 2000 (14:51) * 29 lines 
 
Archaeologist Sorry for Planting Artifacts
TOKYO (Reuters) - A prominent archaeologist apologized on
Sunday for planting artifacts at an excavation site so he could
claim credit for discovering Japan's oldest stoneware.
"I have nothing more to say except that I am deeply sorry
for what I've done," Shinichi Fujimura told a televised news
conference.
Japanese media said Fujimura, a senior director at the
Tohoku Paleolithic Institute, planted eight stoneware pieces at
an excavation site and claimed the stoneware dated back to an
early stage of the Stone Age.
Fujimura made the announcement of his "discovery" on
October 27 and initially it enhanced his reputation among his
peers as having "a god's hands" for his ability to find
artifacts.
The archaeologist gave his televised apology after Japanese
media gave prominence to a different version of events.
The national daily Mainichi Shimbun, on the front page of
its Sunday edition, ran video stills of Fujimura placing the
stoneware pieces in a hole and covering them up with dirt.
The archaeologist said after being caught by the paper that
he went out alone to the excavation site several times in the
early hours of the morning to bury dozens of artifacts that he
claimed he "discovered" later in the day, media reported.
Archaeologists believe human communities lived at the
excavation site 600,000 years ago.





 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 494 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Nov 13, 2000 (17:00) * 4 lines 
 
Never know where to put Neanderthal material, so I am putting this link here and in Archaeolgy, thanks to Dar of Yahoo's anthropology club. It is a great site and the club is full of informative people with a passion for the the subject.
Excellent site for all things Neanderthal and other modern forms of mankind:

http://www.neanderthal-modern.com/index.html


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 495 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Nov 16, 2000 (15:06) * 43 lines 
 
The 10 families of man who settled Europe are revealed in gene tests
By Roger Highfield


EUROPEAN men are almost all related to just 10 male lineages whose
descendants migrated from the east in three waves over the past 40,000
years, scientists reported last week.

A genetic study of 1,007 men across Europe and the Middle East found
that 95 per cent of them could be traced to one of 10 categories.

On average, more than 80 per cent of European men have inherited
characteristics from two waves of Palaeolithic ancestors 40,000 and 25,000
years ago, according to the study published in the journal Science.

The oldest male lineage - characterised by a genetic marker called M173
- contributes to half of the genetic make-up of European males. Their
advent coincides with the arrival of what archaeologists call the
Aurignacian people, known for rock art and finely crafted tools.

The second wave is thought to be called the Gravettian culture, known
for its Venus figurines and delicate blades. The remainder were thought
to have arrived after an ice age some 10,000 years ago, when there was
a third - Neolithic - migration of the first farmers from the Fertile
Crescent in the Middle East.

The higher levels of the latter genetic make up in the south of Europe
suggest that some of these farmers travelled by boat along the coast.

The international team, led by Dr Ornella Semino, from Pavia University
in Italy, studied the "male" chromosome - Y chromosomes - of men. Since
its genetic information passes only from father to son, DNA variations
on the Y chromosome can be used to trace paternal ancestry. The
researchers analysed 22 such markers, and found that nearly all the
individuals in the study could be linked to 10 groups of male ancestors.

The investigators said: "Two lineages . . . appear to have been present
in Europe since Palaeolithic times.

"The remaining lineages entered Europe most likely later during
independent migrations from the Middle East and the Urals."

...thanks H_H from Yahoo's Prehistory club!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 496 of 1283: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Sat, Nov 18, 2000 (12:15) * 1 lines 
 
The Y chomosomes are a bit analogous to mitochondrial DNA. While it is true that only men inherit a Y chomosome, while everybody inherits mitochondrial DNA. Yet mitochondrial DNA can only be passed on by the mother. Everyone in the world carries only his or her mother's mitochondrial DNA. This is what led to the Eve theory that everybody in the world can be traced back to a single female ancestor who lived in Africa millena ago.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 497 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Nov 20, 2000 (14:07) * 41 lines 
 
Archaeologists Find Sarcophagus in Egyptian Tomb
ABU SIR, Egypt (Reuters) - Archaeologists excavating a
4,000-year-old tomb near Cairo found an empty sarcophagus on
Monday that they said could yield vital clues about the collapse
of the pyramid-building era in ancient Egypt.
Zahi Hawass, director of the Giza Plateau, told Reuters that
a team of Egyptian and Czech archaeologists discovered the stone
coffin in a sixth dynasty tomb at the pyramids of Abu Sir 17
miles southwest of Cairo.
"This sarcophagus was found empty. It means that some people
entered this tomb after it was built 4,200 years ago," said
Hawass. He said he expected more sixth dynasty tombs to be found
there soon.
The sarcophagus came to light as archaeologists explored a
bone-littered burial chamber about 60 feet underground.
"This is a private tomb from the Old Kingdom, belonging to
Inti, a judge and keeper of the city of Nekhen," said Bretislav
Vachala, director of the Czech Institute of Egyptology at Charles
University in Prague and joint leader of the mission.
He said the whole area south of the Abu Sir pyramids was
packed with tombs of the Old Kingdom elite.
"Here we can witness the period more than 4,000 years ago,
the clue to understanding the period when the age of pyramid
builders came to an end before the collapse of the Old Kingdom,"
Vachala said.
"The tomb was robbed in ancient times. The stone coffin is
broken from one corner and the bones are scattered all over the
burial chamber," he said.
The treasures may have gone, but hieroglyphic drawings remain
to tell the story of the tomb's original occupant.
Inti's two sons are depicted along the entrance walls, while
on the chapel walls, his wife is drawn kneeling at her husband's
feet. Inti himself is shown in several ways: standing with a
scepter and stick in his hand, sitting with his wife at his feet,
and standing with offerings of food and drink.

Vachala and his team began excavating the tomb in October and
expect to finish documenting it next month.





 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 498 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Nov 22, 2000 (20:24) * 42 lines 
 
Scientific American Discovering Archaeology Weekly

DISCOVERING ARCHAEOLOGY -Newsletter for November 22, 2000
http://www.discoveringarchaeology.com/newsletter.shtml

--- Feature Stories ---

- OBELISKS IN EXILE
Monuments of Stone Stand the Test of Time Around the World
http://discoveringarchaeology.com/articles/102500-obelisks.shtml


Plus these Feature Reports:

- In Search of a Religion's Origins
http://www.ngnews.com/news/2000/11/11202000/wirbuddha_3332.asp

- Czech Archaeologist Find Another Tomb
http://dailynews.yahoo.com/h/ap/20001121/wl/egypt_archaeology_3.html

- Wisconsin Rock Art
http://www.cnn.com/2000/NATURE/11/20/cave.art.ap/index.html

- The Case of the Elgin Marbles
http://www.ngnews.com/news/2000/11/11172000/elginmarbles_3308.asp

- The Archaeological Method and Healing
http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/2000/11/17/MN75981.DTL

- Oh, What a Tangled Web We Weave...
http://abcnews.go.com/sections/world/DailyNews/japan_archaeologist0001105.html

- World's Oldest Cave Paintings (?)
http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/sci/tech/newsid_1000000/1000653.stm

- The Sarmatic Culture of Western Russia
http://unisci.com/stories/20004/1101006.htm


- The Pyramids and the Stars
http://abcnews.go.com/sections/science/DailyNews/pyramids001115.html



 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 499 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Nov 26, 2000 (18:41) * 169 lines 
 
OLD WORLD NEWS

Perhaps a bit 'old' for this newsletter, but interesting nonetheless, is a
report that the 400,000 year-old-remains of a woman indicate she might have
had capacity for speech:

http://www.newsday.com/coverage/current/discovery/tuesday/nd5778.htm

A French archaeologist is claiming to have discovered the remains of a
6000-year-old civilization in Balochistan (watch the wrap)

http://www.jang.com.pk/thenews/nov2000-daily/24-11-2000/main/update.htm#10


A Czech team has discovered a 4,300 year-old-tomb near Cairo (unfortunately
with an empty sarcophagus):

http://centraleurope.com/news.php3?id=223363

http://www.spokesmanreview.com:80/news-story.asp?date=112200&ID=s883302

http://www.latimes.com:80/news/science/science/20001123/t000112486.html

http://www.msnbc.com:80/news/493234.asp?cp1=1

http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/world/middle_east/newsid_1035000/1035784.stm

Last week, listland was all arage in response to Kate Spence's suggestion
that star positions could be used to date the pyramids ... here's the
coverage (mind the wrap as required):

http://209.19.141.102/news/2000/11/11172000/egypt_3319.asp

http://helix.nature.com/nsu/001116/001116-10.html

http://www.worldnews.com/?action=display&article=4436303&template=worldnews/search.txt&index=recent

http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/sci/tech/newsid_1024000/1024779.stm

http://cbc.ca/cgi-bin/templates/view.cgi?/news/2000/11/16/egypt_star001116

http://www.lineone.net/express/00/11/16/news/n3720-d.html

http://www.cnn.com/2000/TECH/space/11/16/ageofpyramids.ap/index.html

http://www.telegraph.co.uk:80/et?ac=000579381554028&rtmo=qxdtMXR9&atmo=99999999&pg=/et/00/11/16/npyr16.html

http://www.abcnews.go.com/sections/science/DailyNews/pyramids001115.html

Also in the world of pyramid theories, the Independent has a report
suggesting the Egyptians borrowed the design from Scotland (insert
editorial comment of your choice here)(mind the wrap):

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/UK/This_Britain/2000-11/pyramid141100.shtml

Also on the 'insert editorial comment of your choice' front, the Belfast
Times reports on plans to search for the Ark of the Covenant in, er, Ireland:

http://www.belfasttelegraph.co.uk/today/nov16/News/ark.ncml

Returning to the Egyptian front, the Express has an article by David Rohl
on the search for Cambyses' lost army:

http://www.lineone.net/express/00/11/16/features/f0100splash-d.html

A couple of reports on what's been found at Umm el-Marra (I think these are
about the same site):

http://www.latimes.com:80/news/science/science/20001123/t000112488.html
http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A7215-2000Nov12.html

The Daily Star has a touristy/historical piece on Persepolis (scroll down
quite a bit, if necessary):

http://www.dailystarnews.com/200011/18/n0111809.htm#BODY4


'South Nexus' reports on the discovery in Iran of the coffin of a woman
dating to ca. 200 B.C.:

http://www.southnexus.com/newspopup_news.php?date1=18/11/2000&sequence=1&cnews=

The Independent reports on the discovery of a 3,000 year-old megalithic
'temple' bigger than Stonehenge in Wales:

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/UK/This_Britain/2000-11/temple261100.shtml

Iron Age Scotland was apparently milking cows, according to a BBC report:

http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/sci/tech/newsid_1024000/1024888.stm

News24 has a brief item on the discovery of a Roman "Titanic" off the coast
of Sicily -- some sort of luxury cruise ship with assorted affinities with
Pompeii (I'll try to track down more on this one):

http://news.24.com/News24/Technology/Science_Nature/0,1113,2-13-46_939109,00.html

We also have a report on conservators at the British Museum revealing one
of the most detailed images (on a knife) of a Roman gladiator ever found in
Britain:

http://209.19.141.102/news/2000/11/11142000/wireknife_3307.asp


King Arthur's 'round table', which supposedly resides in Winchester Castle,
has turned out to probably date from the time of Edward I:

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/UK/This_Britain/2000-11/round231100.shtml


A wire report tells of excavations in Tilaurakot, home of the Buddha:

http://209.19.141.102/news/2000/11/11202000/wirbuddha_3332.asp

Xinhua reports on the discovery of an ancient pottery workshop in Mongolia:

http://202.84.17.11/english/htm/20001122/232333.htm


A piece on the Reuters health wire suggests that evidence from teeth proves
that rat-born nasties caused the big plague (and the same techniques might
be used to figure out the plague at Athens, apparently) (mind the wrap):

http://www.reutershealth.com/archive/2000/11/23/eline/links/20001123elin006.html

Completely unaware of the above, apparently, other scholars are claiming
that rats were 'framed' for the plague:

http://www.express.co.uk/00/11/26/news/n4720.shtml


In the world of art history, the latest controversy is over a pile of bones
which may or may not belong to Giotto:

http://www.spokesmanreview.com:80/news-story.asp?date=112100&ID=s882699
http://abcnews.go.com/sections/science/dailynews/giotto001120.html

http://www.cnn.com/2000/STYLE/arts/11/20/italy.giottoremains.ap/index.html

I don't know why, but I'm always interested in discoveries of wine from
shipwrecks, so here's another example:

http://www.winespectator.com/Wine/Spectator/_daily|news1051

Ananova reports on the arrest of a Bulgarian antiquities smuggler:

http://www.ananova.com/news/story/sm_121480.html?nav_src=newsIndexHeadline

In a totally unrelated story, Bloomberg reports on assorted antiquities
hitting the auction block at Sotheby's:

http://www.bloomberg.com/pgcgi.cgi?T=finer99_art.ht&s=AOhPoYBQkQW50aXF1

I don't know how to classify this one, but Sir Ranulph Fiennes' 'perfect
adventure' has a sort of leering archaeological/relic hunter feel to it:

http://observer.co.uk/life/story/0,6903,402901,00.html


NEW WORLD NEWS

Japan Times reports that the Japanese are going to contribute funds to help
preserve some Maya monuments in Bolivia:

http://www.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/getarticle.pl5?nn20001126a4.htm

A spelunker has discovered some 1000-year-old cave paintings/etchings in
Wisconsin (this one doesn't 'feel right' for some reason) (watch da wrap):



 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 500 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Dec  1, 2000 (02:07) * 35 lines 
 
Scientific American Discovering Archaeology Weekly

DISCOVERING ARCHAEOLOGY
Newsletter for November 29, 2000
http://www.discoveringarchaeology.com/newsletter.shtml

--- Feature Stories ---

- SOUTHERN INDIA'S MYSTERIOUS RULERS
A Granite Pillar Records a Royal Family's Gift to its Subjects
http://www.discoveringarchaeology.com/articles/112900-india.shtml

Plus these Feature Reports:

- Science, Swaying Palms, and Sea Breezes
http://www.ngnews.com/news/2000/11/11272000/micronesia_3340.asp

- Japanese Ruins Up for World Heritage Designation
http://www.ngnews.com/news/2000/11/11272000/wirunesco_3352.asp

- 30 Times Bigger Than Stonehenge
http://www.independent.co.uk/news/UK/This_Britain/2000-11/temple261100.shtml

- What the Bones Can Tell You
http://www.deseretnews.com/dn/view/0,1249,230010824,00.html

- Cave Tomb Discovered in Nabetieh
http://www.dailystar.com.lb/27_11_00/art11.htm

- The Virtual Museum of Nautical Archaeology
http://ina.tamu.edu/

- Forest Fires Play Archaeologist
http://www.latimes.com/news/state/20001128/t000114118.html



 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 501 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Dec  1, 2000 (12:40) * 62 lines 
 
Found: temple sacred for 3,000 years The astonishing past: Stone Age site 30 times the size of Stonehenge is discovered

Archaeologists have discovered a mysterious 4,700-year-old
temple that is the largest Stone Age structure ever found in
Western Europe. More than a half a mile across and covering
85 acres, the site in mid-Wales is 30 times the size of
Stonehenge.
A six-year research programme has revealed that the vast,
egg-shaped religious complex consisted of 1,400 obelisks,
each towering up to 23ft into the air. Made of oak, they were
arranged as an oval with a perimeter of one-and-a-half miles.
At its western end, archaeologists have discovered the site of
the temple's main entrance – flanked by 6ft diameter timbers
that may have stood 30ft tall.
Despite its vast size, the site is baffling archaeologists. They
are certain that it had a religious function – but what was being
worshipped or venerated remains a mystery.
The focal point appears to have been a natural spring – and
possibly some sort of shrine. The complex may have been
built on such a grand scale to include a second possible
shrine 500 yards north-west of the spring and an area of
further ritual activity about 200 yards to the north-east. The
main entrance is oriented towards sunset on the summer
solstice – the point at which the sun disappears after the
longest day of the year.
Detailed examination has revealed that the enclosed area
was kept clear for almost 3,000 years. Outside the oval,
archaeologists have found a normal level of flint and other
prehistoric finds. Inside there have been almost no finds at all.
"They must have kept it extraordinarily clean," said Dr Alex
Gibson, an archaeologist who has spent much of the past six
years investigating the site for Clwyd-Powys Archaeological
Trust. It remained untouched by normal – secular – human
activity from its construction in 2700BC, through the late
Neolithic and the whole of both the Bronze Age and the Iron
Age, which ended after the Roman invasion of AD43.
The absence of debris of human activity from the earlier parts
of the Neolithic era suggest the area may have been taboo for
even longer – possibly from 4000BC.
After the arrangement of 1,400 oak obelisks was constructed
– just before the time that most of Stonehenge was built – it is
likely that ordinary people were not just barred from the site,
as they probably had been for generations, but were also
prevented from seeing inside it. Archaeologists believe planks
were used to close the gaps between the obelisks for at least
the bottom third of their height.
The temple was almost certainly kept exclusively for the use of
the priesthood – probably shamans whose function was to
maintain spiritual contact with ancestors and deities.
However, when the Roman invaders arrived, its very sanctity
seems to have made it a target. For, in common with many
other native British sacred sites – including Stonehenge – the
place appears to have been deliberately violated. The
Romans seem to have chosen to insult local sensibilities by
building first a marching camp on one part of the site and then
a permanent fort on another.
The site – at Hindwell, three miles east of New Radnor in
Powys – is being seen as one of the most important in
Europe. "We were bowled over by the sheer scale of the
structure – and the fact that it appears to have remained
sacred for thousands of years," Dr Gibson said.



 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 502 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Dec  8, 2000 (14:25) * 57 lines 
 
DISCOVERING ARCHAEOLOGY - Newsletter for December 07, 2000
http://www.discoveringarchaeology.com/newsletter.shtml


--- Feature Stories ---


- CANNIBALS AT COWBOY WASH
Biomolecular Archaeology Solves a Controversial Puzzle
http://www.discoveringarchaeology.com/articles/120600-cowboy-1.shtml



Plus these Feature Reports:


- Oldest Human Ancestor Discovered In Kenya
http://dailynews.yahoo.com/h/nm/20001204/ts/fossils_find_dc.html


- New Theory for the Nasca Lines
http://www.ngnews.com/news/2000/12/12052000/nascalines_3379.asp


- Search4Science
http://www.search4science.com


- The Canadian Iceman Project
http://cbc.ca/cgi-bin/templates/NWview.cgi?/news/2000/11/30/iceman001130


- Chemical Analysis to Trace Population Migrations
http://news.excite.com/news/uw/001128/tech-43


- Anasazi Exodus
http://www0.mercurycenter.com/premium/scitech/docs/migrate28.htm


- The Philosophical Emperor
http://ancient.thevines.com/leaf/AA0000363772/2/


-----


The Discovering Archaeology Newsletter finds the week's most
interesting archaeological stories and presents them to you in a
simple, easy to read format on the web. Read these and other
interesting features, including Readers Polls, Book Reviews,
Archaeological Event Calendars and much more at:


http://www.discoveringarchaeology.com/newsletter.shtml




 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 503 of 1283:  (sprin5) * Sat, Dec  9, 2000 (12:17) * 1 lines 
 
I'll have to check out that Canadian Iceman project, sounds like a hockey player.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 504 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Dec 10, 2000 (00:23) * 1 lines 
 
Tell Nan!! She's got a thing for hockey players....


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 505 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Dec 10, 2000 (18:08) * 131 lines 
 
EXPLORATOR
Watching the Web for News of the Ancient World
Volume 3, Issue 32 -- December 10, 2000





THE BIG NEWS
The big news this week (judged solely by press coverage) appears to be the
discovery of George Washington's still:
http://www.nandotimes.com/healthscience/story/body/0,1079,500287227-500453881-502977445-0,00.html
http://www.cnn.com/2000/US/12/06/washington.whiskey.ap/index.html

OLD WORLD NEWS
Potentially big news, but losing the coin toss, is the discovery of what is
apparently the oldest human ancestor:

http://www.iol.co.za/general/newsview.php?click_id=87&art_id=ct20001205121018851O435130&set_id=1
http://www.ngnews.com/news/2000/12/12052000/wirefossil_3382.asp

Arabic News has a nice feature on Ugarit:
http://www.arabicnews.com/ansub/Daily/Day/001206/2000120601.html
The same source also has a somewhat vague report on 'new Egyptian discoveries':

http://www.arabicnews.com/ansub/Daily/Day/001205/2000120506.html
Potentially big news, but I think the journalist types are reading a bit
too much into it, is the discovery of a pair of entwined lovers, supposedly
master and slave, along with a pile of gold in Pompeii:

http://www.telegraph.co.uk:80/et?ac=000579381554028&rtmo=wew0Kstb&atmo=99999999&pg=/et/00/12/9/wpomp09.html
http://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/0,,48958,00.html

Also on the Pompeii front, Canada's own National Post has an excellent
feature on the erotic art of Pompeii:
http://www.nationalpost.com/home/story.html?f=/stories/20001205/393447.html

Bloomberg has a report on the auction of a 'year 5 of Israel' shekel:
http://www.bloomberg.com/pgcgi.cgi?T=finer99_art.ht&s=AOi_0ABPuUmFyZSBJ

The Observer brings a report on Boudicca's nastier side:
http://observer.co.uk/uk_news/story/0,6903,406152,00.html

The Egyptian News service brings word of the discovery of a sunken Roman port:
http://www.uk.sis.gov.eg/online/html3/o041220c.htm

The Houston Chronicle reports that a chunk of a Roman wall in Spain has
collapsed due to heavy rains:
http://www.chron.com/cs/CDA/story.hts/world/767265

Xinhua reports on the discovery of some ancient iron plates in Central China:
http://202.84.17.11/english/htm/20001206/254654.htm

The same source reports on the discovery of a rather large stone turtle:
http://202.84.17.11/english/htm/20001206/254154.htm

National Geographic News has a report on the discovery of a tomb in
Vietnam, which should shed light on that region's bronze age:
http://209.19.141.102/news/2000/12/12042000/wirvietnam_3374.asp

NEW WORLD NEWS
Also potentially big news, but I think this has been mentioned before (?),
researchers have connected Peru's Nazca lines to water sources:
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2000/12/001201073347.htm
http://www.ngnews.com/news/2000/12/12052000/nascalines_3379.asp

As with other sites of major forest fires this summer, the Sequoia National
Forest conflagration has turned out to have revealed quite a few
significant archaeological sites:
http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/2000/12/08/MN156509.DTL

A fish trap near Olympia Washington has been dated to the fifteenth century:
http://www.oregonlive.com/newsflash/index.ssf?/cgi-free/getstory_ssf.cgi?o1827_BC_WA--IndianArtifacts&&news&newsflash-oregon

CLASSICISTS CORNER
The Guardian has a somewhat interesting editorial about 'classism' which
takes its start from Macauley's "Lays ...":
http://www.guardianunlimited.co.uk/saturday_review/story/0,3605,408691,00.html

An editorial in the Atlanta Constitution has plenty of Classical content as
it compares the current US election difficulties to ancient Rome:
http://www.accessatlanta.com/partners/ajc/epaper/editions/tuesday/opinion_a3c289d5a178719310a0.html

Time Magazine has a nice little article on the benefits of Latin for
English instruction:
http://www.time.com/time/education/article/0,8599,90457,00.html

SAGAS
Humans out of Africa/DNA
http://helix.nature.com/nsu/001207/001207-8.html
http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/sci/tech/newsid_1058000/1058484.stm
http://abcnews.go.com/sections/science/DailyNews/human_evolution001206.html
http://www.msnbc.com/news/499641.asp?cp1=1

FOLLOWUPS
Mummy CAT scans:
http://www.uk.sis.gov.eg/online/html3/o051220h.htm
http://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/0,,46461,00.html

Roman luxury ships:
http://www.sunday-times.co.uk/news/pages/sti/2000/12/03/stinwenws01011.html

King Tut DNA tests:
http://itn.co.uk/news/20001205/world/11mummy.shtml
http://www.cnn.com/2000/NATURE/12/05/king.tut.ap/index.html

Wisconsin Cave Paintings (I'm not sure if this one will still come up):
http://radio.cbc.ca/insite/AS_IT_HAPPENS_TORONTO/2000/11/30.html

World's Oldest Love Song:
http://www.discovery.com/news/briefs/20001206/hi_hu_song.html

Cambyses' army (boy, they better find something ... they're certainly
building the hype):
http://www.csmonitor.com/durable/2000/12/08/p7s2.htm
http://209.19.141.102/news/2000/12/12082000/wirpersia_3408.asp

AT ABOUT.COM

Ancient History Guide N.S. Gill's latest is about Vincent Panella's first
novel, which feature Julius Caesar's kidnapping by pirates:
http://ancienthistory.about.com/library/weekly/aa120500a.htm?terms=a1

Archaeology Guide Kris Hurst has an interview with Judith Winters, editor
of Internet Archaeology:
http://archaeology.about.com/library/weekly/aa120400a.htm

Latin Guide Janet Burns has a nice little collection of Christmas-related
songs in Latin:
http://latin.about.com/library/weekly/aa120400a.htm




 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 506 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Dec 13, 2000 (00:45) * 46 lines 
 
the following is from dave salisbury's "an occult guide to legendary
london", at this URL:
http://members.tripod.co.uk/Brit_Nephilim/page29.html

"Christchurch, Spitalfields

During the restoration work following the Great Fire of London, one of
Sir Christopher Wren's contemporaries built a string of strange
churches across the city. Nicholas Hawksmoor claimed to be following the
ancient building traditions of the early Christian basilicas, but his
obelisk-like spires and trompe d'oeuil effects have drawn admiration and
conspiracy theorists in equal measures.

Christchurch, Spitalfields is Hawksmoor's best example. Haunted does
not describe the feeling of a church built atop a plague pit, over the
road from what used to be the biggest abattoir in the world. A recent
excavation of the crypt (now a drop-in centre for homeless alcoholics)
unearthed a series of lead lined coffins full of liquefied corpses which
archaeologists had to shovel out into bags for analysis. Does lead stop
a Nephilim from returning to its stasis? Hmm. If anywhere in London is
the site of a Black Moon Ka nexus, it's here."

then there's this, from "spoilheap: burial archaeology", at this URL:
http://www.spoilheap.co.uk/burintr.htm

"The period from the beginning of the 16th century has been identified
as the start of the modern era and is termed post-medieval by
archaeologists. Historians date this change from the reign of Henry VII and his
innovations in government. Most of the evidence for this period is
historical rather than archaeological, but a few excavations have been
carried out in post-medieval churches, notably in London (St. Bride's and
Christchurch, Spitalfields) and Holland (Zwolle). Other archaeological
methods have been used to record standing monuments in churchyards and
other funerary objects.

Spitalfields

burial in coffins within crypts, often stacked in precarious positions,
sometimes even on their heads
excavated to recover a group of identifiable burials archaeologically
for anthropological study.
also provided an insight into 18th and 19th c. crypt burial customs,
and a closely dated series of funerary artefacts.
allowed for comparison of historical and archaeological data
e.g. accounts of contemporary funerals compared with the total disarray
of coffins and bodies within the crypts."


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 507 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Dec 13, 2000 (13:44) * 26 lines 
 
Prehistoric Treasure Found in Trash

RIO DE JANEIRO (Reuters) - A retired Brazilian carpenter
had hoped to get rich off a piece of trash his sons dug out of
a garbage dump 40 years ago: a 2.6 million-year-old mammoth
molar the size of a small television.
The family of Francisco Porfirio dos Santos, 88, uncovered
the prehistoric molar at a dump in the Boogie-woogie shantytown
of northern Rio de Janeiro some four decades ago.
But dos Santos only recently took the fossil to the
National Museum to find out what it was, said Deise Dias, a
biologist at Rio de Janeiro's National Museum, Tuesday.
"After 40 years of sitting on the fossil he brought it to
us to identify and now he's saying he wants to sell it," she
said.
Dias said the tooth belongs to a mammoth, a sort of extinct
elephant which had hairy skin and long curved tusks which
roamed the earth millions of years ago. Mammoth remains have
been found in North America, Asia and Europe but not in South
America.
"It's a beautiful piece with rich scientific value, but
absolutely no commercial value, especially since it's illegal
to sell fossils in Brazil," added Dias. "It's a pity all the
media blitz went to his head, but we can't buy it."




 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 508 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Dec 15, 2000 (17:46) * 50 lines 
 
DISCOVERING ARCHAEOLOGY Newsletter for December 13, 2000
http://www.discoveringarchaeology.com/newsletter.shtml

--- Feature Stories ---

- A WARRIOR CAMP
Pre-Viking Chieftains Likely Drove Scandinavian Conflicts
http://discoveringarchaeology.com/articles/121200-warrior.shtml

Plus these Feature Reports:

- Pompeii Love
http://www.discovery.com/news/briefs/20001212/hi_hu_pompeii.html

- DNA Investigations of King Tut Postponed
http://dailynews.yahoo.com/h/ap/20001212/sc/egypt_tutankhamun_1.html

- Archaeological Field School in Tuscany
http://www.smu.edu/~poggio/2000fieldseason.html

- Refreshing the Frescoes
http://www.newscientist.com/news/news.jsp?id=ns226827

- World's Oldest Love Song
http://www.discovery.com/news/briefs/20001206/hi_hu_song.html

- Japan's Stone Age Man Hoax Update
http://www.nytimes.com/2000/12/07/world/07JAPA.html?pagewanted=2

- Maine's Sunken Wreck
http://www.herald.com/thispage.htm?content/archive/news/yahoo/digdocs/100360.htm

- DNA and an Ancient Persian Riddle
http://www.ngnews.com/news/2000/12/12082000/wirpersia_3408.asp

- Tomb Discovery in Vietnam
http://www.ngnews.com/news/2000/12/12042000/wirvietnam_3374.asp

- Learn Hieroglyphics
http://egypttourism.org/English/TravelTips/Hieroglyphic.htm

-----
The Discovering Archaeology Newsletter finds the week's most
interesting archaeological stories and presents them to you in a
simple, easy to read format on the web. Read these and other
interesting features, including Readers Polls, Book Reviews,
Archaeological Event Calendars and much more at:
http://www.discoveringarchaeology.com/newsletter.shtml




 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 509 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Dec 21, 2000 (00:07) * 39 lines 
 
Scientific American Discovering Archaeology Weekly
DISCOVERING ARCHAEOLOGY
Newsletter for December 20, 2000
http://www.discoveringarchaeology.com/newsletter.shtml

--- Feature Stories ---

- CHOMPING AT THE BIT
Researhers find the first ridden horse
http://discoveringarchaeology.com/articles/121900-horses.shtml

Plus these Feature Reports:
- Athens Subway
http://www.nytimes.com/2000/12/19/arts/19ARTS.html
- Two new sites in India
http://www.timesofindia.com/151200/15indi44.htm
- The Vikings and The Vatican
http://www.nytimes.com/2000/12/19/science/19HEYE.html
- Battlefield Archaeology and the Collapsing Tunnels
http://www.theage.com.au/news/2000/12/15/FFXUE48YPGC.html
- Remote Desert City Holds Priceless Manuscripts
http://www.ngnews.com/news/2000/12/12112000/wirdesert_3414.asp
- Dateline... Bulgaria
http://dailynews.yahoo.com/h/ap/20001218/wl/bulgaria_tomb_1.html
- The Aerial Archaeology Research Group
http://rs6000.univie.ac.at/AARG/
- Student Stories in Archaeological Fiction
http://jan.ucc.nau.edu/~kah2/fiction.htm

-----
The Discovering Archaeology Newsletter finds the week's most
interesting archaeological stories and presents them to you in a
simple, easy to read format on the web. Read these and other
interesting features, including Readers Polls, Book Reviews,
Archaeological Event Calendars and much more at:

http://www.discoveringarchaeology.com/newsletter.shtml




 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 510 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Jan  3, 2001 (17:46) * 133 lines 
 
EXPLORATOR
Watching the Web for News of the Ancient World
Volume 3, Issue 35 -- December 31, 2000

]|[=================================================================]|[

Editor's note: Depending on your mail software, some urls may wrap
(especially those from the Telegraph) which will require you to
rebuild the url at your end; if you get a 'file not found', check to see if
the url wrapped on you. Most urls should be active for at least eight hours
from the time of 'publicatio'.

]|[=================================================================]|[

As we enter a new year (and Millennium), your editor would just like to
wish everyone a happy and prosperous New Year. It's been a quiet week, as
one might expect, but I'm still happy to report that over the past year,
subscriptions to Explorator increased by 50% and hopefully the next year
will bring an even greater increase! Thanks for your support!

OLD WORLD NEWS
Xinhua via Northern Light reports on the discovery of some 3500-year-old
structures in Iran:
Http://library.northernlight.com/FB20001223260000013.html?cb=0&dx=1006&sc=0#doc

Egypt Revealed via USA Today reports on the discovery of a pile of
inscriptions in Egypt (from all periods) which are threatened by road
construction:
http://www.usatoday.com/weather/science/archaeology/inscript121800.htm

Another story suggests some recent discoveries by a British team might
challenge ideas of the origins of the Egyptians:
http://www.hindustantimes.com/nonfram/281200/detFOR12.asp
http://www.guardianunlimited.co.uk/Archive/Article/0,4273,4110040,00.html

The Bergen Record has an interesting "Antiques Roadshowish" story wherein
the donation of some pots to Richard Stockton College might prove that they
are actually wares from Magna Graecia:
http://www.bergen.com/ed/urn26200012265.htm

Ananova reports on plans to possibly rebury 'Seahenge':
http://www.ananova.com/news/story/sm_156765.html?menu=

Business Week has an interview with Robert Vergnieux on the use of new
technology in archaeology:
http://www.businessweek.com/ebiz/0012/eo1229a.htm

For what it's worth, Northern Light picked up a Reuters story on a book
which describes how the Knights Templar took the Holy Grail *and* the Ark
of the Covenant to some island in the Baltic Sea:
http://library.northernlight.com/HB20001224010000016.html?cb=0&dx=1006&sc=0#doc

In the same department from TASS via Northern Light is a somewhat confusing
report on the discovery of the tomb of St. Nicholas (a bit suspicious this
one):
http://library.northernlight.com/FB20001220270000219.html?cb=0&dx=1006&sc=0#doc

NEW WORLD NEWS
I couldn't find any ... told you it was a bit slow this week.

