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Topic 4 of 99: Gaia: Geological Ecology

Sat, Jul 10, 1999 (18:49) | Marcia (MarciaH)
What we are doing to Earth and what we can do about it.
312 responses total.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 1 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Jul 17, 1999 (17:24) * 0 lines 

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 2 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Jul 17, 1999 (17:25) * 7 lines 

This is an attractive source for kids and adults. It contained the image above.

A good resource page with great links (including the one above)

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 3 of 312: wer  (KitchenManager) * Sat, Jul 17, 1999 (19:15) * 1 lines 
and the conference fills in...*wheee!*

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 4 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Jul 17, 1999 (19:22) * 1 lines 
I am trying...keeps me thinking and hunting. I am delighted you like it so far.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 5 of 312: Elena  (Elena) * Tue, Jul 20, 1999 (12:19) * 4 lines 
Great conference, Marcia, I´m full of awe!!

And what a brave start......´What we are doing to Earth and what we can do about it´ is of course the question above all other questions. Terrible is that most people give a sh** to what we are doing to it. Life is short!

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 6 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Jul 20, 1999 (12:32) * 0 lines 

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 7 of 312: Wolf  (wolf) * Tue, Jul 20, 1999 (12:46) * 1 lines 
and not because it's the thing to do, but because it makes sense!

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 8 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Jul 20, 1999 (13:49) * 1 lines 
It means our survival. Quite plainly stated, either we learn to exist with the planet, or we will lose and not exist at all!

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 9 of 312: Elena  (Elena) * Tue, Jul 20, 1999 (14:09) * 3 lines 
So, what DO we do about it??!!
Can´t boast with anything much I´m afraid......all right I´m in the habit of talking, reading and writing about environmental problems a lot, isn´t that something? :-)

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 10 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Jul 20, 1999 (14:45) * 1 lines 
What sort of things are you discovering in your reading and what are you writing about? Finland must have some unique problems plus the ones we all share. (yeah, and you did not know I was so keen on rocks, either...Surprise!)

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 11 of 312: Elena  (Elena) * Tue, Jul 20, 1999 (15:28) * 5 lines 
Oh I knew you had a thing for rocks, why wouldn´t I??

I like big ones especially (Surprise!)
Recently made a story about the erratic boulders that the continental glacier scattered here and there in the landscape. I found an amazing specialist who knew practically everything about every big boulder in the country. I also talked to a guy who managed to get his beloved boulder protected and not being destroyed by a new motorway.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 12 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Jul 21, 1999 (21:58) * 1 lines 
Sounds like Finland was at the top of the Glacier if the boulders are huge. Actually, Stonehenge is built of glacial debris as is Avebury ( and most likely the rest of the stone circles and standing stones of Britain and Europe.)

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 13 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Jul 21, 1999 (22:02) * 1 lines 
Let's hear it for the guy who beat the system and kept his boulder patch intact!

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 14 of 312: Wolf  (wolf) * Thu, Jul 22, 1999 (10:23) * 1 lines 
speaking of boulders--there's a place in Kansas that has the most unique looking piles of rock i've seen. they're nearly perfectly round with deep grooves in the surface. i can't remember where we saw them (i was much younger then!). i'll do some checking and let y'all know...

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 15 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Jul 22, 1999 (11:54) * 2 lines 
Got any pictures or the the name of the place? Thanks for hunting for the info.
Somehow, boulders and Kansas never went together in my mind!

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 16 of 312: Wolf  (wolf) * Thu, Jul 22, 1999 (12:48) * 1 lines 
which is what makes it so unique! the pictures we have are at my folks' home....

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 17 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Jul 22, 1999 (13:50) * 1 lines 
Hustle your scanner over there and post them....please?!

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 18 of 312: Wolf  (wolf) * Thu, Jul 22, 1999 (14:04) * 1 lines 
can't do that in a quick and efficient manner as they are 12 hours away. anyway, will work with them on getting the pics and will do some serious searching on the net :)

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 19 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Jul 22, 1999 (14:16) * 2 lines 
Thanks - I would do it, but I no nothing of the area, so I appreciate your help.
Meanwhile I am off to check the net for a good webring to join. Our first choice was locked...

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 20 of 312: Gi  (patas) * Tue, Jul 27, 1999 (08:25) * 1 lines 
I learn things at each of your topics, Marcia... Fantastic work!

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 21 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Jul 27, 1999 (12:23) * 1 lines 
Thank you, Dear! It keeps me reading and researching - some of my favorite things to do. This entire enterprise has been such fun, and it is keeping me up on the entire field, which is a real plus. Return often!

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 22 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Aug 28, 1999 (13:06) * 25 lines 
The Weastern states of the US are experiencing serious wild fires:

Wildland Fire Update
Check Out the Large Fire Map

August 28, 1999 -- Good progress was made on several large fires in the West with full containment expected tomorrow on nine large fires in California, Nevada, Oregon, and Texas. Approximately 460 new small wildland fires were reported nationwide yesterday. As containment is met on large fires, resources are being released to respond to new and ongoing fires.

Six military C-130 aircraft, converted to airtankers by the Modular Airborne Firefighting Systems (MAFFS), are assisting suppression efforts in northern California.

There are currently 19 large fires in California, Nevada, Oregon, and Texas for a total of 200,958 acres. Nearly 12,000 firefighters are battling blazes throughout the West and are supported by 910 engines, 118 helicopters, 19 airtankers, and 1,885 support personnel.

Fire Weather Outlook
Scattered, mostly wet, thunderstorms are expected in Montana, eastern Idaho and Wyoming today. California and Nevada will be clear with continued hot temperatures.

See the National Weather Service Fire Weather Web Page for more detailed fire
weather information.

Large Fires
California See map for fire locations
13 Large fires/complexes; 117,178 acres; more than 7,000 firefighters
committed supported by 657 engines, 75 helicopters, 16 airtankers, and
1,461 support personnel

Lots of good information and fire location details at

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 23 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Aug 28, 1999 (13:36) * 2 lines 
For some really great information on the aerial firefighting equipment see

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 24 of 312: Wolf  (wolf) * Sun, Sep 12, 1999 (14:30) * 1 lines 
haven't been watching the news the last couple of days, thanks for the info!

