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Topic 30 of 99: Geothermal Activity

Tue, Apr 18, 2000 (20:46) | Marcia (MarciaH)
Geysers and other naturally-occurring hydrological features
109 responses total.

 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 1 of 109: Wolf  (wolf) * Tue, Apr 18, 2000 (20:47) * 1 lines 
 
great topic!


 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 2 of 109: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Apr 18, 2000 (20:48) * 39 lines 
 
************************
New Zealand activity
************************
----------
Geysering in Rotorua
----------
On 7,8,12 April, geysering took place from Spring 653 at Rotorua, very
close to homes on Tarewa Road. Similar activity at this spring in Nov 1999
and Jan 2000.

This information comes from the New Zealand Institute of Geological and
Nuclear Sciences at: http://www.gns.cri.nz/. The full text is below.

April 7
"Intermittent minor eruptions are continuing at White Island, with a steam
and gas plume rising to an altitude of 1500 metres. The eruptions are
coming from a ridge vent that has enlarged since activity began on 7 March.
Only minor amounts of ash are being emitted and there is little seismic
activity, so White Island remains at Alert Level 1 (minor signs of volcano
unrest). Seismic activity is low and there is little sign of volcanic activity."

April 14
"A small amount of ash has erupted from White Island this week between 11
and 14 April, with the ash cloud rising to 1,500 metres. The eruption has
been accompanied by seismic activity. White Island remains at Alert Level 1
(minor signs of volcano unrest). Mount Ruapehu had a period of moderate
volcanic tremor on Monday 10 April, with some weaker tremors since then.
This follows several months of very low seismic activity. There is little
sign of surface activity, so Mt
Ruapehu remains at Alert Level 1. All other New Zealand volcanoes are at
Alert Level 0 (dormant or quiescent).
Geothermal Activity
On 7, 8 and 12 April, geysers erupted from Spring 653 in Rotorua. The
spring is in a Maori thermal reserve, but very close to homes on Tarewa
Road. Boiling water erupted for up to an hour to heights of about 10
metres. This spring also had geyser activity in November 1999 and January 2000"





 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 3 of 109: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Apr 18, 2000 (20:50) * 2 lines 
 
Wolfie! Welcome *grin* You beat me to the punch for the first posting.
Mahalo plenty.


 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 4 of 109: Wolf  (wolf) * Tue, Apr 18, 2000 (20:51) * 1 lines 
 
(you ok?)


 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 5 of 109: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Apr 18, 2000 (20:54) * 3 lines 
 
Yeah...(it's been a rough day) Thanks for asking.

I've been to Calistoga in California - my first real geyser. The Island of Hawaii gets a good percentage of its electric power from geothermal wells just southeast of Hilo.


 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 6 of 109: Wolf  (wolf) * Tue, Apr 18, 2000 (20:55) * 3 lines 
 
well, hope tomorrow is better!

i've never been to a geyser.


 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 7 of 109: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Apr 18, 2000 (20:58) * 1 lines 
 
Gotta check up on Yellowstone and places like that for pics...and David for the Calistoga ones - he's the one who took me there! Oooh, that's right...he has Yellowstone, as well. Happy Mom!


 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 8 of 109: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Apr 18, 2000 (20:59) * 1 lines 
 
(bound to be, Sweetie!)


 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 9 of 109: Wolf  (wolf) * Tue, Apr 18, 2000 (21:00) * 1 lines 
 
good! i gotta run, am watching qvc *grin*


 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 10 of 109: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Apr 18, 2000 (21:04) * 1 lines 
 
Get lotsa good stuff! and share your loot with us cyberly...


 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 11 of 109: Wolf  (wolf) * Tue, Apr 18, 2000 (21:06) * 1 lines 
 
not able to get anything, every last piece is selling out. it's stuff called kirk's folly. really whimsical pieces but well done and detailed. relatively affordable as well.


 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 12 of 109: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Apr 18, 2000 (21:09) * 1 lines 
 
Jewelry, I gather...


 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 13 of 109: Wolf  (wolf) * Tue, Apr 18, 2000 (21:10) * 1 lines 
 
yes, pins, earrings, necklaces and bracelets. lemme find something to show you...


 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 14 of 109: Wolf  (wolf) * Tue, Apr 18, 2000 (21:16) * 3 lines 
 
here's a taste (wrong topic i know)




 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 15 of 109: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Apr 18, 2000 (21:20) * 3 lines 
 
Ooooooo! Real stuff? Where is Lance when we need him...!

John says 10% max electric power supplied on this island by geothermal. Most of our power usage could be met by such sources on Island, but the housing subdivision near it pickets any attempts to put more power online. Of course, the houses came AFTER the wells were drilled...


 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 16 of 109: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Apr 18, 2000 (21:32) * 0 lines 
 


 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 17 of 109: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Apr 18, 2000 (21:34) * 0 lines 
 


 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 18 of 109: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Apr 18, 2000 (21:43) * 7 lines 
 
How to make your own geyser: (I'd put it on the Geosites for Kids but they need adult supervision for this one. Lots of other good stuff there, too.
http://www.exploratorium.edu/snacks/geyser/

World Geyser Links: This is the ultimate site for geyser information and links to pictures and all things geyserly in the entire world.
http://www.web-net.com/jonesy/worldgeyserlinks.htm




 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 19 of 109: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Wed, Apr 19, 2000 (01:16) * 3 lines 
 
I've only seen geysers on films and TV. Great topic.

HUG


 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 20 of 109: Wolf  (wolf) * Wed, Apr 19, 2000 (11:25) * 1 lines 
 
picture on 17 is great! (no, the gems aren't real but they're sure pretty and i didn't buy anything, couldn't stay up long enough)


 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 21 of 109: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, May  8, 2000 (15:14) * 29 lines 
 
STEAMBOAT, WORLD'S TALLEST GEYSER, ERUPTS AFTER NINE YEAR HIATUS - May 2, 2000

Early this morning, around 5 a.m., the world's tallest active geyser, Steamboat, gave early morning
visitors a rare opportunity to view it in major eruption. Eruptions of Steamboat Geyser (located at the
Norris Geyser Basin in Yellowstone National Park) are entirely unpredictable, with the last eruption on October 2, 1991.

At around 7 a.m., a National Park Service employee traveling to work spotted a very tall vapor column as
he neared the geyser basin and-suspecting a possible eruption-stopped to investigate. Two park
visitors, sleeping in their pickup camper truck at the Norris parking area, stated that they were abruptly
awakened about 5 a.m. by what they thought was an earthquake. Frightened, they drove south toward
Madison, but upon looking back noted the huge vapor plume and returned to the geyser basin. By the
time the park employee arrived, a very heavy, wet mist enveloped most of the area to the geyser, and
Steamboat-emitting a tremendous roar-was in the full steam phase with a huge vapor plume
approximately 500 feet tall (we have no estimate of the height of the water plume).

Steamboat Geyser rarely erupts in major phase. More commonly, Steamboat ejects water in frequent
bursts of 10-40 feet. During a major eruption, Steamboat can reach heights of over 300 feet, showering
viewers with mineral-rich waters. For hours following its rare 3-40 minute major eruptions (water phase),
Steamboat thunders with powerful jets of steam; this steam phase can continue as long as 12 hours after
the water cessation.

Steamboat's unpredictability makes today's observance even more rare. Intervals vary from three days to
fifty years (Steamboat was dormant from 1911-1961). In recent years, Steamboat has erupted in 1989 (3
times), 1990 (1 time), and 1991 (1 time).
-NPS-


Pictures of today's eruption of Steamboat Geyser (steam phase) are available on the internet at the following address: http://www.nps.gov/yell/press/images/steamboatpics/index.htm.



 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 22 of 109: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, May 10, 2000 (16:24) * 26 lines 
 
Yellowstone Geyser Awakens Steamboat's First Major Eruption Since 1991

It Once Lay Dormant For Fifty Years Burst Of Hot Water Awoke Campers At 5 A.M.

YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK, Wyo.(CBS) Yellowstone National Park's Steamboat Geyser, the world's largest, had its first major eruption Tuesday since Oct. 2, 1991, according to park officials.

Two people sleeping in a camper said they were awakened around 5 a.m. by what they thought was an earthquake, park spokeswoman Marsha Karle said. Frightened, they drove south toward Madison, but looked back and saw Steamboat Geyser emitting a vapor plume about 500 feet high. A heavy mist meanwhile settled over the Norris Geyser Basin about 30 miles north of Old Faithful.
The unpredictable geyser can spout water more than 300 feet, although
there was no estimate of the water plume height Tuesday, park officials said.
Steamboat Geyser's intervals between major eruptions can vary from three
days to 50 years, including a dormant period from 1911-1961. Bursts of
10-14 feet are more common.
In recent years, the geyser had three major eruptions in 1989, one in 1990
and one in 1991. Major eruptions are typically followed by steam bursts that
can last up to 12 hours after the water stops spouting.
A geyser is a hot spring encased in volcanic rock. Water trickles down
through the rock until it touches lower rock layers heated by volcanic
magma. The contact with the hot rocks heats the water, turning it into water
vapor, and sending the steam upward through cracks and fissures in the
rock.
Major eruptions occur when the steam cannot escape through the surface,
and pressure builds up underground.
Geysers are very raresome scientists say there are only 700 on
earthbut Yellowstone claims at least 400 in seven major geyser basins.
Yellowstone Park, the first national park established anywhere in the
world, welcomed 3 million visitors in 1998.


 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 23 of 109: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Jul 14, 2000 (12:24) * 29 lines 
 
Where was the first geothermal electricity generated?

----------------------------------------------------------------------


In 1904, the world's first geothermal electric generator went into
operation at Italy's Larderello Hot Springs. Using pressurized steam
from underground, the original plant was able to generate about 250
kilowatts, barely enough to run one modern home.

Electricity was not the first use of the hot springs at Larderello.
Hot water was used in 1777,and starting in 1790 brine from the
springs was processed to extract boric acid and other compounds of
boron.

Today, Larderello has 300 wells as deep as 700 meters (2300 feet),
which yield ultra-hot water at 235 degrees Celsius (455 F) and a
pressure of 30 atmospheres. The site now produces 300-400 megawatts
of power.

More about geothermal energy and how it is used:
http://geothermal.marin.org/pwrheat.html
http://wwwphys.murdoch.edu.au/acre/refiles/geo/text.html

Another place where geothermal energy is important:
http://features.LearningKingdom.com/fact/archive/1997/05/02.html

Why do we use alternating current (AC) electricity?
http://features.LearningKingdom.com/fact/archive/1999/10/14.html


 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 24 of 109: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Aug 24, 2000 (12:03) * 60 lines 
 
Three Mistakenly Jump Into Yellowstone Thermal Pool, One Killed

YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK, Wyo. (AP) - Three young
park concession employees on a late-evening outing jumped into a
178-degree hot spring, thinking it was an ordinary coldwater pond,
a doctor said. One died and two were in critical condition
Wednesday.

The three were burned late Monday in the Cavern Spring, a
10-foot-deep pool in the Lower Geyser Basin, seven miles north of
Old Faithful in the middle of Yellowstone National Park.

They were returning from a swim in the Firehole River when friends
heard their cries, park spokeswoman Cheryl Matthews said.

"These three teen-agers jumped into the pool thinking it was cold
water and got quite a shock," Dr. Jeff Saffle, treating the survivors
at a Salt Lake City hospital, said Wednesday.

Yellowstone's thermal pools are often surrounded by thin, fragile
crusts. Numerous warning signs are posted. Visitors to the Lower
Geyser Basin are urged to stay on a half-mile boardwalk over the
treacherous terrain.

"I would not venture off this boardwalk. You couldn't pay me
enough to set foot off this," said Carla Wilson, a visitor from
Denver.

Sara Hulphers, 20, of Oroville, Wash., was burned over her entire
body and died a few hours later at the University of Utah's
Intermountain Burn and Trauma Center in Salt Lake City.

Tyler Montague, 18, of Salt Lake City and Lance Buchi, 18, of
Sandy, Utah, were in critical condition.

Saffle said Montague and Buchi were in shock and barely coherent
after being rescued but told doctors that they dove into the pool on
purpose. He estimated their changes of survival at 30 percent to 40
percent.

"It is way too early for us to be optimistic," Saffle said.

Rangers don't think alcohol was a factor, park officials said.
Matthews said such accidents are infrequent. In 1998, a man fell
into a thermal pool and suffered second-degree burns.

In Oroville, in north-central Washington, high school teacher
George Thornton remembered Hulphers as "very outgoing, friendly,
very accepting of others."

"She's one of the good kids, really neat, just a treasure of a kid,"
he said, his voice choking. "You work very hard as a teacher, and
every once in a while you get a great kid, one you know will be a
great person and a great parent. This is just tragic. She was a
great person."

The three teens worked in the Old Faithful area, Hulphers and
Buchi in the Old Faithful Inn and Montague at the Old Faithful
Lodge.



 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 25 of 109: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Nov  2, 2000 (18:28) * 36 lines 
 
Calistoga Geyser...Man Made?!

Old Faithful "Geyser" of California (also known as Calistoga "Geyser", Little Old Faithful, or Mt. Saint
Helena "Geyser") is a popular tourist attraction found at the head of the Napa Valley near Calistoga
California. Contrary to the belief of many this "geyser" is man-made. The photos above show the
"geyser" at the turn of the century erupting from the casing of the a well drilled in the late 1800's. Old
faithful of California is one of several artificial "geysers" found around the world. It may be best
classified, not as a geyser, but as an erupting geothermal well. There were at least two such wells
drilled at the site of Old Faithful of California as documented in old photographs. Dr. John Rinehart in
his book, A GUIDE TO GEYSER GAZING,1976 p.49 concedes that the feature called Old Faithful is a
drilled well even though he starts by saying "There has always been some question as to whether the
geyser is in reality a natural one or a drilled well." He continues "In any event according to to accounts,
an early settler was nearly blown to bits when it began erupting while he was drilling" (probably for
water). Rinehart, then speculates that the settler may have "simply opened up a dead geyser".
Certainly legends and rumors of geysers in this part of California have existed since the early settlers
and the opening of a dead geyser is a possibility. However all indications are that no geyser was
reported until after the well was drilled sometime around the turn of the century. Reinhart also confirms
that there was casing in the 70 meter deep well. Fran Rache and his wife Grace observed this geyser
starting in 1906 and according to Rinehart kept it alive. Rinehart reports "the geyser, because it sits in a
sedimentary basin" (I read pool here), "fills up with debris every few years, closing off the well casing
at about the 13 meter level". Fran would clean it out by reaming it. Reinhart continues "However in
1970, he (Fran) did a major overhaul after some boys stopped the geysers action entirely by jamming
the opening with broken pop bottles". What exactly Fran did is not clear in Reinhart's book but he
apparently fixed the sediment problem and restored the "geyser" eruptions. Current photographs
show a cone sitting in the runoff pool. In 1974 The Rashes sold their ranch and geyser to Howard and
Olga Cream, two avid geyser gazers, who converted it in to the tourist attraction it is today. The
Cream's successful development of the site was not the first attempt to draw tourists. Old postcards,
such as the one shown below, document an earlier attempt by E. T. Plummer to commercialize the
erupting well .

However, even though the "geyser" vent is artificial, it tapped into a natural hydrothermal system.
Recent reports indicate that behavior of this geyser may change prior to earthquakes. Further studies
are underway to see if geyser behavior may be an indicator of impending earthquakes. This very
significant theory is based on detailed observations of the "geyser" made by the Olga (Cream) Kolbeck
and other gazers starting in 1974. Old Faithful of California though not of natural birth is an important
thermal feature.