ON THE NEWSSTANDS
Archaeology Magazine has a new online issue, with a full text article on
the Karachi mummy and abstracts on forging Minoan artifacts and making
mummies (by Bob Brier) among other things:
http://www.archaeology.org/curiss/toc/toc.html

CLASSICIST'S CORNER
The Lakeland Ledger has a piece on a local archaeologist's search for the
historical Jesus:
http://www.theledger.com/local/local/25arch.htm

Rediff Online has a report on a booklet which suggests Indians discovered
the Pythagorean theorem long before Pythagoras (among other things):
http://www.rediff.com/news/2001/jan/01rss.htm

FOLLOWUPS
Sunken cities in Aboukir Bay:
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2000/12/001214082602.htm
http://www.telegraph.co.uk:80/et?ac=000140326706927&rtmo=as3sHb3L&atmo=HHHHHHHL&pg=/et/00/12/27/wcleo27.html

Egyptian prosthetic toes:
http://dailynews.yahoo.com/h/hsn/20001222/hl/walk_like_an_egyptian_1.html
http://www.arabia.com/article/0,1690,Life|36125,00.html

Thracian tomb in Bulgaria:
http://www.guardianunlimited.co.uk/breakingnews/International/0,3561,622736,00.html

REGULAR FEATURES

CTCWeb's Words of the Week
http://ablemedia.com/ctcweb/myword.html


Radio Finland's Nuntii Latini
http://www.yle.fi/fbc/latini/trans.html


English translation (probably delayed ... hasn't been updated since August):
http://www.cbc4kids.ca/general/whats-new/latin-news/mainlatin.html
l>

EXPLORATOR IS ARCHIVED AT:
http://www.onelist.com/archive/Explorator


]|[================================================================]|[
EXPLORATOR is a weekly newsletter representing the fruits of the labours of
'media research division' of The Atrium. Various on-line news and magazine
sources are scoured on a daily basis for news of the ancient world (broadly
construed: practically anything relating to archaeology or history prior
to about 1700 or so is fair game) and when a sufficient number of urls are
gathered (usually a minimum of three stories), they are delivered to your
mailbox free of charge! Those articles that don't expire, plus
supplementary links eventually find a home at:

Commentarium (news articles)
http://web.idirect.com/~atrium/commentarium.html

The Rostra (audio files)
http://web.idirect.com/~atrium/rostra.html
A media archive of links of files that have previously appeared in
Commentarium or at the Rostra is currently under construction.

]|[================================================================]|[
Explorator is Copyright (c) 2000 David Meadows; Feel free to
distribute these listings via email to your pals, students, teachers,
etc., but please include this copyright notice. These listings are not to
be posted to a website; instead, please provide a link to either
Commentarium or Rostra (or both)! You can subscribe to or unsubscribe from
this list by going to the following web page:
http://www.egroups.com/subscribe.cgi/Explorator



 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 511 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Jan  6, 2001 (17:07) * 0 lines 
 


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 512 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Jan  9, 2001 (14:05) * 178 lines 
 
EXPLORATOR
Watching the Web for News of the Ancient World
Volume 3, Issue 36 -- January 7, 2001

OLD WORLD NEWS
Kathimerini has a tantalizingly brief article on a dispute over rights to
dig where what is possibly the oldest human skull in Europe was found:
http://www.ekathimerini.com/news/content.asp?id=65090

NG News has an item on how the receding waters of the Sea of Galilee have
revealed a neolithic site:
http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2001/01/0102galilee.html

The San Francisco Chronicle has an interesting piece on a biopsy done on a
3,500 year-old mummy:
http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/2001/01/03/MNW107794.DTL

An animal cemetery has been discovered in Egypt:
http://www.independent.co.uk/news/World/Africa/2001-01/egyptian030101.shtml
http://www.discovery.com/news/briefs/20010105/di_hi_ratmummy.html
http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/world/middle_east/newsid_1098000/1098102.stm
http://www.arabia.com/article/0,1690,Life|36597,00.html

Also on the Egyptian front, the Independent has an interesting item on how
a scholar has traced the origins of the concept of "the mummy's curse":
http://www.independent.co.uk/news/UK/This_Britain/2000-12/mummy311200.shtml

The Jerusalem Post has a somewhat shocking item on how the IAA treated a
certain artifact:
http://www.jpost.com/Editions/2001/01/05/News/News.18885.html

The Sunday Times has a report on Thor Heyerdahl's theory that viking "tax
exiles" settled in America:
http://www.sunday-times.co.uk/news/pages/sti/2001/01/07/stifgnusa02002.html

The BBC reports on Iraq's ongoing efforts to restore its heritage:
http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/world/middle_east/newsid_1102000/1102547.stm

The Sunday Times has a report on Greece's plans to destroy a huge chunk of
the site of the Battle of Marathon for Olympic event purposes:
http://www.sunday-times.co.uk/news/pages/sti/2001/01/07/stifgneur01004.html

The Indian Express has a piece on the discovery of an inscription which
sheds light on Hindu rule in 9th century Afghanistan:
http://www.expressindia.com/ie/daily/20010105/iin05014.html

The People's Daily reports on the discovery of a number of Shang Dynasty
tombs (this one and the following items should have been in last week's issue):
http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/200012/19/eng20001219_58230.html

The same source also has a couple of items on what excavations in Sanxingui
are revealing:
http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/200012/13/eng20001213_57743.html
http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/200012/11/eng20001211_57502.html

Xinhua via Northern Light reports on the discovery of a pair of horse
graves in China:
http://library.northernlight.com/FB20010104840000319.html?cb=0&dx=1006&sc=0#doc

Science Daily has an item on how volcanic eruptions may have really made
the Dark Ages 'dark' (this isn't really a new story):
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2001/01/010102061812.htm

Back to the BBC, which has an interesting report on excavating shipwrecks
from the Zuider Zee:
http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/world/from_our_own_correspondent/newsid_1102000/1102498.stm

NEW WORLD NEWS
The Canadian version of Discovery Channel has an interview online with
David Johnson in regards to the evidence that the Nazca Lines in Peru have
associations with water sources (a brief bit of text, but otherwise
requires Windows Media Player):
http://www.exn.ca/Stories/2001/01/04/60.cfm

ON THE NEWSSTANDS
There's a new issue of Biblical Archaeology Review on the stands, the
highlight of which is its annual guide to digs:
http://www.bib-arch.org/bar2.html

Bible Review also has a new online issue, with articles on "King David,
Serial Murderer" and "The Gospel of Thomas" , among other things:
http://www.bib-arch.org/br2.html

And we might as well round out the BAS triad: Archaeology Odyssey has a new
issue out (new to me) with an article on kingship in Sumer, another guide
to digs, etc.:
http://www.bib-arch.org/aod2.html

CLASSICIST'S CORNER
Kathimerini has a report on an exhibit of photos of the Acropolis over time
(pardon the awkward description):
http://www.ekathimerini.com/news/content.asp?id=65101

I missed this one ... the Boston Globe a month ago had a report on the
revival of Classical Greek in a certain county jail (!):
http://www.boston.com/dailyglobe2/344/metro/At_county_jail_study_of_classical_Greek_enjoying_a_revival+.shtml

The Cincinnati Enquirer has a piece on the return of Latin to a high school
in that city:
http://enquirer.com/editions/2000/12/26/loc_latin_classes_return.html

REVIEWS

The LA Times has a review of Finkelstein and Silberman *The Bible
Unearthed: Archaeology's New Vision of Ancient Israel and the Origin of Its
Sacred Texts*:
http://www.latimes.com/news/state/20010106/t000001538.html

SAGAS
Kennewick Man:
http://www.msnbc.com/news/323998.asp?cp1=1
http://www.kgw.com/kgwnews/oregonwash_story.html?StoryID=11677

Elgin Marbles (same story, different papers):
http://www.southam.com/ottawacitizen/newsnow/cpfs/world/010105/w010540.html
http://www.vancouversun.com/cgi-bin/newsite.pl?adcode=w-mm&modulename=world%20news&template=international&nkey=vs&filetype=fullstory&file=/cpfs/world/010105/w010540.html

AT ABOUT.COM
Ancient History Guide N.S. Gill's latest is on Solon:
http://ancienthistory.about.com/library/weekly/aa010201a.htm?terms=a1

Archaeology Guide Kris Hirst's latest is on archaeology-related careers:
http://archaeology.about.com/library/weekly/aa010101.htm

Latin Guide Janet Burns' lastest is on why datives and pluperfects are
called that:
http://latin.about.com/homework/latin/library/weekly/aa011701a.htm

FOLLOWUPS

Egyptian petroglyphs:
http://www.discovery.com/news/briefs/20001229/hi_hu_rockart.html

Egyptian prosthetic toes:
http://www.sciam.com/news/010301/2.html

Seahenge (with an excellent photo at the BBC):
http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/sci/tech/newsid_1100000/1100790.stm
http://www.independent.co.uk/news/UK/This_Britain/2001-01/seahenge050101.shtml

Cities in Aboukir Bay
(watch the wrap ... this is the same AP story from last week)
http://www.thestar.com/apps/AppLogic+FTContentServer?pagename=thestar/Layout/Article_Type1&c=Article&cid=978496256338&call_page=TS_News&call_pageid=968332188492&call_pagepath=News/News

(Not) Arthur's Round Table:
http://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/0,,61-61297,00.html

REGULAR FEATURES
CTCWeb's Words of the Week
http://ablemedia.com/ctcweb/myword.html
url:http://ablemedia.com/ctcweb/myword.html
Radio Finland's Nuntii Latini
http://www.yle.fi/fbc/latini/trans.html
url:http://www.yle.fi/fbc/latini/trans.html
English translation (probably delayed ... hasn't been updated since August):
http://www.cbc4kids.ca/general/whats-new/latin-news/mainlatin.html
url:http://www.cbc4kids.ca/general/whats-new/latin-news/mainlatin.htm

EXPLORATOR IS ARCHIVED AT:
http://www.onelist.com/archive/Explorator


]|[================================================================]|[
EXPLORATOR is a weekly newsletter representing the fruits of the labours of
'media research division' of The Atrium. Various on-line news and magazine
sources are scoured on a daily basis for news of the ancient world (broadly
construed: practically anything relating to archaeology or history prior
to about 1700 or so is fair game) and when a sufficient number of urls are
gathered (usually a minimum of three stories), they are delivered to your
mailbox free of charge! Those articles that don't expire, plus
supplementary links eventually find a home at:

The Media Archive (just going up as of January 7, 2001):
http://atrium-media.com/mediaarchive.html
]|[================================================================]|[
Explorator is Copyright (c) 2001 David Meadows; Feel free to
distribute these listings via email to your pals, students, teachers,
etc., but please include this copyright notice.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 513 of 1283:  (sprin5) * Tue, Jan  9, 2001 (14:33) * 1 lines 
 
That must be be, a Viking tax exile!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 514 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Jan 10, 2001 (17:19) * 1 lines 
 
Boy, did they ever pick the wrong place for a white male worker to hide his taxes!!! Perhaps that is why so few Vikings are still here?!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 515 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Jan 14, 2001 (15:49) * 38 lines 
 
Scientific American Discovering ArchaeologyWeekly
DISCOVERING ARCHAEOLOGY Newsletter for Januarary 13, 2001
http://www.discoveringarchaeology.com/newsletter.shtml

--- Feature Stories ---

- UNLOCKING PANDORA'S MYSTERIES
Forensic Anthropologists Search for Clues about Mysterious Sailors
http://discoveringarchaeology.com/articles/010801-pandora.shtml

Plus these Feature Reports:

- Australian Challenge to the Out of Africa Theory
http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/sci/tech/newsid_1108000/1108413.stm

- Modern Threat to Ancient Cave Petroglyphs
http://www.msnbc.com/news/512223.asp

- Chinese Bones and DNA
http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/200101/03/eng20010103_59506.html

- Roman Coin Cache Uncovered
http://globalarchive.ft.com/globalarchive/article.html?id=010110001253&query

- Why Texas Isn't Part of Canada
http://www.nationalpost.com/home/story.html?f=/stories/20010103/424314.html

- China Ruins May Become a World Heritage Site
http://english.china.com/cdc/en/culture/articles/0,1677,3734-106000,00.html

- The Mummy Has a Wooden Toe
http://dailynews.yahoo.com/h/nm/20001228/hl/mummy_toe_1.html

- The Brazil Mound
http://farwestern.com/brazilmound/pagei.html

-----



 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 516 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Jan 14, 2001 (15:55) * 24 lines 
 
3.4 Million-Year-Old Skeleton Found in Ethiopia

ADDIS ABABA, Ethiopia (Reuters) - An Ethiopian scientist has
discovered the well-preserved 3.4 million-year-old partial skeleton of a
child hominid, which experts say should provide valuable information in
the study of human evolution.
Dr. Zeresenay Alemseged, a palaeoanthropologist, told reporters in
Addis Ababa Saturday they had found a fragment of a lower jaw and an
exceptionally well-preserved partial skeleton, including the skull, of a
child early hominid.
They were discovered in the Busidina-Dikika sector of the Afar region,
in an area bordering the Republic of Djibouti. Busidina-Dukika lies
south of Hadar, where numerous fossils of Austrolopithecus Afarensis,
including the famous Lucy, have been discovered.
"This is probably the earliest well-preserved young hominid so far
known," he said, adding that the discovery would help in filling a gap
between the earliest known hominids and those from later periods.
"The new hominid is an important addition which may fill in the gap
between Lucy, which is dated to 3.2 million years, and a similar
hominid species from Laetoli, Tanzania, and dated at 3.7 million
years," he said.
Alemseged, a post-doctoral research associate at the Institute of
Human Origins at Arizona State University, led a mission to prehistoric
sites in Busidina and Dikika in 1999 and 2000.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 517 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Jan 14, 2001 (16:52) * 118 lines 
 
EXPLORATOR - Watching the Web for News of the Ancient World
Volume 3, Issue 37 -- January 14, 2001

OLD WORLD NEWS
Plenty of versions of this AP story: archaeologists have found what they
believe is an insole dating to some 3000 years B.C./B.C.E.:
http://www.enn.com/news/wire-stories/2001/01/01122001/ap_footprint_41315.asp
http://www.nj.com/newsflash/index.ssf?/cgi-free/getstory_ssf.cgi?a0550_BC_AncientInsole&&news&newsflash-international
http://austin360.com/shared/news/technology/ap_story.html/Science/AP.V0881.AP-Ancient-Insole.html

Just as folks were figuring out what to do with Seahenge, another was
discovered (maybe):
http://www.independent.co.uk/news/UK/Environment/2001-01/seahenge110101.shtml
http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/sci/tech/newsid_1111000/1111952.stm
http://www.telegraph.co.uk:80/et?ac=003864436460684&rtmo=lvwbQQQt&atmo=rrrrrrrq&pg=/et/01/1/11/nheng11.html

And while we're on the subject of henges, it's big news in Britain,
apparently, that much restoration work went into Stonehenge:
http://www.foxnews.com/scitech/010901/times_stonehenge.sml
http://www.newscientist.com/dailynews/news.jsp?id=ns9999310

The Telegraph has a brief item on how the Nile is threatening inscriptions
at Karnak:
http://www.telegraph.co.uk:80/et?ac=003864436460684&rtmo=psSl3M1e&atmo=rrrrrrrq&pg=/et/01/1/12/wnile12.html

Arabia.com has a feature on pyramids in the Sudan:
http://www.arabia.com/article/0,1690,Life|37185,00.html

The Charlotte Observer has an item on a new permanent display of artifacts
from Israel at UNCC:
http://www.charlotte.com/observer/local/pub/oldstuff0112.htm

There are a couple of reports on the discovery of a bust of Caesarion (in
the waters off Alexandria, of course):
http://www.discovery.com/news/briefs/20010112/hi_ceasar.html
http://www.foxnews.com/scitech/010801/times_caesarion.sml

Other news from Abukir bay ... this seems like old news, no?:
http://www.iol.co.za/html/frame_news.php?click_id=31&art_id=qw97931550066B221

The Telegraph reports on the impending exhibition of a Roman gold coin hoard:
http://www.telegraph.co.uk:80/et?ac=003864436460684&rtmo=lvwbQQQt&atmo=rrrrrrrq&pg=/et/01/1/11/ncoin11.html

... while the Independent reports on the discovery of a new one:
http://www.independent.co.uk/news/UK/This_Britain/2001-01/coin100101.shtml

The Times of India reports that archaeologists have found an ancient 'idol
making unit':
http://www.timesofindia.com/today/06ente13.htm

The Age reports on the trial of seven men accused of robbing a tomb near
Beijing:
http://www.theage.com.au/breaking/0101/12/A13265-2001Jan12.html

NEW WORLD NEWS

CNN has a report on the threat posed by mining operations to petroglyphs in
the Dominican Republic:
http://www.cnn.com/2001/STYLE/arts/01/10/cave.art.ap/index.html

The Billings Gazette has a report on how a piece of 'repatriation'
legislation is working:
http://www.billingsgazette.com/index.php?section=local&display=content/local/debate.inc

ON THE NEWSSTANDS
There's a new issue of British Archaeology on the webstands, with plenty of
news items and features on the Bignor Roman Villa, Avebury, and
Neanderthals, among other things:
http://www.britarch.ac.uk/ba/ba51/ba51toc.html

CLASSICIST'S CORNER
... sorry, the search engines came up dry this week ...
AT ABOUT.COM

Ancient History Guide N.S. Gill gives us a rundown of what folks have been
chatting about:
http://ancienthistory.about.com/library/weekly/aa010901a.htm ?terms=a1

Archaeology Guide Kris Hirst has an article on the Koster site:
http://archaeology.about.com/library/weekly/aa010801a.htm

Latin Guide Janet Burns has a selection of Roman-related January trivia:
http://latin.about.com/library/quizzes/blJanuaryTrivia.htm

FOLLOWUPS
Animal mummies (actually, this is one I missed):
http://www.independent.co.uk/news/World/Africa/2001-01/egyptian030101.shtml

Black Sea/Noah's Flood:
http://www.nytimes.com/2001/01/09/science/09FLOO.html


SAGAS
The "out of Africa"/maybe not debate has a new installment to complicate
matters:

http://www.msnbc.com/news/514732.asp?cp1=1
http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2001/01/0111origins.html
http://www.newscientist.com/dailynews/news.jsp?id=ns9999307
http://www.sciam.com/news/010901/2.html
http://www.theaustralian.com.au/common/story_page/0,4511,1594904%255E8882,00.html
http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/sci/tech/newsid_1108000/1108413.stm
http://www.independent.co.uk/news/UK/Science/2001-01/dna090101.shtml

... and another twist on the same idea:

http://www.canoe.ca/CNEWSScience0101/11_skulls-ap.html
http://www.oweb.com/newslink/National/AncientHumansP0229.html
http://www.bergen.com/morenews/oldones200101127.htm

REGULAR FEATURES
CTCWeb's Words of the Week
http://ablemedia.com/ctcweb/myword.html
url:http://ablemedia.com/ctcweb/myword.html

EXPLORATOR IS ARCHIVED AT:
http://www.onelist.com/archive/Explorator



 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 518 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Jan 21, 2001 (17:06) * 125 lines 
 
EXPLORATOR
Watching the Web for News of the Ancient World
Volume 3, Issue 38 -- January 21, 2001
]|[=================================================================]|[

OLD WORLD NEWS
What might be construed as the big news of the week, based on press
coverage alone, is the theory that early bone tools reveal that early
hominids chowed down on termites:
http://www.msnbc.com/news/517206.asp
http://abcnews.go.com/sections/scitech/DailyNews/hominid_termites.html
http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/sci/tech/newsid_1119000/1119359.stm
http://www.independent.co.uk/news/UK/Science/2001-01/dinner160101.shtml
http://www.nytimes.com/2001/01/17/science/science-humans-dc.html

The Telegraph and MSNBC have a brief item on using DNA analysis to learn
about when horses were domesticated:
http://www.telegraph.co.uk:80/et?ac=003864436460684&rtmo=fs3aMa0s&atmo=rrrrrrrq&pg=/et/01/1/19/whors19.html
http://www.msnbc.com/news/518171.asp

Just when you thought the 'Noah's flood' thing had died down, a team of
researchers from Canada is suggesting the site may have been near the
Persian Gulf:
http://www.canoe.ca/CNEWSScience0101/14_manitoba-cp.html
http://www.ananova.com/news/story/sm_173982.html?menu=
http://www.nypostonline.com/news/worldnews/21462.htm

The Frontier Post has a (somewhat strange) article on the Near East and
Aegean art:
http://frontierpost.com.pk/weekend.asp?id=4&date1=1/21/2001

Nando Times and the Macedonian Press Agency report that the FBI has
(finally) returned a large number of antiquities purloined from the museum
at Corinth a decade ago:
http://www.nandotimes.com/global/story/0,1024,500301332-500481694-503309637-0,00.html
http://www.hri.org/news/greek/mpab/2001/01-01-19.mpab.html#12

The Athenian News Agency has an all too brief report on the discovery of
some Geometric period tombs in Cyprus:
http://www.hri.org/news/greek/ana/2001/01-01-15.ana.html#19

The International Herald Tribune has a piece on the Etruscans:
http://www.iht.com/articles/8109.htm

I'm sure we'll hear more about this one next week ... EurekaAlert has an
interesting press release on how a Classics grad student (yay!) has found
proof that Homer was right about burnt sacrifices in the Bronze Age:
http://www.eurekalert.org/releases/uc-cds011901.html

Techie types will be interested to learn that archaeologists have unearthed
a prehistoric C compiler (sorry ... I couldn't resist including this one):
http://www.theregister.co.uk/content/4/16227.html

Xinhua via Northern Light reports on the discovery of a 3200-year-old
noble's tomb in central China:
http://library.northernlight.com/FB20010117780000030.html?cb=0&dx=1006&sc=0#doc

A number of tombs have also been discovered near Shanghai:
http://library.northernlight.com/FA20010119340000017.html?cb=0&dx=1006&sc=0#doc

The same source has a wrap up of recent discoveries all over China as well:
http://library.northernlight.com/FA20010115390000602.html?cb=0&dx=1006&sc=0#doc

NEW WORLD NEWS
I couldn't find any New World stuff this week!!

ON THE NEWSSTANDS
The January issue of Scientific American has an interesting commentary
piece on the development of writing:

http://www.sciam.com/2001/0101issue/0101wonders.html
Discovering Archaeology has put up an article on the city of Aperlae (in
Lycia):
http://www.discoveringarchaeology.com/articles/011401-turkey.shtml
http://www.usatoday.com/weather/science/archaeology/2001-01-16-aperlae.htm

CLASSICIST'S CORNER
Ekathimerini has posted an article from December 1969 (I doubt that's right
... there's a ref to 1998 in it) about the 'Cabernet Sauvignon of
Antiquity' -- Phliasios wine -- with plenty of ancient refs ... interesting
stuff:
http://www.ekathimerini.com/news/content.asp?id=67087

The New York Times has an extended piece on Cleopatra, with refs to the
exhibition in Italy, movies, etc.:
http://www.nytimes.com/2001/01/20/arts/20CLEO.html

FOLLOWUPS
Baharaiya Oasis mummies:
http://www.arabicnews.com/ansub/Daily/Day/010118/2001011829.html

Karachi mummy:
http://news.excite.com/news/r/010119/08/odd-mummy-dc
http://www.timesofindia.com/160101/16nbrs26.htm

Ancient insoles:
http://chicagotribune.com/news/nationworld/article/0,2669,SAV-0101140394,FF.html

Zeugma:
http://www.star-telegram.com/news/doc/1047/1:FAITH1/1:FAITH10119101.html

SAGAS
The Out-of-Africa vs. Not-necessarily-so debate:
http://www.dailysouthtown.com/southtown/dsnews/219nd1.htm

AT ABOUT.COM
Ancient History Guide N.S. Gill's latest is on Hanno of Carthage's little trip:
http://ancienthistory.about.com/library/weekly/aa011801a.htm?terms=a1

Latin Guide Janet Burns' has a guest-written feature on Augustus:
http://latin.about.com/homework/latin/library/weekly/aa011401a.htm

REGULAR FEATURES
CTCWeb's Words of the Week
http://ablemedia.com/ctcweb/myword.html


Radio Finland's Nuntii Latini
http://www.yle.fi/fbc/latini/trans.html


English translation (probably delayed ... hasn't been updated since August):
http://www.cbc4kids.ca/general/whats-new/latin-news/mainlatin.html
l>


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 519 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Jan 22, 2001 (03:16) * 0 lines 
 


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 520 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Jan 22, 2001 (03:17) * 46 lines 
 
I have persmission from the senior writer of this article to post it. If there is enough interest in the citations, I will post them as well. Thanks JSK!

A SUBSTITUTE HAY WAGON IN SOUTHERN OHIO: NOTES ON RURAL MATERIAL CULTURE

John S. Kessler and Donald B. Ball
___________________________________________________________________________________________

A simple implement resembling a mono-runner sled used for the transportation of hay from the field in the days before baling became a locally common practice is described as observed in a restricted section of rural Ohio in 1945. This device appears to be previously unreported in the European and regional material culture literature; no antecedent implement is presently known. The simplicity and temporary nature of such items of material culture demonstrate the problems in inherent in interpreting disarticulated yet previously recycled historic artifacts.
___________________________________________________________________________________________

Editor’s Note: The description of the subject farm implement for the first time in print affords the opportunity to simultaneously document this humble and little known item of material culture and contemplate its interface with regional historic archaeological investigations. As may be noted from the following discussion, the few items of likely recycled stable hardware needed to construct this implement serve to clearly demonstrate the problems - if not impossibility - of confidently interpreting certain categories of disarticulated historic artifacts.

A major portion of the senior author's childhood was spent in Brushcreek Township in rural Highland County, (south-central) Ohio. This location at the edge of the Appalachian escarpment was in many respects atavistic, retaining the southern-weighted flavor, customs, and methods of the 19th and perhaps 18th centuries. One possible holdover from earlier times was a method for transporting hay from the field in which it was cut to the haystack.

In general, the prevailing method for hay harvest (prior to the local rise in popularity of baling in the 1950s) was cutting with a horse drawn or tractor mounted sickle bar mower, raking into windrows, and loading into a wagon to which hay racks had been attached for transport to the stack site This process was labor and equipment intensive. A typical crew consisted of two wagons with drivers (each wagon pulled by either a team of horses or a tractor), at least three loaders, and one stack builder. This broke down into six people, two wagons, and four horses or two tractors. If the hay was being stored in a hay mow (barn loft), about the same size crew would have been required for reasonable efficiency.

During the season of 1945 while World War II was still in progress, there was a shortage of either manpower, equipment, or both in the hay crew with which the senior author (then 12 years of age) was associated. Consequently,
a different method of transporting the hay to the stack site was adopted. After being cut and allowed to partially cure, the hay was raked and piled into "doodles". A hay doodle was in fact a small stack about four ft (1.2 m) in height and about the same in diameter. Thus, a hayfield would be filled with these small stacks or, colloquially, doodles which needed to be transported to the hay stack.

TRANSPORTING HAY

The actual transportation was assigned to the senior author and another boy somewhat older in age. This was accomplished by providing each of us with a horse to which a rather unusual contrivance was attached via a single tree. As recalled over half a century later, this device (Figure 1) consisted of a pole made from a freshly cut hickory sapling about three to four in. (7.6-10 cm) in diameter at the base and about eight ft (2.4 m) in length. A ring was attached by #9 wire to the basal end while the other end had been sharpened to a point with an ax. One end of a rope about twice the length of the sapling was tied to the single tree while the other was passed through the ring attached to the basal end of the pole. Another ring equal to or greater in size than the basal ring was then attached to the free ("bitter") end of the rope. Thus, FIGURE 1. A SUBSTITUTE HAY WAGON FROM RURAL OHIO.

when the pole was pulled behind the horse, the ring attached to the rope would prevent that rope from being pulled completely through the basal ring.

After these contrivances were attached, the horses were ridden into the hayfield and halted at a hay doodle. Here a hay hand would shove the sharpened end of the pole under the doodle, put the rope over the doodle, and place the ring tied to the bitter end over the sharpened end of the sapling. The doodle was then in a loop formed by the rope over its top and the sapling beneath it. When the horse walked forward, the loop tightened as the bitter end ring was pulled up the length of the pole and the rope was pulled through the basal ring. In this fashion, the doodle was secured and pulled to the stack site where it was released by removing the bitter end ring from the sharpened end of the sapling.

It is perhaps notable that most of the authors’ professional lives have been associated with fieldwork in rural settings in the eastern, southeastern, and midwestern portions of the United States. However, we recall only one instance of encountering a situation bearing similarity to that described herein. During the late 1960s while driving in the Pocanos of Pennsylvania, a small hillside hayfield (estimated less than 5 acres/2 hectares) containing "doodles" was casually noted by the senior author. Whether these doodles" were later moved by use of the mono-runner sled is not known. The steep topography of the field, however, would have been hazardous to the stability of a wheeled hay wagon but not to a farm sled or sledge as it was sometimes called.

Although to the best of the senior author's recollection at least 10 doodles would have been required to equal one wagon load of hay, this method reduced the previously enumerated personnel and equipment requirements to but one stacker, two hay hands, two boys, two horses, and no wagons or tractor. However, it increased the effort required at the hay stack as there was a loss of the elevated platform which would have been provided by a hay wagon. Regardless, it worked well allowing three farm neighbors and two boys to successfully "make hay" during a year when resources were minimal.

DISCUSSION

The authors have no knowledge as to either the origin or name(s) of this device. Though it may have been invented due to the necessity of that particular time, this is highly doubtful. At the time this implement was observed and used, there was no experimentation or trial and error. These devices were built and they worked the first time. In consequence, it appears logical to believe that due to necessity a piece of the past was reclaimed and put to good use.

A brief review of the literary sources referable to material culture studies in both the Old and New World produced no additional information concerning historical antecedents of these humble implements. Although the relative simplicity of the device would suggest some possible antiquity, its origins remain unknown. Historical studies of English farming practices from the 11th-16th centuries note that hay production was a regular, though secondary, farm activity (Ault 1972:25-27; Homans 1970:41-42). Among the early non-wheeled forms of transport reported in the Scottish Highlands are a travois-like horse-drawn sledge fashioned from two parallel poles; a sled with two parallel runners; and the slipe (also slype), fabricated from a sturdy forked tree trunk (Grant 1961:281-283). Though the practice of “making hay” is briefly discussed, no mention is made of any specialized means of transporting it (ibid.:97-98). Generally similar drawn vehicles (typically designed for human rather than horse motive power) wer
also used in Ireland (Evans 1957:170-174). In that area, the two recorded means of carrying dried hay to the selected storage site were slipes and a wheeled platform called a rick-shifter (ibid.:155). Studies of traditional Welsh transportation devices have recorded only human-drawn slide-cars (a form of travois) and horse-drawn sleds (Fox 1931). Synoptic studies of traditional French agricultural tools and implements (Delamarre and Hairy 1971) and forms of rural transportation (Delamarre and Henninger 1972) make no mention of the use of a device such as observed in Ohio.

Of the forms of non-wheeled transportation recorded in Europe, sleds are abundantly documented in the folk cultural literature of the southeastern United States (cf. Glassie 1969:187-188; Riedl et al. 1976:149-150, plate 70) and "lizards" (vernacular name for slipe) have also been recorded in the region (Cavender 1975; Riedl et al. 1976:150-151, fig. 55). Implements such as the Ohio hay sled are not reported in either studies of southeastern traditional woodcraft (Clarke and Kohn 1976) or early American farm life (Sloane 1974). Though the material culture of hay stacking and storage is well documented in the western states (Jordan et al. 1997:105-121), the conveyances actually used to transport the hay are not discussed.

CONCLUSION

The combined attributes of size, load limitations, minimal cost, and ease of construction of these implements as observed in this part of rural Ohio suggest that such mono-runner sleds were probably used by small scale farmers for short distance hauling in situations too steep for the safe use of a wagon or, in the reported instance, when confronted with atypical periods of labor shortage which necessitated the revival and use of an archaic, less efficient but simultaneously less personnel intensive means of transporting their crop. Much as it may be anticipated that the near universal availability of tractors has effectively rendered this implement obsolete in terms of practical farm usage, it may reasonably be speculated that even in an era dominated by draft animals, its relative inefficiency likely always relegated it to being a secondary - rather than primary - means of harvesting hay. With the assistance and observations of colleagues in the region, the origin, history, distribution, and, indeed, t
e name(s) of this work-a-day item of material culture may be better understood. As an aside, it is somewhat interesting to speculate that the senior author may be the last living person to have used this device.