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 25 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Oct  1, 1999 (13:33) * 30 lines 
From the BBC:
Japanese officials struggling to contain the worst nuclear accident in the country's history say they believe the situation has now stabilised.

More than 300,000 people living in the area have been told they can leave
their homes but there is still a 350-metre "exclusion zone" around the plant.

However, fears persist over the effects of fallout from the accident. Officials told residents caught out in Thursday evening rain showers to wash their clothing and said locally grown vegetables should not be eaten.

Radiation levels soared to 15,000 times the normal level just after the
accident - schools were shut, train services halted and farmers were warned not to harvest their crops until safety checks had been carried out.

But officials say radiation levels outside the plant have now returned to normal, and local residents are no longer at serious risk. They issued the statement after operators drained coolant water and carried out a number of other measures to reduce the risk of contamination resulting from a leak
inside the uranium processing plant.

The Governor of Ibaraki Prefecture, Masaru Hashimoto, said he had received confirmation at 0615 (2115GMT) that the nuclear chain reaction at the uranium processing plant had stopped. The aftermath of the accident coincided with the arrival on Friday of a second British ship carrying a cargo of plutonium for Japan's nuclear power industry. The Pacific Pintail docked in Takahama, 400km (248 miles) southwest of Tokyo.

More than 30 workers at the Tokaimura plant are thought to have been exposed to radiation. Two are in a critical condition and are expected to be given bone marrow transplants. The victims include builders who had been working at the plant, people who live nearby and firemen who helped in the rescue. Human error
Officials said workers had caused the accident at the plant by pouring too much uranium solution into a tank.

Japanese Prime Minister Keizo Obuchi criticised the response to the accident, saying it had taken too long for experts to assess the seriousness
of the situation. He also held an emergency meeting of the cabinet which set up a special task force - the first time it has taken such a measure after a nuclear accident.

Washington has meanwhile announced that a joint American and Russian team is being sent to Japan. Criticality Chief Cabinet Secretary Hiromu Nonaka said it was very likely there had been a "criticality incident" at the plant. Criticality is the point at which a nuclear chain reaction becomes

The French nuclear institute said the incident was the 60th in the world since 1945, following 33 such accidents in the United States and 19 in the former Soviet Union.

One of the workers reportedly told an official that he had used about 16kg of uranium - nearly eight times the normal amount - during the process just before the accident. Workers normally use up to 2.3kg of uranium in each procedure to prevent a criticality accident, officials said.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 26 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Oct 12, 1999 (17:12) * 22 lines 

Saving an Ecosystem

HAWAII VOLCANOES NATIONAL PARK is an island within an island. It
is a shelter for what remains of the once-rich tapestry of Hawaiian life -- a tapestry unraveled by alien species.

In some areas of the park, natural habitats are damaged beyond
recovery. The park concentrates its energies on the most
biologically diverse habitats and those that offer the best chance for successful restoration. The immediate strategy is to control or eliminate the most disruptive alien plant and animal invaders.

Park crews erect fences to keep out feral animals; hunt feral pigs; and pull out or cut down firetree, banana poka, guava, and ginger.
As native plant communities reestablish themselves populations of
Hawaiian honeycreepers, nene, Kamehameha butterflies and
happyface spiders once again flourish.

In recognition of its outstanding natural values, Hawaii Volcanoes
has been honored as an International Biosphere Reserve and a
World Heritage Site. The park continues to mend the fabric and
promote the lasting vitality of this remnant of pristine Hawai'i.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 27 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Dec  3, 1999 (17:13) * 46 lines 
From the BBC :

Secret Britain - When you take a peek inside Britain’s natural treasure
trove, you’ll find a cache of irresistible but unsung wildlife gems.
By Simon Bell.

Wildlife migrates over majestic plains, soars above rolling deserts and
traverses swathes of impenetrable forest. But not in Britain. The thing about
Britain is that nothing can roam, soar or traverse for long without falling off
the edge. It’s small, compact, bijou. Tiny, but fashioned with incredible
attention to detail - and detail is where the British landscape excels. Not for
us the huge, impressive panoramas. Like the crowded backroom of an
antiques shop, our countryside is crammed with prehistoric trinkets,
imported exotics, relics from an icy age and treasures known and forgotten
and, perhaps, some yet to be discovered.

We have only geology, meteorology and ourselves to blame. Our landscape
is prone to twisting, folding, collapsing, erupting and heaving itself out of
and into the sea at a moment’s geological notice. Our climate is described as
temperate but rarely seems to exercise either moderation or restraint. Thanks
to our own actions, our immediate biosphere has had its original, all-
pervading wildwood transformed beyond recognition into a patchwork of
farmland, heath, ancient grassland and coppiced woodland. Britain's charm
lies in its unpredictability, in its intricacies, in the myriad puzzle-like pieces
that make up its whole. This landscape is, in turn, reflected in the naturalists
who explore it - the stone-turners, the crawlers on their hands and knees, and
those with a predilection for powerful optics. It's a landscape that has
engendered a preoccupation with the small and the beautiful.

This is not to say that Britain lacks great wildlife spectacles. Half the
world’s grey seals seek shelter on our shores. We are home to spectacular
seabird colonies, including 70 per cent of the world’s gannets. Thousands of
wildfowl find our mild climate preferable to the severe winters of their
summer breeding grounds. Carpets of bluebells are almost uniquely a
British preserve. But spectacle is not what Britain is really about. We’re an
understated people, possessed of a quiet reserve. We don’t tend to shout
about our achievements, and so is it any wonder that there are so many
treasures that remain hidden and unappreciated?