 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 26 of 109: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Nov  2, 2000 (18:32) * 3 lines 
 
More on th4 Calistoga Geyser and pictures http://www.web-net.com/jonesy/of_califonia.htm

Thanks, David!


 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 27 of 109:  (sprin5) * Fri, Nov  3, 2000 (07:00) * 1 lines 
 
I've seen this one first hand, at least driven by it on the way to Harbin Hot Springs in Lake County, a famous Northern California spa and retreat.


 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 28 of 109: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Nov  3, 2000 (13:37) * 1 lines 
 
I have, as well. In fact, Calistoga is about the only geyser I have seen with the exception of one tiny one in a hot river near Mammoth Lakes. It is one of the first short trips David took me on when I visited him in California - just after he took his non-driking mom through Napa Valley. It is beautiful all around there.


 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 29 of 109: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Nov 27, 2000 (20:39) * 24 lines 
 
************************************
White Island and Pohuto Geyser, NZ
***********************************

For the week ending 24 November, White Island continued to fume and degas
and Ruapehu had low levels of volcanic tremor. And, in Rotorua, the Pohutu
Geyser has now been in continuous eruption for 251 days, a new and ongoing
record for New Zealand.

From: http://www.gns.cri.nz/hazardwatch/latest/gweekvo.htm

24/11/2000
White Island and Ruapehu
White Island continues to emit minor amounts of steam and gases. At Ruapehu
low background levels of volcanic tremor continue to be recorded. Both
White Island and Ruapehu remain at Alert Level 1 (signs of volcano unrest).
Other volcanoes
All other New Zealand volcanoes are at Alert Level 0 (dormant or quiescent).

Geothermal activity
Pohutu Geyser at Whakarewarewa in Rotorua continues its record-breaking
display. The geyser has now been in continuous eruption for 251 days.




 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 30 of 109: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Jan 29, 2001 (15:55) * 10 lines 
 
From Bob Shannon at Pinpoint@egroups.com

The 1980s geothermal energy boom turned out to be a bust for the state of California, which spent $150 million on a pair of power plants at The Geysers.

The state learned a tough lesson -- you can't generate electricity at The Geysers without steam.

Whole article at:
http://www.pressdemocrat.com/local/news/28history_a1empirea.html




 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 31 of 109: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Feb  2, 2001 (11:50) * 67 lines 
 
*******************************************
Hydrothermal eruption Rotorua, New Zealand
*******************************************

Hydrothermal eruption Rotorua, New Zealand

The January 26 eruption at Kuirau Park, Rotorua, New Zealand.

Notes and comments from BJ Scott.

On Friday 26 January about 3.30 to 3.40 PM NZDT, a muddy hot pool 2.5-3m
diameter (Spring 721) burst into eruption, generating the largest
hydrothermal eruption in Kuirau Park since 1966. The eruption of blocks and
mud was to about 100 metres height and produced a thick carpet of blocks
and mud to the east, extending over 120m from the vent. The eruption was
very directional. Very little ejecta is distributed to the west (may be
less than 30m from the vent). Blocks up to about 1m diameter were projected
over 50m from vent, while blocks around 0.1m or less diameter landed over
100m away. The crater formed is about 10-12m in diameter.

It was possible to recognise 4 eruption deposits on Friday evening, and
this may give some insight into the eruption. These are;
1) A ballistic block bed, the most widely distributed unit. It would appear
that this unit is almost entirely formed from Oranui Formation.
2) A basal dark grey mud deposit directed to the east, ranging from about
400mm thick to a trace of only mm at Ranolf Street.
3) An upper, smaller and slightly lighter grey muds deposit. This was also
distributed to the east, overlying the basal darker mud. It was smaller in
distribution and the dispersal access was a little more to the SE.
Thickness appeared to be about 100-150mm at it's thickest.
4) A dark grey, very liquid hydrothermal mud distributed to the west, onto
the adjacent road. This appears to be the contents of Spring 721.

The ballistic blocks appear to be present through almost all of the
deposit. That is there are blocks that are clearly on top of all the muds,
while other blocks are coated by muds with shelter zones on their leeward
sides. Based on first impressions the dark grey liquid muds were erupted
first, to the west. Then the main phase of the eruption commenced,
ejecting muds and ballistic blocks to the east, this was followed by a
smaller mud rich phase (no relationship with ballistics was ascertained),
which was followed by a distinct ballistic shower, numerous cm sized blocks
are impacted into all the muds. The ballistics extend well beyond the mud
to the NE and its is not clear from first impressions the exact
relationship to the mud.

Fallout of the mud layers has loaded all the trees and shrubs within the
ejecta apron bending and breaking many.

A selection of photos is avalable at
http://www.gns.cri.nz/earthact/volcanoes/gallery/kuirau.htm.

Brad Scott
Volcano Surveillance Co ordinator
Institute of Geological & Nuclear Sciences
Wairakei Reserach Centre
P O Box 2000
Taupo

E Mail b.scott@gns.cri.nz

Contact numbers:
Wairakei Research Centre reception (24 hour) 64+07-3748211
Direct dial (office hours only) 64+07-3760151
Wairakei Research Centre fax 64+07-3748199
38 38 06.8S 176 05 35.8E




 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 32 of 109: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Apr 11, 2001 (19:07) * 21 lines 
 
From NZ's Bay of Plenty Times
Third eruption at Rotorua park
11 APRIL 2001
Rotorua's Kuirau Park has provided its third geothermal eruption this year, leaving
experts baffled.
The latest eruption threw mud out of a an existing crater for several metres. It
occurred near the Aquatic Centre bore, about 30m from a new road being
constructed through the park, and is believed to have happened on Sunday morning,
although no one saw it.
There may also have been a second eruption the same day, Rotorua District Council
geothermal inspector Peter Brownbridge said today.
He said it was still unclear what was causing the increased activity.
A lack of underground water could mean that it was boiling faster and therefore
creating more activity, he said.
It appeared the pool was now settling down but daily monitoring would continue.
Last month, a vent near the park's paddling pools threw hot mud into the air only a
few metres from a footpath.
The biggest eruption at the park this year took place in January, creating a new crater
and sending mud and debris flying. Its site has since become a tourist attraction.
No one has been hurt in any of the eruptions. -NZPA



 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 33 of 109: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Nov  7, 2001 (21:29) * 5 lines 
 
An absolutely perfect of the geyser at Calistoga, California with thanks to HFL






 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 34 of 109: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Nov  7, 2001 (22:04) * 0 lines 
 


 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 35 of 109: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Nov  7, 2001 (23:04) * 1 lines 
 
*Sigh* that was an sttempt to post Geothermal places in Greece. I will do so tomorrow when I can think better. Then, I will post about New Zealand. They out perform Hawaii in the area of geothermal energy use.


 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 36 of 109: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Nov 11, 2001 (00:13) * 20 lines 
 
EASTERN AND SOUTHERN MEDITERRANEAN - A
complex plate boundary crosses Turkey and Greece
where several high-temperature geothermal prospects
have been found. Since 1984, the Kizildere field in
western Turkey has produced 20.4 MWe, and a dry ice
plant was built in the late 80s. The plant makes dry ice
using CO2 from geothermal wells, supplying a large part
of the Near East market. Lower temperature hot water
(552 GWh/yr) is used for heating and greenhouses at
Ankara, Izmir and elsewhere. In Greece 37 GWh/yr is
used directly, and on Milos a 2 MWe flash plant was
operated for several years. In Israel and Jordan, at the
Red Sea - Jordan Valley Rift (between the African and
Arabian plates), many hot springs (to 102degrees C) are
used for bathing and heating (332 GWh/yr in Israel).
Geothermal hot water is used in Algeria (460 GWh/yr) and
Tunisia (400 GWh/yr) for bathing, greenhouses, drinking
and watering crops.

http://geothermal.marin.org/map/med.html


 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 37 of 109: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Nov 11, 2001 (00:27) * 3 lines 
 
Excellent world map with the plates and geothermal areas outlined

http://geothermal.marin.org/geomap_1.html


 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 38 of 109: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Dec 21, 2001 (16:05) * 6 lines 
 
I am still trying to find from whence commeth my folding strata from Greece, but until then I will post 17's image again.