 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 521 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Jan 28, 2001 (15:04) * 172 lines 
 
EXPLORATOR
Watching the Web for News of the Ancient World
Volume 3, Issue 35 -- December 31, 2000

]|[=================================================================]|[

OLD WORLD NEWS
News24 has a feature on new technology being used on the Dead Sea Scrolls:
http://news.24.com/News24/Technology/Science_Nature/0,1113,2-13-46_968917,00.html

Also in Israel, the prime minister has ordered a halt to excavations on
Temple Mount:
http://www3.haaretz.co.il/eng/scripts/article.asp?mador=14&datee=01/22/01&id=107528
http://www.jpost.com/Editions/2001/01/22/News/News.19995.html

I think this is a repeat (the photo is for sure), but MSNBC has a feature
on archaeological matters in Yemen:
http://www.msnbc.com/news/518350.asp

USA Today/Egypt Revealed have a piece on the playing of a couple of
'trumpets' from King Tut's tomb:
http://www.usatoday.com/news/science/archaeology/2001-01-27-ancientmusic.htm
http://www.egyptrevealed.com/012401_tutstrumpet.htm

The Observer has an excerpt from Anthony Sattin *The Pharaoh's Shadow*
which is somewhat interesting:
http://www.observer.co.uk/travel/story/0,6903,429704,00.html

National Geographic reports on plans to move homes away from the Valley of
the Kings etc.:
http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/archaeology.html

Business Week has a chapter excerpt from W. Michael Blumenthal *The
Invisible Wall* which has some interesting, albeit fleeting, bits of
ancient history:
http://www.businessweek.com/chapter/blumenthal.htm

A couple of sources report on an underwater archaeological expedition
searching for various pirate ships:
http://www.bostonherald.com/news/local_regional/ship01192001.htm
http://www.usatoday.com/usatonline/20010124/3011912s.htm

Also on the pirate front are a couple of reports on dives off the coast of
Kenya (which includes pirate remains and prehistoric ones):
http://www.guardianunlimited.co.uk/breakingnews/International/0,3561,690378,00.html
http://www.nytimes.com/aponline/world/AP-Kenya-Sunken-Treasure.html
The Guardian has an item on how Hippocrates still has stuff to teach us:

http://www.guardianunlimited.co.uk/Archive/Article/0,4273,4121846,00.html
RussiaToday has a feature on ancient art in Uzbekistan (no decent pictures,
alas):

http://www.russiatoday.com/news.php3?id=269678
A couple of sources on the discovery of an 'Anglo Saxon gold disk' or
'erotic ring':
http://www.ananova.com/news/story/sm_182949.html?menu=
http://www.the-journal.co.uk/cfm/newsstory.cfm?StoryId=227871

The Herald reports on the discovery of a 12th-century cemetery in Kinghorn
(Scotland):
http://www.theherald.co.uk/news/archive/26-1-19101-23-55-34.html

Xinhua's weekly wrap-up of archaeological work in China:
http://library.northernlight.com/FA20010122630000321.html?cb=0&dx=1006&sc=0#doc
http://library.northernlight.com/FA20010122630000339.html?cb=0&dx=1006&sc=0#doc

The BBC reports on the increasing rate of discovery of coin hoards:
http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/uk/newsid_1133000/1133910.stm

And as long as we're talking about coin hoards, here's one I missed a few
weeks ago (despite having been given a heads up) from the BBC:
http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/uk/newsid_1109000/1109308.stm

One we'll likely hear more about: a Eurekalert press release (and several
spawned articles) tells of one prof's theory on the connection between
collapse of societies and climate change:
http://www.eurekalert.org/releases/umass-ccp012501.html
http://www.smh.com.au/news/0101/28/world/world4.html
http://ens.lycos.com/ens/jan2001/2001L-01-26-09.html
http://www.telegraph.co.uk:80/et?ac=000140326706927&rtmo=lvSbnzAt&atmo=HHHHHHHL&pg=/et/01/1/26/wclim26.html

The BBC has an interesting item on what a Raphael painting has recently
revealed:
http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/world/from_our_own_correspondent/newsid_1130000/1130895.stm

NEW WORLD NEWS
The Free-Lance Star reports on the discovery of a paleo-Indian site near
Fredericksburg:
http://www.fredericksburg.com/news/Local/Culpeper/0127arti.htm

The BBC reports on the archaeological potential of Ek Balam
http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/world/americas/newsid_1136000/1136198.stm

An AP report tells of a dig near Independence Hall in Philadelphia, which
reveals a culturally-diverse early colony:
http://www.msnbc.com/news/519972.asp
http://abcnews.go.com/sections/scitech/DailyNews/dig_philly010123.html
http://www.foxnews.com/scitech/012301/phili_dig.sml

CLASSICIST'S CORNER
National Defense magazine has a sidebar piece which cites classical
precedents for psyops:
http://nationaldefense.ndia.org/article.cfm?Id=427
(full article at http://nationaldefense.ndia.org/article.cfm?Id=425)

ABCNewsguy John Stossel makes passing mention that there were classical
(and even more ancient) precedents for making New Year's resolutions (is
this true??):
http://abcnews.go.com/sections/2020/ABCNEWSSpecials/001229_stossel_feature.html

One I missed last week: the Washington Post had a feature on presidential
inaugurations with a sidebar on the origin of the word:
http://washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A7659-2001Jan17.html

Folks might be interested in some tragic productions in Ireland:
http://www.ireland.com/newspaper/ireland/2001/0126/reg3.htm

FOLLOWUPS
Ages ago, it seems, we heard of a project to move a bluestone to Stonehenge
... here's the latest:
http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/uk/wales/newsid_1129000/1129102.stm

Homer accuracy:
http://enquirer.com/editions/2001/01/27/loc_discovery_settles.html

Horse domestication:
http://www.nytimes.com/2001/01/23/science/23OBSER-2.html

Fujimori fraud:
http://www.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/getarticle.pl5?nn20010128b2.htm

SAGAS
Elgin Marbles:
http://www.hri.org/news/greek/ana/2001/01-01-25.ana.html#22

OBITUARY
Oliver Gurney:
http://www.nytimes.com/2001/01/27/world/27GURN.html

AT ABOUT.COM
Ancient History Guide N.S. Gill's latest is on Nefertiti:
http://ancienthistory.about.com/library/weekly/aa012201a.htm

Archaeology Guide Kris Hirst's latest is on the medieval town of Kootwijk:
http://archaeology.about.com/library/weekly/aa012201a.htm

Latin Guide Janet Burns has a piece on Latin haiku:
http://latin.about.com/library/weekly/aa011601a.htm

AND ANOTHER THING ...
Indiana Jones has been voted the top movie hero of all time:
http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/entertainment/newsid_1138000/1138584.stm
http://library.northernlight.com/HC20010126010000024.html?cb=0&dx=1006&sc=0#doc

REGULAR FEATURES
CTCWeb's Words of the Week
http://ablemedia.com/ctcweb/myword.html


Radio Finland's Nuntii Latini
http://www.yle.fi/fbc/latini/trans.html


English translation (probably delayed ... hasn't been updated since August):
http://www.cbc4kids.ca/general/whats-new/latin-news/mainlatin.html
l>

EXPLORATOR IS ARCHIVED AT:
http://www.onelist.com/archive/Explorator




 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 522 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Feb  1, 2001 (17:45) * 24 lines 
 
NEWSLETTER FEBRUARY 2, 2001
http://www.discoveringarchaeology.com/newsletter.shtml

This Week's Feature Reports

Hail Caesar’s
A casino is paying for an archaeological dig

TV Archaeologist Helps Identify War Casualties
British archaeologist helps with the healing process

The Archaeology Of Shipwrecks
UNESCO fights to save our underwater heritage

Archaeology in Mali
Political unrest hampers archaeological research

Tale of Two Trails
Bones and DNA reveal the history of human origins

The EMuseum
Come stroll through Minnesota State University’s virtual gallery — if you dare!
http://www.discoveringarchaeology.com/newsletter.shtml



 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 523 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Feb  4, 2001 (16:25) * 160 lines 
 
EXPLORATOR
Watching the Web for News of the Ancient World
Volume 3, Issue 40 -- February 4, 2000
]|[=================================================================]|[
OLD WORLD NEWS
Egypt Revealed has an interesting item on Egypt as "cradle of the
neurosciences":
http://www.egyptrevealed.com/020201-neuroscience.shtml

A brief item at Egypt Online tells of the discovery of a bust of Isis,
dating to Ptolemaic times:
http://www.uk.sis.gov.eg/online/html3/o270121c.htm

The same source relates the discovery of some Ptolemaic-era baths (the date
at the top of the page is wrong; this is a new item):
http://www.uk.sis.gov.eg/online/html3/o010221.htm

One I missed last week: the Lebanon Star has an interesting item on the
remains of Tabinet, king of Sidon:
http://www.dailystar.com.lb/features/27_01_01_b.htm

The Times on plans for the Roman Forum:
http://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/0,,20-76039,00.html

The online news section of Archaeology magazine has an interesting item on
mob activity in regards to (modern) Pompeii (so to speak):
http://www.archaeology.org/online/news/mob.html

They also have a short feature on Magnesia on the Maeander:
http://www.archaeology.org/online/news/magnesia/index.html

The Journal reports on plans to excavate a Roman fort in County Durham:
http://www.the-journal.co.uk/cfm/newsstory.cfm?StoryId=229097

Discovering Archaeology has a brief item on wrestling in history (mostly in
ancient Greece):
http://www.discoveringarchaeology.com/articles/013101-hulkhogan.shtml

What might be the oldest Christian church has been discovered in Jordan
(this is a bit of a deja vu, no?); there's a video tour of the church at
the CNN site:
http://www.cnn.com/2001/WORLD/meast/01/29/jordan.church/index.html

National Geographic news has a nice feature on the TAY project, which is
webbifying plenty of archaeological and historical data relating to ancient
Turkey:
http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2001/02/0202_turkeyweb.html

As might be suspected, the recent earthquake in Gujarat has caused damage
to many ancient monuments:
http://www.indiaexpress.com/news/regional/gujarat/20010201-7.html
http://www.ananova.com/news/story/sm_193039.html?menu=news.latestheadlines
http://www.cnn.com/2001/TRAVEL/NEWS/02/01/quake.monuments.ap/index.html
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/et?ac=003864436460684&rtmo=rrrrrrrq&atmo=rrrrrrrq&pg=/ixworld.html

The Xinhua summaries of recent archaeological finds in China:
http://library.northernlight.com/FB20010131630000016.html?cb=0&dx=1006&sc=0#doc
http://library.northernlight.com/FB20010131620000315.html?cb=0&dx=1006&sc=0#doc

The New York Post has a reviewish sort of thing of Oscar Muscarella's work
claiming up to 45 items at the Met might be forgeries/fakes:
http://www.nypost.com/02012001/entertainment/21538.htm

In a similar vein is a EXN.ca story on a suspect Minoan artifact at the
Royal Ontario Museum:
http://exn.ca/Stories/2001/01/31/52.cfm

NEW WORLD NEWS
A Science Daily press release (and others) on one scholar's theory on the
Hohokam "multiethnic network:
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2001/02/010202073801.htm
http://www.eurekalert.org/news.pub.brief.html

I suspect we'll be hearing more about this one, a Eurekalert press release
about the Texas A&M excavations at the Gault site:
http://www.eurekalert.org/releases/tam-taf013101.html

Discovering Archaeology has a feature on a certain person's redating of
Tiwanako and why it's wrong:
http://www.discoveringarchaeology.com/articles/013101-15,000mistake.shtml

On a more positive note, the same source has a feature on a
recently-discovered urban area at Palenque:
http://www.discoveringarchaeology.com/articles/013001-palenque.shtml

REVIEWS
The New York Times has a review of Finkelstein and Silberman *The Bible
Unearthed*:
http://www.nytimes.com/books/01/02/04/reviews/010204.04triblet.html

CLASSICIST'S CORNER
The Salt Lake Tribune has a feature on the religious origins of the Olympic
games:
http://www.sltrib.com/02032001/saturday/68198.htm
The followup to the "Images of
Alexander"-test-at-Harvard-cancelled-because-of-a-bomb-threat story:
http://news.excite.com/news/uw/010131/university-107

A nice article on a high school ancient civ teacher:
http://www.pioneerplanet.com/seven-days/sun/news/docs/029173.htm

A review of a performance of Oedipus Rex, set in contemporary Africa:
http://www.bostonphoenix.com:80/boston/arts/theater/documents/00408547.htm

A review of Medea, starring Fiona Shaw:
http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/entertainment/newsid_1148000/1148799.stm

Another old one which turned up this a.m. for some reason ... a nice little
history of the calendar:
http://www.sptimes.com/News/010101/Columns/Julius_Caesar_s_old_d.shtml

AT ABOUT.COM:
Ancient History Guide N.S. Gill has a couple of interesting items this
week, including a feature on St. Patrick:
http://ancienthistory.about.com/library/weekly/aa020101a.htm

and a guest feature on Carthage and Human Sacrifice:
http://ancienthistory.about.com/library/weekly/aa020101a.htm

Archaeology Guide Kris Hirst has a feature on the 'Aryans':
http://archaeology.about.com/library/weekly/aa012901a.htm

Latin Guide Janet Burns has a nice feature on Hadrian:
http://latin.about.com/library/weekly/aa012401b.htm

FOLLOWUPS
Animal cemetery at Abydos:
http://www.archaeology.org/online/news/pet.html

Climate and the collapse of ancient societies:
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2001/01/010129065659.htm
http://www.spacer.com/news/greenhouse-01b.html

Wisconsin cave:
http://www.archaeology.org/online/news/wisconsin/index.html

SAGAS
Temple Mount:
http://www.jpost.com/Editions/2001/02/02/News/News.20703.html
http://www.jpost.com/Editions/2001/02/01/Features/Features.20649.html

EH?
Not really archaeological, but the scan this week picked this thing up from
the Age, which relates the tale of an Italian countess who may or may not
be tied to Tut's curse (tough to say ... I don't have coffee in me yet so I
don't know if it's just bad writing or me):
http://www.theage.com.au/news/2001/02/03/FFXYF3B7PIC.html

REGULAR FEATURES
CTCWeb's Words of the Week
http://ablemedia.com/ctcweb/myword.html

Radio Finland's Nuntii Latini
http://www.yle.fi/fbc/latini/trans.html

English translation (probably delayed ... hasn't been updated since August):
http://www.cbc4kids.ca/general/whats-new/latin-news/mainlatin.html

EXPLORATOR IS ARCHIVED AT:
http://www.onelist.com/archive/Explorator


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 524 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Feb 15, 2001 (16:50) * 106 lines 
 
Pyramid in Peru Yields Unprecedented Buried Treasure

Archeology: UCLA scientists find unique cultural artifacts in three 1,500-year-old tombs of
the Moche people.

By THOMAS H. MAUGH II, Times Staff Writer

UCLA archeologists have found three unlooted tombs
in a 1,500-year-old Moche pyramid in Peru, a finding that
has left them scratching their heads over the burial
chambers' unusual contents.
Each of the three treasure-filled tombs was
accompanied by a miniature tomb containing a copper
figurine of the deceased and miniature versions of the
tomb's artifacts--something never seen in any culture
before, even in the most elaborate Egyptian chambers.
Perhaps even more puzzling, all three of the deceased,
and two other young males apparently included as
sacrifices, were giants among the short-statured Moche
people, whose empire flourished in the desert plain
between the Andes and the Pacific from about AD 100 to
800.
"More than 350 Moche burials have been excavated [by archeologists]," said UCLA
archeologist Christopher B. Donnan, who led the team, "but neither I nor my colleagues have
seen anything elsewhere remotely like the ones at this site."
Fewer than 15 of those previously discovered tombs contained silver and gold, but all three
of the new ones do, and one contains unusual amounts, suggesting that its occupant was very
powerful. The tombs and artifacts are expected to give archeologists new insights into the
religious beliefs of the Moche, said archeologist Steve Bourget of the University of Texas at
Austin.
The discovery, announced Wednesday by the National Geographic Society, which
sponsored the excavation, is also important because the tombs are from the early stages of the
Moche empire. Most previous discoveries have dated from the end of the Moche empire.
"We certainly know what happened at the end [of the Moche empire], but what happened
at the beginning has been a mystery," said Moche expert Carol Mackey, a professor emerita at
Cal State Northridge. "It's really important to find a beginning and an end of something."
The Moche were primarily farmers, who probably migrated to the Peruvian plain from
Central America. They diverted rivers into a network of irrigation canals, growing corn, beans,
chili peppers, potatoes and squash. They also dined on ducks, llama, guinea pigs and fish.
A sophisticated culture, the Moche raised huge
pyramids of sun-dried mud bricks, laying their noblest
dead inside. They also created splendid objects of gold,
silver and copper. Although the Moche apparently had no
written language, their artifacts are decorated with scenes
of hunting, fishing, combat, punishment, sexual encounters
and elaborate ceremonies.
Their departure from the area is a source of some
mystery, but many experts believe that it was hastened by
a prolonged drought followed by a series of floods. They
were eventually succeeded in the region by the Incas.
The new tombs were discovered at Dos Cabezas, the
first big settlement identified from the early Moche culture.
Dos Cabezas is at the mouth of the Jaquetepequa River,
about 40 miles south of Sipan, where even more elaborate tombs were found in the 1980s.
Donnan's team began working at Dos Cabezas in 1994, initially confining its efforts to
exploring and preserving opened tombs that already had been looted. Members also
discovered a fishermen's neighborhood and an enclave occupied by farmers during the early
Moche period.
The team has been searching intensively for workshops and tools to explain how the
Moche constructed the sophisticated artifacts found there, said team member Alana
Cordy-Collins of the University of San Diego, but so far without success.
Donnan found the first tomb in the summer of 1997. It contained an adult male with a
15-year-old female lying crosswise at his feet--most likely a sacrifice. The man had been
buried wearing a cylindrical metal headdress and a gold nose ornament.
Four "absolutely awesome" ceramics were arrayed in the corners of the tomb, Bourget
said. "Each piece is museum quality," he said.
One was a white ceramic vampire bat, one was a black sea lion, one was a red condor and
the last was a brown owl. The bat is associated with human sacrifice, Bourget said. The sea
lion is associated with being the victim of a sacrifice. The owl is associated with the preparation
of funeral offerings and the condor is associated with eating the dead--liberating the soul of the
dead by taking the flesh off the bones.
At one end of the tomb, Donnan said, was a little compartment containing a copper figurine
wrapped in textiles and accompanied by miniature artifacts.
"When we finished, the big question for me--and one that haunted me throughout the next
school year--was what was the relationship between the little compartment and the tomb?"
Donnan said. "We were at a loss to explain it."
The following summer, the team opened a second tomb that contained 10 to 15 times as
many riches as the first, Donnan said. "The only tombs that are richer are those that were
excavated at Sipan."
The individual was buried in multiple layers of textiles,
with 14 headdresses, clubs, spears, spear throwers, three
gold-plated shields, a burial mask and five gold objects in
his mouth. "Around the corners were the most spectacular
set of ceramic vessels ever found in a Moche tomb, even
better than those at Sipan," he added.
And at the end of the tomb was a small compartment,
about 14 inches square, containing another copper figurine
wrapped in textiles. With it were a miniature burial mask, a
miniature circular shield, two war clubs, spears and other
small artifacts.
"It was now clear that the figurine was meant to be a
miniaturization of the figure in the tomb," Donnan said.
A third tomb, opened in the summer of 1999, was very similar to the first.
The final surprise was the size of the deceased. Moche ranged in height from 4 feet 10
inches to 5 feet 6 inches, at most. All the deceased were between 5 feet 9 inches and 6 feet
tall--the equivalent of 7-footers in today's society.
"We had never imagined males of this stature," Donnan said.
The skeletons were all very thin and fragile and at least partially misshapen. Cordy-Collins
is convinced that the three people suffered from a genetic disease, possibly Marfan syndrome,
a congenital disease marked by unusually long limbs, fingers and toes, and heart abnormalities.
"These were people who had a genetic disorder that disabled them," she said. "They could
not have led an active life. Yet they were maintained as elite individuals, not looked down on.
Did the disorder make them revered? We don't know. But it provides a window into their
social behavior."

Copyright 2000 Los Angeles Times


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 525 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Fri, Feb 16, 2001 (12:44) * 1 lines 
 
Good grief!!! Great story, Marcia, glad I looked ... Yup - just got online for first time in months - only $3 an hour from Mali!!!! Anyway, greetings to all.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 526 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Feb 16, 2001 (13:15) * 1 lines 
 
OH MAGGIE!!! Aloha! We have missed you!!! Lovely things found in that tomb too. I will post image locations as soon as good ones are available.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 527 of 1283: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Sat, Feb 17, 2001 (14:02) * 1 lines 
 
Maggie, you're back! Greetings to you and your family.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 528 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Feb 18, 2001 (13:11) * 196 lines 
 
EXPLORATOR
Watching the Web for News of the Ancient World
Volume 3, Issue 42 -- February 18, 2001

]|[=================================================================]|[

Editor's note: Depending on your mail software, some urls may wrap
(especially those from the Telegraph) which will require you to
rebuild the url at your end; if you get a 'file not found', check to see if
the url wrapped on you. Most urls should be active for at least eight hours
from the time of 'publicatio'.

]|[=================================================================]|[

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Thanks for heads ups (headses ups ... er, heads upses ... er, when does
that coffee finally come up (actually it's green tea these days) to:
rmhowe, Bill Kennedy, Sally Winchester, Michael Ruggieri, Chris Laning,
Glenn Meyer, and DC Briscoe!

OLD WORLD NEWS
I'm positive this is really a story from last year, but Czech
archaeologists have confirmed that the song they found in an Old Kingdom
tomb was a love song:
http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2001/02/0213_1stlovesong.html

A somewhat strange/chatty piece on King Tut in the Christian Science Monitor:
http://www.csmonitor.com/durable/2001/02/16/fp23s2-csm.shtml

I'm pretty sure this isn't 'new', but Discovering Archaeology has an item
on a Stonehenge-like structure in Yemen:
http://www.discoveringarchaeology.com/articles/020801-yemen.shtml

The Egyptian State Information Service (and others) reports on the
discovery of a statue of Septimius Severus in Alexandria:
http://www.uk.sis.gov.eg/online/html3/o120221b.htm
http://www.timesofindia.com/130201/13mide15.htm
http://www.arabia.com/article/0,1690,Life|39843,00.html

An AP story via NorthernLight reveals that the scaffolding will be removed
from the Parthenon in time for the Olympics:
http://library.northernlight.com/EC20010214530000082.html?cb=0&dx=1006&sc=0#doc

Ekatherimini reports on four recently-acquired 6th/5th century B.C./B.C.E.
Greek vases now on display at the Goulandris:
http://www.ekathimerini.com/news/content.asp?id=71655

Ekatherimini also has a nice feature on the Via Egnatia:
http://www.ekathimerini.com/news/content.asp?id=71477

The Tahoe Tribune reports on a recently-acquired Hellenistic-era mummy mask:
http://www.tahoe.com/tribune/stories.2.16.01/YourTown/cultureflerun16Feb9437.html

The Chicago Sun-Times has a feature on the restoration of Stonehenge a
century or so ago:
http://www.suntimes.com/output/news/stone18.html

The Irish Times reports that 'reconstruction' of a megalithic tomb has been
halted at Carrowmore:
http://www.ireland.com:80/newspaper/ireland/2001/0215/hom15.htm

The same source has a report on the number of sites found by the Cork
Archaeological Survey:
http://www.ireland.com/newspaper/ireland/2001/0213/reg3.htm

Storms in Wales have revealed a medieval settlement:
http://www.worldnews.com/?action=display&article=5677105&template=worldnews/search.txt&index=recent

AlphaGalileo and Ananova report on the discovery of a (17th or 18th
century) phallic drinking cup (photo at Ananova):
http://www.alphagalileo.org/ReadNotice.cfm?releaseid=5571
http://www.ananova.com/news/story/sm_206635.html?menu=

Xinhua's wrapup of recent discoveries in China (via NorthernLight):
http://library.northernlight.com/FB20010131620000315.html?cb=0&dx=1006&sc=0#doc
http://library.northernlight.com/FA20010206360000053.html?cb=0&dx=1006&sc=0#doc

Xinhua also reports on the discovery of an ancient musket:
http://library.northernlight.com/FA20010207770000016.html?cb=0&dx=1006&sc=0#doc

Frankfurter Allgemeine has a feature (in English ... don't worry) on the
renewed interest in plaster cast collections (mind the wrap):
http://www.faz.com/IN/INtemplates/eFAZ/docmain.asp?rub=%7BB1311FFE-FBFB-11D2-B228-00105A9CAF88%7D&doc=%7BCB6E0FA0-FFBE-11D4-A3B3-009027BA22E4%7D&width=1024&height=740&agt=explorer&ver=4&svr=4

NEW WORLD NEWS
The big new world news is the discovery of a Moche tomb in Peru (lots of
coverage ... photos at NG):

http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2001/02/0215_moche.html
http://www.msnbc.com/news/530988.asp
http://dailynews.yahoo.com/h/nm/20010215/sc/moche_dc_1.html
http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A5712-2001Feb14.html
http://athensnews.dolnet.gr/athweb/nathens.print_unique?e=C&f=12880&m=A09&aa=1&eidos=S
http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/2001/02/15/MN193959.DTL
http://www.theage.com.au/news/2001/02/18/FFXAR3A6AJC.html

The Pilot reports that a pile of bones remains a mystery, three years after
their discovery:
http://www.pilotonline.com/news/nw0217bon.html

NOT SURE HOW TO CLASSIFY THIS ONE
A Scottish power company has attempted to bill the Suenos Stone:
http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/uk/scotland/newsid_1170000/1170273.stm

ON THE NEWSSTANDS
Bible Review has a new issue out, with an online feature on the earliest
Christian inscription, among other things:
http://www.bib-arch.org/br2.html

Mercator's World has a nice online feature on Olaus Magnus' (b. 1490) map
of Scandinavia:
http://www.mercatormag.com/601olaus.html

CLASSICIST'S CORNER
The Times has an interesting piece on naming of flowers with mentions of
Theocritus, L&S, etc.:
http://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/0,,217-83260,00.html

Folks might be interested to read a feature in Katherimini on director
Philippos Koutsaftis:
http://www.ekathimerini.com/news/content.asp?id=71150

... and the same source tells that Euripides' Hecuba will be playing at
Epidaurus this summer:
http://www.ekathimerini.com/news/content.asp?id=70803

The LATimes has a feature on UCIrvine's *Dionysus 2001'* theatrical series:
http://www.latimes.com/editions/orange/20010216/t000014219.html

Charles Williams II has donated $16 million to UPenn's museum of
archaeology and anthropology!:
http://inq.philly.com/content/inquirer/2001/02/15/city/PENN15.htm
http://www.mcall.com/html/news/regional/b_pg002b2_newgift.htm

The Museum of Ancient Cypriot Art has opened in Athens:
http://www.hri.org/news/cyprus/cypio/2001/01-02-14.cypio.html#01
http://library.northernlight.com/FB20010215600000145.html?cb=0&dx=1006&sc=0#doc

The Tampa Tribune is reprising (?) an article on the Florida JCL's Regional
Classics Forum:
http://www.tampatrib.com/News/MGA4NHJL4JC.html

FOLLOWUPS
Akhenaten:
For the scores of folks who joined me in quizzically pondering the claims
on the Egypt State Information Service page about an Old Kingdom Akhenaten,
here's some better accounts:
http://www.arabia.com/article/0,1690,Life%7C39747,00.html
http://library.northernlight.com/HA20010211430000018.html?cb=0&dx=1006&sc=0#doc

There's also a better account at the 'source':
http://www.uk.sis.gov.eg/online/html3/o150221n.htm

Seahenge II
http://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/0,,74-82092,00.html
http://www.latimes.com/news/science/science/20010215/t000013716.html

Claudius and the 'shrooms
http://dailynews.yahoo.com/h/ap/20010210/us/emperor_poisoned_2.html

Herculaneum papyri:
http://dsc.discovery.com/news/briefs/20010212/scrolls.html

AT ABOUT.COM
Ancient History Guide N.S. Gill's latest is on Hellenistic epigrams:
http://ancienthistory.about.com/library/weekly/aa021301a.htm

Latin Guide Janet Burns has a nice guest feature on Lupercalia:
http://latin.about.com/library/weekly/aa021401a.htm

OBITUARIES

Geoffry Bibby
http://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/0,,60-82827,00.html

Brian Hope-Taylor
http://www.thescotsman.co.uk/text_only.cfm?id=46927

REGULAR FEATURES
CTCWeb's Words of the Week
http://ablemedia.com/ctcweb/myword.html


Radio Finland's Nuntii Latini
http://www.yle.fi/fbc/latini/trans.html


English translation (probably delayed ... hasn't been updated since August):
http://www.cbc4kids.ca/general/whats-new/latin-news/mainlatin.html
l>

EXPLORATOR IS ARCHIVED AT:
http://www.onelist.com/archive/Explorator




 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 529 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Feb 18, 2001 (23:34) * 3 lines 
 
A Scientific American discussion of who where the first Americans is worth looking through. Great links, too.

http://www.sciam.com/2000/0900issue/0900nemecek.html


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 530 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Feb 25, 2001 (15:57) * 282 lines 
 
EXPLORATOR
Watching the Web for News of the Ancient World
Volume 3, Issue 43 -- February 25, 2001

]|[=================================================================]|[

Editor's note: Depending on your mail software, some urls may wrap
(especially those from the Telegraph) which will require you to
rebuild the url at your end; if you get a 'file not found', check to see if
the url wrapped on you. Most urls should be active for at least eight hours
from the time of 'publicatio'.

]|[=================================================================]|[

Aknowledgements: thanks are accruing to Mark Elliot, Judy Underwood, Ruth
McGurk, Bill Phelps, Bill Kennedy and Patrick Rourke (hoping as always that
I haven't left anyone out!).

OLD WORLD NEWS

There is evidence for the claim that the first domesticated animal was the
goat:

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/UK/Science/2001-02/goat190201.shtml
http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2001/02/0220_goat.html

The Egyptian State Information Service has a vague article on the search
for Zarzora:

http://www.uk.sis.gov.eg/online/html3/o240221u.htm

The Detroit News has a preview of the Royal Tombs of Ur exhibit:

http://detnews.com/2001/entertainment/0102/24/e01-191990.htm

The same source reveals the discovery of an Akhenaten-era statue of a
priest and his wife:

http://www.uk.sis.gov.eg/online/html3/o220221b.htm

... and a Mameluke-era water reservoir:

http://www.uk.sis.gov.eg/online/html3/o190221H.htm

In case you missed it, the sun illuminated the image of Ramses II at Abu
Simbel this week:

http://www.uk.sis.gov.eg/online/html3/o220221a.htm
http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2001/02/0221_abusimbel.html

Cairo is coming under fire for bulldozing homes in the Valley of the Kings
(and Queens):

http://www.telegraph.co.uk:80/et?ac=003100565149417&rtmo=kCNL1Zkp&atmo=99999999&pg=/et/01/2/18/wegy18.html

A professional talk is getting some coverage -- it deals with the role
water supply and water management had on the development of early
civilizations:

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2001/02/010221071726.htm


Plenty of coverage of this one: the discovery of a 2nd-3rd century
B.C./B.C.E. Greek (?) shipwreck in the deep water of the Mediterranean is
challenging the theory that ships tended to hug the shore:

http://www.hri.org/news/greek/mpab/2001/01-02-24.mpab.html#01
http://www.nytimes.com/2001/02/23/science/23ap-wreck.html
http://www.msnbc.com/news/534511.asp
http://dsc.discovery.com/news/ap/20010220/wreck.html
http://www.ekathimerini.com/news/content.asp?id=72697

eKathimerini has a brief item on some smuggled items in Cyprus:

http://www.ekathimerini.com/news/content.asp?id=72694

I missed this one last week: Frankfurter Allgemeine has a very nice feature
on the Cleopatra exhibit at the Palazzo Ruspoli:

http://www.faz.com/IN/INtemplates/eFAZ/docmain.asp?rub=%7BB1311FD3-FBFB-11D2-B228-00105A9CAF88%7D&doc=%7BCB6E1057-FFBE-11D4-A3B3-009027BA22E4%7D

... and I might as well toss in this one from the same source on an
Egyptian exhibition in Hanover (original date Jan. 30):

http://www.faz.com/IN/INtemplates/eFAZ/docmain.asp?rub=%7BB1311FD3-FBFB-11D2-B228-00105A9CAF88%7D&doc=%7B2893B856-F584-11D4-A3B3-009027BA22E4%7D

USAToday has a touristy piece on Carthage:

http://www.usatoday.com/life/travel/leisure/2001/2001-02-22-carthage.htm

Also plenty of coverage of this one: analysis of bones have revealed that
Rome had to deal with quite a malaria problem:

http://www.nytimes.com/2001/02/20/science/20ROME.html
http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/sci/tech/newsid_1180000/1180469.stm
http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2001/02/0221_malariarome.html
http://www.guardian.co.uk/Archive/Article/0,4273,4139301,00.html

The Warrington Guardian has an item on the discovery of a Roman site in the
area:

http://www.thisischeshire.co.uk/cheshire/warrington/news/WARR_NEWS1.html

The Telegraph reports on the return of a Roman statue of Diana:

http://www.telegraph.co.uk:80/et?ac=000140326706927&rtmo=weAsftKb&atmo=HHHHHHHL&pg=/et/01/2/24/wscul24.html

There's also a big debate going on in Rome over suggestions that the Via
dei Fori Imperiali should be moved:

http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/world/europe/newsid_1186000/1186394.stm

The Independent reports on excavations of one of the Vikings' earliest
settlements:

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/UK/Science/2001-02/viking220201.shtml
http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2001/02/0222_viking.html


Recent excavations have demonstrated that the Great Wall of China is
considerably longer than previously thought:

http://www.nytimes.com/2001/02/23/science/23ap-archaeo.html
http://www.msnbc.com/news/534506.asp
http://dsc.discovery.com/news/ap/20010220/wall.html
http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/world/asia-pacific/newsid_1184000/1184306.stm

The Telegraph has a piece on the archaeological evidence for dissection of
humans:

http://www.telegraph.co.uk:80/et?ac=003100565149417&rtmo=kCNL1Zkp&atmo=99999999&pg=/et/01/2/18/nbod18.html

USNews has an interesting article on some new evidence for early
Christianity in ancient China:

http://www.usnews.com/usnews/issue/010305/china.htm

Xinhua's weekly newsbriefs on discoveries in China (via Northern Light):

http://library.northernlight.com/FA20010219400000014.html?cb=0&dx=1006&sc=0#doc
http://library.northernlight.com/FA20010219400000022.html?cb=0&dx=1006&sc=0#doc

NEW WORLD NEWS

The BBC has a piece on the looting of Mayan sites:

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2001/02/010221071726.htm

The Salt Lake Tribune has an interesting piece on how pioneer overlander
types tended to their bodily functions en route:

http://www.sltrib.com/02252001/utah/74614.htm

The Chicago Tribune has a useful piece on endangered sites around the world:

http://chicagotribune.com/article/0,1051,SAV-0102180082,00.html

The Albuquerque Journal has an item on the Anasazi:

http://www.abqjournal.com/scitech/254830scitech02-18-01.htm

ON THE NEWSSTANDS

Egypt Revealed has a new online feature on crime and punishment in ancient
Egypt:

http://www.egyptrevealed.com/022301-crimeandpunishment.htm

Biblical Archaeology Review has new online content on controversy around
the Qumran cemetery, excavating the tribe of Reuben, Dead Sea Scrolls
copyright issues, Helios in synagogue mosaics, and other items:

http://www.bib-arch.org/bar2.html

Speaking of newsstands, does anyone know what's happened to Discovering
Archaeology?