What follows is an unashamedly personal choice of some British wildlife
gems. It’s a reminder that what we have on our doorstep can be just as
fascinating and extraordinary as the wildlife in far-flung places that we hear
so much about.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 28 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Dec 24, 1999 (19:20) * 61 lines 

Oil From Sunken Tanker Hits French Coast
NANTES, France (Reuters) - An oil slick from a sunken tanker began
washing up on France's Atlantic coast Friday, bringing a grim Christmas for
an area which lives by its fisheries, oyster farms and tourism.
As the first blobs of oil soiled the shore in the Finistere region near the
southern tip of Brittany, affecting a 40-mile stretch of coast, volunteers fanned
out for a clean-up operation in what could be the start of an economic as well
as ecological catastrophe.
Pushed by gale-force winds, the main spill from the Erika tanker, which broke
in two and sank in stormy seas on December 12 carrying 25,000 tons of
viscous fuel oil, is expected to hit Belle-Ile island, to the southeast, within
Tests confirmed that the oil washing up in Finistere was also from the Erika.
Officials had earlier said it could have come from another tanker cleaning up
its holds.
Oil giant TotalFina, under fire for its handling of the spill, pledged to clean up
the mess and said thousands of tons of oil trapped in the vessel, lying 45
miles south of Finistere, should be pumped out.
Meteo France said most of the 8,000 tons of fuel oil spilled from the
25-year-old tanker, broken up into slicks some 37 miles long, was 9.4 miles
south of Belle-Ile.
It said it could reach the island during the night and the mainland at Le
Croisic, near Nantes, Saturday. Authorities along hundreds of kilometers of
Atlantic coast have taken emergency measures to fight the feared
environmental disaster.
Environment Minister Dominique Voynet cut short a vacation following
criticism of her absence. Her office said she would visit volunteers treating
oil-soaked seabirds Saturday.
Philippe de Villiers, head of the regional council of Vendee, had earlier
demanded that she be sacked.
The oil poured into the sea after the Maltese-registered Erika broke in two.
Charterer TotalFina has insisted it is not responsible for the spill, but the
disaster has proved a public relations embarrassment for the firm and
chairman Thierry Desmarest sought to curtail criticism by offering aid.
``We pledge to restore completely the ecological balance in the coastal
waters which could be affected,'' Desmarest told RTL radio. ``We will do
everything needed to restore confidence.''
An international flotilla of pumping vessels, battling bad weather, has only
been able to mop up some 1,000 tons of oil.
Around 100 soldiers were on Yeu island to help and a further 120 were
stationed in Vendee. Reinforcements were on alert.
A Vendee court ordered local authorities to appoint experts to assess the
cost of possible pollution damage. Council chief de Villiers had wanted
TotalFina to pay.
Around 15,000 tons of oil remained in the holds of the wrecked Erika and
maritime authorities feared some of the fuel may be seeping out, threatening
further environmental havoc.
TotalFina boss Desmarest said the cold temperatures on the ocean floor
should help solidify the oil.
``However, it does not seem reasonable to us ... to leave the fuel in the holds
of the two halves of the tanker indefinitely. Without doubt an operation will
have to be launched to pump it out. It is complicated,'' he said.
De Villiers called for pumping to start at once.
Government ministers have demanded an urgent review of maritime transport
laws. Transport Minister Jean-Claud Gayssot said several oil companies
including TotalFina had responded positively to his proposal for talks on
shipping safety.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 29 of 312: Gi  (patas) * Tue, Dec 28, 1999 (14:13) * 1 lines 
Awful! Remember the pics of oil covered birds in the Persian Gulf after the war?

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 30 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Dec 28, 1999 (14:35) * 2 lines 
Yes, and those in Alaska after the Exxon Valdez ran aground...ghastly!
How are you doing with that terrible storm in Europe? Did it get as far south as Lisbon and Albufeira?

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 31 of 312: Gi  (patas) * Tue, Dec 28, 1999 (14:54) * 1 lines 
There have been showers and some wind at different times here in Lisbon and in Albufeira. We were afraid the storm would hit us for New Year's Eve but I checked the weather channel online just now and it is supposed to get better for friday.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 32 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Dec 29, 1999 (16:10) * 1 lines 
Excellent news. I can ease off on the worrying a little. Keeping my eye on that European weather map, however...I just don't trust it!

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 33 of 312: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Sat, Feb 12, 2000 (15:24) * 2 lines 
A few years ago I was working for an environmental group called Clean Water Action, they got the name from the Clean Water Act which was one of the first causes on which they'd worked. One of the things we were doing when I was there was calling people to back legislation for fish testing. Who knows exactly what get dumped into the oceans? But fish and seafood can be sold to consumers without being tested. We also had a list of how different types of fish ranked in terms of safety, i.e., salmon was near the bottom of the list safetywise because it spends part of its life in fresh water, whereas cod which lives in very cold, relatively deep ocean water was at the top. I remember calling this one man who lived in Massachusetts and asking for his support on the issue. He was interested and did support fish testing. (New Englanders are very politically involved generally.) So we got to talking about the safer varieties of fish and I mentioned cod was about the safest. He then told me that there weren't many cod
ish left, atleast not in the Grand Banks. That was a shock. When the first European explorers got the Grand Banks they were amazed that they could dip baskets into the water, then pull them out full of codfish. But as he noted several hundred years of overfishing and then polution were bringing a big decline in the cod population. Among those most adversely affected were fisherman, something of an irony.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 34 of 312: World Builder  (MarciaH) * Sun, Feb 13, 2000 (22:15) * 7 lines 
Codfish overfishing has gone on for most of the 20th century if not before. They were considered almost a trash fish until recently when their rarity beccame widely known. Now it is polution. We are poisoning ourselves! Again!