Calistoga Geyser when I saw it - Napa Valley, California
Especially appropriate for Christmas...


 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 39 of 109: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Dec 21, 2001 (16:11) * 6 lines 
 
I nwever though of Greece this way. Please go to this website and scroll down to the subterranean volcano then compare it with the map of Greece beside it.




http://www.eu-seased.net/partners/igme.htm


 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 40 of 109: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Dec 21, 2001 (16:12) * 1 lines 
 
That must have been SOME eruption!!!


 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 41 of 109: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Dec 21, 2001 (16:16) * 4 lines 
 
Yes, it was Thera, that they are talking about, but the entire Aegean Sea basin resembles nothing as much as it resembles a caldera. Santorini is at the lower end of the Greek Islands (what is left of the monumental erption of Thera.)


http://volcano.und.edu/vwdocs/volc_images/europe_west_asia/nisyros.html


 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 42 of 109: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Tue, Feb  5, 2002 (17:55) * 1 lines 
 
John can verify this for certain, but I think that Thera is the Greek word for for fear. Or at least a Greek word for a particular kind of fear. Greek words are precise and tend to define themselves. It is mind boggling, a natural event so horrific that the place where it occurs becomes "the place of fear".


 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 43 of 109: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Feb  5, 2002 (18:06) * 3 lines 
 
Greek is a magnifienty precise language. There are web translators, but I'll await John's translation. He also knows ancient Greek - THE most precise language ever devised by mankind.

(I wonder what happened to my USGS image....!)


 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 44 of 109: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Tue, Feb  5, 2002 (18:12) * 1 lines 
 
The ancient and classical Greeks, the people who perfected the concepts of philosphy and logic. They also perfected the concept of politics, which is not in and of itself a bad thing. It's just that some politicians...They also perfected geometry. I read somewhere that people who use their hands a lot when speaking tend to think spacially. The Greeks tend to be among those that use their hands while speaking and doesn't their achitectural heritage idicate that they were, indeed, spacial thinkers.


 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 45 of 109: Curious Wolfie  (wolf) * Tue, Feb  5, 2002 (19:03) * 1 lines 
 
too bad we can't adopt a more precise language--two, too, and to? their, they're and there? and that bad can have different meanings depending on usage? kinda like chinese, isn't it?


 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 46 of 109: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Feb  5, 2002 (19:29) * 1 lines 
 
In Greek, when you are under something you are under the sky, roof, table, tree or whatever, but each with a different word - so I understand. We are just "under" in English...


 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 47 of 109: Curious Wolfie  (wolf) * Tue, Feb  5, 2002 (21:13) * 1 lines 
 
but you know, i kinda like the subtle nuances of our language--keeps us on our toes at least--and then slang is another story and it can be a fun study.


 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 48 of 109: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Feb  6, 2002 (14:25) * 3 lines 
 
Properly used English is an art form, Wolfie, I agree. We have to use the correct words and the arrangement there of to make our meaning clear. The is also nothing quites as delicious as double meanings between two people sharing a secret. I wonder if they are possible in other languages. Surely, they are!

Cheryl, How's your Greek. I shudder to think of asking the resident expert. He has already been through enough pain this year! =)


 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 49 of 109: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Feb  6, 2002 (14:40) * 1 lines 
 
*sigh* there is nothing quite like resting my carpal-tunnel so I can type correctly...


 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 50 of 109: Curious Wolfie  (wolf) * Wed, Feb  6, 2002 (19:38) * 1 lines 
 
we understand (my carpel acts up too)


 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 51 of 109: Curious Wolfie  (wolf) * Wed, Feb  6, 2002 (19:39) * 1 lines 
 
or any other language by which we can have so much fun with puns!!


 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 52 of 109: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Feb  6, 2002 (22:43) * 2 lines 
 
One can be very naughty and still seem nice. I wonder how or if such things translate. I suspect they do more than we would realize. I'll try to behave.
Of course, there are other conferences and topics...


 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 53 of 109: John Tsatsaragos  (tsatsvol) * Fri, Feb  8, 2002 (05:16) * 9 lines 
 
We speak enough impulsively and visually in Greece, Cheryl.
We use bodys language to speak visually. It is common and I think international language. You can easily discover and understand what is art, if you try speaking more with bodys language. Additionally, bodys language never prevaricates. It isnt true that someone, somewhere told you something with words and his body told you the opposite? Did you remember someone welcoming you with visible displeasure on his face or something similar?

Thinking and speaking by using your both languages, you can make more complex cogitation. So, Philosophy is nearly If you try to make some sounds simultaneously, you will feel music, dance and poesy near
You understand better the third dimension (high) if you use your hands when you try to describe something by words. You understand better what is something, if you touch and discover it by hands. It does not make geometry and volume more understandable?

In any case it is absolutely true that you say for Greeks, even if current world civilization tends to destroy these particularities. The same also characterizes Italian and Spanish peoples.
John



 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 54 of 109: John Tsatsaragos  (tsatsvol) * Fri, Feb  8, 2002 (06:49) * 14 lines 
 
Greek language has many words that sound the same but with different spelling and different meaning. They are like a palette that gives color to written and unwritten words. For example = Cheros = widowed man and = Cheros = The animal pig.

We have also same words with different tonic accent or with the same tonic accent that meaning different things. For example = Choros = Dance or Singing Group and = Choros = free space (on earth).

Additionaly, we have different words for the same thing. For example (Seismos), (Trantagma=shake), (tarakounima= shock), etc.

Greek language is too difficult for strangers. It has a number of separate words for each thing you think to express. We use verbs before substantives. Pronouns are not used before verbs.

Ancient Greek language was like music. Some vowels were sounding as long (twice), some as single (at once) and some long or single depending on the meaning. Always single was E and O. Always long was , and some double vowels like EI=E.

This is the End of lesson. I suppose that you are confused now. But you have an idea for Greek language even if complex

John



 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 55 of 109: Curious Wolfie  (wolf) * Fri, Feb  8, 2002 (14:07) * 1 lines 
 
i am confused but i welcome the lesson, thanks John!! imagine calling a widowed man and animal pig without meaning it! *laugh*


 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 56 of 109: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Feb 10, 2002 (16:19) * 5 lines 
 
Ah John, How lovely is your lesson in Greek - ancient and modern. I have heard it spoken (modern, of course) and I am convinced that your English will always be better than anything I could say in Greek.

However, Body language and use of hand gestures is the way New York City people talk to one another. It is the only thing I brought with me to Hawaii. It has been implied that I'd be mute without the use of my hands. When I get enthusiastic about something, I cannot help but to use my hands and entire self. It has been useful living in Hawaii where all manner of Pacific and Asian languages come into daily use. We always seem to understand each other.

I think we would have no trouble understanding one another. *smile*


 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 57 of 109: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Feb 10, 2002 (16:25) * 5 lines 
 
I think you could read me the telephone book in Greek and make it sound musical, poetic and romantic all at the same time, John. I think I need to locate some live Greek news broadcast on the internet so I can listen to the inflection. I will never get the pronounciation right. We have been taught Latinized Greek pronounciation of great things of Greece's past.

Is touching allowed? I tend to do that if I am fond of the person I am talking to.




 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 58 of 109: Curious Wolfie  (wolf) * Sun, Feb 10, 2002 (20:33) * 1 lines 
 
marcia, i'm the same way with my body language--always try to make sure they match what comes out of my mouth! i can't tell a story without exaggerating my face and flapping my arms about!!


 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 59 of 109: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Mon, Feb 11, 2002 (16:53) * 3 lines 
 
Many thanks John for your wonderful explanation of the Greek language and Greek speakers.