ON THE WEB

The Bible and Interpretation site has some items of interest, including an
article by Finkelstein and Silberman (of The Bible Unearthed fame), a piece
on Translating Exodus, and info on the Tel Hisban expedition:

http://www.bibleinterp.com/

CLASSICIST'S CORNER

One I missed: the Cinci Enquirer has a piece on Kathryn Gutzwiller's work
on Greek epigrams:

http://enquirer.com/editions/2001/02/15/loc_new_light_shed_on.html

Sicilian environmentalists vs the mafia in re Lake Pergusa:

http://www.npr.org/ramfiles/atc/20010220.atc.14.rmm

Athens News has a nice feature on "the queen only Homer understood":

http://athensnews.dolnet.gr/athweb/nathens.print_unique?e=C&f=12883&m=A10&aa=1&eidos=S

The Chicago Tribune has a piece on the Vatican's intention to make Isidore
the patron saint of the Internet:

http://chicagotribune.com/news/opinion/perspective/article/0,2669,SAV-0102180305,FF.html

The Trib also has a feature on a Roman re-enactment groups visit to a local
school:

http://chicagotribune.com/news/metro/mchenry/article/0,2669,SAV-0102230391,FF.html

FOLLOWUPS

Olympic rowing site row:

http://library.northernlight.com/EC20010222520000035.html?cb=0&dx=1006&sc=0#doc
http://athensnews.dolnet.gr/athweb/nathens.print_unique?e=C&f=12885&m=A03&aa=1&eidos=S
http://athensnews.dolnet.gr/athweb/nathens.print_unique?e=C&f=12883&m=A03&aa=1&eidos=S
http://www.ekathimerini.com/news/content.asp?id=72179

Tombs in Peru:

http://www.telegraph.co.uk:80/et?ac=003100565149417&rtmo=Qwx0LeaR&atmo=99999999&pg=/et/01/2/17/wperu17.html

AT ABOUT.COM

N.S. Gill's latest is a review of Christopher Faraone's *Greek Love Magic*:

http://ancienthistory.about.com/library/weekly/aa022001a.htm

Kris Hirst's latest is on the growing gap between the public and
archaeological types (and other cultural resource personnel):

http://archaeology.about.com/library/weekly/aa021901a.htm


Janet Burns' latest is on second declension feminine nouns:

http://latin.about.com/library/weekly/aa021801a.htm

REGULAR FEATURES

CTCWeb's Words of the Week
http://ablemedia.com/ctcweb/myword.html


Radio Finland's Nuntii Latini
http://www.yle.fi/fbc/latini/trans.html


English translation (probably delayed ... hasn't been updated since August):
http://www.cbc4kids.ca/general/whats-new/latin-news/mainlatin.html
l>

EXPLORATOR IS ARCHIVED AT:
http://www.onelist.com/archive/Explorator


]|[================================================================]|[
EXPLORATOR is a weekly newsletter representing the fruits of the labours of
'media research division' of The Atrium. Various on-line news and magazine
sources are scoured on a daily basis for news of the ancient world (broadly
construed: practically anything relating to archaeology or history prior
to about 1700 or so is fair game) and when a sufficient number of urls are
gathered (usually a minimum of three stories), they are delivered to your
mailbox free of charge! Those articles that don't expire, plus
supplementary links eventually find a home at:

The Media Archive (just going up):

http://atrium-media.com/mediaarchive.html

]|[================================================================]|[

Explorator is Copyright (c) 2001 David Meadows; Feel free to
distribute these listings via email to your pals, students, teachers,
etc., but please include this copyright notice. These listings are not to
be posted to a website; instead, please provide a link to either
Commentarium or Rostra (or both)! You can subscribe to or unsubscribe from
this list by going to the following web page:
http://www.yahoogroups.com/subscribe.cgi/Explorator



 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 531 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Feb 27, 2001 (12:45) * 16 lines 
 
***Taliban May Destroy Buddha Statues ***

KABUL, Afghanistan (AP) -- The ruling Taliban are endangering
Afghanistan's history by ordering the destruction of all statues in the country,
including two towering 5th century images of Buddha, opponents said
Tuesday.
``It is a great loss, a tragedy for the Afghan people and for the
world,'' said Angelo Gabriele de Ceglie, Italy's ambassador to Pakistan and
a representative of the Society for the Preservation of Afghan Culture
and Heritage. He made the comments in Kabul, Afghanistan's capital.
Afghanistan's supreme leader, Mullah Mohammed Omar, on Monday ordered
the destruction of all statues, including the two giant ancient Buddhas,
saying they were offensive to Islam.
``Because God is one God and these statues are there to be worshipped,
and that is wrong, they should be destroyed so that they are not
worshipped now or in the future,'' Omar said in his edict.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 532 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Tue, Feb 27, 2001 (12:50) * 1 lines 
 
Hi, Just looking in - posted in Travel and cultures. Keep up the good work


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 533 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Mar  1, 2001 (21:53) * 67 lines 
 
let me know which photos to post!!!!!!

Thursday March 1 9:37 AM ET
Afghans Smash Ancient Statues, Defy World Appeals

ISLAMABAD (Reuters) - The radical Taliban movement began smashing
all statues from Afghanistan's rich cultural past Thursday, turning its back on
urgent international appeals to save the ancient artifacts.
In Kabul, Mullah Qudratullah Jamal, the ruling Taliban's information and
culture minister, said centers where the campaign had been unleashed
included Bamiyan Province -- site of two soaring statues of the Buddha
hewn from a solid cliff that are the most famous relics of Afghanistan's
history.
``All statues will be destroyed,'' he told reporters. ''Whatever means of
destruction are needed to demolish the statues will be used.''
``The work began early during the day. All of the statues are to be
smashed. This also covers the idols in Bamiyan,'' he said.
Russia, Germany, India and Pakistan condemned the destruction and
appealed to the Taliban to reconsider.
International alarm was first sparked Monday, when Taliban leader Mullah
Mohammad Omar ordered the smashing of all statues, including the two
famous Buddhas that soar 125 feet and 174 feet above Bamiyan.
The United Nations cultural agency UNESCO Wednesday appealed
directly to the Taliban -- a fundamentalist movement that regards all human
likenesses of divinity to be un-Islamic -- to reverse its decision.
``UNESCO considers this to be a crisis,'' Christian Manhart, head of
UNESCO's Asian division in the cultural heritage department, told Reuters.
Muslim Pakistan, one of Taliban's very few foreign supporters, joined the
international chorus Thursday.
``Pakistan attaches great importance to and supports the preservation of
the world's historical, cultural and religious heritage,'' the foreign ministry
said.
``We appeal to the Afghan government to take measures to fully protect
Afghanistan's rich historical monuments, sites and artifacts which are part of
the world's cultural heritage.''
India Vows Action
India said it would try to stop the destruction.
``The government of India will raise this issue at every international forum
including the United Nations. We will make all attempts to stop the
demolition of Lord Buddha's statue,'' parliamentary affairs minister Pramod
Mahajan told parliament.
``This is not only a statue, but a legacy of humanity. Nobody should
demolish it,'' he said.
Thailand and Sri Lanka -- both largely Buddhist nations -- have made
similar appeals.
Earlier this week, U.N. Secretary-General Kofi Annan urged the Taliban
``to do all in their power to preserve the unique and irreplaceable relics of
Afghanistan's rich heritage, both Islamic and pre-Islamic,'' a spokesman
said.
Russia denounced the Taliban step as vandalism.
``This intention (to destroy the statues) can only be classed as an assault on
cultural and historical treasures, not only of the Afghan people but of world
civilization,'' the Russian foreign ministry said in a statement Thursday.
``The Taliban's vandalism against material objects of the rich spiritual
heritage of the ancient Afghan world shows their clear enmity to common
human values,'' it added.
Germany condemned the Taliban action.
``Germany is appalled by the willful destruction of cultural artifacts in
Afghanistan. The damage to culturally unique Buddha statues by the Taliban
cannot be justified,'' the foreign ministry said in a statement issued in Berlin.
Taliban officials insist there will no reversal.
Statues Declared Un-Islamic
The Taliban has steadily conquered most of Afghanistan in recent years,
and now controls its cities and highways.
The destruction of artifacts -- also under way in the national museum in
Kabul, which housed a prized collection of early Buddhist statues -- has
inflicted new damage to the Taliban's already poor ties with most countries.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 534 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Mar  4, 2001 (13:39) * 136 lines 
 
EXPLORATOR
Watching the Web for News of the Ancient World
Volume 3, Issue 44 -- March 4, 2001

]|[=================================================================]|[
Editor's note: Depending on your mail software, some urls may wrap
(especially those from the Telegraph) which will require you to
rebuild the url at your end; if you get a 'file not found', check to see if
the url wrapped on you. Most urls should be active for at least eight hours
from the time of 'publication'.

]|[=================================================================]|[
Happy Zoroastrian New Year everyone:
http://www0.mercurycenter.com/premium/local/docs/onpen02.htm

OLD WORLD NEWS
Egypt Online has a brief feature on the Sun Boats of Cheops:
http://www.uk.sis.gov.eg/calendar/html/cl030398.htm#2

The Lebanon Daily Star has a piece on the origins of the Arabic language:
http://www.dailystar.com.lb/features/02_03_01_b.htm

The Times has a touristy piece on various ancient sites in Libya:
http://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/0,,71-92671,00.html
http://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/0,,71-92682,00.html

The latest entry in the our-ancestors-were-cannibals sweepstakes is the
Britons (no doubt soon to be the subject of an installment of Eat the
Ancestors ... sorry ... couldn't resist):
http://www.independent.co.uk/news/UK/Science/2001-02/cannibal260201.shtml
http://www.thescotsman.co.uk/uk.cfm?id=50706&keyword=the
http://www.telegraph.co.uk:80/et?ac=003100565149417&rtmo=Vkk5VlZx&atmo=99999999&pg=/et/01/2/28/nbone28.html
http://abcnews.go.com/sections/scitech/DailyNews/cannibals_uk010227.html

As you've no doubt seen on countless news reports, the Taliban in
Afghanistan is deliberately damaging several ancient Buddhist monuments:
http://www.archaeology.org/online/news/afghanistan/index.html
http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/world/south_asia/newsid_1197000/1197900.stm
http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/world/south_asia/newsid_1196000/1196363.stm
http://www.msnbc.com/news/536573.asp
http://www.independent.co.uk/news/World/Asia_China/2001-03/tal030301.shtml
http://www.nytimes.com/aponline/world/AP-Afghanistan-Buddha.html
http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A10297-2001Mar1.html
http://www.ekathimerini.com/news/content.asp?id=73512

If you'd like some background on the Bamiyan site:
http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/world/south_asia/newsid_1198000/1198379.stm

A brief item in various sources suggests rail construction of links to the
Channel Tunnel are turning up plenty o sites:
http://www.ananova.com/news/story/sm_219476.html?menu=
http://www.nceplus.co.uk/news/news_article/?pid=1&aid=12417&sid=60&channelID=4

Tests on some pipes (the smoking kind) suggest Bill Shakespeare might have
had access to drugs:
http://abcnews.go.com/wire/World/reuters20010301_780.html
http://www.msnbc.com/news/538051.asp

ITAR-TASS via Northern Light has an item on the discovery of a coin of the
Bosporan Kingdom:
http://library.northernlight.com/FB20010223630000149.html?cb=0&dx=1006&sc=0#doc

Xinhua via Northern Light reports on the discovery of a number of tombs:
http://library.northernlight.com/FD20010302440000065.html?cb=0&dx=1006&sc=0#doc

... and well preserved mummies in Lop Nur:
http://library.northernlight.com/FA20010226460000045.html?cb=0&dx=1006&sc=0#doc

... along with the usual weekly news briefs:
http://library.northernlight.com/FA20010227100000025.html?cb=0&dx=1006&sc=0#doc
http://library.northernlight.com/FA20010226690000104.html?cb=0&dx=1006&sc=0#doc

NEW WORLD NEWS
Another week when I couldn't find anything!!!!

ON THE NEWSSTANDS
There's a new online issue of Archaeology out, with online features on
Timbuktu, the deepwater Greek shipwreck mentioned last week, an interview
with Rosalie David, among other things:
http://www.archaeology.org/main.html

Mercator's World has some new stuff online, including a feature on how to
identify fake maps and one on Willem Blaeu:
http://www.mercatormag.com/

CLASSICIST'S CORNER
A review of a production of Prometheus in Athens:
http://www.independent.co.uk/enjoyment/Theatre/Theatre/Reviews/2001-02/prometheus230201.shtml

... and of Mister Hercules:
http://www.independent.co.uk/enjoyment/Theatre/Theatre/Reviews/2001-02/slaughter280201.shtml

Athens News has a touristy piece on Rome and the "Coliseum":
http://athensnews.dolnet.gr/athweb/nathens.print_unique?e=C&f=12890&m=A20&aa=1&eidos=S

Portland Press has an item on homeschooling Latin:
http://www.portland.com/news/state/010304homeschool.shtml

A pile of classicists have weighed in on the Marathon rowing venue thing:
http://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/0,,59-93391,00.html

EXHIBITIONS
The Toledo Museum of Art is hosting "Eternal Egypt: Masterworks of Ancient
Art from the British Museum":
http://www.toledomuseum.org/exhibitions.html
http://www.absolutearts.com/artsnews/2001/03/01/28162.html

Rain of the Moon: Silver in Ancient Peru is on at the Met:
http://www.metmuseum.org/special/se_event.asp?OccurrenceId=%7B30C85F8F-D237-11D3-936E-00902786BF44%7D
http://www.iht.com/articles/12305.html

ERRATA
In the last issue I was not so diligent in my cutting and pasting and so
many of you wrote to tell me (thanks!) the BBC story on the looting of
various Mayan sites is at (would you believe I almost miscut and mispasted
again!):
http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/world/americas/newsid_1184000/1184233.stm

FOLLOWUPS
Viking Village:
http://www.independent.co.uk/news/UK/Science/2001-02/viking220201.shtml

Herculaneum library:
http://www.independent.co.uk/news/UK/Science/2001-02/latin110201.shtml

Malaria and Rome:
http://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/0,,74-90312,00.html

Peruvian tombs:
... at least some of the links at the Discovering Archaeology site have
started to work:
http://www.discoveringarchaeology.com/articles/030101-moche.shtml

http://www.telegraph.co.uk:80/et?ac=003100565149417&rtmo=Vkk55Plx&atmo=99999999&pg=/et/01/2/17/wperu17.html
http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/2001/02/15/MN193959.DTL



 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 535 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Mar 18, 2001 (19:04) * 331 lines 
 
]|[=================================================================]|[

EXPLORATOR
Watching the Web for News of the Ancient World
Volume 3, Issue 46 -- March 18, 2001

]|[=================================================================]|[

Editor's note: Depending on your mail software, some urls may wrap
(especially those from the Telegraph) which will require you to
rebuild the url at your end; if you get a 'file not found', check to see if
the url wrapped on you. Most urls should be active for at least eight hours
from the time of 'publicatio'.

]|[=================================================================]|[

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS: Thanks to Sally Winchester, Eric Cline, Hillary Cool,
and Mark Elliott for the headseseses up this week (hoping once again that
I haven't left anyone out but I've got a nagging feeling that I have!)

Thanks to all who signed the UNESCO petition last week! Alas, it was in
vain (see the followups section), apparently, as many folks suspected it
would be ...

OLD WORLD NEWS

Last week it was Macchu Picchu; this week it's the colossi of Memnon which
are in danger of collapse:

http://www.ahram.org.eg/weekly/2001/525/tr2.htm

The Telegraph has a very nice feature on the importance of discoveries in
the "Canyon of the Boats":

http://www.telegraph.co.uk:80/et?ac=000579381554028&rtmo=0xKs2Kiq&atmo=99999999&pg=/et/01/3/17/tlcivil17.html

The Egyptian State Information Service has a brief item on upcoming
archaeological projects:

http://www.uk.sis.gov.eg/online/html3/o170321m.htm

There are a couple of reports on what mummy portraits tell about the
health of the folks they were put on:

http://www.uk.sis.gov.eg/online/html3/o170321a.htm
http://www.uk.sis.gov.eg/online/html3/o150321.htm
http://www.iol.co.za/html/frame_news.php?click_id=117&art_id=qw984654782186B252

This probably should be a followup, but since it was first mentioned here
so long ago, it's probably news to many of our new subscribers ... the
archaeologists working on the 'Queen of Sheba's Temple' are suggesting that
it might be much larger than previously expected:

http://www.canoe.ca/CNEWSScience0103/16_sheba-sun.html
http://www.calgaryherald.com/news/stories/010316/5015177.html

An errant tourist has apparently returned a chunk of something he purloined
from the Acropolis:

http://www.hri.org/news/greek/mpa/2001/01-03-13.mpa.html#12

The LA Times has a touristy piece on a mosaic in the National Museum of Naples:

http://www.latimes.com/travel/stories/20010311/t000021342.html

InScight has an item on the genetic legacy of the Vikings:

http://www.academicpress.com/inscight/03162001/graphb.htm

IndiaExpress reports on the discovery of a "well planned" copper age city:

http://www.indiaexpress.com/news/regional/rajasthan/20010313-0.html

The BBC and People's Daily are reporting the discovery of what is believed
to be a piece of the Buddha's hair:

http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/world/asia-pacific/newsid_1224000/1224892.stm
http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/200103/15/eng20010315_65142.html

The Times has a piece on the medieval remains found in the Bullring
district of Birmingham:

http://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/0,,2-99984,00.html

The Telegraph has an interesting piece on the "hidden costs" of finding
archaeological remains (from a homeowner's/developer's p.o.v.):

http://www.telegraph.co.uk:80/et?ac=000579381554028&rtmo=gjGblZYu&atmo=99999999&pg=/et/01/3/17/tparch17.html

The illicit antiquities trade seems much in the news this week; an article
in the Art Newspaper, e.g., deals with "my life as a tombarolo" (this might
be an older article):

http://www.theartnewspaper.com/news/article.asp?idart=4890

Considering what's going on in Afghanistan, the fact that ancient art from
there is being smuggled out and sold to collectors might not be a bad thing:

http://www.guardian.co.uk/Archive/Article/0,4273,4150072,00.html

... but an article on smuggling of artifacts from Mali reminds us of the
'bad side':

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/World/Africa/2001-03/mali170301.shtml

Also apropos is mention that Britain has signed an agreement aimed at
dealing with the illicit antiquities trade:

http://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/0,,2-99226,00.html

On an entirely different note, the great cities of the past are being held
up as ominous warnings of what might happen to the megacities of today:

http://www.freep.com/news/nw/city15_20010315.htm

NEW WORLD NEWS

Macleans magazine has a nice feature on the 'who got here first'
discussion, written from a Canadian perspective:

http://www.macleans.ca/xta-asp/storyview.asp?viewtype=browse&vpath=/2001/03/19/Cover/47976.shtml

... with a largeish sidebar on the 'treating remains with respect' issue:

http://www.macleans.ca/xta-asp/storyview.asp?viewtype=browse&vpath=/2001/03/19/Cover/47825.shtml

Folks working on the Hunley are apparently going to attempt to recreate the
faces of the crew:

http://www.charlotte.com/observer/local/pub/hunley0315.htm

REVIEWS

One I missed: another review of the Barrington Atlas:

http://www.latimes.com/travel/stories/20010311/t000021342.html

The Cinci Enquirer has a review of E. Cline, *The Battles of Armageddon:
Megiddo and the Jezreel Valley from the Bronze Age to the Nuclear Age:

http://enquirer.com/editions/2001/02/27/tem_israel_war_history.html

... you can also listen to an interview with the author about the book at:

http://www.wamu.org/ram/2001/p2010315.ram

ON THE NEWSSTANDS

I don't know how to classify this one, so I'll put it here: the American
Journal of Archaeology is apparently going to be available (for a price, of
course) on line with a new document delivery model:

http://library.northernlight.com/FB20010314240000182.html?cb=0&dx=1006&sc=0#doc

CLASSICIST'S CORNER

In case you missed it, Loyola University in Chicago is preparing to dump
its classical studies program:

http://www.suntimes.com/output/news/loy15.html

eKathimerini reports that Cyprus is supposedly planning to erect a statue
of Aphrodite which will rival the Eiffel Tower(!):

http://www.ekathimerini.com/news/content.asp?id=75128

Gladiator is, of course, mentioned in a nice piece in the Independent which
focuses on the fallout from the recent spate of Hollywood historical
(hysterical?) epics:

http://www.independent.co.uk/argument/Commentators/2001-03/evans120301.shtml

A restaurant in London is supposedly offering authentic ancient Greek fare:

http://www.guardian.co.uk/Archive/Article/0,4273,3837311,00.html

There's a nice piece in the New Republic on marginalia (honest!):

http://www.thenewrepublic.com/032601/kermode032601.html

A review of a performance of the Agamemnon in San Francisco:

http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/2001/03/15/DD221460.DTL

Northern Light has a piece from the WSJ which deals with the Latin version
the 'The Grinch', but I couldn't get it to connect this a.m.; maybe it will
work for others:

http://library.northernlight.com/UU20010316090000027.html?cb=0&dx=1006&sc=0#doc

The Kentucky Post has a guest column which defends the humanities:

http://www.kypost.com/2001/mar/15/kguest031501.html

WEBSITES

The Bible and Interpretation site has posted the field report of the 2000
excavations at Sepphoris by the Institute of Archaeology of Hebrew University:

http://www.hum.huji.ac.il/archaeology/zippori/2000/zippori-2000-reoprt.html

The same site also had a link I followed to Brown University's website on
the excavations at Petra ... both are nice sites worth a look:

http://www.brown.edu/Departments/Anthropology/Petra/


EXHIBITS

The National Gallery of Victoria (Australia) is hosting an exhibition
devoted to the Dead Sea Scrolls:

http://www.ngv.vic.gov.au/deadseascrolls/

AT ABOUT.COM:

Ancient History Guide N.S. Gill's latest is a review of Steven Saylor's
*Venus Throw*:

http://ancienthistory.about.com/homework/ancienthistory/library/weekly/aa031301a.htm

Latin Guide Janet Burns has a feature on augury in ancient Rome:

http://latin.about.com/library/weekly/aa031501a.htm

Archaeology Guide Kris Hirst has a feature on Leicester University's
distance learning Ph.D. program in archaeology:

http://archaeology.about.com/science/archaeology/library/weekly/aa031401a.htm

... last week's chat was with Anita Cohen-Williams; the transcript is
available at:

http://archaeology.about.com/science/archaeology/library/chat/n_cohenwilliams.htm

... tonight's chat is with Barto Arnold of the INA (you can now ask a
question even if you can't make the 9-11 EST time slot):

http://archaeology.about.com/science/archaeology/library/chat/blchatarnold.htm

... next week: Judy Bense from the University of Western Florida will chat
about public participation in archaeology




FOLLOWUPS

Despite the protests, the Bamiyan Buddhas were destroyed (the Times of
India page has a pile of links to stories with various viewpoints from
around the region; the page from Archaeology Magazine is also rather in depth):

http://www.timesofindia.com/today/pagetali.htm
http://www.archaeology.org/online/news/afghanistan/index.html
http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/world/south_asia/newsid_1216000/1216110.stm
http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/world/south_asia/newsid_1218000/1218577.stm
http://www.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/getarticle.pl5?eo20010317a3.htm
http://www.independent.co.uk/news/World/Asia_China/2001-03/taliban130301.shtml
http://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/0,,3-100189,00.html
http://dailynews.yahoo.com/h/ap/20010317/wl/afghanistan_buddhas_9.html

Temple Mount:

http://www.jpost.com/Editions/2001/03/15/News/News.22997.html
http://www.jpost.com/Editions/2001/03/15/Columns/Columns.23012.html

Pyramid inspiration:

http://www.archaeology.org/0103/abstracts/desert.html
http://www.ananova.com/news/story/sm_241040.html?menu=

Marathon rowing site:

http://sports.yahoo.com/oly/news/ap/20010314/ap-athens2004.html

Hand taken from frieze in BM:

http://www.eKathimerini.com/news/content.asp?id=74528
http://www.telegraph.co.uk:80/et?ac=000579381554028&rtmo=VDDDk8fK&atmo=99999999&pg=/et/01/3/11/nmus11.html

Iron Age Chariot (Scotland):

http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/uk/scotland/newsid_1215000/1215962.stm
http://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/0,,2-98036,00.html

Coin hoards from Britain:

http://www.theartnewspaper.com/archaeology/archeology.asp

OBITUARY

Hubert Savoury (scroll down quite a bit):

http://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/0,,60-97631,00.html

REGULAR FEATURES

CTCWeb's Words of the Week
http://ablemedia.com/ctcweb/myword.html

Radio Finland's Nuntii Latini
http://www.yle.fi/fbc/latini/trans.html

English translation (probably delayed ... hasn't been updated since August):
http://www.cbc4kids.ca/general/whats-new/latin-news/mainlatin.html

EXPLORATOR IS ARCHIVED AT:
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Explorator/messages

]|[================================================================]|[
EXPLORATOR is a weekly newsletter representing the fruits of the labours of
'media research division' of The Atrium. Various on-line news and magazine
sources are scoured on a daily basis for news of the ancient world (broadly
construed: practically anything relating to archaeology or history prior
to about 1700 or so is fair game) and when a sufficient number of urls are
gathered (usually a minimum of three stories), they are delivered to your
mailbox free of charge! Those articles that don't expire, plus
supplementary links eventually find a home at:

The Media Archive (just going up):

http://atrium-media.com/mediaarchive.html

]|[================================================================]|[

Explorator is Copyright (c) 2001 David Meadows; Feel free to
distribute these listings via email to your pals, students, teachers,
etc., but please include this copyright notice.

]|[=================================================================]|[



 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 536 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Mar 25, 2001 (15:11) * 282 lines 
 
]|[=================================================================]|[

EXPLORATOR
Watching the Web for News of the Ancient World
Volume 3, Issue 47 -- March 25, 2001

]|[=================================================================]|[

Editor's note: Depending on your mail software, some urls may wrap
(especially those from the Telegraph) which will require you to
rebuild the url at your end; if you get a 'file not found', check to see if
the url wrapped on you. Most urls should be active for at least eight hours
from the time of 'publicatio'.

]|[=================================================================]|[

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS: Thanks for the heads up to Sally Winchester and Bill Kennedy!

Lotsa stuff today ... a pile of followups too!

OLD WORLD NEWS

A boat discovered some forty years ago near Hull now lays claim to being
Europe's oldest boat:

http://www.guardian.co.uk/Archive/Article/0,4273,4156753,00.html
http://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/0,,2-102840,00.html
http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/uk/newsid_1234000/1234529.stm

The Sphinx is (once again, it seems) in danger of falling apart:

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/World/Africa/2001-03/sphinx180301.shtml
http://www.uk.sis.gov.eg/online/html3/o210321k.htm

This is sort of a followup: more mummies have been discovered at the
Barhariya Oasis site:

http://www.theage.com.au/breaking/0103/22/A31127-2001Mar22.shtml
http://www.uk.sis.gov.eg/online/html3/o220321h.htm
http://www.oweb.com/newslink/international/EgyptArchaeologyP0617.html

Greek police have recovered a bunch of smuggled Minoan artifacts:

http://stacks.msnbc.com/news/547808.asp

A trio of Greek shepherds have found bits and pieces of eight or so Greek
statues:

http://www.guardianunlimited.co.uk/breakingnews/International/0,3561,800431,00.html
http://athensnews.dolnet.gr/athweb/nathens.print_unique?e=C&f=12902&m=A35&aa=6&eidos=S
http://www.iol.co.za/html/frame_news.php?click_id=588&art_id=qw985010101340B262

Greek archaeologists have been busy excavating the palace of Alexander the
Great:

http://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/0,,3-101058,00.html

... and the Times has a little article on the cultural context of Al:

http://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/0,,649-102173,00.html

... and a piece on how the Macedonians weren't really barbaroi:

http://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/0,,3-101056,00.html

New Scientist reports on evidence that the Vikings who came to Scotland in
the ninth century planned on staying:

http://www.newscientist.com/dailynews/news.jsp?id=ns9999541

Some guy with a metal detector has found an Iron Age horde in Britain:

http://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/0,,2-102839,00.html

... and as long as we're on the subject, the Guardian has a report on what
metal detectors have been turning up:

http://www.guardian.co.uk/Archive/Article/0,4273,4158370,00.html

The Boston Globe has a nice report on some puzzling bronzes from China's
Sichuan province:

http://www.boston.com/dailyglobe2/079/science/In_China_strange_bronze_heads_rewrite_history+.shtml

An eighth-century nativity scene from China has got the media just a-buzzing:

http://www.freep.com/news/nw/china19_20010319.htm

The Daily Yomiuri reveals the discovery of a pile of Buddhas in Angkor:

http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/newse/20010325wo61.htm

Iraq is celebrating the 5000th anniversary of the development of writing:

http://www.telegraph.co.uk:80/et?ac=003100565149417&rtmo=aC5JdBKJ&atmo=99999999&pg=/et/01/3/21/wirq21.html
http://abcnews.go.com/sections/world/DailyNews/iraq010320_writing.html
http://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/0,,56-102938,00.html

Discovering Archaeology has finally put up some different content,
including a feature on Ignatius Donnelly, who pretty much created the
Atlantis story as we usually see it:

http://www.discoveringarchaeology.com/articles/011701-atlantis.shtml

Fans of Time Team (I wish they'd show it across the pond here), will be
dismayed to learn that the hoof-and-mouth breakout has pretty much nixed
excavation of most of the sites they'd planned on:

http://www.guardian.co.uk/Archive/Article/0,4273,4150290,00.html

Folks thinking of a career in archaeology/museology etc. might be
interested in some pieces in the Guardian this week:

http://www.guardian.co.uk/Archive/Article/0,4273,4155535,00.html
http://www.guardian.co.uk/Archive/Article/0,4273,4155116,00.html

NEW WORLD NEWS

The New York Times has a nice feature on Maya sweathouses:

http://www.nytimes.com/2001/03/20/science/20SWEA.html

The Washington Post has a nice feature on Donald Shomette's work in Maryland:

http://washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/metro/md/A20596-2001Mar17.html

There seems to be quite a bit of coverage of the human remains being found
in the Hunley:

http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2001/03/0321_hunleyfind.html
http://www.msnbc.com/news/545501.asp

CNN has a mostly-video report on the search for pre-Clovis sites in Texas:

http://www.cnn.com/2001/TECH/science/03/22/texas.dig.t_t/index.html

REVIEWS

The Times has a double review of N. Reeves, *Akhenaten: Egypt's False
Prophet* and J.H. Taylor, *Death and the Afterlife in Ancient Egypt*:

http://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/0,,217-102151,00.html

ON THE NEWSSTANDS

There's a new online issue of Bible Review out, with features on the
authorship of the Gospel of Luke and the evidence for the historical King Saul:

http://www.bib-arch.org/br2.html

There's also a new issue of British Archaeology, with features on Traprain
Law, power drinking in Iron Age Europe (honest!), and Claudius' harbour:

http://www.britarch.ac.uk/ba/ba57/index.html

CLASSICIST'S CORNER

More on Loyola:

http://www.npr.org/ramfiles/atc/20010323.atc.04.rmm
http://www.suntimes.com/output/news/class19.html
http://www.deseretnews.com/dn/view/0,1249,270007420,00.html

EXHIBITIONS

Antioch: The Lost Ancient City:

http://www.absolutearts.com/artsnews/2001/03/25/28294.html
http://www.clevelandart.org/AntiochExhib/html/index.html

AT ABOUT.COM:

Ancient History Guide N.S. Gill's latest is on the Jewish calendar:

http://ancienthistory.about.com/library/weekly/aa032001a.htm

Latin Guide Janet Burns has a feature on Roman names:

http://latin.about.com/library/blnames.htm

Archaeology Guide Kris Hirst has a feature on the repercussions of foot and
mouth disease:

http://latin.about.com/library/blnames.htm

... last week's chat was with J. Barto Arnold; the transcript is
available at:

http://archaeology.about.com/science/archaeology/library/chat/n_arnold.htm

... tonight's chat is with Judy Bense (UWestFla) on public participation in
archaeology (you can ask a
question even if you can't make the 9-11 EST time slot):

http://archaeology.about.com/science/archaeology/library/chat/blchatarnold.htm

... next week, Bill Kelso will be talking about Jamestown.

FOLLOWUPS

Taliban activities and results:

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/World/Asia_China/2001-03/statues220301.shtml
http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2001/03/0323_statuefree.html
http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2001/03/0320_smuggled.html
http://www.discoveringarchaeology.com/articles/032101-terrorism.htm

Marathon rowing site:

http://stacks.msnbc.com/news/546223.asp
http://athensnews.dolnet.gr/athweb/nathens.print_unique?e=C&f=12901&m=A35&aa=1&eidos=S
http://athensnews.dolnet.gr/athweb/nathens.print_unique?e=C&f=12902&m=A06&aa=1&eidos=S
http://dailynews.yahoo.com/h/ap/20010320/sp/oly_athens_2004_3.html
http://www.eKathimerini.com/news/content.asp?id=76140

Mummy portraits:

http://www.iol.co.za/html/frame_news.php?click_id=117&art_id=qw984654782186B252

Lady X reconstruction:

http://www.uk.sis.gov.eg/online/html3/o180321m.htm


Seahenge:

http://www.telegraph.co.uk:80/et?ac=003100565149417&rtmo=aC5JdBKJ&atmo=99999999&pg=/et/01/3/23/nheng23.html

Cleopatra's signature:

http://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/0,,3-102814,00.html

Elgin Marbles:

http://www.abcnews.go.com/wire/World/ap20010324_492.html

OBITUARY

William Reed:

http://www.star-telegram.com/news/doc/1047/1:METRO38/1:METRO380320101.html

REGULAR FEATURES

CTCWeb's Words of the Week
http://ablemedia.com/ctcweb/myword.html

Radio Finland's Nuntii Latini
http://www.yle.fi/fbc/latini/trans.html

English translation (probably delayed ... hasn't been updated since August):
http://www.cbc4kids.ca/general/whats-new/latin-news/mainlatin.html

EXPLORATOR IS ARCHIVED AT:
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Explorator/messages

]|[================================================================]|[

EXPLORATOR is a weekly newsletter representing the fruits of the labours of
'media research division' of The Atrium. Various on-line news and magazine
sources are scoured on a daily basis for news of the ancient world (broadly
construed: practically anything relating to archaeology or history prior
to about 1700 or so is fair game) and when a sufficient number of urls are
gathered (usually a minimum of three stories), they are delivered to your
mailbox free of charge! Those articles that don't expire, plus
supplementary links eventually find a home at:

The Media Archive (just going up):

http://atrium-media.com/mediaarchive.html

]|[================================================================]|[

Explorator is Copyright (c) 2001 David Meadows; Feel free to
distribute these listings via email to your pals, students, teachers,
etc., but please include this copyright notice.

]|[=================================================================]|[






 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 537 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Apr  2, 2001 (15:18) * 301 lines 
 
]|[=================================================================]|[

EXPLORATOR
Watching the Web for News of the Ancient World
Volume 3, Issue 48 (!) -- April 1, 2000

]|[=================================================================]|[

Editor's note: Depending on your mail software, some urls may wrap
(especially those from the Telegraph) which will require you to
rebuild the url at your end; if you get a 'file not found', check to see if
the url wrapped on you. Most urls should be active for at least eight hours
from the time of 'publicatio'.