The best way to indicate love of the Earth other than tending her more carefully is this little offering to those who share my feelings.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 35 of 312: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Mon, Feb 14, 2000 (17:59) * 1 lines 
Your graphic reminded of a cartoon of the Earth I once saw. The Earth is sitting in a rocking chair, wrapped in a blanket, wheezing and shuddering, and the caption had the Earth asking, "Is this any way to treat your mother?" It's not that your Earth looks similar, just the thought to love and care for it better.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 36 of 312: World Builder  (MarciaH) * Mon, Feb 14, 2000 (18:13) * 1 lines 
*lol* This is true! It was chosen for me since I had no idea then what to put there. I fell in love with it immediately, and since I have the new buttons up and changed the color of the hot links to match, I thought I should try one more time to make it work. It did! Thanks for noticing...(*jumping up and down quietly bearly able to contain my glee*)

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 37 of 312: World Builder  (MarciaH) * Mon, Feb 14, 2000 (18:16) * 1 lines were speaking of the hearts circling the world graphic. I thought you meant the cover page one. If you ever see that earth in a rocking chair again on the net, please post the url for it. Thanks!

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 38 of 312: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Mon, Feb 14, 2000 (18:25) * 1 lines 
Don't stop jumping, I did notice the graphic on the page. Gaia, herself, would be happy with the likeness.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 39 of 312: World Builder  (MarciaH) * Mon, Feb 14, 2000 (18:38) * 1 lines 
Delighted you liked it. *BIG smile and dancing a special hula in appreciation!*

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 40 of 312: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Wed, Feb 16, 2000 (17:13) * 1 lines 
Maybe you could do a graphic of a lei bedecked Earth dancing a hula; although, that would be tough as the Earth has no arms. Can't tell the story, aren't the hula dancers arms and hand supposed to tell a story? Besides, rotation is enough.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 41 of 312: World Builder  (MarciaH) * Wed, Feb 16, 2000 (17:40) * 1 lines 
..."keep your eyes on the hands.." as the song goes. I'll look for one like that *lol* There is a good probability that a global flower shipper has such a graphic. Thanks for the suggestion!

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 42 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Mar  9, 2000 (00:19) * 15 lines 
U.S. Announces Program to Restore Chesapeake Bay
WASHINGTON (Reuters) - The Clinton administration Wednesday announced
a $91 million program to restore up to 35,000 acres of environmentally
sensitive land along the Chesapeake Bay and many of Virginia's streams and
The project aims to restore wetlands and wildlife habitats for native creatures,
including the Peregrine falcon and the Virginia big eared bat both endangered
species. The conservation program will also seek to reduce nitrogen,
phosphorous and sediments in streams and rivers.
``The Chesapeake Bay is a unique and valuable natural resource,'' Agriculture
Secretary Dan Glickman said in a statement. ``Thousands of people make
their living from it, and many more use it for recreation.''
The total cost of the program is expected to reach $91 million over 15 years.
Of that amount, $68 million will come from the federal government and $23
million from Virginia.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 43 of 312: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Sat, Mar 11, 2000 (15:32) * 1 lines 
The Chesapeake is beautiful. I hope the animals get more regard than the tourists. Don't get me wrong, when I go to Baltimore there'a nothing I like more than -- crabcakes! I love crabcakes; however, it would be nice for everybody if the crabs were living in clean water.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 44 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Mar 11, 2000 (22:14) * 1 lines 
I was hoping Autumn would read this - she lives there. I learned to sail on the Chesapeake. It was a long time ago and had lots of backwater areas which were teaming with wildlife. I hope they can save it!

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 45 of 312: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Wed, Mar 15, 2000 (18:53) * 3 lines 
This concerns the re-introduction of the red wolf into one of its former habitats, North Carolina. The red wolf is being re-introduced into the Alligator River Preserve; however, there is a threat to the red wolf's survival as a species. The threat is the coyote. The problem is with the virtual inihilation of the red wolf from its habitat a vacuum was created, which was filled by the coyote. Unfortunately for the coyote offspring produced by the red wolf/coyote mating are fertile. The red wolves being reintroduced to Alligator River are bred by a team of biologists on St. Vincent's Island off the coast of Florida. When the wolves are released in Alligator River they do sometimes mate with coyotes, upsetting the genetic integrity of the endangered species (red wolves).
Their is controversy about this though. Biologists in Canada, when there still are intact wild populations of red wolves, contend that thier data indicates that red wolves carry coyote genes because the two types have bred together for millenia. In fact, they are closely related branches of the same type of canid, accounting for the reproductive viability of their offspring. Another group of biologists in the United States believes the red wolf/coyote hybrid is nature's way of trying to redress a balance caused by humans. The red wolf was trapped, poisoned, and shot, those that survived had their habitat divided into suburbia and shopping malls, the result the more adaptable and opportunistic coyote moved in. The hybrid is nature's way to solve the problem. However, back at Alligator River aggressive coyotes are being sterilized and any hybrid litters born to the red wolves are put to sleep.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 46 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Mar 15, 2000 (18:59) * 1 lines 
This is a no-win situation which is sure to rile both sides. Is there no option aside from killing other animals to establish a viable population - perhaps in another place?! We cannot redress one problem by causing another. Auwe!

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 47 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Apr 17, 2000 (18:15) * 163 lines 
Monday, April 17, 2000
Deformed frogs create concerns
By MEREDITH GOAD, Staff Writer
Copyright © 2000 Blethen Maine Newspapers Inc.
Portland, Maine Press Herald

Some had a third hind leg, others had 12 toes on one foot.
There were extra bones in their feet, and extra sheaths of
skin that made it difficult for them to hop in the right direction.

A new study of deformed frogs has found these and other
malformations in northern leopard frogs collected from

The study, conducted by the National Wildlife Health Center
in Madison, Wisc., used sophisticated X-rays to examine
deformities in 180 frogs collected at 16 sites in Maine,
Minnesota and Vermont; it represents the most extensive
look to date at the bone structures of malformed frogs.

Carol Meteyer, a veterinary pathologist and the lead
researcher on the project, says she wanted to look beyond
deformed frogs' external oddities to survey their joints, bones
and other internal structures.

Meteyer says she hopes the new images will give other
researchers clues to what is going awry in the frogs'
development from tadpoles.