Marcia, as to your question: How's my Greek. It's enough to use in working out crossword puzzles. I primarily know the language in relation to etymology. I'm a prisoner of the Latin alphabet, I'm afraid. I can recognize Greek letters individually. However, when they are arranged to make words, it's Greek to me. Sorry, about the bad pun.


 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 60 of 109: Curious Wolfie  (wolf) * Mon, Feb 11, 2002 (17:32) * 3 lines 
 
no, that was a good pun!!

the only latin i know comes from crossword puzzles! (oh, and alba means white, which comes from my green thumb)


 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 61 of 109: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Mon, Feb 11, 2002 (17:44) * 1 lines 
 
On the subject of growing things. Agricola is Latin for farmer and the origin of the work agriculture. (I'm just about ready to go looking for a crossword puzzle.)


 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 62 of 109: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Feb 11, 2002 (18:47) * 1 lines 
 
Pox on Agricola. He was a rather good general who did dastardly things to the Celts of Britain. Actually he sounds like liquid fertilizer! beside me sits a Ltin dictionary. I am also an etymologist and love languages. I next need to add Greek (in Latin letters and Greek.) In astronomy you need to learn the Greek Alphabet. You also need to know it to respond properly to an invitation to a fraternity party. Oh, the things my father paid for me to learn in college!


 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 63 of 109: Curious Wolfie  (wolf) * Mon, Feb 11, 2002 (19:27) * 3 lines 
 
i prefer the common names of plants myself. i have a friend who is good at root words, not i!

(cheryl, i get the daily paper just for the crosswords--easy ones but they're good for practice)


 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 64 of 109: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Feb 11, 2002 (20:13) * 3 lines 
 
Ooh, you'll hate me. I do The Times (of London) via internet when I have absolutely nothing else to do. I rarely do games anymore. I find too much I still need to learn is out there waiting for me.

I was never allowed to use common names for anyting. My grandfather was a graduate of Kew. He was a horticulturist and I was strictly taught that science was precise and to use the correct names. I passed it on to my son. Poor David!


 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 65 of 109: Curious Wolfie  (wolf) * Mon, Feb 11, 2002 (20:16) * 1 lines 
 
i do the harder crosswords on sundays and i also pick up a book with harder puzzles in them.


 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 66 of 109: Curious Wolfie  (wolf) * Mon, Feb 11, 2002 (20:18) * 1 lines 
 
i barely know the latin names for the plants i collect!


 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 67 of 109: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Feb 11, 2002 (21:38) * 3 lines 
 
You really don't need to know taxonomy and nomenclature. After college botany was out of my life I found most growers did not know what I was talking about. I found pointing with my finger had much better results!

I still think AgriCola might make a good vitamin drink name or a liquid fertilizer. *sigh*


 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 68 of 109: John Tsatsaragos  (tsatsvol) * Tue, Feb 12, 2002 (09:35) * 4 lines 
 
I like hard crosswords too. Greek crosswords are enough difficult because a word can mean several things, as you already know. I wonder if I can solve an English crossword.

Surely it is better if you use your hands Marcia. You never forget what you touch or what you make by your hands; even you forget their names. It works well for me.



 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 69 of 109: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Feb 12, 2002 (13:30) * 1 lines 
 
I knit, I crochet and do needle work. I think everyone I know has something inflicted upon them by me at sometime or another. Now I type and give the gift of my thoughts. You solder. I cannot do this, so I am left to knit wooly things in the tropics where no one wears them! I think I have made more ornaments for Hiklo's Christmas trees than anyone else on earth. But, you are kind to say so, and you are right. That is why Wolfie and I have a Crafts Conference. We both do a lot of it when we have time. It is also a very good stress reliever.


 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 70 of 109: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Feb 12, 2002 (13:32) * 1 lines 
 
I'd love to do English crosswords with you. I'd like to see how your mind works in the abstract. I imagine it is as fertile as mine is. You would be a worthy adversary for me in mental verbalization. Shall I need a translator for Greek? I'll take applications!


 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 71 of 109: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Feb 12, 2002 (13:47) * 1 lines 
 
English is full of many-meaning words. Bridge comes to mind immediately. If English were easy, I would not be needed as an editor!


 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 72 of 109: Curious Wolfie  (wolf) * Tue, Feb 12, 2002 (16:52) * 1 lines 
 
i agree with john too. i have to touch plants and feel their leaves and smell the flowers even if i know they don't smell!! sometimes you can detect a very slight scent from "unscented" flowers. i drive everyone nuts with my constant searching out plants and animals!!


 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 73 of 109: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Feb 12, 2002 (18:46) * 1 lines 
 
With this nose of mine I have pollenated more flowers than I can count. I am into tactile sensations, also! All senses, actually. Geologists have been known to lick rocks...


 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 74 of 109: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Wed, Feb 13, 2002 (17:26) * 7 lines 
 
I suppose that licking rocks is one way to get vitamins into your diet. Is this done to determine the precise type of rock? Here's a really dumb question: Do different rocks taste differently?

About that AgriCola, I love the suggestions for using it as the name for a health drink or fertilizer. Not both. You might get confused and drink the one meant for the hydrangeas.

As for the General Agricola. I understand you're bearing him a grudge concerning his campaigns against the British Celts, Marcia. I'm afraid to ask your views on the Emperor Claudius. As to Agricola, it would seem he was descended from a family of farmers (agricolae) generations of people who probably cultivated things like fennel, parsnips, artichokes, and broccoli. It was Roman farmers who developed broccoli from the wild cabbage. I know to some that the development of broccoli may be yet another thing to hold against the Romans.

As for the Greek alphabet, I know the individual letters. So I could also reply to a fraternity party invitation. Greek letters are also used in mathematics; the most famous one probably being "pi". Couldn't find a circumference without it!


 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 75 of 109: Curious Wolfie  (wolf) * Wed, Feb 13, 2002 (18:51) * 3 lines 
 
oh yeah, pi, and then there's that thing for sum (like an angular E). and i really like broccoli so no grudge against the romans for that from me!

AgriCola sounds so funny! Can you imagine the ads for it??? The SuperBowl would have a blast with that one!


 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 76 of 109: Curious Wolfie  (wolf) * Wed, Feb 13, 2002 (18:52) * 1 lines 
 
the closest i've ever come to licking a rock was kissing the "blarney stone" in Ireland at the Epcot Center in Florida!!!


 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 77 of 109: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Feb 13, 2002 (20:30) * 3 lines 
 
That E thingy is a Sigma in Greek meaning the sum of, as I recall. (If I had Greek fonts available in here I'd use them.) John is sleeping or I would ask him.

Yes, rocks taste different, Mostly they don't taste, but most oilbearing rock tastes distinctly like petroleum. metallics can also taste, but the main reason I was licking them was to clean a little place for my magnifier to see the structure.


 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 78 of 109: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Feb 13, 2002 (20:32) * 1 lines 
 
and... if the rock is laying in a pasture with animals it might even have additional flavor. Most minerals found in rock are not water soluable or they would have been long gone. Let is be noted that I refrain from licking freshly solidified lava. It is razor sharp and extremely glassy. I don't recommend it.


 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 79 of 109: Curious Wolfie  (wolf) * Wed, Feb 13, 2002 (21:18) * 1 lines 
 
licking rocks sounds disgusting now! do you actually get stuff on your tongue or does it just allow a taste? and does that taste reveal anything to you? (like some folks lick cocaine in identifying it)


 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 80 of 109: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Feb 13, 2002 (22:00) * 3 lines 
 
(the Drug cops in Hawaii taste heroin, too - apparently it is slightly sweet)

actually you clean it off onyour gloves then your jeans then perhaps a squirt bottle. Then you lick it. Most don't taste. Others are very faintly tinged with an aftertaste of petroleum. It is sort of like wine tasting. All rocks taste the same - like a rock - unless you are really finely tuned to the taste. I really think it is an affectation rather than the practice to lick rocks, but you can see if that jewel inbedded in it is just slime from a slug or a real opal.