]|[=================================================================]|[

Happy daylight savings time to everyone in those parts of the world who
observe such things!

Thanks for the heads ups to Sally Winchester, John Carr, Ernest Loewinsohn,
and Bill Kennedy (a.a.h.i.h.n.l.a.o.)

OLD WORLD NEWS

ABC (Australia) reports that a 3100-year-old mummy has had a "sex change"
of sorts:

http://www.abc.net.au/science/news/scitech/SciTechRepublish_267644.htm

eKatherimini has an item on the excavations at (Minoan) Palaikastro:

http://www.ekathimerini.com/news/content.asp?id=76822

The Chicago Tribune had a nice article last weekend on the state of
archaeology/sites in Iraq:

http://www.chicago.tribune.com/news/nationworld/article/0,2669,SAV-0103250412,FF.html

Zahi Hawass is challenging the long-held notion and soon-to-be BM
exhibition that Cleopatra wasn't exactly a Helen-of-Troy league beauty:

http://www.uk.sis.gov.eg/online/html3/o290321h.htm
http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/world/middle_east/newsid_1250000/1250323.stm
http://dsc.discovery.com/news/briefs/20010326/cleo.html
http://www.sunday-times.co.uk/news/pages/sti/2001/03/25/magazine.html
http://www.sunday-times.co.uk/news/pages/sti/2001/03/25/stinwenws01027.html

A number of frescoes stolen from Pompeii have been returned:

http://www.sunday-times.co.uk/news/pages/sti/2001/03/25/stinwenws02012.html?

A watering trough outside a British pub has turned out to be a Roman
sarcophagus:

http://www.ananova.com/news/story/sm_256054.html?menu=news.quirkies

The Lebanon Daily Star has a piece on Roman glass:

http://www.dailystar.com.lb/features/30_03_01_b.htm

A new documentary on the 'real' Jesus is getting a lot of hype primarily
(it seems) for the facial reconstruction:

http://www.msnbc.com/news/550752.asp
http://www.abcnews.go.com/sections/world/DailyNews/virtualjesus010327.html
http://dsc.discovery.com/news/ap/20010326/jesus.html
http://www.independent.co.uk/story.jsp?story=63407

A scholar has suggested that Robert the Bruce's organs were not interred
with his body:

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/et?ac=000579381554028&rtmo=lvAS7vbt&atmo=99999999&pg=/et/01/3/29/nbob29.html

Xinhua reports on the top 100 Chinese archaeological discoveries of the
20th century:

http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/20010329/391415.htm

They also report on a project to determine the origin of Chinese civilization:

http://library.northernlight.com/FB20010329590000097.html?cb=0&dx=1006&sc=0#doc
http://library.northernlight.com/FB20010329590000105.html?cb=229&dx=1006&sc=0#doc

Discovering Archaeology has put up a new feature on Cambodia "After the
Nightmare":

http://www.discoveringarchaeology.com/articles/033001-cambodia.htm

First it was recreating the beer drunk by various ancient cultures, now
it's recreating perfumes from Pompeii:

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/et?ac=000579381554028&rtmo=psN3BBMe&atmo=99999999&pg=/et/01/3/30/wpomp30.html

Folks might enjoy reading the historical basis for Britain's tax year:

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/et?ac=003100565149417&rtmo=psNQMh3e&atmo=99999999&pg=/et/01/3/24/cmtax124.html

NEW WORLD NEWS

The Inland Empire Online has a column all about Mesa Verde sites on the web:

http://www.inlandempireonline.com/columns/garrett/

There's a new (?) suggestion on what happened to Walter Raleigh's 'lost
colonists':

http://www.pilotonline.com/news/nw0331cro.html

ON THE NEWSSTANDS

There's a new issue of Archaeology Odyssey out, with some nice online
content on ancient copies (Greek and Roman), the Hurrian city of Urkesh,
the origins of the jury system, and several other items:

http://www.bib-arch.org/aod2.html

Atlantic Monthly has an article on "The Genetic Archaeology of Race":

http://www.theatlantic.com/issues/2001/04/olson-p1.htm

EXHIBITIONS

Athens News has a review of Waldemar Deonna - Paul Collart: Two Swiss
Archaeologists Photograph Greece 1904-1939:

http://athensnews.dolnet.gr/athweb/nathens.print_unique?e=C&f=12902&m=A38&aa=1&eidos=S
http://www.ekathimerini.com/news/content.asp?id=76807

CLASSICIST'S CORNER

A preview/reviewish thing tells all sorts of gossipy stuff about the movie
Cleopatra (the one with Liz):

http://www.timesunion.com/AspStories/story.asp?BCCode=E&storyKey=55058

cf.:

http://www.jacksonville.com/tu-online/stories/032901/enc_5766382.html

Knowledge Management magazine has a feature "Taxonomy of the Ancients", on
how Callimachus organized the Library at Alexandria:

http://www.destinationcrm.com/km/dcrm_km_article.asp?id=812

REVIEWS

The Independent has a review of A. Everitt, *Cicero: A Turbulent Life*:

http://www.independent.co.uk/story.jsp?story=62436

WEBSITES

A very nice website (in Spanish) on Roman engineering:

http://www.traianus.f2s.com/index1.htm

OBITUARIES

Nicholas Hammond

http://www.independent.co.uk/story.jsp?story=63213
http://athensnews.dolnet.gr/athweb/nathens.print_unique?e=C&f=12903&m=A35&aa=3&eidos=S

Helge Instad (some in Norwegian):

http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/cgi-bin/WebObjects/SeattleTimes.woa/wa/gotoArticle?zsection_id=268448413&text_only=0&slug=ingstad01&document_id=134279924
http://www.dallasnews.com/obituaries/326077_ingstadobit_31.html
http://www.aftenposten.no/kul_und/kultur/d201143.htm
http://www.vg.no/pub/vgart.hbs?artid=5377351
http://www.dagbladet.no/nyheter/2001/03/29/250020.html


Margaret Jones

http://www.independent.co.uk/story.jsp?story=63980

FOLLOWUPS

Bahariya Oasis:

http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2001/03/0329_goldenmummynew.html

Maya bath houses:

http://www.sunday-times.co.uk/news/pages/Sunday-Times/stifgname03001.html?

Buddhas in Afghanistan:

http://www.theartnewspaper.com/news/article.asp?idart=5390
http://www.lanka.net/lakehouse/2001/04/01/new16.html
http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/world/south_asia/newsid_1242000/1242856.stm
http://www.discoveringarchaeology.com/articles/032101-terrorism.htm

Baghdad ancient writing conference:

http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2001/03/0326_writing.html

Europe's oldest boat:

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/et?ac=003100565149417&rtmo=aCXu69aJ&atmo=99999999&pg=/et/01/3/29/ecnboat29.html

Nauticos deepwater ancient shipwreck

(this one is close to a month old; folks might want to revisit the item in
Archaeology magazine on it ... it's the last item in this list; the first
item is a bit of video which I could not get to work, but maybe it will for
you):

http://www.nytimes.com/images/2001/03/27/science/27SHIP.ram
http://www.nytimes.com/2001/03/27/science/27SHIP.html
http://www.sacbee.com/voices/news/voices03_20010331.html
http://athensnews.dolnet.gr/athweb/nathens.print_unique?e=C&f=12903&m=A11&aa=3&eidos=S
http://www.independent.co.uk/story.jsp?story=63486
http://www.iht.com/articles/15022.html
http://dailynews.yahoo.com/h/nm/20010328/wl/mediterranean_shipwreck_dc_1.html
http://www.csmonitor.com/durable/2001/03/29/fp7s1-csm.shtml
http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2001/03/0329_shipwreck.html
http://www.archaeology.org/0103/etc/wreck.html

The Hunley:

http://www.msnbc.com/news/545501.asp
http://dailynews.yahoo.com/h/nm/20010324/sc/life_hunley_dc_3.html
http://web.thestate.com/content/columbia/2001/03/24/a1/hunley24.htm
http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2001/03/0321_hunleyfind.html
http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2001/03/0328_hunleyupdate.html

AT ABOUT.COM

Ancient History Guide N.S. Gill's latest in on the labours of Hercules:

http://ancienthistory.about.com/library/weekly/aa032701a.htm

Latin Guide Janet Burns has a feature on demonstratives:

http://latin.about.com/library/bldemonstratives.htm

Archaeology Guide Kris Hirst has a feature on the Archaeology Channel:

http://archaeology.about.com/science/archaeology/library/weekly/aa032801a.htm

... last week's chat transcript (Judy Bense):

http://archaeology.about.com/science/archaeology/library/chat/n_bense.htm

... tonight's chat is with Bill Kelso (talking about Jamestown):

http://archaeology.about.com/science/archaeology/library/chat/blchatarchive.htm

... next week: Justin Kerr and Sandra Noble (FAMSI, on the Maya Vase
Rollout Project
and the Precolumbian Portfolio)


DIVERSIONS

Athens News has a review of Sierra's *Master of Olympus -- Zeus* computer
simulation/game thingie:

http://athensnews.dolnet.gr/athweb/nathens.print_unique?e=C&f=12903&m=A44&aa=4&eidos=S

REGULAR FEATURES

CTCWeb's Words of the Week
http://ablemedia.com/ctcweb/myword.html


Radio Finland's Nuntii Latini
http://www.yle.fi/fbc/latini/trans.html


English translation (probably delayed ... hasn't been updated since August):
http://www.cbc4kids.ca/general/whats-new/latin-news/mainlatin.html


EXPLORATOR IS ARCHIVED AT:
http://www.onelist.com/archive/Explorator


]|[================================================================]|[
EXPLORATOR is a weekly newsletter representing the fruits of the labours of
'media research division' of The Atrium. Various on-line news and magazine
sources are scoured on a daily basis for news of the ancient world (broadly
construed: practically anything relating to archaeology or history prior
to about 1700 or so is fair game) and when a sufficient number of urls are
gathered (usually a minimum of three stories), they are delivered to your
mailbox free of charge! Those articles that don't expire, plus
supplementary links eventually find a home at:

The Media Archive (just going up):
http://atrium-media.com/mediaarchive.html

]|[================================================================]|[
Explorator is Copyright (c) 2001 David Meadows; Feel free to
distribute these listings via email to your pals, students, teachers,
etc., but please include this copyright notice. These listings are not to
be posted to a website; instead, please provide a link to either
Commentarium or Rostra (or both)! You can subscribe to or unsubscribe from
this list by going to the following web page:
http://www.egroups.com/subscribe.cgi/Explorator



 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 538 of 1283:  (sprin5) * Mon, Apr  2, 2001 (17:29) * 1 lines 
 
I'll check out that Maya bathhouse link.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 539 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Apr  5, 2001 (00:37) * 1 lines 
 
I'm curious about that too. All I can imagine that it deals with the Cenote at Chichen Itza... or something similar. Fascinating!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 540 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Apr 10, 2001 (17:10) * 14 lines 
 
Archaeologists uncover 'fabulous' chariot
Martin Wainwright
Guardian
Saturday April 7, 2001

The reputation of prehistoric Britons was notched up another peg
yesterday, with the discovery of the oldest iron age chariot to be
unearthed by archaeologists.
Apart from the slight hitch that its owner was probably French,
the mass of intricate bronze-work, inlaid coral and skilled joinery
was described as "fabulous" proof of ancient native expertise by
English Heritage and the British Museum.

more... http://www.guardian.co.uk/Archive/Article/0,4273,4166971,00.html


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 541 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Apr 12, 2001 (23:37) * 10 lines 
 
Prehistoric man may have had dentists
LONDON (Reuters) -
Pre-historic people living in Asia 8,000 years ago may
have used stone-tipped drills to repair teeth.

In what could be one of the earliest examples of
dentistry, scientists at the University of
Missouri-Columbia in the United States have found tiny, perfectly rounded
holes in teeth found in Mehrgarh in pre-historic Pakistan, which they suspect were drilled to repair tooth decay.



 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 542 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Apr 12, 2001 (23:42) * 2 lines 
 
The above come complete with image at this url
http://uk.news.yahoo.com/010411/80/bk0kx.html


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 543 of 1283: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Fri, Apr 13, 2001 (14:03) * 1 lines 
 
Well, I'm glad to hear that the owner of the oldest existing Bronze Age Chariot was probably French. The Gauls were Celts like the Britons. Still, the British Museum claims it as "fabulous" proof of ancient native expertise. What was it Napoleon said? "Perfidious Albion". To all of those at Geo who are English/British, I'm just kidding.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 544 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Apr 16, 2001 (22:03) * 3 lines 
 
Thanks - considering that Gallic soldiers were used to conquer Albion are we not all relatives separated by our own self-perceived prejuidices? anglo/german/gaulish relatives all blame one another for their problems. Ah, the joys of being Celtic!

I really want to see that chariot. Sounds incredible!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 545 of 1283: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Tue, Apr 17, 2001 (17:09) * 1 lines 
 
That's very true. Especially in regard to the French and Germans. It irritates the French to no end that the native language of Charlemagne was a form of German. The Germans also claim Charlemagne as great hero. They call him Karl Grosse.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 546 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Apr 23, 2001 (05:29) * 284 lines 
 
]|[=================================================================]|[

EXPLORATOR
Watching the Web for News of the Ancient World
Volume 3, Issue 51 -- April 22, 2001

]|[=================================================================]|[

Editor's note: Depending on your mail software, some urls may wrap
(especially those from the Telegraph) which will require you to
rebuild the url at your end; if you get a 'file not found', check to see if
the url wrapped on you. Most urls should be active for at least eight hours
from the time of 'publicatio'.

]|[=================================================================]|[

Greetings archaeophiles! Curiosity question: if this newsletter went to an html mail format (which would help with the perpetual url wrap problem), would it bother anyone?

Thanks to Bill Kennedy and Gene Barkley for the headses upses this week (a.a.h.i.h.l.n.o.o.) ...


OLD WORLD NEWS

The Egyptian State Information Service has a brief item on the discovery of some Amenhotep-era artifacts:

http://www.uk.sis.gov.eg/online/html4/o210421W.htm

... as well as some predynastic stuff:

http://www.uk.sis.gov.eg/online/note/html/n120421a.htm

The Business Recorder (and others) has a piece on the claims of a couple of French researchers to have found "passages to hidden portions of the Great Pyramid" ... no doubt soon to be a documentary:

http://www.brecorder.com/story/000000/200104/20010420/200104200196.shtml?Top~Stories
http://www.abc.net.au/science/news/scitech/SciTechRepublish_279993.htm

eKatherimini reports on the discovery of a 5th-century B.C./B.C.E. copper cauldron at Argos:

http://www.ekathimerini.com/news/content.asp?aid=79099

eKatherimini also has a report on a 4th-century B.C./B.C.E mass grave found at Pydna:

http://www.ekathimerini.com/news/content.asp?aid=79054

The Times reports on the restoration of Trajan's arch at Benevento:

http://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/0,,3-113354,00.html

The Independent reports on plans to locate and excavate a Roman ship which sank in the Tyne estuary:

http://www.independent.co.uk/story.jsp?story=67471

This was actually announced already within the last year or so, but a group at Stanford is going to use computer technology to reassemble the Forum Urbis:

http://sanjose.bcentral.com/sanjose/stories/2001/04/16/daily37.html

A large section of the Aurelian wall in Rome collapsed this week:

http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/world/europe/newsid_1280000/1280611.stm
http://news.24.com/News24/Technology/Science_Nature/0,1113,2-13-46_1011661,00.html
http://www.thescotsman.co.uk/world.cfm?id=64721
http://my.cnn.com/jbcl/cnews/Go?template=otmDetStory&art_id=6690997&uid=987437873088&page_exclude=1

The Architects' Journal supposedly has a report on the discovery of an "ancient carving of a Roman warrior" but I can't get it to load properly at my end; maybe it will work for you:

http://www.ajplus.co.uk/news/news_article/?pid=2&aid=14379&sid=60&channelID=4&NewsComingFrom=Construction

The Irish Times reports on the discovery of an iron age skeleton:

http://www.ireland.com/newspaper/ireland/2001/0421/reg3.htm

The Getty Museum has returned a second-century bust of an athlete to Italy:

http://www.guardian.co.uk/Archive/Article/0,4273,4171745,00.html

... while the Met has returned an image of Seti I to Egypt:

http://www.uk.sis.gov.eg/online/html4/o190421n.htm

ABCNews reports on the discovery of a "cave full of teeth" in China (this one's actually a little more ancient than I usually cover, but it's interesting):

http://abcnews.go.com/sections/scitech/DailyNews/chinacave010417.html

Xinhua via Northern Light reports on the discovery of a tomb in Shanxi province:

http://library.northernlight.com/FE20010418060000015.html?cb=0&dx=1006&sc=0#doc

... and more:

http://library.northernlight.com/FA20010417510000045.html?cb=0&dx=1006&sc=0#doc

Thor Heyerdahl is looking for the origins of the Vikings ... in Russia:

http://news.24.com/News24/World/Europe/0,1113,2-10-19_1013838,00.html

Archaeologists have found the site of London's Hope theatre:

http://www.telegraph.co.uk:80/et?ac=003100565149417&rtmo=QwaSwLxR&atmo=99999999&pg=/et/01/4/22/nhope22.html

NEW WORLD NEWS

The Denver Post has a report on "America's first archaeological subdivision":

http://www.denverpost.com/Stories/0,1002,53%257E22737,00.html

The Idaho Statesman has one of those introductory sort of things to 'Archaeology Week' in Idaho:

http://www.idahostatesman.com/news/daily/20010418/LocalNews/105060.shtml

The St. Petersburg Times has a nice article on looting of sites:

http://www.sptimes.com/News/041801/Citrus/Looters_of_artifact_s.shtml

ON THE NEWSSTANDS

Egypt Revealed has an article by Mark Lehner on the city of folks who worked on the pyramids:

http://www.egyptrevealed.com/041501-cityopyramid_builders.htm

Discovering Archaeology has an article on the excavation of an 1800's steamboat:

http://www.discoveringarchaeology.com/articles/041201-oklahoma.htm

CLASSICIST'S CORNER

The Times has a piece on the benefits of a classical education (in anticipation of the meeting of the Classical Association):

http://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/0,,7-116056,00.html

... and Hollywood's depiction of gladiators:

http://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/0,,2-117357,00.html

eKathimerini has an article on learning ancient Greek via the internet:

http://www.eKathimerini.com/news/content.asp?id=79064

... and what's on at Herodes Atticus' theatre in the next month or so:

http://www.eKathimerini.com/news/content.asp?id=79032

The Independent has a piece on the fifty best places to see in Rome (with links!):

http://www.independent.co.uk/story.jsp?story=67582

... and a passing mention on the influence of Thucydides on Colin Powell:

http://www.independent.co.uk/story.jsp?story=67848

I'm not sure what to make of this one ... claims of Egyptians in the FYROM:

http://www.eKathimerini.com/news/content.asp?id=79017

Folks might be interested (for comparative purposes) in the Christian version of the torch race:

http://www.telegraph.co.uk:80/et?ac=003100565149417&rtmo=qxbLKd99&atmo=99999999&pg=/et/01/4/16/wholy16.html

... and a new 'Slavocentric' view of history:

http://www.telegraph.co.uk:80/et?ac=003100565149417&rtmo=asbXxHwL&atmo=99999999&pg=/et/01/4/19/warth19.html

The University of Pennsylvania's Museum of Archaeology has discovered some Ming art in its storage rooms:

http://worldnews.about.com/newsissues/worldnews/gi/news/~5a0e214.htm?PM=n3042001e

The hype is beginning in anticipation of the official opening of the new Library at Alexandria:

http://www.uk.sis.gov.eg/online/html4/o150421y.htm
http://www.uk.sis.gov.eg/online/html4/o170421p.htm

AT ABOUT.COM

Ancient History Guide N.S. Gill's latest is a piece on Artemis:

http://ancienthistory.about.com/library/weekly/aa041701a.htm

Archaeology Guide Kris Hirst's latest is a guest piece on the electronic antiquities market:

http://archaeology.about.com/library/weekly/aa041801a.htm

... last week's chat with Rosemary Joyce:

http://archaeology.about.com/science/archaeology/library/chat/n_joyce.htm

... tonight's chat (9-11 EDT) with Larry McKee on African-American archaeology:

http://archaeology.about.com/science/archaeology/mpchat.htm


FOLLOWUPS

Ahenaten-era artifacts:

http://news.24.com/News24/Africa/Features/0,1113,2-11-37_1010967,00.html

Cleopatra at the BM:

http://library.northernlight.com/EC20010418040000036.html?cb=0&dx=1006&sc=0#doc

Herculaneum papyri (nothing new ... I wish they'd just get on with it):

http://www.oweb.com/newslink/national/ScorchedPapyrusP0225.html
http://www.deseretnews.com/dn/view/0,1249,270013890,00.html?
http://www.cnn.com/2001/TECH/science/04/20/scorched.papyrus.ap/index.html
http://www.nandotimes.com/technology/story/0,1643,500475007-500729186-504140350-0,00.html
http://www.guardianunlimited.co.uk/breakingnews/US/0,3560,862492,00.html
http://www.ananova.com/news/story/sm_266946.html?menu=news.technology
http://www.msnbc.com/news/562226.asp

Hunley:

http://www.msnbc.com/news/545501.asp
http://www.lasvegassun.com/sunbin/stories/news/2001/apr/17/041705300.html
http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2001/03/0328_hunleyupdate.html

Karachi mummy (with photo):

http://www.time.com/time/asia/news/magazine/0,9754,106425,00.html

Latest Bahariyah Oasis finds:

http://www.egyptrevealed.com/042001-valleyofmummies.htm

Temple Mount:

http://www.msnbc.com/news/561175.asp

Seahenge:

http://www.guardian.co.uk/Archive/Article/0,4273,4170978,00.html

Vesuvius:

http://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/0,,3-113355,00.html
http://www.nytimes.com/2001/04/17/science/17OBSER-1.html



REGULAR FEATURES

CTCWeb's Words of the Week
http://ablemedia.com/ctcweb/myword.html


Radio Finland's Nuntii Latini
http://www.yle.fi/fbc/latini/trans.html


English translation (probably delayed ... hasn't been updated since August):
http://www.cbc4kids.ca/general/whats-new/latin-news/mainlatin.html
l>

EXPLORATOR IS ARCHIVED AT:
http://www.onelist.com/archive/Explorator


]|[================================================================]|[
EXPLORATOR is a weekly newsletter representing the fruits of the labours of
'media research division' of The Atrium. Various on-line news and magazine
sources are scoured on a daily basis for news of the ancient world (broadly
construed: practically anything relating to archaeology or history prior
to about 1700 or so is fair game) and when a sufficient number of urls are
gathered (usually a minimum of three stories), they are delivered to your
mailbox free of charge! Those articles that don't expire, plus
supplementary links eventually find a home at:

The Media Archive (just going up):

http://atrium-media.com/mediaarchive.html

]|[================================================================]|[

Explorator is Copyright (c) 2001 David Meadows; Feel free to
distribute these listings via email to your pals, students, teachers,
etc., but please include this copyright notice. These listings are not to
be posted to a website; instead, please provide a link to either
Commentarium or Rostra (or both)! You can subscribe to or unsubscribe from
this list by going to the following web page:
http://www.yahoogroups.com/subscribe.cgi/Explorator

Or, send by sending a blank email message to:
mailto:Explorator-subscribe@yahoogroups.com



 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 547 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Apr 23, 2001 (16:57) * 23 lines 
 
DISCOVER ARCHAEOLOGY ONLINE WEEKLY NEWSLETTER; APRIL 11, 2001

Saludos, and thank you for subscribing!

Click here to get there:

http://www.discoveringarchaeology.com/newsletter.shtml

Your Feature Report for this week:

* French Explorer Maps Sunken City
* The Battle of Korcula
* Dateline ... Egypt
* Artifact Thief Apprehended
* New Tombs Discovered in Bahariya
* Protection of the Terracotta Warriors
* Sudan Archaeology
* Anthony's Egyptology and Archaeology
* Minoan Research

Click here to get there:
http://www.discoveringarchaeology.com/newsletter.shtml



 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 548 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Apr 27, 2001 (07:16) * 77 lines 
 
Seahenge may be saved from watery grave

The tale of Seahenge took a dramatic new turn last night when it was
revealed that the ancient timbers might not be heading for a watery
grave after all.
Government body English Heritage met yesterday to decide the fate of
the Bronze Age timber circle, which was controversially removed from
the beach at Holme-next-the-Sea, near Hunstanton, almost two years
ago.
Its ruling commissioners were expected to agree that the circle should
be reburied later this year, close to the spot where it was originally
found.
But yesterday, officials heard that fresh evidence had come to light
about the timbers, along with new scientific techniques which would
enable it to be studied.
"We brought the commissioners new information, and we want to carry
out more research because there is far more potential," English
Heritage's chief archaeologist David Miles said after the meeting.
"There are marks in the surface which are very slight marks, like bruises
in the wood.
"It's all about how we capture these marks, because if the timbers were
conserved or reburied now, they would be lost."
New digital modelling techniques will enable the marks to be copied onto
a 3D digital likeness of each timber, stored on computer.
Mr Miles suggested the new marks, which were just visible to the naked
eye, could shed new light on how the timber circle was first built in
2049BC. "There may be complications as to how it was built," he added.
"It might well have been modified and we want to do some more dating
on it as well."
Scientists at the Flag Fen Bronze Age research centre, near
Peterborough, have been studying the timbers since they were removed
from the beach at Holme almost two years ago, amid angry protests.
Two weeks ago, it was claimed that the timbers would disintegrate if
reburied on the beach.
Last night Mr Miles said the claim, which surfaced in New Scientist
magazine and The Guardian, differed from what English Heritage had
been told about the circle's chances of survival.
Now any firm decision will await the outcome of the latest round of
research, which will be carried out at Flag Fen.
The circle's future could even be referred back to the Timber Circle
Forum, which was formed from local councils and other interested
bodies, to decide its fate.
"We've got to consider the future," said Mr Miles. "We would certainly
come up and talk to the Timber Circle Forum about the fact that the
site could be more important."
South Norfolk plant hire tycoon Mervyn Lambert was an outspoken critic
of the timbers' removal from the beach. He led a high court bid which
failed to halt the excavation. But English Heritage said it would conserve
the timbers.
Then it emerged that neither Norfolk County Council or West Norfolk
council was prepared to pay for the work.
And the Timber Circle Forum believed that the option of burial in Holme's
clay deposits was believed to offer the best chance of preserving
Seahenge, in case anyone decided to fund a proper display to house it
in the future.
"So they've just found some new marks they hadn't noticed yet after 21
months," Mr Lambert said last night. "Nothing surprises me now.
"In the high court, almost two years ago, English Heritage said they
could not guarantee long-term conservation of the timbers without
removing them from the beach.
"Twenty-one months on they've done nothing towards conservation."
Geoff Needham, chairman of Holme Parish Council, said: "They classed it
as the most important archaeological discoveries of the century, but the
way they have treated it is an absolute disgrace.
"It was one of the biggest acts of vandalism ever created in the name
of archaeology."

The timber circle first came to the notice of archaeologists in early 1998
after a Bronze Age axe head was found nearby.
Since its removal the following summer, more timbers have been exposed
by the shifting tides at Holme beach, including what appears to be the
remains of a larger circle.
Mr Miles said the fresh artefacts were probably a fish trap and a burial
mound, of which there were many similar examples dotted across the
country.

http://www.edp24.co.uk/Content/Search/nfdetail.asp?Brand=EDPONLINE&Category=NEWS&ItemId=NOED26+Apr+2001+11%3A33%3A23%3A403


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 549 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Apr 27, 2001 (11:35) * 102 lines 
 
Peru Complex May Be Oldest City

By PAUL RECER, AP Science Writer

WASHINGTON (AP) - About the time that pyramids were
being built in Egypt, a civilization in Peru was
building the Americas' first urban center, a complex
of stone pyramids, plazas and intricate irrigation
canals, researchers say.

A site called Caral, 125 miles north of Lima, ``may
actually be the birthplace of civilization in the
Americas,'' said Winifred Creamer, a Northern Illinois
University professor and co-author of a study
appearing Friday in Science.

Jonathan Haas of Chicago's Field Museum, Creamer's
husband and a co-author of the study, said that Caral
has been aged-dated to as early as 2,627 B.C. and
excavations show it once covered some 160 acres on the
floor of Peru's Supe Valley.

The people living there created a civilization of
farmers, craftsmen and fishermen. Haas said there was
a central government or organization strong enough to
induce hundreds of workers to labor long to build a
sprawling complex of six pyramids, apartment-like
buildings, open stone-cobbled plazas and irrigation
canals that tapped a nearby river.

Researchers say that the site, some 125 miles north of
Lima, shows evidence of being a thriving inland
metropolis that lasted for hundreds of years and then
declined into oblivion. It was rediscovered in 1905,
but is only now being studied in detail.

``What we're learning from Caral is going to rewrite
the way we think about development of early Andean
civilization,'' said Haas.

Caral's civilization was age-dated from woven reeds
and other material extracted from a 60-foot high
pyramid. Haas said the people used reed bags to carry
stones to put inside the pyramid as it was being
built.

``They filled the reed bags with stones, carried them
on their shoulders to the building site and then
dumped them in, bag and all,'' said Haas. In Peru's
dry climate, the reed material survived the ages and
scientists used it to age-date the site, he said.

Haas said that the people of Caral lived on vegetables
- squash, beans and root crops - and seafood. They did
not grow grains or make pottery, both of which are
common for other ancient civilizations.

Instead, Haas said, the Caral people grew cotton and
wove it into nets used for fishing. The researchers
found evidence that the people ate lots of seafood --
anchovies, sardines and shellfish. He said there were
no large animals in the area to provide food so they
depended on the sea. The Pacific Ocean coast is about
14 miles from Caral.

Caral thrived for more than 600 years and was home
over the centuries to thousands of people, although
Haas said the peak population of the city is still not
known.

Eventually, the Caral society faded, replaced by new
complexes in other civilizations built to the north
and to the south. It's believed that descendants of
the Caral people became the Incas, who were ruling the
Andes when the Europeans arrived in the 16th century.

Haas said that six pyramids, some rising by 60 feet
above wide bases, dominate the site. There are also
fitted-stone plazas and smaller pyramids with stairs
and top-floor rooms that were probably upper class
housing. Nearby, more modest homes, built of adobe,
have been excavated.

People at Caral depended heavily on irrigated farming
and the site may have been the first in the Americas
where water was moved in large volumes for
agricultural use, said Haas. The water came from the
nearby Supe River.

There were no nearby forests or other sources of wood,
said Haas, but there is evidence that the people
chipped stones to make tools and carved large rocks to
fit into building walls.
-
On the Net:

Northern Illinois University:
http://www.niu.edu/pubaffairs/presskits/wcjo/

Science: http://www.eurekalert.org

Thanks K3


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 550 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Apr 27, 2001 (12:06) * 43 lines 
 
http://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/0,,3-120993,00.html

FRIDAY APRIL 27 2001

Peru's first city thrived as Egypt built pyramids

BY MARK HENDERSON, SCIENCE CORRESPONDENT

AN ADVANCED civilisation was thriving on the coast of modern-day Peru at the
same time as the pyramids were built in Egypt - more than 1,000 years
earlier than was previously thought, American researchers have discovered.
New radio-carbon dating of plant fibres found at Caral, 120 miles north of
Lima, has revealed that the ancient city was built as early as 2600BC,
making it by far the oldest urban settlement yet identified in the Americas.
The findings, published today in the journal Science, suggest that the
significance of the Caral civilisation has been badly underestimated by
archaeologists and anthropologists.
The inhabitants of the city had developed technology on a par with much of
that found in Ancient Egypt at about the same time: they had the know-how to
irrigate fields and to build monumental pyramids, though they never learnt
to make ceramic pottery, a fact that continues to puzzle anthropologists.
Jonathan Haas, curator of anthropology at the Field Museum in Chicago, who
led the study, said Caral had previously been dated to about 1600BC. "Our
findings show that a very large, complex society had arisen on the coast of
Peru centuries earlier than anyone thought," Dr Haas said.
"This is a project that comes along once in a generation and offers
opportunities rarely glimpsed in the field of archaeology."
Caral is dominated by a central zone containing six large platform mounds
arranged around a huge public plaza. The largest of these mounds, known as
Piramide Mayor, stands 60ft high and measures 450ft by 500ft at its base.
All six central mounds were built in only one or two phases, providing
strong evidence of complex planning, centralised decision-making and
mobilisation of a large labour force - all of which suggest an advanced
civilisation.
Stairs, rooms, courtyards and other structures were constructed on top of
the pyramids as well as on the side terraces.
Excavations are now planned to determine whether there were rooms or tombs
inside the mounds. Other architecture at the site also indicates a high
level of cultural complexity. In particular, three sunken circular plazas
testify to the emergence of a well-organised religion with open, public
ceremonies. Other villages in Peru are known to have been occupied before
2600BC and some even had small-scale public platforms or stone rings. All,
however, are much smaller in scale.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 551 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Apr 27, 2001 (12:26) * 75 lines 
 
http://www.msnbc.com/news/560131.asp?cp1=1

Black magic in Greece's Golden Age

This ancient Greek katara, or curse, was found in the ancient Kerameikos
cemetery in Athens, dating back to the 4th and 5th centuries B.C. During the
Golden Age of ancient Greece, magicians worked in secret and buried the
hexes with the dead.



ASSOCIATED PRESS

ATHENS, Greece, April 22 - During the Golden Age of ancient Greece, no one
was safe from spells, not even exalted politicians and orators.

MAGICIANS WORKED in secret and buried hexes with the dead, who they
believed would carry them to the underworld. Some curses were for opponents
in lawsuits. Others sought to hex a political figure. Still others meant to
bring harm to enemies.
"I bind to the earth," begin some of the inscriptions on the 55
"katares," or curses, found during nearly nine decades of excavations at the
ancient Kerameikos cemetery near the ancient marketplace where politicians
made public addresses.
Specialists are now restoring and studying the katares for a planned
book that explores how rites of black magic - although outlawed in ancient
Greece - played a fundamental role in a society that also prized logic and
the intellect. The book will mark the first comprehensive volume on the
katares of ancient Athens.
"These practices were indeed carried out ... They shed light on the
political and cultural history," said Jutta Stroszeck, head of the German
Archaeological Institute of Greece, which leads the cemetery digs.
The katares found were inscriptions etched into lead, sometimes found
with figurines. They were often buried in the graves of youths because it
was believed a premature death would get the spell to the underworld gods
faster, archaeologists said.