In her own analysis of the X-rays, Meteyer found compelling
patterns of abnormalities, particularly in the Maine frogs.
These findings, she said, suggest the frogs' deformities are
tied to both where they live and the stage of development at
which they were damaged.

She is now pursuing a theory that the malformations in the
Maine frogs may have been caused by a parasitic worm that
gets into the skin of tadpoles.

The deformed Maine frogs were collected at Sunkhaze
Meadows National Wildlife Refuge, a 9,000-acre refuge on
Sunkhaze Stream in Milford, just a few miles north of Bangor.
Frogs were also collected in Pittsfield and Orono.

Bizarre malformations have now been found in 38 species of
frogs and 19 species of toads in 44 states.

The scope and nature of the deformities alarm scientists
because amphibians are considered to be barometers of
potentially serious environmental problems.

Biologists from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service first
discovered deformities in young frogs at Sunkhaze Meadows
in 1997.

Last year, in their own study of Maine and New Hampshire
wildlife refuges, they also found deformities in green frogs,
pickerel frogs, bullfrogs, northern leopard frogs and American
toads at the Rachel Carson National Wildlife Refuge in Wells
and at Great Bay National Wildlife Refuge in Newington, N.H.

The frogs at Rachel Carson had missing eyes, missing hind
legs, "double feet" – one foot growing on top of another – and
other deformities.

The type of deformity a frog has affects how well it's able to
hop, catch flies and carry out essential activities of frog life.

"We noticed that when they had extra limbs, those limbs did
move but they weren't coordinated with the two normal ones,"
Meteyer said. ". . . It was more than dead weight, it was
getting in their way."

Frogs with skin webs also had problems moving around.

"They can't stretch their leg," Meteyer said. "It's like a tight
band of skin that holds the ankle up to the hip, and so they
can't really jump very well. It also causes rotation of that leg,
which causes them to jump in the wrong direction. They think
they're going straight, and they're actually going off at an

Because of these problems moving around, deformed frogs
are pretty much doomed to short lives. Researchers rarely
find malformed frogs breeding in the spring, implying that
they're either easy targets for predators or poor food

"They can't catch insects very well, so they don't put on very
good fat stores and they don't make it through hibernation,"
Meteyer said.

Meteyer says the precision and patterns of some of the
abnormalities she found in her study were striking. All the
tadpoles at a single site seemed to have received the same
type of damage at the same stage of development.

"One of the reasons that the Maine site was so important is it
had a characteristic signature of malformations," she said. "It
was one of only three sites we looked at where the frogs had
multiple rear legs. Only 5 percent of all the frogs we looked at
had multiple rear limbs."

There were also other patterns. Frogs with extra rear legs
also had extra toes and extra bones in their feet, she said.
Frogs that had extra bones in their ankles also had extra

In Vermont, every study site had frogs with missing bones,
"and that was as extreme as having no hip bone
development on one side and no limb on one side," Meteyer

Meteyer said developmental patterns are set by mid-June,
well before the young frog hops out of its pond in August.

What could be causing the deformities in Maine frogs?

Scientists have come up with several possible explanations.
Some hypothesize that chemicals in the environment might
be the culprit. Other possibilities are the effects of ultraviolet
rays from the sun, physical trauma, or infection with a
parasitic worm.

At Rachel Carson and Great Bay, researchers found that
frogs and toads were infected with a virus that's common in
hatchery fish.

"It's interesting that we would find a virus at our two worst
sites, so we can't rule out the possibility that if a virus is
introduced early enough in development that it could disrupt it
in some way," said Lisa Eaton-Poole, a U.S. Fish and
Wildlife Service biologist in Concord, N.H.

Eaton-Poole said she'll be collecting more frogs at Rachel
Carson, Great Bay and Sunkhaze Meadows this year. She'll
also be collecting egg masses, water and sediment from the
Rachel Carson refuge this spring to send to the Wye Institute,
a research facility affiliated with the University of Maryland.

A scientist there will use those eggs as well as eggs from the
African clawed frog – the amphibian equivalent of a lab rat –
to search for potential contaminant problems in the water and

Most people believe it's likely there are multiple causes of
frog deformities, some of which have probably not yet been
identified. Meteyer says that in the case of Sunkhaze
Meadows, and in at least one site in Minnesota, the parasitic
worm may be to blame.

The worm is an immature flatworm that penetrates the skin of
tadpoles and has been linked to the growth of multiple limbs
in California tree frogs. Meteyer has found worms under the
skin of tadpoles from Sunkhaze Meadows, and is now
working to identify them.

"The immature worms were there at the right stages of
development," she said. "That would be kind of nice to be
able to say that at one site in Minnesota and at one site in
Maine we have something we can attritube this to, whereas in
Vermont we still don't know what's going on."

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 48 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Apr 19, 2000 (18:03) * 0 lines 

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 49 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Apr 19, 2000 (18:05) * 3 lines 

Thanks, Cheryl

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 50 of 312: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Wed, Apr 19, 2000 (18:05) * 1 lines 
You're welcome.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 51 of 312: Wolf  (wolf) * Wed, Apr 19, 2000 (21:01) * 1 lines 
oh, i like it too!

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 52 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Apr 19, 2000 (21:02) * 1 lines's the only one we have (Earth, that is...)

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 53 of 312: Wolf  (wolf) * Wed, Apr 19, 2000 (21:04) * 1 lines 
you're right and we'd better take care of it for our sake. (as george carlin so eloquently put it, the earth will live without us, we need to recycle to save ourselves! --ok, something to that effect)

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 54 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Apr 19, 2000 (22:06) * 1 lines 
Thanks for that timely posting. I had forgotten. The man was a genius who could make you laugh and think at the same time. I'm doing what I can...but I think more than one other person is undoing what I am doing...*sigh* All you have to do it watch a little NASA Tv feed when the shuttle is up there and see how tiny and thin that layer of sustaining air really is.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 55 of 312: Wolf  (wolf) * Thu, Apr 20, 2000 (20:58) * 1 lines 
to me, it just flat out makes sense. we've always had whip cream containers and butter pots around and i'm carrying on the tradition. even saving pudding cups (which we don't have a recycling deal for) and using them for seedlings. cake pans (the kind you get when you buy from the bakery or grocery store) can be used as mini greenhouses to help get your seedlings going. use your noggin and be creative!