 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 81 of 109: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Thu, Feb 14, 2002 (14:56) * 1 lines 
 
Ouch! I understand why no one would want to lick lava rocks. Thanks for explaining whether or not rocks have a taste. It was affectation much used in Westerns, the old prospector licking his pick axe to see if he'd struck gold or not.


 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 82 of 109: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Feb 14, 2002 (17:55) * 19 lines 
 
If you have gold fillings or crowns, you KNOW gold is inert in anything but "Aqua Regia"

aqua regia
Pronounced As: kw rj [Lat.,=royal water], corrosive,
fuming yellow liquid prepared by mixing one volume of
concentrated nitric acid with three to four volumes of
concentrated hydrochloric acid. It was so named by the
alchemists because it dissolves gold and platinum,
the "royal metals, which do not dissolve in nitric or
hydrochloric acid alone. Its fumes and yellow color are
caused by reaction of nitric acid, HNO3, with hydrogen
chloride, HCl, to form nitrosyl chloride, NOCl, chlorine,
Cl2, and water; both chlorine and nitrosyl chloride are
yellow-colored and volatile.

more... http://www.encyclopedia.com/articles/00649.html

But, it makes a good story! Not even rock of high iron content really tastes. As I said, if it is souluable in water, we can taste it. However, if it IS soluable in water, all of the tastable elements would have long-ago leached out.
Ergo: Rocks do not taste.


 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 83 of 109: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Feb 19, 2002 (11:52) * 19 lines 
 
Geothermal activity in Greece

POWER PRODUCTION
During the last four years, development of Greece's high enthalpy geothermal resources has been suspended while exploration of
low and medium temperature fields and the planning for their direct use development has been stressed.

At Milos, in the Cyclades Islands, a 2 MWe, single flash pilot plant was built in 1986 by Public Power Corporation. The local
residents complained about environmental problems and the plant was shut down in 1988.

A second high temperature was discovered on Nisyros in the Dodecanesus Islands in the 1970s. Two deep test wells were drilled;
N2 for production and N1 for injection. N2 produced 8 t/h of steam and 11 t/h of brine at 17 atm (198C), but N1 could not be
used for injection due to self-sealing tendencies. Plans were made to drill 5 more wells and to build a power plant, but these plans
were cancelled when residents objected, again on environmental grounds.

Greek geothermists have expressed disappointment in the stagnation of these power projects, believing that the objections, on both
islands, were based on misleading information. Their hopes are that in the near future, the resident's objections can be overcome
and progress on these and other high enthalpy projects resumed.


The bold letters above point out the difficulties - faulty information and the resistence of the people in the area. My island could be independent of external fuel for power generation if only we could drill more wells. But, the people who built their houses in the area protest violently and in a most obnoxious way - and their houses were built AFTER the initial wells were drilled. Most of us understand that they don't want more outside people around because their "pot" growing will be found out. (Like we did not know of it, anyway!)


 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 84 of 109: John Tsatsaragos  (tsatsvol) * Wed, Feb 20, 2002 (05:37) * 8 lines 
 
Can you imagine how much big problem can be the environmental protection groups? Many big developmental works are cancelled by this way in Greece. I believe that we must protect the environment but it is also useful to know what we want finally.

Generally, development is meaning production and consumption of energy. As higher energy we expend, as much pollution we produce. Pollution also is produced where we produce consumable type of energy; like electricity.

From the other hand technology has its limits and cost is the main factor. But is crazy to stop works like the above or to stop works for making of roads or for irrigation dams, only for environment reasons. We live in the century of the hyperbole or a big catastrophe is too near.

John



 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 85 of 109: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Feb 20, 2002 (12:48) * 3 lines 
 
Rob can tell horror stories about how destructive the Green Party has become in New zealand politics. They are also making inroads in Hawaii politics. I am particularly offended by those who destroy and hide behind the guise of environmentalism. They are just as bad in California where they drive spikes into trees which results in the death of tree cutters.

John is right. We cannot allow this activism to destroy the only plausible ways to generate the power we need in a non-polluting way. Wind farms are also in wide use but they are expensive and not all places have enough wind to make them effective. Solar power is something else to consider, but it is also expensive to set up on a large scale. For this island, and particularly Hilo on the windward side, there really is not enough solar radiation to make it practical on anything but indivudual homeowners trying to reduce their electricity bills.


 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 86 of 109: John Tsatsaragos  (tsatsvol) * Thu, Feb 21, 2002 (06:11) * 10 lines 
 
You have right Marcia about Wind Farms and Solar Energy. They are too low-level energy forms and their utilization is enough expensive at the moment. But I wonder if it is good idea to use energy from your volcanoes in Hawaii.

One other solution for the entire world can be the production of Hydrogen by using solar energy from the sea. We need to burn something and the fuels that we use produces enough number of pollution materials like CO2, CO, NOx, SO2 etc. The result of the combustion of Hydrogen is only water and thermal energy. Hydrogen is applicable fuel also for cars.

Additionally, Hydrogen burning gives about 11000 Kcal/Kg instead 9000 Kcal/Kg of diesel burning or 6400 Kcal/Kg of coal burning.

This is good, simple and applicable solution. It isnt strange our dependency on liquid and solid fuels?

John



 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 87 of 109: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Feb 21, 2002 (17:24) * 26 lines 
 
I am sure our volcano is being examined by the various world volcanologists who are resident from time to time. More than just the mechanisms of eruptions are being studied. Power is a world issue now. We all need alternative ways of generating the power, heat and light which have become necessities of life.

On the Kona side of this island they have an experimental power generator created by the differernce between deep sea water and shallow.

Of the two fundamentally different types of electrical energy generating systems, open and closed
cycle, only the closed cycle system in the one megawatt size is available for immediate
implementation. Ideally the system will receive deep ocean water at a temperature of from 4 -6
Degrees C. and will discharge it at a temperature of 7 - 8 Degrees C. The closed cycle system is a
well known thermal system. It was first demonstrated as producing net power from Ocean
Thermal Energy Conversion in a facility at the Natural Energy Laboratory of Hawaii. The plant was
designated as Mini-OTEC. As of this writing four such demonstration plants have been produced.
A key to the entire system is the deep ocean water pipe. Nine such pipes have been installed at
the NELHA. It is now clear that pipes as large as 24 inches in diameter can be installed by local
fishermen and other public works technicians found in island and coastal communities. Few, if
any difficulties are found in the deep ocean installation since the pipe material is buoyant and
hangs in an inverse centenary which is anchored to the ocean floor in the deep and shallow
waters at the pipe extremities. Survival problems can be encountered in the transition zone from
sea to land. Recent successful experiments with slant drilling suggest that this technique will
provide a low cost method for crossing the coastal zone.

http://www.commonheritagecorp.com/energy-otec.html

Ocean wave power is also being captured
http://www.bfi.org/Trimtab/summer01/oceanWave.htm

Tidal forces have generated power for several countries
http://www.iclei.org/efacts/tidal.htm


 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 88 of 109: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Feb 21, 2002 (17:29) * 4 lines 
 
Hydrogen is very promising as is alcohol for generation of power.
http://www.lanl.gov/energy/ziock/ziock.html

We are a stubborn lot. We embrace technology only if it is easy to do. I think it will come to the point where we will not have a choice. We will adapt or we will begin learning to walk, stay home, rise and sleep with the sun and do without accustomed luxuries. Nuclear power is not my favorite way to do things. We are already having difficulties with what to do with the waste products which will be dangerously radioactive for millions of years. Just as babies protest to being weaned from their mothers, we will cry and protest and make many loud noises, but in the end, we will survive and adapt.


 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 89 of 109: Paul Terry Walhus (terry) * Thu, Jul 18, 2002 (14:30) * 1 lines 
 
testing.