THE ZENITH OF A SOCIETY
Although katares have been discovered throughout the Mediterranean,
the Athens collection tells of the life of a society at its zenith: the Age
of Pericles about 2,500 years ago when the Parthenon was built.
The objects also give fascinating examples of the direct connection
between ancient superstitions and daily life.
"Katares were the appropriate medium to destroy political opponents,"
said Felice Costabile, an expert in ancient inscriptions at the University
Magna Graecia in Catanzaro, Italy.
The ancient magicians - outlaws to the Athenian authorities -
apparently performed a secret ritual to prepare the katares.
But it is uncertain what exactly transpired, experts say. It could be
that the magicians were responsible for finding the lead, writing out the
curses and finding tombs of young people who had recently died. Katares were
also dropped in wells, another avenue to the underworld.
"You made the spell in the very moment that you wanted to weaken the
another person ... to impede, to make immobile to bind somebody," Stroszeck
said. "It is clearly an statement of hate."
Some katares meant to curse a warrior were accompanied by small bent
swords. Others were male figurines with hands tied behind their backs,
pronounced genital organs, birdlike heads and numerous inscriptions.

A BRACELET FOR THE DEAD
A different type of katara was shaped in the form of a bracelet and
placed in the hands of the dead, perhaps to be carried to the underworld or
improve the potency of the hex, Stroszeck said.
Etched into one katara are the names of Lykourgos, an Athenian
politician who participated in managing the city's finances and building
program and lived from 390 B.C. to 324 B.C. The name of Hyperides, an orator
who lived about the same time and who led the city to battle with the
Macedonians in the Lamian War in 323 B.C., was found on another.
One of the most important finds is a lead plate with three curses
inscribed on it. They are written together as if in a book of three columns
and show how ancient texts were composed 2,400 years ago on papyrus,
Costabile said.
"It did not have any relation to the official religion as it was
then," said Stroszeck, referring to the ancient belief in the 12 Olympian
gods led by Zeus.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 552 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, May  1, 2001 (05:13) * 287 lines 
 
]|[=================================================================]|[

EXPLORATOR
Watching the Web for News of the Ancient World
Volume 3, Issue 52 -- April 29, 2001

OLD WORLD NEWS

The Daily Star has a feature on the Canaanite site of Yarmuta:

http://www.dailystar.com.lb/28_04_01/art3.htm

A conference on how best to preserve the monuments of the Middle/Near east
has political implications:

http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/world/middle_east/newsid_1295000/1295319.stm
http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/world/middle_east/newsid_1295000/1295008.stm

MSNBC (and others) has an interesting item on black magic in the ancient
Greek world:

http://stacks.msnbc.com/news/560131.asp
http://athensnews.dolnet.gr/athweb/nathens.print_unique?e=C&f=12907&m=A05&aa=1&eidos=S
http://www.ekathimerini.com/news/content.asp?id=79231

Police have confiscated a hoard of interesting illegally-excavated
artifacts near Vonitsa:

http://www.ekathimerini.com/news/content.asp?aid=80390

AthensNews has a lengthy touristy piece on ancient Troezen:

http://athensnews.dolnet.gr/athweb/nathens.print_unique?e=C&f=12907&m=A24&aa=1&eidos=S

A fourth-century Egyptian coffin is on display in Rochester:

http://library.northernlight.com/EB20010427170000046.html?cb=0&dx=1006&sc=0#doc

Another bit of fallout from Afghanistan: the left foot of Zeus is on
display in Tokyo:

http://www.asahi.com/english/asahi/0426/asahi042604.html

The Aberdeen Herald has a brief item on a recent Iron Age discovery in that
city:

http://www.theherald.co.uk/news/archive/24-4-19101-0-1-2.html

The Times (South Africa) has a feature on the excavations at Uxellodunum
('eat your heart out Asterix'):

http://www.iol.co.za/html/frame_news.php?click_id=79&art_id=qw988311781884B216

(cf. http://www.ananova.com/news/story/sm_275516.html?menu=)

There was a fair bit of coverage this week devoted to the discovery of a
Roman-era armoury/armour in Roman Carlisle:

http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/uk/newsid_1297000/1297752.stm
http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk_news/story/0,3604,478537,00.html
http://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/0,,2-120182,00.html
http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2001/04/0427_romanarmor.html

A Roman villa at El-Jem will soon be open to the public:

http://www.news24.co.za/News24/Technology/Science_Nature/0,1113,2-13-46_1014411,00.html

A third-century Celtic fibula has reached a rather high price at auction:

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/et?ac=003100565149417&rtmo=gjSGSbru&atmo=99999999&pg=/et/01/4/26/ngold26.html

Also at auction at Christie's ... a pile of Italian vases, many of them
looted apparently:

http://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/0,,7-118293,00.html

Le Figaro has an item (in French) on damage done and threatened to the
Henri IV-era Chateau de Saumur (watch the wrap):

http://www.lefigaro.fr/cgi-bin/gx.cgi/AppLogic+FTContentServer?pagename=FutureTense/Apps/Xcelerate/View&c=figArticle&cid=FIGI72LWTLC

The Times of India reports on damage done to Mnajdra Temple:

http://web.infinito.it/utenti/m/malta_mega_temples/mnajdest/times15.html

The BBC has an item on damage done to the Zoukoudian Caves:

http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/world/asia-pacific/newsid_1298000/1298621.stm

CNN has a piece on the threat to ancient cities in Laos:

http://www.cnn.com/2001/TRAVEL/NEWS/04/26/laos.ancientcities.ap/index.html

SwissInfo reports on an exhibition of ancient textiles from the Taklamakan
Desert:

http://www.swissinfo.org/sen/Swissinfo.html?siteSect=201&sid=661022


NEW WORLD NEWS

There was major coverage of the discovery/redating of the Peruvian city of
Caral:

http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/sci/tech/newsid_1298000/1298460.stm
http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/world/americas/newsid_1299000/1299426.stm
http://www.nandotimes.com/noframes/story/0,2107,500476670-500732206-504186344-0,00.html
http://www.abcnews.go.com/sections/scitech/DailyNews/city010426.html
http://washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/nation/science/A8889-2001Apr26.html
http://www.csmonitor.com/durable/2001/04/27/fp1s3-csm.shtml
http://www.discoveringarchaeology.com/articles/042601-oldestperucity.htm
http://www.enn.com/news/wire-stories/2001/04/04282001/reu_peru_43240.asp
http://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/0,,3-120993,00.html
http://www.thescotsman.co.uk/world.cfm?id=67657
http://www.msnbc.com/news/564981.asp
http://dailynews.yahoo.com/h/nm/20010426/sc/science_city_dc.html
http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2001/04/0426_perucity.html

The Telegraph has a feature on the Mayan site of Las Milpas:

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/et?ac=003100565149417&rtmo=0xbKbsGq&atmo=99999999&pg=/et/01/4/28/wmay28.html

The Salt Lake Tribune has an interesting item on a pile of old footwear
originally found in Promontory Cave:

http://www.sltrib.com/04272001/utah/92394.htm
http://www1.standard.net/stories/local/04-2001/FTP0284@local@28cave@Ogden.asp

The Washington Post has a nice piece on the slave graves at what was once
James Madison's home:

http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A8417-2001Apr26.html

The Columbus Dispatch has an item in anticipation of a conference (held
last week) called "Old and New World Prehistory at the Crossroads":

http://www.dispatch.com/news/news01/apr01/670378.html

ON THE NEWSSTANDS

Archaeology Magazine has a new online issue with abstracts of articles on
ancient Abydos, the recently-discovered inn at Pompeii, the spiritual life
of slaves in America, and numerous other items:

http://www.archaeology.org/0105/toc/toc.html

The Art Newspaper has apparently updated its archaeology page (but not
copyright date!), with items on Stonehenge, the statue of Cybele recently
found in Greece, threats to sites in Sicily, and a cache of coins from Syria:

http://www.theartnewspaper.com/archaeology/archeology.asp

Biblical Archaeology Review also has a new online issue, with articles on
stone shrines in the Negev, the battle over ownership of the Dead Sea
Scrolls, Abraham's Ur, among other things:

http://www.bib-arch.org/bar2.html

Egypt Revealed has a piece in anticipation of a F. Goddio lecture on the
layout of the sunken bits of ancient Alexandria (with a fairly good map):

http://www.egyptrevealed.com/042601-goddio-sunkencity.htm

CLASSICIST'S CORNER

This is the sort of thing I've been dying to do with my classes:

http://inq.philly.com/content/inquirer/2001/04/26/local_news/PDIG26.htm

The Independent has a precis of Peter Wiseman's presidential address to the
Classical Association:

http://www.independent.co.uk/story.jsp?story=69022
http://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/0,,2-117802,00.html

More from the meeting:

http://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/0,,2-118372,00.html

FOLLOWUPS

Buddha birthplace:

http://stacks.msnbc.com/news/563429.asp


Cleopatra at the BM:

http://athensnews.dolnet.gr/athweb/nathens.print_unique?e=C&f=12907&m=A02&aa=3&eidos=S

Herculaneum Papyri:

http://www.standard.net/stories/local/04-2001/ftp0103@local@20decode@ogden.asp

The Hunley:

http://www.hunley.org/html/Excavation/excavation_update_apr_27.htm
http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2001/04/0427_hunleyapril27.html
http://www.msnbc.com/news/565751.asp

Karachi mummy:

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/et?ac=003100565149417&rtmo=fsDwD0os&atmo=99999999&pg=/et/01/4/29/wmum29.html

Pyramid hidden cavities:

http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/world/middle_east/newsid_1285000/1285707.stm
http://athensnews.dolnet.gr/athweb/nathens.print_unique?e=C&f=12907&m=A16&aa=4&eidos=S
http://www.egyptrevealed.com/042301-debunkfrench.htm

Seahenge:

http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/sci/tech/newsid_1298000/1298533.stm

Troy: Myth and Reality:

http://www.msnbc.com/news/556889.asp

OBITUARIES

Laurence Flanagan:

http://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/0,,60-120135,00.html

AT ABOUT.COM

Ancient History Guide N.S. Gill's latest feature is on Spartacus:

http://ancienthistory.about.com/library/weekly/aa042101a.htm

Archaeology Guide Kris Hirst has put up the transcript of last week's chat
with Larry McKee (this week's has, alas, been postponed):

http://archaeology.about.com/science/archaeology/library/chat/n_mckee.htm

REGULAR FEATURES

CTCWeb's Words of the Week
http://ablemedia.com/ctcweb/myword.html


Radio Finland's Nuntii Latini
http://www.yle.fi/fbc/latini/trans.html


English translation (probably delayed ... hasn't been updated since August):
http://www.cbc4kids.ca/general/whats-new/latin-news/mainlatin.html
l>

EXPLORATOR IS ARCHIVED AT:
http://www.onelist.com/archive/Explorator


]|[================================================================]|[
EXPLORATOR is a weekly newsletter representing the fruits of the labours of
'media research division' of The Atrium. Various on-line news and magazine
sources are scoured on a daily basis for news of the ancient world (broadly
construed: practically anything relating to archaeology or history prior
to about 1700 or so is fair game) and when a sufficient number of urls are
gathered (usually a minimum of three stories), they are delivered to your
mailbox free of charge! Those articles that don't expire, plus
supplementary links eventually find a home at:

The Media Archive (just going up as of January 7, 2001):

http://atrium-media.com/mediaarchive.html

]|[================================================================]|[

Explorator is Copyright (c) 2001 David Meadows; Feel free to
distribute these listings via email to your pals, students, teachers,
etc., but please include this copyright notice. These listings are not to
be posted to a website; instead, please provide a link to either
Commentarium or Rostra (or both)! You can subscribe to or unsubscribe from
this list by going to the following web page:
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]|[=================================================================]|[




 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 553 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, May  2, 2001 (11:47) * 13 lines 
 
Gladiator-Era Armor Factory Found

By Jennifer Viegas, Discovery News

May 2 — Archaeologists working in
northern England have excavated
one of the most important finds in
Britain from the Roman period- an
armor workshop containing rare
gladiator-era garb and other Roman
military equipment.

more... http://dsc.discovery.com/news/briefs/20010430/gladiator.html


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 554 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, May 10, 2001 (15:57) * 20 lines 
 
----------------------------------------------------------
/ PHYSICSWEB: E-mail alert
\ (http://PhysicsWeb.org)
==========================================================
----------------------------------------------------------
| News
==========================================================
* Carbon clock could show the wrong time: (10 May)
Carbon dating is a mainstay of geology and archaeology -
but an enormous peak discovered in the amount of
carbon-14 in the atmosphere between 45 thousand and 11
thousand years ago casts doubt on the biological carbon
cycle that underpins the technique. The study led by
physicist Warren Beck of the University of Arizona, US,
could also affect estimates of how quickly the Earth can
re-absorb the excess carbon dioxide generated by fossil
fuels (J W Beck et al 2001 Science to
appear).
[ http://PhysicsWeb.org/article/news/5/5/7 ]
----------------------------------------------------------


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 555 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, May 11, 2001 (15:07) * 56 lines 
 
Va. Highway Work Unearths Ancient Quarry of Jasper

By Craig Timberg
Washington Post Staff Writer
Friday, May 4, 2001; Page B01

CULPEPER COUNTY, Va. -- The drive for the future here has turned up tantalizing clues about Virginia's prehistoric past.
In the path of a long-awaited four-lane highway, archaeologists working for the Virginia Department of Transportation
discovered reddish-brown pieces of jasper, a rock that the continent's earliest settlers used for spear points, knives and other tools.
Hundreds of pieces of it, in flakes that looked like the result of human handiwork, turned up in a test pit right in the path of
where the new and improved Route 3 was to pass through a rural stretch of this county halfway between Charlottesville and Washington.
Five years and $300,000 of state-funded digging later, archaeologists are hailing the site, dubbed Brook Run, as a rare and
exquisitely well-preserved ancient quarry. It dates to more than 11,000 years ago, a time many scientists call the earliest
human habitation of the region.
The site consists of two pits, nearly 14 feet deep through bedrock and soil, and less than two feet across at the bottom.
Archaeologists are puzzling over how ancient people, without the benefits of backhoes or even a modern shovel, managed
to dig so deep to extract stones from a vertical seam so narrow.
"They must have been very narrow people who went down there and hauled that stuff out," marveled Michael F. Johnson,
Fairfax County staff archaeologist.
They are equally astonished that Brook Run was found at all in a place where scientific models didn't predict human
settlements and no disruption at the surface offered a hint of what lay beneath.
The shovel test pits were dug about every 50 feet along the 10-mile highway corridor from Lignum to the outskirts of the
town of Culpeper. Such surveys for historic and cultural artifacts are common for road-building projects; finds as valuable as
Brook Run are not.
"If [highway officials] had just walked through here without doing the shovel test, they never would have found the site," said
archaeologist Eric Voigt, whose firm, the Louis Berger Group, has a contract with the Virginia Department of Transportation.
Voigt and crews of up to a dozen workers have spent the past year excavating the site.
The evidence they found suggests that Paleo-Indians, the ancestors of today's American Indians, came across the jasper by
accident -- as VDOT did -- maybe while following game or traveling to villages on the Rappahannock or Rapidan river,
more than a mile away.
Over the next several hundred years, Voigt said, the Paleo-Indians returned repeatedly, digging deeper each time into the
seam of jasper and carrying back hunks of the rock to their villages, where they fashioned it into tools.
Voigt and his crew found a rock hearth dating back 11,500 years but little other evidence of human habitation here.
"This site does show, even more strongly, how important really good raw materials were to these folks," he said.
Dating the site were pieces of burned wood that fell into the narrow pits.
Carbon dating of the burned wood and the rock hearth put the age of the site between 10,500 and 11,500 years ago.
Voigt stirred brief hopes of a more stunning discovery when one relic initially appeared to be 15,000 years old.
Archaeologists had long agreed that humans arrived in the Americas across a land bridge from Asia and settled the continent
about 11,500 years ago. But recent discoveries have challenged that, and some archaeologists were hoping that Brook Run
would offer proof that humans settled in the Americas thousands of years earlier and perhaps arrived along a different route.
A site called Cactus Hill, in Sussex County south of Richmond, has relics seeming to date back that far, but the finding
remains controversial.
At Brook Run, a more precise reading this week of the oldest relic put its date at 11,500 years ago.
Virginia was then emerging from the Ice Age and had a climate far colder than today, with more pine trees and a different
mix of wildlife, including bison.
There are few archaeological sites on the East Coast as old as Brook Run. Virginia has three others, Cactus Hill,
Thunderbird in Warren County and Williamson in Dinwiddie County.
Smithsonian archaeologist Dennis Stanford visited Brook Run this week and came away astonished. "We didn't know
people did that type of quarrying," he said. "Every bit of data that can be gleaned out of each site is just wonderful."
Voigt and his crews have extracted more than 700,000 relics from Brook Run for analysis.
They plan to fill the site with sand and cover it with plantings so future archaeologists will be able to continue exploring it.
To make that easier, VDOT has revamped its designs for improving Route 3.
Officials plan to build a narrower median strip so the new road doesn't disturb the ancient quarry. "There's just no way you
can justify paving over this site," said VDOT spokesman Jim Jennings.

© 2001 The Washington Post Company


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 556 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, May 11, 2001 (15:27) * 3 lines 
 
More on the above story on the ancient site in Virginia

http://www.culpepernews.com/Archive/n1feb01.htm#past


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 557 of 1283: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Sun, May 13, 2001 (14:45) * 1 lines 
 
Wow! Yet another controversial site to conflict with the conventional thought as to when the Native Americans arrived. Perhaps they are right in their view that they have always been here. Then maybe those who acertain that the arrived about 30,000 years ago are right. Or perhaps there was no one migration, but a succession of migrations into the Americas by different means and routes over a long period of time.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 558 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, May 13, 2001 (20:15) * 1 lines 
 
Yup - the "Clovis First" debate has probably been buried for good. Too much evidence points to earlier than formerly though occupation of the North American continent!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 559 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, May 13, 2001 (20:28) * 1 lines 
 
My considered opinion (Please, prove me wrong!) is that many migtrations of many sorts of origins occurred. Over a very long time. I think we are just beginning to discover what is in those woods. Even as far east as the East Coast of North America! Check the age of Meadowcroft and contemporary structures!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 560 of 1283: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Tue, May 15, 2001 (19:24) * 1 lines 
 
Meadowcroft is considered to be at least 13,000 years old, I think. The Meadowcroft data was considered extremely controversial in the early days of the excavation.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 561 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, May 15, 2001 (20:38) * 1 lines 
 
I think the Meadowcroft dates are still controversial. Groundwater seepage and nearby springs were though to contaminate the site, but think the Clovis Firsters are fianlly conceding that Clovies was NOT first no matter what dates the afix to Meadowcroft.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 562 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, May 20, 2001 (23:22) * 18 lines 
 
Silbury Hill is about to be subjected to a 3D seismic scan:
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/et?ac=003100565149417&rtmo=rQFhmbXX&atmo=99999999&pg=/et/01/5/18/nstone18.html

Archaeologists have found stained glass which might be associated with Lady
Godiva:
http://www.guardian.co.uk/Archive/Article/0,4273,4186858,00.html

The discovery of a 17th century shipwreck might delay pipeline construction
in Dublin Bay:
http://www.iol.co.za/html/frame_news.php?click_id=588&art_id=qw990116701574B264

Not really archaeology or ancient, but interesting nonetheless is the claim
that Anne Boleyn might have been pregnant when she was executed:
http://www.independent.co.uk/story.jsp?story=73561

The Guardian has a feature on what a career in archaeology might involve:
http://www.guardian.co.uk/Archive/Article/0,4273,4188105,00.html



 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 563 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, May 22, 2001 (00:02) * 69 lines 
 
Archaeology is hopelessly enmeshed in politics,
wars etc. During war, opposing sides are always
quick to target monuments of national importance and
national pride, and the archaeologicalo heritage of
opposing sides. Archaeology is endlessly manipulated
to suit the ideology of people. But on a more
humorous note I decided to post some howlers I
personally was told by people I met. The funny thing
is not so much the ignorance but the pride and
"know-all" attitude of the people I was speaking to.
Some people love to bash/show off to archaeologists
for some reason....

1) (On the temples of Ireland and Malta) "But they
have the same spirals. I think I have understood
what happened. An irish craftsman who made the
symbols on Newgrange travelled to Malta and made
them on the temples there as well".

2) (On the Pyramids of Egypt) "You have an
absolutely closed mind. Can you not at least
consider that there was a possibility that the
pyramids were build by aliens from the Plaedes? No?
But u CANT say no! You are so closed minded!"

3)(on megaliths) "I dont call them megaliths. I have
read many books on the subject and prefer to call
them sarsens. Have you sarsens in Malta?" (she
didn't realise that sarsen was a stone type that
some of the stonehenge megaliths were made out of)

4)(Guide taking us around the Hypogeum) "And here is
the hole where there was the snakepit, and justabove
it in that niche they kept a statue of the mother
goddess holding snakes (???). Right above us are the
famous red ochre spirals. They are the trees of life
like the tree of life in the Bible and Mesopotamia
(????) and in those hollows over there women slept
offering their dreams to the goddess (??????????)."
(needless to say for once i was speechless).

5) (Angry man talking to me over phone when i was
working at the arch museum) "Tourists come up to me
and ask me where the Salina catacombs are and I am
ashamed to tell them they were destroyed by people
putting rubbish in them and that you lot did nothing
to stop it. I used to go to the catacombs everyday!
Now they are building over them!! You lot are
**&%$#@#" ...(ME) "Excuse me sir where exactly do
you place the salina catacombs?"...(HIM)..."what do
you mean? under X overY of
course!"...(ME)..."uhh...no..not exactltly they are
in L under S"...(HIM)..."OH" **click**

(know-all man in attendance of archaeology lecture
on the building of the temples) "I disagree with
this presentation. It would have taken far more
labour to build the temples. I am an engineer! I
know these things. You didn't even mention the guy
who would have written down all the plans and given
them to the others to follow..." (umm maltese
temples are dated to 5000-3000 in all..like..no
writing in Malta then? ouch this was bad...it was a
public lecture)

Thanks for this, Sióg
http://clubs.yahoo.com/clubs/prehistoricarchaeology




 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 564 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, May 22, 2001 (15:19) * 33 lines 
 
Thanks for this H_H

Secrets of Stone Age hill to be revealed
By David Derbyshire, Science Correspondent

THE largest and most mysterious Stone Age earth mound in Western Europe may be about to reveal some of its closely guarded secrets.
Archaeologists are assembling on the summit of Silbury Hill, in Avebury,
Wiltshire, to carry out its first three-dimensional seismic scan. The survey will reveal the extent of damage caused to the World Heritage Site by 18th and 19th century investigators.
It may also solve the long-standing mystery
of whether chambers, tunnels and burial rooms lie within the mound. Silbury
Hill is about 130ft high and has a circumference at its base of 1,640ft. It
covers five acres and is made from 12 million cubic feet of soil and chalk. It
was built between 2800 and 2000 BC, but its purpose remains a mystery.
The hill has attracted numerous legends. According to one, a solid gold knight
and horse are hidden in a burial chamber. Last year a hole appeared on its flat
summit, the result of a partial collapse of a vertical mine shaft dug by the Duke
of Northumberland into the middle of the mound in 1776.
His excavation found nothing, but archaeologists believe that the shaft was
carelessly filled in. The hole at the summit, which measures 24ft by 18ft wide
and is around 12 feet deep, is threatening the stability of the site.
English Heritage, which is funding a dig to find out more, said a seismic scan
within the next few weeks would reveal the extent of the instability and the
state of other mine shafts dug in 1849, 1867, 1886 and 1968.
Amanda Chadburn, English Heritage's inspector of ancient monuments, said:
"The excavations will provide us with knowledge essential to our
understanding of the hill's present condition.
"Together with a seismic survey, it will enable us to solve some extremely
complex technical problems and decide on the most effective strategy for
repairs." The mound is thought to have religious significance and forms part of
a complex of monuments in Avebury.

http://clubs.yahoo.com/clubs/prehistoricarchaeology



 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 565 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, May 22, 2001 (16:21) * 16 lines 
 
Ancient cemetery discovered in Costa Rica
San Jose, Costa Rica - Human
remains more than 2 500 years old
have been found on Costa Rica's Pacific coast and are believed to be
part of an important pre-Colombian cemetery, scientists said on
Wednesday.
A fisherman discovered the site in April when he came across some
bones 200 miles (320 kms) north-east of the capital, San Jose, said
Vicente Guerrero, an archaeologist with the National Museum.
Among the cadavers is a small child whose remains were well
preserved.
The site had been covered by the ocean, but was exposed during a
low tide common in April.
Guerrero said the burial was unique in its detail. Scientists have been
able to determine the subjects' sex, age, height and cause of death.
- Sapa-AP


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 566 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, May 22, 2001 (16:53) * 29 lines 
 
More on P I C T I S H
http://www.linguistlist.org/~ask-ling/archive-1998.7/msg00983.html
and especially
http://www.britannica.com/seo/p/pictish-language/ (the britannica
article will list sources.
There is some disagreement among scholars but generally, newer
scholarship indicates that the Picts spoke a very ancient dialect of
Brythonic or P-Celtic, like the language of the Gauls and Britons,
rather than Goidelic or Gaelic like the Irish and Scotts.
There are those who still disagree, however. When Columba went to
proselytize the Picts he needed a translater even though he spoke
both Briton and Irish. People of the "non-Celtic" school point to
this as evidence that the Picts were a non-Celtic ore even non-Indo
European people. But the fact of the matter is that this evidence is
not dispositive because people who speak linguistically similar
languages often cannot understand each other. For example, a French
person would need a translator to converse with people who spoke
Spanish, though they are both Romance languages. An even better way
of looking at it is to say that even the same language may be
unintelligible if you look at a much older dialect than the one with
which you are familiar. How many modern English speakers can
understand Beowulf, for example? Greek, too, has undergone
significant changes in the last 1000 years; I'm told that Byzantine
Greek (used in the Orthodox liturgy) is almost unintelligible to
modern Greek speakers.


Thanks Doug
oldestcivilizations@yahoogroups.com


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 567 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, May 24, 2001 (00:06) * 31 lines 
 
H_H - thank you for sending me this. It is 'orrible!

Duchas objects to
King's Island plans


By Éibhir Mulqueen, Midwest Correspondent

Dúchas, the Heritage Service, says a proposed hotel
development for the King's Island area of Limerick will erase a
medieval laneway and ignores important monuments.

The application by King's Island Developments to build a
107-bedroom hotel is for an area which formed part of the
historic walled city. A substantial part of the wall runs through
the site, Ms Triona Lonergan of the development applications
section of Dúchas told Limerick Corporation.

The proposal is for two interconnected curvilinear blocks,
reaching a height of 20.5 metres, in an area bounded by the
Northern Relief Road, the medieval Long Lane and Sir Harry's
Mall, which runs alongside the Abbey river. The developers
also propose building a pedestrian boardwalk across the river.

"It is proposed to erase all trace of a medieval laneway, the
widening of a second medieval lane and the substantial loss of
the southern end of Sir Harry's Mall," Ms Lonergan said.

more... http://www.ireland.com/newspaper/ireland/2001/0522/hom15.htm




 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 568 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Thu, May 24, 2001 (00:57) * 1 lines 
 
Have asked for a legal opinion on this one .. let you know if I find out anything


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 569 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, May 24, 2001 (15:34) * 1 lines 
 
Thanks for that Maggie!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 570 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, May 27, 2001 (23:32) * 22 lines 
 
DISCOVER ARCHAEOLOGY ONLINE WEEKLY, MAY 24, 2001

http://www.discoveringarchaeology.com/newsletter.shtml

The Feature Report Menu:
* Dateline ... Caral, Peru
* Indian Seabed Hides Ancient Remains
* Oldest European Calendar Deciphered
* So You Want To Be An Archaeologist
* China Strengthens Cultural Relics Protection Laws
* Hunley Commander's Remains Found
* Seafood Gave Modern Humans Edge
* Egyptian Farmer Discovers Ottoman Warship
* Archaeoseismological Research
* U.S. Customs Returns Relic To China
* People Of Mystery
* The Marathon Battlefield/The War Continues

Click here to get there:
http://www.discoveringarchaeology.com/newsletter.shtml

Thank you for subscribing!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 571 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, May 28, 2001 (17:13) * 81 lines 
 
From 'orrible 'orace with thanks from me:

Digging deep to uncover secrets of ancient tomb

Recent geophysical tests conducted at one of Ireland's most fascinating
landmarks will provide some new insights into the mysteries of
the Newgrange passage tomb in Meath's Boyne Valley.

The use of modern technology allows archeologists to map out
what lies hidden underground using electronic waves. It is now
known that the process conducted for the first time at the
historic site has produced a number of startling discoveries.

A report on the findings, which are believed to show a long
"avenue of the dead" leading up to the monument, is now being
evaluated by experts. Details are likely to be released in the
coming months.

Constructed around 3000BC, Newgrange is one of Ireland's
oldest man-made structures and a master feat of engineering
even today. It is the oldest structure in the world with a
recognised solar alignment.

The drum-shaped passage tomb is part of a cluster which
includes the smaller structures at Knowth and Dowth.While it is
known as a passage tomb (the remains of six people were
found inside), experts believe the structure and its surrounds
fulfilled a number of functions which are still not clear today.

It is thought to be a religious site and may also have been a
gathering point for political use. Newgrange is best known for its
marking of the winter solstice on December 22 - the shortest
day of the year. At Newgrange, a "light box" opening above the
entrance channels the sunlight in a beam right down the internal
passage almost to the end of the tunnel.

When Newgrange was first constructed, the alignment of the
earth and sun were slightly different and the beam of sunlight
would have reached right to the central chamber, illuminating it
fully.

The chamber at the end of the Newgrange tunnel has a
corbelled stone roof built by stacking flat stones one on top of
another in a reducing circle - using their own weight to create
stability.

©
Tunnel vision: archeologists have found
an "avenue of the dead" leading to the
Newgrange tomb. Photograph: Eamonn Farrell

Passage tombs like Newgrange and its neighbours, Knowth and
Dowth, were made by building a stone tunnel and the relevant
chambers and then stacking boulders and earth on top.
Newgrange has 200,000 tonnes of rock and stands 42ft (13
metres) high and 260ft (80 metres) across.

Outside Newgrange is "dashed" with gleaming quartz which
cannot be found locally. The tomb is surrounded by large
stones, some of which are carved with spirals thought to
represent the sun while others show lined carvings.

Newgrange was first excavated in the 1960s by Professor
Michael J O'Kelly. The monument was excavated and restored
to its present form.

The Boyne Valley was first occupied 7,000 years ago by a
pre-Celtic people who farmed the fertile valley. Dowth was the
first tomb to be built followed by Newgrange and then Knowth.

The Knowth site is more rounded and only 33ft deep but
contains two tunnels back to back, one facing east and the
other west. Knowth was continually occupied, later providing a
fortress for Celtic and then Norman use. Dowth has remained
unexcavated.

Copyright 2001 Times Newspapers Ltd.






 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 572 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, May 28, 2001 (17:14) * 1 lines 
 
photograph and url for the above article http://www.sunday-times.co.uk/news/pages/sti/2001/05/27/stipripri02021.html


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 573 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, May 28, 2001 (17:29) * 40 lines 
 
Horrible, *Hugs* again for this article. Fascinating stuff!

Earliest Scots discovered

Frank O’Donnell
(fodonnell@scotsman.com)

AMATEUR archaeologists have discovered the earliest known
evidence of human settlement in Scotland - dating from 8500BC.

The remains of a temporary camp at Cramond, on Edinburgh’s
northern foreshore, were uncovered with more than 3,000 artefacts,
including around 300 stone tools and tool fragments.

Tiny fragments of discarded hazelnut shells were the crucial evidence
that the inhabitants of the mesolithic site were the earliest known
people to have lived in Scotland - pushing the starting date for
Scottish civilisation back around 500 years.

The find proves the theory that people began to recolonise Scotland
almost immediately after the last Ice Age. John Lawson, of Edinburgh
City Council’s archaeology service, said: "It’s exciting to think these
are the oldest known remains of settlers in Scotland. This is one of the
most significant archaeological finds in the UK."

Cramond now contains links to all periods of human occupation in
Scotland. Previous excavations have uncovered a Roman fort, the
underlying medireview church and village and a Roman lioness
sculpture.

A team of archaeologists began digging trenches in an area close to a
Roman bath house in 1995. The dig expected to uncover further
Roman remains but it quickly became apparent the team from the
Edinburgh Archaeology Field Society had stumbled upon a mesolithic
site.

Careful analysis of the findings, with the assistance of the local
authority and the National Museums of Scotland, has taken six years
and it is only now archaeologists have been able to confirm the
significance of the discovery.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 574 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Tue, May 29, 2001 (06:44) * 2 lines 
 
Found this brilliant site ...have a look
http://www.ghcc.msfc.nasa.gov/archeology/archeology.html


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 575 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Tue, May 29, 2001 (06:47) * 2 lines 
 
Here's a great link if you want to find lots of archeology sites. There's sure to be something of interest to you here ....
http://bubl.ac.uk/link/hum.html


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 576 of 1283: horrible horace  (horrible) * Tue, May 29, 2001 (14:30) * 2 lines 
 
Regarding Newgrange,I have long thought that the book was still open and now that the proper tools are being used we should soon see how old the site actually is.But I wonder why the other Irish sites are so neglected.The time scale of all the guesses regarding all aspects of the prehistoric occupation of europe ,never mind just Ireland,must be pushed back a good few thousand years.Recent studies by younger Archaeologists versed in all the disciplines are putting the skids under the old farts who have dominated the field for far too long.Simply..it has been a cake walk for the old brigade to bullshit and get away with nonsense,the time of the real Archaeologist has come at long last



 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 577 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, May 29, 2001 (16:33) * 1 lines 
 
I trust you are out there encouraging them. I know your bit of the Auld Sod is sacred ground to you and no stone will be unturned in your efforts to get to the history of the place. Modern technology has been embraced by the new archaeologists, but the power still lies in the Old Boy Network who refuse to upgrage their memory banks or install new thinking. Those I used to worship have become stumbling blocks (go to a fogue in Cornwall to see a real one!) in the path of advancement of Archaeology. You are sadly right, but as long as you are custodian of even a small part of our ancient past, I will rest contented that what can be done will be done correctly. Go to it, man! I am right behind you carrying the lunch and notebooks.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 578 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, May 29, 2001 (23:29) * 3 lines 
 
This stuff Horace just sent me is amazing stuff. I wonder if I should post it under Mysterious Geo... for the time being check out http://www.geocities.com/mythical_ireland/ancientsites/dowth/index.html

Mahalo Nui Loa, Horace. How I would love to see the Boyne monuments!!!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 579 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, May 30, 2001 (00:51) * 0 lines 
 


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 580 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, May 30, 2001 (00:57) * 31 lines 
 
Liam, thanks for this!

http://www.guardianunlimited.co.uk/Print/0,3858,4194064,00.html

Stones that could be Britain's pyramids
Backwardness of ancient Britain is myth, says historian

Fiachra Gibbons, arts correspondent
Tuesday May 29, 2001
The Guardian
The history books tell us how the Romans brought civilisation to the barbarians of Britain. But yesterday an archaeologist turned that long-held belief upside down by claiming that the ancient people of these islands were far more advanced than any of the early Mediterranean cultures.