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 56 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Apr 20, 2000 (21:16) * 2 lines 
Oh man, are you sure we weren't cloned or something. I do the same things!
Yay, Wolfie!!!

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 57 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Apr 20, 2000 (21:20) * 1 lines 
I am off to Baseball...we're gonna get beaten! By Fresno State!

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 58 of 312: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Fri, Apr 21, 2000 (10:23) * 3 lines 
Just before I go off to Mom's for Easter, I'd like to wish everyone at Geo a Happy Earth Day. Also a Happy Easter to those who celebrate it.

Now for a few words about Mom. My mother has had a package of Ziplock bags for at least five years. She keeps washing them out and reusing them. When I was growing up I thought it was so embarassing that we took our own bags when we went grocery shopping. Then I got a little older and learned it was the better way. We don't have a spare Earth. We have to love and respect the won we have.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 59 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Apr 21, 2000 (14:30) * 2 lines 
Give your mom our best wishes for Easter and congratulate her for being on the cuttting edge of taking care of the earth. Wish there were more mom's like that. My biggest pet peeve is disposible diapers. Did not use them and would not even now.


 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 60 of 312: Wolf  (wolf) * Sat, Apr 22, 2000 (20:54) * 1 lines 
i did use dd's and i don't wash out the ziploc bags...we really don't use them that often. but my mom asked us to bring them home.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 61 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Apr 22, 2000 (21:14) * 1 lines 
Yeah...ziplocks have a finite life, but those with the zippers on them get my craft stuff and I use them for as long as they hold the stuff. I am still using the first ones. We need a crafts conference. Now that Terry is back, perhaps he will make us one...!!!

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 62 of 312: Wolf  (wolf) * Sat, Apr 22, 2000 (21:28) * 3 lines 
i use mine for craft stuff as well. and also to store some of the barbie stuff my daughter has. of course, who stuff is now in a plastic box! clothes in one, dolls in another!!

oh, and glass spaghetti jars, picante jars, etc. make great vases as well as for rooting plants!!

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 63 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Apr 22, 2000 (22:55) * 1 lines 
Your glass spaghetti comes in Jars? Ours comes all dried out and wrapped in celophane ( not plastic) and has a label I cannot read. Like a little bundle of really skinny white shoelaces. They are called bean threads. Picante Jars with the "waist" nipped in part way up make pretty vases for rooting plants.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 64 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Apr 22, 2000 (22:58) * 1 lines 
oops, Wolfie, were you talking about glass jars containing regular spaghetti or glass noodles in Jars? I think I was all confused...*sigh* It must be my turn.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 65 of 312: Wolf  (wolf) * Sun, Apr 23, 2000 (09:57) * 1 lines 
spaghetti sauce jars, yup. *laugh*

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 66 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Apr 23, 2000 (11:59) * 1 lines 
Silly me! Thanks for the clarification.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 67 of 312: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Sun, Apr 23, 2000 (16:55) * 1 lines 
Our local council is getting quite good on recycling now. We take the papers to the containers in the gym car park, and bottles, jars etc. At times it seems like a losing battle with plastic waste. I reuse what I can, but there is always so much packaging. I can't get into my garden shed, so I'm not growing any seeds this year and so won't use things up that way. Disappointing. I wish someone could get through to marketing managers that we don't want all this disposable packaging.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 68 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Apr 23, 2000 (18:27) * 1 lines 
They are very poor at it here on this finite Island, and there are things I simply will not buy because of triple or worse packaging.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 69 of 312: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Sun, Apr 23, 2000 (18:49) * 1 lines 
It was part of my reverse culture shock here when we came baak from Africa. i could not believe the waste!

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 70 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Apr 23, 2000 (19:29) * 1 lines 
Indeed! I know disposable diapers are a God-send, but they are an anathema to me and anyone else who really cares about the waste management problem and can afford the time to wash and dry diapers like our grandmothers did... Sadly, most of the trash around Hawaii is tossed by local people. (They like to blame the tourists, but that simply is NOT the case!)

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 71 of 312: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Wed, Apr 26, 2000 (17:11) * 1 lines 
I've always felt that really great gift for a new mom is a diaper service. I know they're expensive. Instead of having a lot of people coming to a baby shower each buying a different gift; why not pool your finances on a diaper service. We did it for a friend of mine, and she said the service was the greatest thing.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 72 of 312: World Builder  (MarciaH) * Wed, Apr 26, 2000 (19:19) * 1 lines 
That is brilliant, Cheryl! May I add that I agree entirely with that, though I did not have it, my sister did and loved it.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 73 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, May 13, 2000 (15:02) * 3 lines 

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 74 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, May 13, 2000 (16:16) * 31 lines 
More bureaucratic stupidity:

Inspectors who monitor long-line fishing are laid off: There won't be a check to see if endangered species are caught