 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 90 of 109: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Jul 19, 2002 (14:14) * 1 lines 
 
I had forgotten about this topic. I have lots of new things to post here - I just need the time! and the modem.


 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 91 of 109: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Jul 19, 2002 (14:25) * 1 lines 
 
Thanks again, Terry. I find Geo has topics I did not remember existed.


 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 92 of 109: John Tsatsaragos  (tsatsvol) * Fri, Jul 26, 2002 (02:13) * 19 lines 
 
THE THERMAL MINERAL SPRINGS OF LESVOS (MYTILINI)- GREECE

The thermal springs of Lesvos have been well known since ancient times. They are regarded and used as valid therapeutic treatments for all kinds of ailments and are therefore prescribed by doctors. They are recommended for the treatment of chronic rheumatism, arthritis, sciatica, myalgic pain, gynecological problems, skin conditions etc. The mineral waters are also inhaled for chronic catarrh, catarrh of the pharynx and the Eustachian tubes.



They are usually situated in secluded areas, amongst peaceful surroundings and amazing scenery. So they are good for the body as well as the soul since they are a great relaxing and soothing experience.

There are many thermal springs to be found on Lesvos:
Eftalou Springs in Molyvos
Thermal Springs in Skala Thermis
Thermal Springs in the Gulf of Yera
Thermal Springs in Lisvori
Thermal Springs Polycgnitou at Polychnitos

http://www.vatera-lesvos.co.uk/springs.htm

John



 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 93 of 109: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Jul 26, 2002 (10:26) * 1 lines 
 
I know that moist heat is good for almost anything (has your mother ever left you over a steaming kettle when you had a winter cold?!) I am not surprised that the thermal springs world-wide have a great following. I draw the line at drinking some of the witches' brew that comes out of some of them. Victorians loved them. Japan still bakes customers in hot volcanic soils. I can imagine it is also good for Rheumatism and Arthritis. Happyily, I am not yet old enough to know about such things! *;)


 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 94 of 109: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Sep  3, 2002 (23:30) * 13 lines 
 
GEOTHERMICS WILL BE USED IN THE MACEDONIA AIRPORT HEATING AND COOLING SYSTEM

The geothermic fields located in the region of Neo Risio, Thessaloniki will be used
in the new facilities of Thessaloniki's Macedonia Airport which claims a European
first.

According to the newspaper "Macedonia", the use of the geothermic fields will be
extended to the heating and cooling system of the airport that will be ready for
the public in 2006.

Based on estimates, the new heating and cooling system will cost 40% less
compared to the method used today in similar building complexes.
http://www.goGreece.com/news/headlines/story.html?id=7828


 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 95 of 109: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Jul 30, 2003 (07:50) * 153 lines 
 
*********************************
Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone
*********************************
From: "Robert B. Smith"

Yellowstone National Park Press Release on unusual hydrothermal activity
http://www.nps.gov/yell/press/0362.htm

Yellowstone National Park News Release
INFORMATION FOR THE MEDIA CONTACTS: KARLE OR MATTHEWS
FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE (307) 344-2015 or 344-2010
July 22, 2003 03-62

http://www.nps.gov/yell/press/0362.htm

INCREASED THERMAL ACTIVITY AT NORRIS GEYSER BASIN
REQUIRES TEMPORARY CLOSURE

Yellowstone National Park Superintendent Suzanne Lewis announced
today that due to high ground temperatures and increased thermal
activity that could affect visitor and employee safety, a portion of
the Back Basin at Norris Geyser Basin on the west side of the park
has been temporarily closed. Yellowstone's more popular features
within the Norris Geyser Basin, including Steamboat and Echinus
Geysers and all of Porcelain Basin, remain open to the public.
The temporary closure, effective July 23, is clearly marked and
covers most of the western portion of the Back Basin trail starting
at the Norris Museum. There are approximately 12,500 feet of trails
in the Norris Geyser Basin-with approximately 5,800 feet affected by
the temporary closure.
Norris is the hottest and most seismically active geyser basin in
Yellowstone. Recent activity in the Norris Geyser Basin has included
formation of new mud pots, an eruption of Porkchop Geyser (dormant
since 1989), the draining of several geysers, creating steam vents
and significantly increased measured ground temperatures (up to 200
degrees Fahrenheit). Additional observations include vegetation dying
due to thermal activity and the changing of several geysers' eruption
intervals. Vixen Geyser has become more frequent and Echinus Geyser
has become more regular.
Park staff continue to monitor temperatures and thermal features in
the area. When conditions have returned to acceptable ground
temperatures and stable surface conditions have improved, the trail
will be reopened. Norris is another example of Yellowstone's thermal
features that are constantly evolving and changing.

Attached with the press release are a set of questions and answers
and maps of the area.

-NPS-
(http://www.nps.gov/yell/press/images/norrislocatormap.gif)
(http://www.nps.gov/yell/press/images/norrismapclosure.jpg)

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
NORRIS GEYSER BASIN TEMPORARY CLOSURE
July 22, 2003

1. Where is Norris Geyser Basin?
Norris Geyser Basin is located in the northern section of Yellowstone
National Park, 22 miles south of Mammoth Hot Springs.

2. Is Yellowstone safe for an individual or their family to visit
Norris Geyser Basin and Yellowstone in general?
Yes. The changes at Norris are part of the dynamics of Yellowstone;
thermal areas are ever changing, and the recent temporary closure is
a precaution to assure visitor and staff safety in an area where
increased thermal activity has been noted.
Keep in mind that all thermal features have water that is near or
above boiling. Visitors should remain on established boardwalks and
trails whenever in thermal areas.

3. Is it safe for employees to live and work at Norris Geyser Basin
and Yellowstone in general?
Yes, as noted above. Safety is the top priority for both park
visitors and park staff. The area is closed to most park staff and
all concessioner staff. For those employees that may have to enter
the area, a job hazard analysis is being completed.

4. What is the boiling temperature at Norris Geyser Basin?
The altitude of Norris Geyser Basin is 7,500 feet. Water boils at
about 200 degrees Fahrenheit at Norris Geyser Basin. Typically, water
boils at 212 degrees Fahrenheit at sea level.

5. What led to the temporary closure at Norris Geyser Basin?
Park staff have measured ground temperatures of 200 degrees
Fahrenheit in the closure area-an unacceptable level for visitor and
employee safety. Also, many thermal features in the Back Basin have
heated up as indicated by expelling steam-rather than water and
steam. Concerns for visitor and staff safety regarding the high
ground temperatures and presence of steam necessitated a temporary
closure at this time. A portion of the trail system has been closed
to allow the assessment of any potential steam eruptions.

6. How long has this activity been occurring?
The most recent change in thermal activity began July 11, 2003, as
noted by NPS staff and electronic instrumentation. A new mud pot and
other thermal features were formed in the Back Basin area, and
Porkchop Geyser (dormant since 1989) erupted on July 16.
Historically, Norris is one of the more dynamic areas in the park and
is ever changing.

7. Is the park concerned that there will be a volcanic eruption at Norris?
Park staff and other scientists have no evidence that volcanic
activity is occurring at Norris Geyser Basin. In any geothermal area,
there always exist the possibility of steam eruptions as indicated by
the many geysers in Yellowstone

8. How have drought conditions influenced what is happening at Norris?
We do not know what impacts drought conditions have had on Norris Geyser Basin.

9. When will the temporary closure at Norris be lifted?
Park staff will continue to monitor ground temperatures and geyser
activity in the Norris area. The temporary closure will be lifted
when conditions have returned to acceptable ground temperatures and
stable surface conditions have improved.

10. Are wildlife affected by this increased thermal activity?
We do not expect any affect on Yellowstone's wildlife. Wildlife in
Yellowstone has adapted to living in thermal areas.