More daring still, Barry Cunliffe, professor of European archaeology at Oxford, also disputes what he calls the "established pseudo-history" that the Celts swept westwards through Europe until they reached the Atlantic seaboards of Spain, France, Britain and Ireland. "There is simply no evidence for this," he said.

"There was no great movement of peoples towards the Atlantic, because they were already there," he told the Hay-on-Wye book festival yesterday. "Only recently have we begun to discover that these people were far more advanced than those around the Mediterranean. We have underestimated dramatically the complexity of these people."

Professor Cunliffe said the view of Stone Age Britain as backward had been skewed by our historical reliance on Greek and Roman classical texts, which were thick with prejudice and ignorant of almost anything beyond the Pillars of Hercules (Gibraltar). "For all these years we have been looking at Europe the wrong way round, and the idea that civilisation flowed out from the Mediterranean out to the barbarian edges of Europe has clouded our view that it flowed the other way too."

He said the Atlantic civilisations that began to develop on favoured stretches of coasts such as southern Spain, Galicia, Brittany, Cornwall, Ireland and the western |isles of Scotland during the Mesolithic period from 6000 BC were the "most advanced and stable communities in Europe".

He went on: "They were the first, for instance, to make what we call 'careful burials' and to leave offerings for the dead, surrounding their heads with red ochre to symbolise blood. You find remarkable similarity in these coastal burials from Iberia right up to Ireland and even to Denmark."

The huge shellfish middens on which Stone Age people lived, and later buried their dead, also contained hooks and bones of large deep sea fish which proved that they had seagoing vessels. Prof Cunliffe said it was from these middens that the huge megalithic tombs, standing stones and circles that still pockmark Britain and Ireland, sprang up by 3000BC. "Thirty years ago it was held that these great stone monuments were influenced from the Mediterranean cultures, but carbon dating has begun to prove that this building was happening here long before they began to appear in southern Europe."

The "astonishing complexity and daring" of these vast tombs, like those at Newgrange in Co Meath, Ireland, and Maes Howe on Orkney is as impressive as anything in Egypt at the same time. The professor, who has developed his theories in his new book Facing The Atlantic, and a forthcoming volume which follows Pytheas the Greek's circumnavigation of Britain in 320BC, said it was "very mistaken" to dismiss these Atlantic civilisations because they did not
develop early forms of writing.

"There is a tendency to say that the complex, urban societies that developed in the eastern Mediterranean were more advanced because they had writing," he said. "But these Atlantic ones were innovative in other ways. They were hugely more advanced in navigation, shipbuilding and their solar knowledge, and that of the seasons and the stars." But perhaps Prof Cunliffe's most extraordinary claim is that the Gaelic, Welsh, Cornish, Galician and Breton languages are not the last
vestiges of a tongue carried by Celtic invaders from northern India, but were local languages which grew from the aboriginal population.




 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 581 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, May 30, 2001 (01:03) * 2 lines 
 
Good Grief, Middens have given rise to New Grange? Dowth and Nowth? Have they truly yielded fish bones at the bottom? Oh my heavens! Imagine living on your own rubbish tip?! We were a smelly lot. I can only wonder that we did not die off from some plague brough about by flies and rats who surly shared our abode.
I think I need another bath!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 582 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, May 30, 2001 (01:16) * 5 lines 
 
Horace, The dolmen at Bree has a recumbent stone circle? I am all astonishment. A mini Boyne monument! I recall seeing dolmens in Wales and in Cornwall. None had standing stones around them. Henge traces, but no stones that I recall. *Getting out my books again*

Your website is wonderful. May I offer my congratulations on a job well done?! I plan to spen hours in your company scraping the ground softly with a badger brush so I do not harm the glass shards. I also plan to get a bit of Rhyolite for my volcanic rock collection. Plants I will tackle in a bit elsewhere. Your home is wonderful. You did a splendid job on it!

http://homepage.eircom.net/~bree


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 583 of 1283: horrible horace  (horrible) * Wed, May 30, 2001 (14:12) * 2 lines 
 
Thank you for your kind words Marcia and I must send you some Rhyolite,some limestone from the cliffs of Moher in Co. Clare and some 430 million year old fossil bearing limestone from the Hook Head here in Wexford which is sadly disappearing due to the action of Mother Nature ,Liam
PS I did a post recently in your lovely conference and one of the young and fragrant members said that I did not sound horrible at all.Any more slanderous libelous stuff like that and I will show how horrible I am.Not horrible indeed,where do these youngsters get their ideas from?


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 584 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, May 30, 2001 (15:57) * 3 lines 
 
OOOOOOuuuuuuuuu Sacred stones from the Emerald Isle?! FOSSILS?????? I will understand if it is not possible... The thought is lovely and the suggestion is much appreciated.

See??? Not Horrible at all. Or is that for scaring the ladies who get too close? How horrible are you half way around the world? Can you scare straight through the earth?!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 585 of 1283: horrible horace  (horrible) * Fri, Jun  1, 2001 (17:12) * 1 lines 
 
Me? scare ladies? never


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 586 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Jun  2, 2001 (14:43) * 3 lines 
 
Ah, That is nice to know. You warned us about how horrible you could be. I'll never tell what a pussycat you really are!

Tell them to stick their cell-phone masts... well, trying to be a lady about this is not easy. Just tell them to shove them ! I'll help!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 587 of 1283: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Sat, Jun  2, 2001 (15:25) * 1 lines 
 
A pussycat? Marcia do you mean that Horrible Horace might occasionally be, just a little bit, horrible. After all, pussycats may have soft fur and purr, but they also have fangs and claws.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 588 of 1283: horrible horace  (horrible) * Sat, Jun  2, 2001 (17:15) * 1 lines 
 
and things that go bump in the night


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 589 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Jun  2, 2001 (21:51) * 3 lines 
 
Uh oh... I'd better behave myself. Lots of stuff goes bump in the night when you dwell in a house 250 years old and live on land occupied for aeons. You don't happen to have Indian burial grounds, do you? You don't want to build your Hale (Hawaiian for "house") on that! Native Hawaiian burials are also not a good thing to build upon. Night-marchers, you know!




 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 590 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Jun  2, 2001 (23:39) * 7 lines 
 
French Scientists Revive Napoleon Poisoning Theory

French scientists on Friday presented new findings which they say prove that Napoleon was poisoned with arsenic, reinforcing the controversial theory that the emperor was murdered by French and British conspirators.
http://dailynews.yahoo.com/h/nm/20010601/sc/life_napoleon_dc_1.html


***watch out for that Napoleon Brandy!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 591 of 1283: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Sun, Jun  3, 2001 (13:17) * 1 lines 
 
I'm more inclined to believe that Napoleon poisoned himself rather than endure the sheer boredom of life on St. Helena.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 592 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Jun  3, 2001 (14:43) * 1 lines 
 
I thought it was the aresenic on his wallpaper that did it. Copper arsenate was commonly known as Paris Green and was the chief source of green pigment for art and printing (and wallpaper) early on. It is illegal to use it now, for good reason!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 593 of 1283: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Sun, Jun  3, 2001 (15:51) * 3 lines 
 
I thought that some of you might be interested in this link in regard to the Celts.

http://www.ares.u-net.com/celtindx.htm


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 594 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Jun  3, 2001 (15:55) * 1 lines 
 
Ooouuu yes!!! Thank you ... will report back. I have been "buried" in pyroclastic flows all morning and this will be a pleasant break ! Mahalo Nui!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 595 of 1283: horrible horace  (horrible) * Sun, Jun  3, 2001 (16:21) * 1 lines 
 
I have downloaded that site to read later ,Cheryl,thank you for the link.A little caution on some "Celtic " sites ,racists have been known to take over the celtic history and twist it to try to prove some theory of a master-race in the Nazi style.I am not exactly a Politically Correct person but i abhor these people.That said there are some very good sites dealing with my great(to the power of megawatt)granddaddy.I will post some links later..I am still the new boy in this very nice and active Conference.(Thats another kiss you owe me Marcia)


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 596 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Jun  3, 2001 (18:05) * 3 lines 
 
There are some slightly "off-beat" (trying to be charitable) links there that should provide sfor some interesting conversation. Horace, you and I share these hisroty reconstructionists. The damage everything they touch. Soil and despoil. (All you have to do is make sure you have the entire url listed including the http part) *BIG HUGS* I am so delighted to have you join us. I hope you feel right at home. Thank you *kisses* for the lovely compliment! You are the ones who make it work. Otherwise you get my monologues all the time...

Politically Correct is an oxymoron to me. How offensive!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 597 of 1283: horrible horace  (horrible) * Sun, Jun  3, 2001 (18:42) * 1 lines 
 
Back to some nice Archaeo..sorry I have not yet upated my site on the ad-freeEircom,but if anyone is interested the photos of the stones surounding the Dolmen are on http://www.geocities.com/bree_house ,go to the photofile,which shows 4 blank buttons,click on the third one down(I hope,I'm on apple and blackberry wine just now) it should show a list of photos with red bits all over. Any questions to breehouse@eircom.net Liam


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 598 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Jun  3, 2001 (21:49) * 2 lines 
 
Ok... Wonder if you wrote this before or after our little conversation...*;)
Thank you!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 599 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Jun  3, 2001 (21:53) * 1 lines 
 
I found them!!! Thank you. The are on the photofile page. Just scroll down below the four dolmen ones and there are 13 photos complete with the arrows (must have Welshmen about!) Hugs... I hope you slept soundly!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 600 of 1283: horrible horace  (horrible) * Mon, Jun  4, 2001 (12:57) * 1 lines 
 
There may well be a full circle of stones around that Dolmen,its very overgrown with brambles etc and as its not on my land I cant touch anything.maybe we will have a little conversation later............


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 601 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Jun  4, 2001 (14:20) * 5 lines 
 
Better to let the brambles hide the desirable stone rather than to have someone blast them to small bits and make chimneys out of them. Every been to Avebury? The entire town and walls around gardens are built out of that monument's stones. They even tried to bury then since they considered standing stones to be blasphemous. (Don't get me started on the evils done in the name of God.)

Keep your stones hidden until someone protects it under the Ancient Momuments protection statutes - if they exist (the statutes, that is) Is it possible to porbe with a long pipe that would not damage the stones nor hurt them? As in an aluminum thin-walled pipe? At least you might be able to locate more of them if that were the case.

Talk later... You usually manage to find me!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 602 of 1283: horrible horace  (horrible) * Tue, Jun  5, 2001 (15:45) * 1 lines 
 
That was a nice link Cheryl ,thank you, I have read an enjoyed the site


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 603 of 1283: horrible horace  (horrible) * Tue, Jun  5, 2001 (15:48) * 1 lines 
 
I am only allowed to look at and take pics of the Dolmen Marcia,otherwise it would be completly explored by now. I would have brought you in as special advisor and such a nice time would have been had...


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 604 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Jun  5, 2001 (16:42) * 1 lines 
 
OOOOOOuuuuuuu yes! *Big wistful sigh*


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 605 of 1283: horrible horace  (horrible) * Tue, Jun  5, 2001 (16:55) * 1 lines 
 
damn,just missed you..had to after a fox..after telling you all about locking up on time I was 30 mins late and a poor duck was taken right at the window.By the time I got the gun the %*@@##$ was gone with duck over its shoulder.When it comes back I will be waiting.Talk to you soon


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 606 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Jun  5, 2001 (18:37) * 1 lines 
 
Ah, we did talk. The fox got his unhappy dinner and I got to talk to you. I trust you are loaded and ready for bear next time. *Gathering up rocks for Nick* Did you say you wanted a Lava nymph in that box, too?


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 607 of 1283: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Tue, Jun  5, 2001 (19:19) * 5 lines 
 
Horace, I'm glad that you enjoyed the site. The man whose site it is has a book, either just our or just coming out, called "The Atlantic Celts".

I'm sorry to hear about one of your ducks. I hope the rest are safe.

Lava nymph? Marcia are you thinking of mailing yourself to Ireland?


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 608 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Jun  5, 2001 (21:40) * 1 lines 
 
*wide-eyed innocence* Just wanted to see the Dolmen for myself...


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 609 of 1283: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Wed, Jun  6, 2001 (09:48) * 48 lines 
 
Published online before print June 5, 2001
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 10.1073/pnas.121590798
http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/abstract/121590798v1


Ornaments of the earliest Upper Paleolithic: New insights from the Levant
Steven L. Kuhn, Mary C. Stiner, David S. Reese, and Erksin Güleç
Department of Anthropology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721-0030;
Peabody Museum of Natural History, Yale University, P.O. Box 208118, New Haven,
CT 06520-8118; and § Paleoantropoloji, Ankara Üniversitesi, Dil ve
Tarih-Corafya Fakültesi, Shhiye, 06100, Ankara, Turkey


Two sites located on the northern Levantine coast, Üçazl Cave (Turkey) and Ksar
'Akil (Lebanon) have yielded numerous marine shell beads in association with
early Upper Paleolithic stone tools. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS)
radiocarbon dates indicate ages between 39,000 and 41,000 radiocarbon years
(roughly 41,000-43,000 calendar years) for the oldest ornament-bearing levels
in Üçazl Cave. Based on stratigraphic evidence, the earliest shell beads from
Ksar 'Akil may be even older. These artifacts provide some of the earliest
evidence for traditions of personal ornament manufacture by Upper Paleolithic
humans in western Asia, comparable in age to similar objects from Eastern
Europe and Africa. The new data show that the initial appearance of Upper
Paleolithic ornament technologies was essentially simultaneous on three
continents. The early appearance and proliferation of ornament technologies
appears to have been contingent on variable demographic or social conditions.
To whom reprint requests should be addressed. E-mail: skuhn@u.arizona.edu.
www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.121590798

Archaeologists Home In on Body Ornament Origins
From earrings and necklaces to lipstick and tattoos, humans across cultures
decorate themselves. Yet exactly how and why this practice came about has
proved somewhat of a mystery, owing to holes in the archaeological record.
Findings announced today in the early online edition of the Proceedings of the
National Academy of Sciences, however, are offering new insight. According to
the report, the technology for making body ornaments such as beads and pendants
emerged simultaneously in Europe, Asia and Africa more than 40,000 years
ago—perhaps as a new form of communication among the expanding populations in
these regions.
Previous work had turned up ancient ornaments crafted from shells, teeth, ivory
and stone dating to the early Upper Paleolithic period in Africa and Europe.
The new research, conducted by Steven L. Kuhn and Mary C. Stiner of the
University of Arizona and their colleagues, shows that people in the Levant
were making ornaments back then too. Recent excavations at a cave in Turkey and
reappraisal of some Lebanese remains, the team reports, have revealed shell
beads that are at least 41,000 years old.
Full text:
http://www.sciam.com/news/060501/2.html


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 610 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Jun  6, 2001 (15:13) * 1 lines 
 
I would love to see pictures of their finds...


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 611 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Jun  6, 2001 (17:09) * 0 lines 
 


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 612 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Jun  6, 2001 (17:12) * 7 lines 
 
Speaking of Dolmens... I had a long bit written just as my computer froze and took my thoughts with it. Here, thanks to Liam for permission
http://www.geocities.com/bree_house/dolmen.html


The Dolmen at Bree, County Wexford, Ireland.
© Liam Ryan 2001



 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 613 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Jun  6, 2001 (17:18) * 1 lines 
 
Under the above photo on the webpage for the dolmens the buttons will take you to further pictures. Some Dolmens are quite cramped inside and some, like Lanyon Quoit in Cornwall were reputedly high enough for a man on horseback to ride though in the "old days" (Probably in the 18th century.) Lanyon is quite high compared with the others I have seen which strongly resemble the one from Bree. There was a turf mound over this stone structure originally. With some you can still see the outline on the ground of the extent of the mound's circumference. And, lest I be unclear, "quoit" is the name in Cornwall for "dolmen" used elsewhere.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 614 of 1283: horrible horace  (horrible) * Wed, Jun  6, 2001 (17:24) * 2 lines 
 
And the word Dolmen is from a beton word meaning "stone table" and you can see why



 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 615 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Jun  6, 2001 (18:02) * 0 lines 
 


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 616 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Jun  6, 2001 (18:03) * 1 lines 
 
"men" is for stone as in menhir (standing stone)... if I remember correctly.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 617 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Jun  6, 2001 (20:55) * 1 lines 
 
Ok, what did you do to change your pictures? You changed urls!!! That means I wait til you quit fiddling with your website or download them to mine... You ARE Horrible, after all.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 618 of 1283: horrible horace  (horrible) * Thu, Jun  7, 2001 (06:02) * 1 lines 
 
i have'nt changed a thing Marcia what pics are changed?


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 619 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Jun  7, 2001 (11:48) * 3 lines 
 
http://www.spring.net/yapp-bin/restricted/read/Geo/17.612

Your dolmen no longer shows and instead of the image that ugly little "where an image should be" (that broken little pink and blue box) is there instead.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 620 of 1283: horrible horace  (horrible) * Fri, Jun  8, 2001 (16:54) * 1 lines 
 



 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 621 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Jun  8, 2001 (17:08) * 3 lines 
 
You learned how to delete, did you? Or are you giving us the silent treatment?
(Anyone wanting toknow how to delete their own posts can contact me for the command string. You can only delete your own posts unless you are the Conference Creator )



 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 622 of 1283: horrible horace  (horrible) * Fri, Jun  8, 2001 (17:35) * 1 lines 
 
pressed the wrong button,sorry


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 623 of 1283: horrible horace  (horrible) * Fri, Jun  8, 2001 (17:37) * 1 lines 
 
submit instead of redisplay,have i got to stand in the corner?


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 624 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Jun  8, 2001 (18:02) * 1 lines 
 
You, never! Unless I am in the corner of choice, perhaps? Feeding the wolf, of course!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 625 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Jun  8, 2001 (20:27) * 24 lines 
 
From Maggie, with hugs -

Indian tribe objects to archaeological dig
June 7, 2001 Posted: 8:43 AM EDT (1243 GMT)

TRAVERSE CITY, Michigan (AP) -- An American Indian tribe is trying to halt an
archaeological dig at the site of a 17th-century settlement where Indians and
French settlers once lived.

The Sault Ste. Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians contends the research team from
Michigan State University is showing disrespect for what many natives consider
sacred ground.

The dig is taking place in St. Ignace, an Upper Peninsula town on the Straits
of Mackinac, where Lakes Huron and Michigan converge. Missionary Jacques
Marquette, a Jesuit priest, founded the village in 1671.

Some tribe members complained the student workers smoked in the pit, wore heavy
boots that could have crushed artifacts, and did not show proper deference to
their surroundings.

Full text:
http://www.cnn.com/2001/TECH/science/06/07/excavation.protest.ap/index.html



 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 626 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Jun  8, 2001 (20:36) * 449 lines 
 
Subject: bones of contention
Date: Sun, 3 Jun 2001 00:11:02 -0400

The Body in Question
The discovery of the remains of a 9,000-year-old man on the Columbia River
has set off a conflict over race, history and identity that isn't just about
the American past, but about the future as well
By Steve Coll
Washington Post Staff Writer
Sunday, June 3, 2001; Page W08
http://washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/style/postmagazine/A99386-2001May30.html
A middle-aged man with a long face died near the north bank of the Columbia
River about 9,000 years ago. He had known violence: crushed ribs, a chipped
elbow, a fractured skull. A stone-tipped spear or projectile once plunged
into his right hip, leaving a fragment in his bones. He survived and wandered
western America for months and perhaps years afterward.
The man lived among hunter-gatherers who covered vast distances in small
bands. They rarely stopped for more than a few days. They made little effort
to store food. Some may have trekked on long, solo walkabouts. A restless
search for elk, bison, deer and pronghorn dominated their lives. Continually
at risk, they had little time for decorative arts or social ritual. But they
had tools, spears, language and something like ambition.

In the coulee-riven plateau between the Rockies and the Cascades where the
man with the long face died, there were very few people -- perhaps as few as
500 or 1,000 in all of what is now eastern Washington, eastern Oregon, Idaho
and Nevada, scholars say. Bitter winters and erratic vegetation threatened
famine, but a man who could take a spear in his hip and keep walking had a
fair chance on this terrain.

Today the man's skull and skeleton lie in storage in Seattle's Burke Museum,
sequestered by a federal court order. If he could somehow be revived, he
might be dismayed to learn that he has become known as Kennewick Man, after
the shabby electricity-generating town in eastern Washington ("Welcome to
Kennewick: A Public Power Community") where his bones were discovered in 1996
by beer-sodden college students sneaking into a speedboat race. Five years
on, because of a scientific, cultural and legal battle that would be
difficult to explain to him or any of his fellow hunter-gatherers, the man's
final resting place seems unlikely to be decided until the U.S. Supreme Court
expresses an opinion. Meanwhile, disputants in Bonnichsen et al. v. United
States of America and its related, sprawling Interior Department proceeding
are set to reconvene before a federal magistrate in Portland, Ore., on June
19. Presiding will be Judge John Jelderks, who has noted that "some of the
issues presented in this case are questions of first impression that have not
previously been addressed by any court."
In the lawsuit, eight prominent American archaeologists and physical
anthropologists seek to block the U.S. government from delivering Kennewick
Man's remains to a coalition of five Northwest Indian tribes, who claim him
as an ancestor and intend to honor him by reburying him. In siding with the
Indians, the government cites a 1990 federal law that gives tribes extensive
rights over remains judged as "culturally affiliated" with modern Indians.
The law seeks in part to redress grave-robbing and racist theorizing by
19th-century white scientists who studied Native American bones.

The anthropologists who sued argue that these particular remains are a rare
scientific treasure. The bones are like precious books in a government
library, the scientists say, and they have a First Amendment right to study
them. At stake, argues the Smithsonian Institution's Douglas Owsley, one of
the plaintiffs, is "the right to ask questions of the past." But
then-Interior Secretary Bruce Babbitt concluded last September that Kennewick
Man is likely an ancestor of modern Indians and that the scientists have no
legal basis to stop reburial. The tribes accuse the scientists of
perpetuating exploitive study of Native American bones. "We are very much
involved as well as intrigued and interested in our own history, as well as
all history," says Jeff Van Pelt of the Federated Tribes of the Umatilla
Reservation. "But science needs to have some kind of ethical foundation on
controlling how far is too far."

The case has become so inflamed that scholars involved speak of shouting
matches and threatened fisticuffs at academic conferences, as well as
vindictive silent treatments meted out in divided university anthropology
departments. Debate about race has deepened the resentments. When Kennewick
Man was first discovered, some scientists examined his skull's shape and
declared that he might have physically resembled modern Europeans, not modern
Native Americans. Newspapers and magazines carried sensational stories
describing speculation by scholars that modern Indian tribes might be
descended from Asian people who arrived later than a previously unknown
European group. (Very few scholars credit this theory today.) For a while, a
small religious sect of Norse revivalists based in California, called the
Asatru Folk Assembly, joined the Kennewick Man lawsuit, arguing that the
bones may have belonged to one of their ancestors.
The conversion of a 9,000-year-old skeleton into a racialized proxy for
conflicts about American culture and identity provoked angry interventions by
yet more scholars. They saw no convincing evidence of European origin. All
the talk about Kennewick Man's identity, they argued, dangerously
misconstrued the meaning of race.

Initially, much of the controversy seemed to concern mysteries of the
American past. When and how did people first arrive here? Who would control
evidence about that history -- scientists, the U.S. government or Indian
tribes?
The longer the case has dragged on, however, the less it has served to
illuminate the American past, and the more it has seemed to reveal the
American present.
Jim Chatters was watching "Star Trek: The Next Generation" on television when
it came to him. For months he had been walking streets and staring at
strangers, looking for a face and head shape that matched what he saw in
Kennewick Man's skull. To him, the skull had contours that "you typically
find in Europeans," as he recalls. "I was looking hard . . . Some people from
India that I saw looked similar but they lacked -- the cranial form was
different." Then onto the TV screen strode Capt. Jean Luc-Picard, the British
actor Patrick Stewart. Eureka! "I said, 'Whoa, that's the closest I've seen."
In his office basement on a March afternoon four years later, Chatters's
hands brush across a replica of Kennewick Man's head. "You can already see
the Patrick Stewart sighting," he is saying. Unshaven, Chatters wears jeans
and a polo shirt and sports a gold earring. He keeps the Kennewick head
replica as an icon in his musty split-level home in eastern Washington. "Look
how the nose projects," he says, caressing the head rapidly, "the slight
backward sweep of the cheekbones, this very delicate jaw . . ."

Chatters's life changed when the coroner of Benton County, Wash., telephoned
almost five years ago. The coroner had been asked to examine a mysterious
skeleton discovered during the Tri-City Water Follies hydroplane boat race on
the dam-slackened Columbia. A former federal research scientist who now ran
his own archaeology firm, Chatters was the coroner's occasional consultant.
Initially, Chatters declared that the bones probably belonged to a
19th-century European settler. He then sent a fragment off for radiocarbon
dating. When the lab reported that it was about 9,000 years old, Chatters
helped organize a news conference, although no peer-reviewed scientific work
had been completed. Before the assembled media, Chatters declared that the
skeleton "looks like no one I've ever seen before." But if he had to choose a
category, he would say the bones looked "Caucasoid," most resembling those of
a "pre-modern European."

Enraged by these racial speculations, five local Indian tribes organized a
formal coalition to demand the bones for reburial. They said the skeleton
much more likely belonged to an ancestor of theirs than to some sort of
ancient Caucasoid. ("Caucasoid" is a term used by physical anthropologists to
describe skull and skeletal shapes common today in Europe, the Middle East
and South Asia, and does not typically refer to skin color. However, the word
"Caucasian," which is often used by Americans to refer to whites, is defined
in Webster's as a synonym of "Caucasoid." Thus even when scientists believe
they are using a technical, race-neutral term, they can be understood as
referring directly to race.) The five Northwest tribes argued that federal
law required Chatters to consult with them when digging for bones with
probable Indian origin -- he seemed to be doing an end run around the law,
they said. Indian cultural traditions held that ancestors should be buried
with privacy and dignity, they said; Chatters was now making a public
spectacle of the remains.
The decision about the skeleton's fate fell to the Army Corps of Engineers,
which managed the land where it was found. Without explaining itself, the
Corps quickly sided with the Indians and moved to hand over the bones. That's
when the eight scientists found a lawyer and went to court. The injunction
they won in the fall of 1996 put Kennewick Man's bones on hold and is still
in force.
The Indians involved speak bitterly of Chatters's catalyzing conduct. They
see him as a self-aggrandizer trying to acquire a national reputation from
human remains he should never have been able to control. (Chatters has a book
out this month from Simon & Schuster about what Kennewick Man reveals about
early America.) Chatters and some of his scientific colleagues "chose to be
possessive and aggressive" when the remains were first discovered, says
Adelin Fredin, an anthropologist with the nearby Colville Indian tribe.
Chatters used legal ambiguities to challenge tribes' control over
archaeological resources in the Northwest, Fredin says. "My opinion is that
politics and ambition mixed real well."

From the start, the tribes saw the struggle over Kennewick Man's skeleton as
connected to wider challenges to Indian legal rights pressed by conservative
politicians. Congress, state legislatures and federal courts -- seeking to
honor broken treaties and redress past abuses -- have provided Northwestern
Indian tribes with expanding legal authority over natural resources and
cultural sites. Chatters seemed to be deliberately -- provocatively -- trying
to help those who want to roll back these tribal rights.

Chatters denies such motives and is harshly critical of the Indians. "This
modern-day hyper-politicized ethnicity business is irrelevant" to his pursuit
of science, he says. "God, I will tell you, this has been an education in the
racial politics of America to me." He says some of the evidence presented by
local tribes to support their claim of ancestral connection to the bones has
been invented. "Having grown up around them, I know 90 percent of this is
bunk."
Some academic anthropologists rebuke Chatters for his comparisons of
Kennewick Man to Patrick Stewart. Such talk of European-ness in poorly
studied bones was "bold speculation," wrote Alan Swedlund of the University
of Massachusetts-Amherst and Duane Anderson of the School of American
Research recently. "We cannot understand why it was necessary to make such
controversial and incendiary claims." But other anthropologists laud
Chatters's effort to protect very old remains for scientific study.

Some of the scientists suing over Kennewick Man believe his remains and about
a dozen other skeletons from the same period "look surprisingly non-American
Indian and leaning a little bit toward Caucasoid attributes," in the words of
George Gill, a University of Wyoming anthropologist who joined the case. Gill
and others theorize about a previously unknown population that might have
lived in the American Northwest 9,000 or more years ago, a group that might
have died off from disease or war. (After some initial excitement about the
possibility, Gill and all but a handful of scholars today are deeply
skeptical about the idea that this supposed mystery group came from Europe.
But they think the group may have had an Asian lineage distinct from the
ancestors of many modern Indian tribes.) In their skull shapes and skeletons,
"what you find with these ancient ones is that almost uniformly [they] fall
outside the range of modern populations," says the Smithsonian's Owsley. "I
firmly believe there are groups in the past that did not survive to the
present day, and Kennewick certainly could be one of those."

Other anthropologists reject such speculation as premature, saying there is
not nearly enough physical evidence. Yet others emphasize that skull and
skeletal features may never provide a reliable way to identify population
groups that lived so long ago, because not enough is known about how skulls
and skeletons change shape over thousands of years due to shifting diets and
environments. Although the divide is not neat or absolute, these debates
reflect a split between physical anthropologists, who study bones and defend
their value as windows on the past, and cultural anthropologists, who usually
study living peoples and who think that bone science, at best, offers limited
insights.

The debates also reflect fevered disarray in the academic study of early
North America. Until very recently, nearly all scientists taught a confident,
consensus narrative about how the continent was first populated. As the Ice
Age ended about 12,000 years ago, they said, Asian mammoth hunters migrated
from Siberia across a land bridge that stretched to modern Alaska. The
migrants then headed south through an ice-free corridor that led to today's
Montana. From there the hunters spread out and propagated. This was always a
questionable theory, more securely grounded in facts about prehistoric
geology than in hard evidence about human movements. Yet the story was often
taught in American schools as if it were certain.

No more. Kennewick Man surfaced just as new discoveries were encouraging
radical revisions of old theory. Evidence of late Ice Age human settlements
on California's channel islands, in Chile and elsewhere suggests that humans
may have first moved around the Americas by boat, and may have arrived much
earlier than previously believed. If a current consensus can be said to
exist, it describes multiple migrations from multiple Asian origins by
multiple means over thousands of years -- certainly not a single march across
the land bridge.

Archaeologists investigating prehistory have no records, no texts, and very
little undisputed evidence. Their work necessarily depends upon inference and
imagination. The Indians involved in the Kennewick case understand this. Some
of their own history is retold similarly -- a blend of facts, myths, stories
Marvels the Umatilla's Jeff Van Pelt about the scientists he is battling in
court, "They can take a very little bit of information and tell one of the
greatest stories you've ever heard."
The scientists who theorize about early America do so amid the multicultural
tensions of the modern United States. Sometimes the language they select to
describe possible ancient migrations and group rivalries seems to echo
current talk-radio debates about immigration, race, Indian rights and the
American melting pot.
"The most creative theories are often imaginative visions imposed upon facts;
the source of imagination is also strongly cultural," writes the evolutionary
biologist Stephen Jay Gould in The Mismeasure of Man. Some targets of
scientific investigation "are invested with enormous social importance but
blessed with very little reliable information." When this is true, "a history
of scientific attitudes may be little more than an oblique record of social
change."
So it is, certainly, with the question of race, the emotive issue joined on
the first day Jim Chatters caressed Kennewick Man's skull, searching for
evidence of his identity.
Human migration to the Americas helped create the modern idea of race. The
notion that people could be divided into distinct races was "a social
mechanism invented during the 18th century to refer to those populations
brought together in colonial America," as the American Anthropological
Association puts it. Race became the idea by which English and other European
settlers justified the subjugation of Indians and African slaves. Initially,
white settlers explained their concept in biblical terms. Later, Darwin
provided a biological framework for racists: White superiority had resulted
from natural selection.

Race and racism still thrive as social constructs, as lived experience. In
this sense, as long as racial discrimination produces hate crimes, racial
profiling by police, bias in the workplace and other offenses, then race not
only exists, it is urgent. Yet race as lived experience has always depended
to some extent on underlying assumptions about biology, on beliefs that
racial groupings offer some meaningful way to describe physical human
variation.
In recent years, however, scholarship about the biology of race has been
undergoing a quiet upheaval caused by insights from genetic science. And in
the same way that Kennewick Man has stoked fresh debate about American
prehistory, he has also provoked new argument about the meaning of race.
Mapping the global distribution of DNA in humans, evolutionary biologists
such as R.C. Lewontin and Alan R. Templeton have shown that modern social
races are barely perceptible in genetic terms. There is far greater variation
within any given racial group than there is between two racial groups. That
is, any two typical African American neighbors have many more genetic
differences between them than they do, as a pair, in comparison with two
whites down the street. Considering a variety of genetic evidence such as DNA
and blood types, the American Anthropological Association's executive board
concluded three years ago that about 94 percent of human physical variation
occurs within social races, just 6 percent between them.