The federal government has dramatically cut back the number of observers monitoring long-line
fishing boat to see if they snag green sea turtles, monk seals and other endangered creatures.
The National Marine Fisheries Service has laid off 12 of 14 inspectors Tuesday.
Carroll Cox, head of EnviroWatch Inc., said the 14 positions provided monitoring for only 3 percent
to 5 percent of the state’s 118 long-line vessels.
Long-line fishing vessels inadvertently snare endangered species such as turtles, dolphins,
albatrosses, and monk seals.
At a news conference today, Cox said the Hawaii Longline Observer Program under the Fisheries
Service was “never funded adequately.” He is afraid the drastic cut signals the death of the program
and from now on “we will only be guessing” at what goes on at sea.
Charles Karnela, administrator of the Fisheries Service Pacific Islands Area Office, said the
positions were cut because of a lack of funding and “no money is in the budget for next year.”
Karnela said it is with “great regret that this is being done” because “it’s everybody’s feeling that we
should have more observers.”
Karnela and Cox disagreed about whether the Marine Mammal Protection Act and the Endangered
Species Act mandate an observer program.
Jonathan Lono Kane, regional director of the Inlandboatmen’s Union of the Pacific, said the layoff
showed a “total disregard for labor laws” as the union has been negotiating a contract in behalf of
the observers for the last year, and working conditions must stay the same until it is finalized. Kane
said he is planning to file unfair labor practice charges against the National Oceanic Atmospheric
Administration, the Fisheries Service parent agency, which has not yet responded to his calls.
Karnela said he was not aware that anything illegal was done by putting the observers on indefinite
leave without pay, and that “our attorneys are aware of what we are doing.”
Cox said his group is afraid future monitoring will depend on the long-line vessels’ own
documentation of interaction with marine mammals, which might not be accurate. The vessels would
not want to jeopardize their own interests by reporting any negative impact on endangered species.
“If an observer is not aboard the boat, how would we know they’re adhering to the rules?” he asked.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 75 of 312: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Sun, May 14, 2000 (13:56) * 1 lines 
Happy Mothers' Day, Gaia! You are the Mother of Us All.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 76 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, May 14, 2000 (14:02) * 1 lines 
Indeed! Thanks Cheryl. Did you see the wishes and gif I set up for Gaia two posts prior to yours? I decided to make my own since no one else had anything appropriate!

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 77 of 312: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Sun, May 14, 2000 (14:09) * 1 lines 
Yes. Lots and lots of hearts for a beloved mother.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 78 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, May 14, 2000 (14:21) * 1 lines 
yup! At least one from each of us circling her like a huge hug. I liked that thought!

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 79 of 312: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Mon, May 15, 2000 (18:47) * 26 lines 
This excerpt is from the TIME special Earth Day Issue.

Avoid Eating Seafood From Endangered Populations.

Like fish but don't want to help wipe out species? The Monterey Bay Aqaurium has published a menu of dos and donts. It's available at Some excerpts:

Dungeness crab
Halibut (Alaska)
Salmon (Alaska, wild caught)
Striped Bass

Atlantic Cod
Orange Roughy
Chilean Sea Bass

Environmental Defense -
Audubon Guide to Seafood -
Marine Stewardship Council -

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 80 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, May 15, 2000 (19:18) * 1 lines 
I have that issue on the desk right beside me. Thanks for posting some of the information and the great links. Definitely eat Mahimahi..but Tilapia?! They are teeny and all bones. Unless you like picking your way painfully slowly through your meal so you don't choke on the bones, stay away from the latter.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 81 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Jun  3, 2000 (17:37) * 70 lines 
Science News
Week of June 3, 2000; Vol. 157, No. 23

Future Looks Cloudy for Arctic Ozone
J. Gorman

This week at the spring meeting of the American Geophysical
Union in Washington, D.C., scientists announced that more
polar stratospheric clouds formed in Arctic skies last winter
than had ever been recorded previously and that the clouds
lasted longer. Meanwhile, researchers say, they observed
significant ozone loss.

Polar stratospheric clouds hit the ozone layer with two
punches. "These are the culprits in ozone loss," says NASA's
Michael J. Kurylo of Washington, D.C., who is a leader of the
project known as the SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation
Experiment (SOLVE).

On the surfaces of particles within the clouds, inactive chlorine
compounds derived from humanmade chlorofluorocarbons
convert into a reactive form that destroys ozone. If they linger,
the clouds also drip nitric acid, lowering the nitrogen
concentration in the stratosphere. Nitrogen mitigates chlorine's
power to destroy ozone, and nitrogen loss—a process called
denitrification—leaves chlorine free to attack ozone.

At the meeting this week, one international group of
researchers reported preliminary results from last winter
indicating more and longer-lived polar stratospheric clouds in
the Arctic than they had expected. The data, obtained between
December 1999 and March 2000, came from SOLVE
instruments on aircraft.

"We did see patchy, severe denitrification," says SOLVE team
member Eric J. Jensen of NASA's Ames Research Center in
Moffett Field, Calif. However, he adds, the team must analyze
more data before speculating on how widespread the
phenomenon was and whether it might have contributed to the
ozone losses observed last winter. Computer models suggest
that even without denitrification, other processes can cause the
lower stratosphere to lose 40 to 50 percent of its ozone, says
Katja Drdla of Ames. With severe denitrification, she says, the
loss can total 60 to 80 percent.

Also at the meeting, Azadeh Tabazadeh of Ames presented
independent satellite measurements from the latest Arctic
winter. Her group found that polar stratospheric clouds
persisted 1.2 to 1.5 times as long as they did during the
coldest winters of the 1990s. Her team reports signs of
denitrification, "but it's not severe," Tabazadeh says. She
adds, "Most of the [ozone] loss actually during this winter I don't
believe was due to denitrification."

The reports follow a study by Tabazadeh and her colleagues in
the May 26 Science that warned of unusually long-lived polar
stratospheric clouds in the Arctic. They examined satellite
measurements from a typical Antarctic winter in the 1990s and
the two coldest Arctic winters of the decade. Tabazadeh's
group found that polar stratospheric clouds lasted half as long
in the Arctic as in Antarctica. Mathematical modeling by
Tabazadeh's group suggests that if Arctic stratospheric
cooling continues at 2°C per decade, such clouds could last
twice as long in the Arctic during the coldest winters of the
decade that will begin in 2010. The date could slip to the
2030s if cooling slows to 1°C each decade.

Severe denitrification could increase Arctic ozone loss by 30
percent once polar stratospheric clouds become twice as
persistent, Tabazadeh's team speculates.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 82 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Jun  3, 2000 (19:36) * 18 lines 
Reuters via ExciteNews, June 1 2000

Report of millions of fish falling from the sky in southern Ethiopia.