11. Does the recent closure of the Gibbon, Madison, and Firehole
Rivers have anything to do with the increased thermal activity at
Norris?
No. Although some river temperatures in Yellowstone are affected by
thermal activity, the major control on Yellowstone's river
temperatures is air temperature and water levels. The park has been
experiencing high air temperatures over the past several weeks.

12. How many people visit the Norris Geyser Basin on a daily basis?
Norris is one of the more popular geyser basins in the park. For
instance, last week rangers contacted 3,786 visitors at the
information desk at the Norris Geyser Basin Museum.

13. Are other areas in the park being affected by thermal activity?
Currently, we have no evidence for increased thermal activity in
other areas of the park. We have a large network of seismic
instrumentation throughout the park that is monitored on a daily
basis.

14. You noted that Porkchop Geyser showed recent thermal activity?
What happened at Porkchop Geyser?
Porkchop Geyser was the site of a steam eruption. Porkchop Geyser was
in continuous steam eruption from 1985 to 1989 when it was destroyed
by the 1989 explosion.

Map of the location of Norris Geyser Basin.
(http://www.nps.gov/yell/press/images/norrislocatormap.gif)

Map of the temporary closure area.
(http://www.nps.gov/yell/press/images/norrismapclosure.jpg)

-NPS-




 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 96 of 109: Lucie  (alyeska) * Sun, Oct 12, 2003 (23:59) * 1 lines 
 
Hve you heard any more about all the activity in Yellowstone?


 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 97 of 109: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Oct 13, 2003 (13:31) * 3 lines 
 
Nothing, Lucie. I have my son listening for updates since he goes there with some regularity and we are both interested in new developments.

Please do not think I have abandoned Geo. I am trying to rest my Carpal Tunnel pain and move boxes (I did not know I had so much "stuff") thus I have been absent recently. http://www.ctsplace.com/ Does this happen to everyone actively working on a computer or just to me?


 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 98 of 109: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Mon, Oct 13, 2003 (16:43) * 21 lines 
 
Marcia, I wondered what happened to you. I'm sorry to learn that you're suffering from Carpal Tunnel. Do you have to wear some sort of support on your lower arm?

This is the latest information I could find on Yellowstone.

Yellowstone National Park News Release
INFORMATION FOR THE MEDIA
FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE

PORTIONS OF NORRIS GEYSER BASIN TO REOPEN TO PUBLIC

Yellowstone National Park Superintendent Suzanne Lewis announced today that effective October 9, 2003, at 8:00 a.m., portions of Norris Geyser Basin that have been closed since July 23, 2003, will reopen to the public. Approximately 4,800 feet of the 5,800-foot temporary closure will reopen, with only the portion of the Back Basin trail from Green Dragon Spring to the Porkchop Geyser intersection remaining closed. (There are approximately 12,500 feet of trails in the Norris Geyser Basin.)

Norris is the hottest and most seismically active geyser basin in Yellowstone. Each year, there is a noticeable change in the color and steam discharge of many of Norris' existing geysers and thermal pools. Known as the "annual disturbance," it appears related to increased emission of deep, hot waters. This year's "annual disturbance" was larger and longer than normal and resulted in the formation of many new steam vents and significantly increased measured ground temperatures at unacceptable levels (up to 200 degrees Fahrenheit). Concern for visitor and employee safety necessitated the temporary closure. Over the last several weeks, monitored trail temperatures have significantly decreased in the closed area. Three of the four temperature monitoring sites now indicate ground surface temperatures of less than 120 degrees Fahrenheit.

During this year's annual disturbance, a new thermal feature emerged near Son of Green Dragon Spring, emitting a mudflow that began spattering boiling, acidic mud onto the trail, requiring the trail closure. This feature continues to spatter mud onto the trail, and the area surrounding the new feature will remain closed until a reroute of the trail can be accomplished sometime in the spring of 2004.

-NPS-

Here's the link:

http://www.nps.gov/yell/press/03122.htm


 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 99 of 109: Curious Wolfie  (wolf) * Tue, Oct 14, 2003 (22:00) * 1 lines 
 
have someone massage your wrist/hand--it feels so good for that carpel tunnel (and wearing a good brace at night, keeps your wrist in a neutral position but a little awkward)


 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 100 of 109: Paul Terry Walhus (terry) * Sat, Oct 18, 2003 (07:07) * 26 lines 
 
We just spent about a week on the road helping our friends get settled in
Hot Springs Arkansas. In some ways, Hot Springs is like the Austin of 20
or 30 years ago. Young. Fresh. Full of promise. Not overcrowded. No
insane traffic.

The main street has a row of bath houses that are being renovated by the
Smithsonian Institute. Towering above these are several old, and mostly
vacant, skyscrapers that could have been the set for ghostbusters.

There's a functioning hotel among these that's classic. It has a flowing
mineral water swimming pool overlooking the whole scene from on high.

It's a magical place. Full of possibilities and with a scale that feels
warm and human.

And the waters are healing. We went to one bath house and soaked in the
big pool. It's also a health club. Bob and Karen signed up for a year's
membership while we were there. Karen has carpal tunnel from year's of
slaving away and Mac at the Big U of Texas and she will welcome the daily
baths and the healing waters.

They made their escape from megalaustinopolis and are sliding in to small
town life in one of the most geothermally active and interesting places in
the country.

We'll be back there, that's for certain.


 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 101 of 109: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Oct 23, 2003 (18:04) * 1 lines 
 
Austin looks to be very urbanized and spread all over the county from the news I've seen. We do get more regional news here than we did in Hawaii,and it is fun to see where you might be frequenting. Terry, a few weeks ago the St James Count art show attracted 500,000 people!!!


 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 102 of 109: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Oct 23, 2003 (18:07) * 1 lines 
 
There are geothermal areas all around me here in Kentucky but not in the immediate vicinity. Plenty of places with sulphur in the names, too. All from the orogeny of the Appalachians. I have pieces of lava to prove it.


 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 103 of 109: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Fri, Oct 24, 2003 (16:32) * 1 lines 
 
Would they be very old pieces of lava? The Appalachians are very ancient mountains.


 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 104 of 109: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Nov 29, 2003 (16:44) * 1 lines 
 
They are very old, indeed - an estimated 330 million years (give or take a month). I am supposed to be composing a paper to present to the Kentucky Academy of Sciences next fall on my rocks. Everyone I mentioned it to this year was amazed that I had found anything like that. I have been told someone had to find the first specimen. I just wonder why it took an ex-Hawaiian to do it. (I was the only one who recognized it as lava so I am sure this unpretty rock was not noticed by anyone else.)


 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 105 of 109: Paul Terry Walhus (terry) * Sun, Nov 30, 2003 (20:10) * 1 lines 
 
Wow, tell us about your rock collection Marci!


 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 106 of 109: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Wed, Dec  3, 2003 (17:06) * 1 lines 
 
Marcia, maybe you noticed the old, unpretty lava rock because being an ex-Hawaiian you have a lot experience with lava rocks, albeit much newer ones.


 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 107 of 109: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Dec  4, 2003 (13:45) * 3 lines 
 
Oddly enough, my total emersion in lava for so many years made me notice it only as an afterthought. I was in a dry creek bed looking for fossils and more geodes when I came across a most unlovely chunk of a'a. My mind discarded it thinking "anything but another piece of lava..." until I did a double take and wondered what lava was doing THERE! After I showed my accomplice what it looked like, he found an even better chunk.

My rock collection is pretty big but not much is coming here. My biggest most beautiful specimens are on book shelves and look great. More about them to follow.


 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 108 of 109: Paul Terry Walhus (terry) * Thu, Dec  4, 2003 (18:05) * 1 lines 
 
I hope it's safe! Do you have pictures?


 Topic 30 of 99 [Geo]: Geothermal Activity
 Response 109 of 109: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Dec 22, 2003 (16:42) * 1 lines 
 
I have pictures and they are definitely safe. They and my books were the main part of shipping from Hawaii. I just left the rest of my life and stuff behind. I'll post some of them. I have some impressive things!

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