As humans fanned out and conquered the planet, they slept with one another so
copiously as to blur the kinds of genetic groupings that define subspecies in
other mammals. Rampant copulation and global dominance over thousands of
years produced a human species that is exceptional among animals in its
genetic homogeneity. Two clans of chimpanzees that live on opposite sides of
a mountain will in some cases breed separately until they evolve into
genetically distinct subspecies. Two similar clans of humans will in every
case climb over the mountain and interbreed energetically until it is
impossible to tell the original clans apart -- so says humanity's global
genetic map.
Still, there are some genetic differences between human population groups.
When agriculture led some groups of people to sit still for generations,
their tendency to mate with partners close at hand produced some genetic
clustering -- thus the approximately 6 percent variation between racial
groups. The problem for defenders of the race concept, however, is that even
these mild group differences correlate best with geographical distance, not
traits like skin color or hair type that are commonly used to define social
race. (See charts, pages 21 and 22.) In other words, the most accurate way to
describe the small genetic variation that exists between groups is not to
focus on visual traits such as skin color, but to ask how far one group lives
from another. The farther away one group is from another, the greater the
genetic variation.

All in all, "when you quantify it at the molecular genetic level -- and take
all of the biases about skin color and hair out of it -- humans come out
remarkably homogenous," Templeton says.
Human skin color variation probably reflects differing adaptations to
ultraviolet light over thousands of years among dispersed, sedentary
populations, evolutionary biologists believe. Yet variations in skin color
correlate with very few other physical traits -- not with hair texture, not
with skull shape, not with skeletal shape and certainly not with important
DNA clusters, according to evolutionary biologists. As biology, color is an
isolated and unenlightening issue, truly just skin deep.
"We're not saying that human variation doesn't exist. Obviously it does. It's
just that 'race' doesn't explain it," says Alan Goodman, an anthropologist at
Hampshire College. Because people depend so heavily on eyesight to interpret
the world, they are susceptible to over-interpretation of visual cues such as
color, Goodman says.

Physical anthropologists who try to group people past and present by the
shapes of their skulls and skeletons have created additional confusion and
debate. Certain very stable skull features such as teeth can be useful guides
to human variation, nearly all anthropologists agree. But while physical
anthropologists strongly defend the use of skull shapes to generalize about
population groups, others question whether their methods are reliable. Ninety
years ago, the founder of modern American anthropology, Franz Boas,
demonstrated that human skull shapes can change markedly within a single
generation due to environmental factors. Today there is little scientific
consensus about how rapidly such skull-shape changes occur and why. Using
data on thousands of skulls from around the world, and measuring those skulls
57 different ways, anthropologist John Relethford of the State University of
New York College at Oneonta has shown recently that about 85 to 90 percent of
skull variation occurs within racial groups, and only 10 to 15 percent
between them -- closely matching the variation of molecular DNA.
Kennewick Man has become a symbol of this wider race debate because the
scientists suing over his remains are nearly all physical anthropologists
involved with skull research. Some of these scientists, such as Chatters, say
skull shape can be a good way to gain insights about population groups, but
that the larger concept of biological race should be rejected. Others, like
the Smithsonian's Owsley, say the question of whether biological race exists
is irrelevant. But another plaintiff, George Gill, argues vocally that
biological races do exist and ought to be acknowledged.
Gill, a physical anthropologist, says that when he examines modern skeletons
while working with law enforcement, he can predict race accurately from the
shape of skulls and bones about four times out of five. Given this, Gill
asks, why shouldn't he continue to use racial language to describe human
variation? "I think using the racial lens is often the easiest and best way
to look at it," he says.
Other anthropologists "think they're helping to reduce racial conflict and
racism by ignoring race or denying race," Gill continues. "I think that's a
mistake." Since all biologists admit there is at least some human variation
between groups, the question is what language to use to describe those
groups. Why not race? "Some of us are afraid to use these words, and some of
us are not," Gill says.
Gill enrages many cultural anthropologists. They see his insistence on race
as advancing a destructive system of thought -- a set of ideas that has
spilled the blood of millions. They ask, Why retain the language and
categories of race when the underlying biology is not at all convincing?
These anthropologists see Gill's ability to deduce race from skeletons as a
kind of conjurer's trick that depends on circular definitions and faulty
data. In any event, what genetic research makes clear, they say, is that the
very modest group variation described by physical anthropologists "is not
race, it's geography," says Goodman.

Even if the idea of biological race were vanquished, racism would remain. And
because racism persists as lived experience, laws have been enacted to fight
discrimination. To enforce civil rights laws, for instance, the federal
government monitors bias in housing and employment. To do that, it needs to
measure racial groups accurately. And so it must define racial categories.
The government's official policy on race definition is contained in the
Office of Management and Budget's "Directive 15: Race and Ethnic Standards
for Federal Statistics and Administrative Reporting," which was updated and
reissued in 1997. The directive rejects a biological basis for race even
while reinforcing the importance of race categories.
The government's race categories "are not anthropologically or scientifically
based" and "should not be primarily biological or genetic in reference," the
directive says. "Race and ethnicity may be thought of in terms of social and
cultural characteristics as well as ancestry."
Some civil rights activists fear that a rejection of biological race will
lead to premature declarations that America is a
colorblind society, undermining legal protections for minorities. But most
anthropologists want to move faster toward a world where race language and
concepts are in retreat. In a reply to Directive 15, the American
Anthropological Association argued that it would be better to phase out the
language of race because of its false and misleading biological connotations,
and perhaps use phrases such as "ethnic origins" that may more clearly denote
cultural identity.
And what does all this debate say about the identity of 9,000-year-old
Kennewick Man? Is he Caucasoid? Indian? Indian but not the same as modern
Indian? A nonspecific, generalized early American? "We want to order the
world. And gray is harder to order," argues Goodman. Ultimately, "Kennewick
Man could be the textbook case of why race science doesn't work."

To reach the office of Douglas Owsley, the Smithsonian anthropologist suing
for the right to study Kennewick Man, you step through the lobby of the
National Museum of Natural History off Constitution Avenue, climb the stairs
to the third floor, and enter a hall lined with rows and rows of storage
bins.
The bins appear at first to be innocuous trays that might hold nuts and bolts
at a hardware store. But then you notice, in a few that have been opened, the
odd bony finger sticking out. Inside, as it happens, are many human bones.
Skulls. Rib cages. Thigh bones. Feet.

Hundreds and hundreds of dead Indians lie stored in these Smithsonian halls.
They are among the 18,000 Indian remains collected by the museum as
biological specimens from graveyards and military battlefields in the
American West during the 19th century, as the Army waged what amounted in
many cases to campaigns of extermination against indigenous tribes. In a few
instances, skeletons were collected as battle trophies. Thousands of these
remains are still curated today for scientific study in one of the country's
most prestigious cultural institutions.

Like the debates about early American migration and biological race, the
story of these bones marks a path to the meanings of Kennewick Man.

In 1865, Surgeon General William Hammond issued an order to all Army medical
officers "to collect, and to forward to the office of the Surgeon General,
all specimens of morbid anatomy, surgical or medical, which may be regarded
as valuable." At forts around the West, Indian-hunting Army surgeons fanned
out to comply. The surgeons eventually collected about 800 skeletons,
including those of some Indian battle victims who were boiled down to their
bones, packed up and shipped by train to Washington. There they joined the
remains of about 2,000 other Indians at the Army Medical Museum, a macabre
laboratory of saws and brain measurement devices located for many years in
Washington's old Ford's Theatre, after it was closed because of Abraham
Lincoln's assassination.

The Army's collection was the most militaristic expression of a wider
19th-century enthusiasm for pilfered Indian skeletons. Bone fever gripped
museums across the country, from the Smithsonian to Harvard to New York to
St. Louis. Curators competed for skeletons from commercial brokers. Rewarded
with cash and inspired by early American naturalists such as Thomas
Jefferson, western travelers routinely robbed Indian grave sites or bartered
for skulls, hoping to contribute to science. Back East, scientists aiming to
prove the innate superiority of whites studied crackpot textbooks such as
Samuel Morton's influential Crania Americana. Scribbling by candlelight, the
scientists poured birdshot into hollowed Indian skulls to measure just how
little brain they could hold. Their work created a foundation for the race
science that later offered intellectual underpinnings for the Holocaust.

By the time 20th-century anthropologists and curators concluded it was
unethical to collect Indian bones, America's museums possessed a vast
inventory -- the 18,000 remains at the Smithsonian, plus tens of thousands
more at other major municipal museums and universities. (The Smithsonian also
has a large anthropological collection of human brains from the same period
that is stored today in Suitland.)

A campaign for redress by Indian leaders led finally to the 1990 Native
American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act, or NAGPRA, sign


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 627 of 1283: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Sat, Jun  9, 2001 (11:07) * 1 lines 
 
There is also a theory that Kennewick Man shared certain characteristics with the surviving current Ainu population of northern Japan.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 628 of 1283: horrible horace  (horrible) * Sat, Jun  9, 2001 (15:21) * 1 lines 
 
Alas theory,if the USA wasn't so tied by PC, fact and not theory would rule.Try searching some of the European and Australian,Middle Eastern and newly emerging web sites from the former communist countries.The wealth of information on these sites is overwhelming and not hidebound by consideration of some Micky Mouse set of rules.From this side of the world it appears that the Native American needs to have his palm greased before he will do anything...........


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 629 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Jun  9, 2001 (15:31) * 1 lines 
 
Ah yes, you are allowed to say that since you are not one of the heirs of the perpetrators of evil against all nations other than the white ones. It is an unhappy situation no matter whose side you take. I could just as well claim that man as MY ancestor since he was caucasian and NOT indian. I am more than a little furious at the way this has been handled. We all lose in this one. Americans can be so stupid about some very important things!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 630 of 1283: horrible horace  (horrible) * Sat, Jun  9, 2001 (18:21) * 2 lines 
 
The power that Elizabeth Dole wielded is good example ........You can die for America as a teenager but not have a drink.Alcohol has replaced the "Reds s the new enemy.What sort of prissy nation is developing here? Dole? do you know how she manipulated the rules of the Great USA for her own narrow ends?



 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 631 of 1283: horrible horace  (horrible) * Sat, Jun  9, 2001 (18:22) * 1 lines 
 
Why is there a guilt factor in all aspects of life these days?


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 632 of 1283: horrible horace  (horrible) * Sat, Jun  9, 2001 (18:24) * 1 lines 
 
Sorry I should have said in "some "countrys


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 633 of 1283: horrible horace  (horrible) * Sat, Jun  9, 2001 (18:27) * 2 lines 
 
In the time of Slavery for example ,the Irish were treated by the English in a manner that no slave owner could afford.After all he had to buy a slave ..we came free ..think about it.we were expendable



 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 634 of 1283: horrible horace  (horrible) * Sat, Jun  9, 2001 (18:30) * 1 lines 
 
And yet I was happy to work and live in England and I like the English..then I dont have any guilt complex


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 635 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Jun  9, 2001 (18:44) * 3 lines 
 
I don't have a guilt complex either. I have never met anyone I did not appreciate on a personal level. Character matters. Your ancestors do not. you are a very good sort, H_H, in more ways than one would imagine. *hugs*

Hate to mention this, but didn't the Irish acquire their Patron Saint on a slave raid to Wales?!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 636 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Jun  9, 2001 (18:50) * 1 lines 
 
Liam, would you please let us know about Elizabeth Dole, and is it about the Red Cross? I have not a whole lot good to say about the Red Cross.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 637 of 1283: horrible horace  (horrible) * Sun, Jun 10, 2001 (05:02) * 1 lines 
 
Dole threatened to withhold funds from States that did not hike the drinking age limit,she actually wants it to be 25!! imagine half a liftime gone without a glass of Californias best.Yes we got the slave from Wales and other places as well


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 638 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Jun 10, 2001 (15:32) * 1 lines 
 
The Puritans took over the US long ago. The now lurk in th guise of politicians and Tipper Gore and her ilk were finding hidden messages in rock music where none existed and her stickers were an added inducement to buy them for the kiddies she was trying to protect. As for age limits on drinking, that is liek gon control. They drink earlier and earliier in gradeschool because they are not taught how to deal with it at home. I got watered wine early in life for dinner and never did drink, nor did my sisters. Making things illegal just drives it underground and makes it more and more intriguing. Dole and her like are a menace.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 639 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Jun 12, 2001 (15:25) * 34 lines 
 
Thanks Don! I wish you had time to come read and participate...

Chicago Natural History Museum to Return Totem Pole to Indian Tribe in Alaska
The Associated Press

CHICAGO (AP) - The Field Museum of Natural History will give one of its
most treasured items, a 27-foot totem pole, to an American Indian tribe
that asked for its return.
The totem pole was taken as part of an 1899 expedition to collect
American Indian artifacts and other items in the Alaskan territory for
the museum. It will be shipped by summer to Cape Fox, Alaska, a spot
considered sacred by members of the Tlingit Native American nation.
"This is a very important object for us to have returned and it will be
the cause for much celebration," said Irene Shields, a spokeswoman for
the 16,000-member Tlingit nation. "These items are so important for us
to have to convey our traditions and history to our children and
grandchildren."
The pole is the latest of several items the museum has returned to
American Indian groups under terms of the 1990 Native American Graves
Protection and Repatriation Act.
The museum, which has one of the country's largest American Indian
collections, has returned a carved wheel, beads and eagle feathers to
the Arapaho tribe in northern Arizona. It has also given back a stone
basket to the San Manuel Mission band of Indians in California, and a
shaman's robe to the Kootznoowoo in Alaska.
"I try to understand the times when our sacred objects were taken from
us and I know they were different then," Shields said. "Being able to
get these things back is all very new to us."

AP-ES-06-10-01 2009EDT
This story can be found at :
http://ap.tbo.com/ap/breaking/MGAD9X2HTNC.html




 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 640 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Jun 12, 2001 (17:15) * 10 lines 
 
http://www.vernonweb.com/vwnews.htm

"Representatives of Native American nations who were present at the 5/31 TC meeting made
comments to the effect that, in light of earlier TC meetings concerning the park plan, the TC's
actions had been deceitful and treacherous. They pointed out the township's deliberate
bulldozing of the artifacts grounds before an alternative park design could be presented.
It was also suggested that, if remains of Lenni Lenape inhabitants are disturbed, a federal human
rights issue might be in prospect."




 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 641 of 1283: Paul Terry Walhus (terry) * Wed, Jun 13, 2001 (07:44) * 28 lines 
 
Roots — Deep Ones
The perils of looking into American prehistory.

By John J. Miller, NR's national political reporter
June 9-10, 2001

 
Printer-Friendly

E-mail a Friend
ne of the secrets of archaeology is that many truly great finds aren't
made by archaeologists. It was a farmer, Harold Conover, who stumbled
on a clue in the late 1980s that led to a magnificent site in Virginia
called Cactus Hill. Conover and his wife were walking on logging roads
near their home when he spotted a few Indian artifacts mixed in the
sand. He soon traced the sand back to a quarry about ten miles away.
Thanks to this detective work, a group of archaeologists led by Joseph
McAvoy started digging near that quarry in the early 1990s. They
unearthed signs of human habitation stretching back about 18,000 years
— making Cactus Hill one of the two or three oldest sites in North
America. They also found evidence to support one of the most
provocative developments of our time: the growing suspicion among
physical anthropologists, archaeologists, and even geneticists that
some of the first people who settled in the New World were Europeans.

continued @




 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 642 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Jun 13, 2001 (14:23) * 0 lines 
 


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 643 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Jun 13, 2001 (14:26) * 3 lines 
 
Terry... arrrgh! what is the rest of that url? Fascinating.

I have a friend who is an archaeologist for the Army Corps of Engineers. He gets to go out and discover what is worth saving and if the road or dam construction should be halted until he can do excavating and so forth. He can walk the ground and sense things we never see and find things lying "hidden in plain sight." It is truly a gift. And the product of hard work and study.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 644 of 1283: Paul Terry Walhus (terry) * Wed, Jun 13, 2001 (14:42) * 3 lines 
 
http://www.nationalreview.com/weekend/anthropology/anthropology-miller060901.shtml

Does this work?


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 645 of 1283: horrible horace  (horrible) * Wed, Jun 13, 2001 (16:18) * 1 lines 
 
It did Terry ,will read it later


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 646 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Jun 13, 2001 (17:05) * 3 lines 
 
Thanks Terry! Now, if only I could find my FTP files on the net so I could post a few images...*sigh*

I see that you managed to post, Horace! does this mean your spring difficulties are fixed?


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 647 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Jun 14, 2001 (13:33) * 87 lines 
 
http://www.adn.com/metro/story/0,2633,274172,00.html

Natives give DNA to solve mystery of ancient man PUZZLE: 500-year-old body was found at glacier's foot.
By Cathy Brown
The Associated Press
(Published June 13, 2001)

Juneau -- Southeast Alaska Natives are donating drops of blood this week
to help unravel the mystery of a man who died more than 500 years ago on
the ice of British Columbia.

The body of the man called Kwaday Dan Sinchi, or "Long Ago Man Found,"
was discovered by sheep hunters in 1999 at the foot of a melting glacier
in Tatshenshini-Alsek Park near the British Columbia-Yukon border.

Champagne and Aishihik First Nations in Canada decided to take DNA
samples from present-day Tlingit of Southeast Alaska and Athabaskan
Tutshone people in Canada to see if genetic material links them with the
ancient man.

"People are very interested to find out, if it's possible, which
communities he may be connected to," said Chuck Smythe, an ethnologist
with Sealaska Heritage Foundation in Juneau.
"It's very interesting to know because this man was found in an area
that was a shared area between the Canadian tribes and the Alaska
tribes, and there was a lot of intermarriage and trade, commerce and
interaction."
Harryet Rappier of Juneau said the pin prick to draw her blood was a
small inconvenience for the chance to learn more about her relatives to
the north. Her mother was born in Klukshu, Yukon, in 1903.
"I just can't get enough information from that part of the country,"
Rappier said. "I'd like to know more about my mother's people."

Loretta "Betty" Marvin of Juneau, whose mother was born in Haines, was
also happy to cooperate.
"To me this is pretty interesting, very fascinating, to be able to find
out and check back,what is it, 500 years, and there's maybe a
possibility I could be a relative," Marvin said. "And it's just kind of
fascinating to know what DNA can do."
More than 50 people showed up at the Sealaska building in Juneau on
Monday and Tuesday to share stories and blood samples with a team of
First Nations workers. In Alaska, the First Nations group is
particularly interested in testing DNA of people with ancestors from
Yakutat, Klukwan and Haines.
Along with the blood samples, the group is collecting genealogical
information.
The DNA study is one of a couple dozen studies First Nations and
universities in Canada, the United States, Great Britain and Australia
are conducting on the man and the artifacts found near him, said Sarah
Gaunt, heritage planner for Champagne and Aishihik First Nations.
Although the man's head was missing, ice preserved most of the body,
Smythe said.
Studies so far have shown Kwaday Dan Tsinchi was probably in his late
teens or early 20s and was in good health. He had food with him -- a
pouch of dried chum salmon was found in his robe.
Gaunt said the cause of death isn't known yet. Oral history suggests his
fate may have been common.

"There's quite a lot of stories here and in the Interior of people who
traveled and didn't come home," Gaunt said.
Hunting tools, a hat, robe and other artifacts lay near the body. The
hat and robe have been dated to between 1415 and 1445, A.D.
Where Kwaday Dan Tsinchi was from is a puzzle.
The finely woven spruce root hat found with him was in the style of the
coastal Tlingit, but the robe was of Interior gopher fur -- a material
Harryet Rappier remembers in a blanket her grandmother once had.
The hunting tools also provide conflicting clues, Gaunt said. Some of
the wood is from coastal trees, but in other cases the wood comes from
the Interior.

And researchers found pollen on the robe from a meadow-like area, from
high alpine alder, from river valley vegetation and from coastal
hemlock.

"There's four ecosystems represented in the coat alone, which means it
was a well-traveled coat," Gaunt said.

While some Lower 48 Native Americans have objected to studies of ancient
remains, Gaunt said this case was different because a legal agreement
between Champagne and Aishihik First Nations and the British Columbia
government clearly gave First Nations ownership of the body and the
artifacts found with it.

That level of control provided the comfort needed to proceed with
studies, Gaunt said. The group allowed access to the remains for
biological studies only until December of 2000. A decision on how the
body ultimately will be laid to rest hasn't been settled, Gaunt said.


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 648 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Jun 14, 2001 (17:57) * 19 lines 
 
On the other hand.....*HUGS* to Liam for this:

Gum disease decoded

SCIENTISTS have successfully read the entire
genetic code of a bacterium believed to cause gum
disease.
The breakthrough is a major advance in the effort
to develop vaccines and drugs to combat
Porphyromonas gingivalis. The genetic code of the
cause of adult periodontitis and tooth loss were
released on the internet on Tuesday.
The project to read all 2.3 million "letters" of code
was carried out by Dr Robert Fleischmann at the
Institute for Genomic Research in Rockville,
Maryland, in collaboration with the Forsyth
Institute in Boston.

26 April 2001: Diabetes linked to gum disease


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 649 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Jun 14, 2001 (19:59) * 12 lines 
 
To Don, for 25 year of meritorious and diligent service for the Army Coprs of Engineers as an archaeologist on behalf of all Americans, with great affection and appreciation:



Maile & Tuberose

Traditional Green Open End Maile Lei twined together with 2
White Tuberose Lei. This combination of three leis is worn by
men's for weddings and special occasions.





 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 650 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Jun 14, 2001 (20:00) * 1 lines 
 
I forgot your Rolex and your Range Rover... I'll bring them with me!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 651 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Jun 15, 2001 (20:19) * 1 lines 
 
Prime rib dinner for the gentleman served in the manner he wishes and where he wishes. He did not even get a peanut butter sandwich! We do not compensate devotion very well in this country. I am most disappointed! *Hugs* Don!


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 652 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Jun 17, 2001 (19:52) * 122 lines 
 
OLD WORLD NEWS

The Tucson Citizen has a feature on early humans' diet:
http://www.tucsoncitizen.com/local/6_14_01fish.html

A recent paper is disputing the Scot's Irish origins:
http://www.theherald.co.uk/news/archive/11-6-19101-0-51-36.html

A bronze age site has been revealed near Hostivice:
http://www.pbj.cz/common/article.asp?id=121541&site=1

Six tombs dating to 3000 B.C./B.C.E. have been discovered outside Cairo:
http://www.ananova.com/news/story/sm_324538.html
http://www.smh.com.au/news/0106/16/review/review9.html
http://news.ninemsn.com.au/national/story_14329.asp
http://www.theage.com.au/breaking/2001/06/12/FFXIWM1KUNC.html

A British weather man has suggested weather can explain a number of
Biblical events:
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/et?ac=003100565149417&rtmo=QeSk3e3R&atmo=99999999&pg=/et/01/6/17/nbibl17.html

A number of Sassanid dynasty coins have been found:
http://dailynews.yahoo.com/h/ap/20010613/sc/syria_archaeology_1.html
http://europe.cnn.com/2001/WORLD/meast/06/13/syria.coins.ap/index.html

The Cyprus PIO has a brief item on the excavation of the theatre at Paphos:
http://www.hri.org/news/cyprus/cypio/2001/01-06-13.cypio.html#03

There is now more evidence that the Colosseum was built from spoils from
the sack of Jerusalem:
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/et?ac=000579381554028&rtmo=wKtet5fb&atmo=99999999&pg=/et/01/6/15/wcol15.html

Also in regards to the Colosseum, plans are in the works to restore it to
its original colour:
http://dailynews.yahoo.com/h/ap/20010614/wl/italy_colosseum_2.html
http://www.lasvegassun.com/sunbin/stories/w-eur/2001/jun/14/061400786.html
http://www.iht.com/articles/22999.html (spelling!)

A dozen or so Roman ships found near the Sardinian port of Olbia are
beginning to give up their secrets:
http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/world/europe/newsid_1385000/1385326.stm

MSNBC has a feature on Australian archaeologist Rhys Jones:
http://www.msnbc.com/news/587594.asp

Researchers using archaeological evidence have suggested that taller people
live longer:
http://www.independent.co.uk/story.jsp?story=77944

The latest use of DNA research appears to be to determine the origins of
India's caste system:
http://dailynews.yahoo.com/h/hsn/20010519/hl/genes_confirm_origin_of_india_s_castes_1.html

Weird stuff: museum officials in Britain have to deal with an upsurge in
"mummy worship":
http://news.independent.co.uk/uk/this_britain/story.jsp?story=77419

NEW WORLD NEWS
Genetic testing is being done to find living relative of Canada's "Ice Man":
http://www.canoe.ca/CNEWSScience0106/13_ancient-ap.html
http://www.msnbc.com/news/586829.asp
http://abcnews.go.com/wire/US/ap20010613_474.html
http://seattlep-i.nwsource.com/national/27407_ice14.shtml

There's concern about 'mom and pop' approaches to er, 'archaeology' in Oregon:
http://www.kptv.com/news/local/story.asp?content_id=466348
http://www.kgw.com/kgwnews/oregonwash_story.html?StoryID=21386

The Arizona Republic has a feature on Phoenix archaeologist Todd Bostwick:
http://www.arizonarepublic.com/arizona/articles/0612Dig12.html

It sounds like we're going to be hearing more about Mesa Verde:
http://db.oklahoman.com/cgi-bin/show_article?ID=701491&pic=none&TP=getlifestyle
http://seattlep-i.nwsource.com/national/27337_ruins14.shtml
http://www.rockymountainnews.com/drmn/state/article/0,1299,DRMN_21_617159,00.html
cf. http://www.discoveringarchaeology.com/0699toc/6special-mv1.shtml

ON THE NEWSSTANDS
Egypt Revealed has a piece on a "gender confused" mummy:
http://www.egyptrevealed.com/061401-mummysexchange.shtml

CLASSICIST'S CORNER
A bunch of runners have retraced the gruelling 110km route of Euchidas:
http://www.athensnews.gr/athweb/nathens.print_unique?e=C&f=12913&m=A48&aa=1&eidos=S

The Independent has a touristy sort of piece with plenty of classical
references on Italy: the land of myths:
http://www.independent.co.uk/story.jsp?story=77459

FAZ has a feature on the temple of Zeus at Olympia:
http://www.faz.com/IN/INtemplates/eFAZ/docmain.asp?rub={B1311FD3-FBFB-11D2-B228-00105A9CAF88}&doc={6C641DF5-5FE1-11D5-A3B5-009027BA22E4}&width=800&height=572&agt=netscape&ver=4&svr=4.7

There's a big article on Atlantis kicking around various newspapers:
http://news.excite.com/news/ap/010613/12/ent-wkd-atlantis-myths

FOLLOWUPS

Herakleion:
http://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/0,,3-2001200227,00.html
http://www.uk.sis.gov.eg/online/html4/o090621ka.htm
http://www.nzherald.co.nz/storydisplay.cfm?storyID=194471&thesection=news&thesubsection=world
http://www.guardian.co.uk/international/story/0,3604,503588,00.html

Hunley:
http://www.msnbc.com/news/588079.asp

Phillipeion returned antiquities:
http://www.athensnews.gr/athweb/nathens.print_unique?e=C&f=12914&m=A39&aa=3&eidos=S

OBITUARIES
Graham Webster:
http://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/0,,60-2001200161,00.html

Edward Wright:
http://www.guardianunlimited.co.uk/breakingnews/International/0,3561,973614,00.html

AT ABOUT.COM
Ancient History Guide N.S. Gill's latest is on Teiresias in Ovid's
Metamorphoses:

http://ancienthistory.about.com/homework/ancienthistory/library/weekly/aa061201a.htm



 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 653 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Jun 17, 2001 (21:43) * 25 lines 
 
Ancient village leaves little evidence in Hawaii Kai

The old heiau has almost disappeared, and restoration may be impossible
By Nelson Daranciang
ndarancian@starbulletin.com
Nothing remains of the ancient Hawaiian village in Hawaii Kai. Only rocks covered with
old construction material mark the nearby heiau.
In 1993, John Delima said, a friend took him to the site where they made a traditional
Hawaiian offering. They also surveyed the surrounding area.
"It pains me to see that nothing is or was ever done to protect this heiau or the remains of
the village," he said. "I just wanted to spread awareness of it and maybe somebody would
step up and put a fence around it and people would leave it alone."
Archaeologist Gilbert McAllister plotted the location of Hawea Heiau in 1930 for the
Bishop Museum, which published his findings in "Archaeology of Oahu."
"It was already damaged in 1930. Rocks were taken to reconstruct the Keahupua O
Maunalua Fish Pond (now known as Kuapa Pond). And it was finished off during the
construction of Kaluanui Road in the '50s and '60s for Mariners Ridge," said Sarah
Collins, state archaeologist.
The heiau was mauka of the Hawaii Kai Post Office on the side of the hill, Collins said.
Delima said he found a map showing that the village stretched from the heiau down toward
where the Oahu Club now sits. But when he surveyed the site, he found no signs of the
village.
Collins said no burials were found in the area.

more... http://starbulletin.com/2001/06/17/news/


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 654 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Jun 18, 2001 (20:16) * 5 lines 
 
Got sharp eyes, keen love for the past and a passion for its preservation but no diploma to show you are worthy? These guys will take care of that need and help you fulfill this dream!

http://www.cr.nps.gov/seac/pii.htm#NAI1990




 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 655 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Jun 19, 2001 (13:11) * 46 lines 
 
From Ireland from Liam.... thanks!!!


Luas archaeological digs uncovers human skeleton

By Frank McDonald, Environment Editor
Archaeological digs along the route of Dublin's Luas light rail
system have revealed a partially dismembered human skeleton
and a 14th century animal horn from an extinct species of
cattle, among other major finds.
Mr Jim Quinlan, architect with the light rail project office, said
the former Maguire and Patterson site off Church Street had
yielded a surprising amount of material, including an 18th
century cobbled lane with four previous road surfaces.
As its location is near St Michan's Church, dating back to
1095, desktop studies identified the site as having high
archaeological potential. As a result, the office commissioned
archaeologists Margaret Gowen and Company to excavate it.
Old maps suggest the site may lie within the curtilage of St
Michan's, though it is now separated from the church by a Law
Library building. Barristers there were given a presentation on
the dig.
Finds included an intact 18th century wine bottle, pottery jug
and drinking vessel. But Mr Quinlan said the skeleton was the
"most exciting find of all". Missing its right arm and leg, it may
date from the 18th century also. Pending a report on the dig,
the site is to be back-filled and covered to protect further
deposits below the excavated level.
The archaeologists have moved to another site beside the
former Jameson distillery in Smithfield, where two wells and a
cess pit which may date from the sixth century have been
found.
According to Mr Quinlan, although laying Luas trackbeds does
not require significant construction depths, the diversion of
sewage mains, electricity lines and other utilities can mean deep
digs.
An earlier excavation at Ballymount, adjacent to a prehistoric
enclosure to the north of Tallaght, yielded shards of pottery and
a cobbled yard. Further digging last summer revealed a
possible souterrain chamber.
The archaeologists are on call to deal with unexpected finds
along the Luas alignment. They are monitoring the demolition of
buildings on the south side of Mary's Abbey. All of the
excavations have been licensed by Dúchas, the Heritage
Service.
http://www.ireland.com/newspaper/ireland/2001/0619/hom12.htm


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 656 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Jun 20, 2001 (16:48) * 20 lines 
 
From Liam, again...

June 19 — The battle between Indians and scientists over a 9,300-year-old skeleton is landing in court, again.

A U.S. magistrate in Portland, Ore., is hearing oral arguments today in the lawsuit
brought by eight prominent anthropologists against the federal government over
whether they can study Kennewick Man.
They say the skeleton, found in 1996 by college students near the banks of the
Columbia River in Washington, doesn't resemble modern American Indians and
could radically change theories about the earliest inhabitants of the Americas. Some
scientists say Kennewick Man's bones most resemble those of modern people in
East Asia.
But scientists may never have the opportunity for further study. In September, the
Department of Interior ruled the skeleton should be turned over to five Northwest
tribes who claim the skeleton as an ancestor and want to rebury it under a 1990
federal law. The Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act, or NAGPRA,
was designed to give tribes power over Indian remains and artifacts held by
museums or found on federal and Indian land.

more... http://abcnews.go.com/sections/scitech/DailyNews/kennewick_hearing010619.html


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 657 of 1283: horrible horace  (horrible) * Wed, Jun 20, 2001 (17:23) * 1 lines 
 
The Sun has just set here and I have tried to capture the scene on a slide show at http://homepage.eircom.net/~bree/dolmen.html hope the magic comes through.And moments later the most spectacular meteorite for years spun its magic too..what a night


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 658 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Jun 20, 2001 (20:25) * 2 lines 
 
OH LIAM!!! Great portent!!!



 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 659 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Jun 22, 2001 (17:18) * 17 lines 
 
Liam, this is from you, for which I give my thanks. It is fascinating to think how far back the not-out-of-Africa origins might go...

Korean-Russian Team Unearth Neolithic Settlements
Korea and Russia have conducted a joint excavation on Suchu Islet, located
near the Russian city of Havarovsk, and successfully discovered two
underground settlements that go back to the Neolithic age it was announced
Thursday. The project was carried out in July and August of 2000 by Korea's
National Institute of Cultural Properties and the Institute of Archaeology and
Ethnology (a Siberian branch of Russian Academy of Sciences).
Along with excavations of the two settlements, the joint team also unearthed
many artifacts of the same age inside the settlements, 8,000 in total, which
included figures of women and animals made of clay. The two settlements
are said to date back to 3,500-4,000 B.C.
The Suchu Islet has long been considered a treasure for the world's
archaeologists, due to its wealth of artifacts dating back to antiquity.

http://www.chosun.com/w21data/html/news/200106/200106210296.html


 Topic 17 of 99 [Geo]: Archaeology: The world as a time capsule
 Response 660 of 1283: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Jun 25, 2001 (01:10) * 150 lines 
 
Tribes unearth their past in paper
Documents buried in East Coast archives offer Northwest Native Americans
valuable, and often painful, links to their history


Saturday, June 23, 2001
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
By Alice Tallmadge, Correspondent, The Oregonian
http://www.oregonlive.com/news/oregonian/index.ssf?/news/oreg
onian/nw_71recor23.frame

EUGENE -- When George Wasson traveled to the Smithsonian
Institution in Washington, D.C., more than 25 years ago, it was to hunt down
and piece together the shards of his Native American legacy.

That simple quest has led to the discovery of more than 110,000
pages of forgotten documents that are helping 45 tribes from throughout
the Northwest establish stronger links to their past and better
understand their cultural and historical identities.

The trove includes archival documents -- maps, letters from
Indian agents, military documents, word lists and cultural notes from
early explorers -- that had been inaccessible to Native American tribes
for decades.

Wasson admits that the discovery of the documents, found
during two research trips to the National Anthropological Archives and the
National Archives, both at the Smithsonian Institution, opens searing
wounds about how native people were treated by Western settlers and
the U.S. military.

But they also are giving hope and strength to hundreds of Native
Americans whose ancestors once ha