ADDIS ABABA, Ethiopia (Reuters)
- Drought-stricken peasant farmers tending their
fields in southern Ethiopia got a nasty shock when the
heavens opened and they were pelted by fish, a local
newspaper reported Wednesday.

"The unusual rain of fish which dropped in millions from the air -- some
dead and others still struggling -- created panic among the mostly religious farmers," the weekly Amharic newspaper said.

Saloto Sodoro, a fish expert in the region, attributed the phenomenon to heavy storms in the Indian Ocean which swept up the fish before shedding them on the unsuspecting farmers.

Southern Ethiopia has been in the grip of a severe drought for two
years which aid officials say threatens the lives of up to 8 million people.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 83 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Jun 18, 2000 (18:26) * 32 lines 
Science News - Week of June 17, 2000; Vol. 157, No. 25

Excreted Drugs: Something Looks Fishy
J. Raloff
Doctors recommend drinking plenty of water to replenish lost
fluids and wash away wastes. Just where do the excreted
wastes go? At least a few, including hormones and heart
drugs, end up in streams—and eventually someone else's
drinking water, a new study finds.

Though the amounts detected in water from a Louisiana tap
were small—just a few parts per trillion (ppt)—they can be
biologically active, another study finds. At these
concentrations, one of the hormones measured and another
found in birth control pills alter the apparent gender of fish and,
possibly, their fertility.

In a suite of yet more studies, collaborating state, federal, and
university scientists report finding male carp and walleyes in
Minnesota that were producing "sky-high" quantities of
vitellogenin, an egg-yolk protein normally made only by
females. Such feminization might explain the suspected
inability of some adult male fish to make sperm. The
researchers had caught the walleyes in the effluent of a
sewage-treatment plant—a type of facility that others have
shown can release estrogenic pollutants (SN: 3/21/98, p. 187).

Researchers reported all these findings last week in
Minneapolis at a meeting sponsored by the National Ground
Water Association.


 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 84 of 312: Curious Wolfie  (wolf) * Sun, Jun 18, 2000 (20:58) * 1 lines 
now i don't understand this: drugs that are taken are used in the body, right? are they saying that if one drinks water in an effort to rid their bodies of toxins, they are flushing the beneficial drugs out and into our drinking water where they aren't beneficial at all? (just thinking out loud, a dangerous thing for me)

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 85 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Jun 18, 2000 (23:45) * 2 lines 
That about says it. Your absorption rate is different from everyone else's and
different for each medication. It also varies with what you eat. Consuming mineral oil will just about eliminate all absorption...and we ingest it second hand in the water we drink because it is eliminated by other animals as well as us.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 86 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Jul  3, 2000 (23:48) * 94 lines 
United Nations Takes in World Biodiversity Watchdog
By Neville Judd
CAMBRIDGE, United Kingdom, July 3, 2000 (ENS) - A United Nations body
faced with the daunting task of monitoring and assessing the health of the
planet's species and ecosystems opened in the UK today.
When the blue UN flag rose over the World Conservation Monitoring Center
(WCMC) in Cambridge this morning it marked the opening of the first UN
institute in the United Kingdom for 50 years.
Endangered white rhinos in
Africa (Photo by Steve Bailey
courtesy Wildnet Africa)
The WCMC joins the United
Nations Environment Programme
(UNEP) as its global biodiversity
information and assessment
centre. Alternatively known as the
Center for World Biodiversity
Information and Assessment, it will
help nations create their own
biodiversity information systems,
enabling them to develop science
based policy and regulations for the environment.
"As part of the UN Environment Programme, you will help the world community
confront one of its most daunting challenges: protecting the Earth's precious
biodiversity," said UN secretary general, Kofi Annan, in his video address to the
opening ceremony. "We may be at the dawn of a new millennium, but the
environmental problems we face are painfully familiar. They may even be getting
UNEP's executive director Klaus Toepfer said the Earth's biodiversity is being
lost to unsustainable consumption levels in industrialized countries and poverty
in developing countries. "Overall, ecosystems and species populations have
declined by 30 percent in the past 30 years and the trend is continuing," he
Mark Collins, the center's UNEP director, said the WCMC would provide the
accurate, accessible scientific based information vital for informed decision
making on biodiversity issues. "WCMC is ideally placed to make a major
contribution to the worlds understanding of our precious living resources," said
"WCMC provides information about the living world, on which we all depend for
the basics of life. The center provides the objective environmental data that
governments, businesses and other organisations require to make strategic
decisions. It also monitors changes in the natural environment to provide early
warning of potential crisis," said Collins.
Golden lion tamarin found in Brazil (Photo by Russell
Mittermeier courtesy Conservation International)

"Becoming part of the United Nations is important to us
because it gives international recognition of our work. It
will enable us to operate at higher levels making our data
more accessible to policy makers and organisations
involved in environmental planning. It gives us better
access to the data that has been compiled in countries
by their governments. We hope to include this detailed
work into our information systems and make it globally

As well as working with governments, the WCMC works with the private sector,
providing biodiversity information, such as the presence of threatened species
and the location of protected areas. Mining companies like Rio Tinto consult
WCMC when deciding whether to progress with initial exploratory work.

"This type of intelligence is invaluable, and has provided strategic input to our
development plans," said John Roskam, Rio Tinto corporate affairs adviser. "For
example, at one stage we were on the point of signing a joint venture agreement,
when WCMC alerted us to the fact that the area had just been designated a
World Heritage Site and we were able to withdraw from the deal."

The WCMC's roots go back to 1979, when it was founded by the IUCN World
Conservation Union as the Conservation Monitoring Center. In 1988 the World
Conservation Monitoring Center was created jointly by IUCN, Worldwide Fund for
Nature (WWF) and UNEP. In April 1999, UNEP, IUCN and the UK government
decided the WCMC, already a world centre of biodiversity information, would be
ideally suited as the nucleus of a sorely needed global facility.

Hawai`i's State Flower, Hibiscus
Brackenridge, is an endangered species.
(Photo by D. Herbst courtesy U.S. Fish & Wildlife

In recognition of its expertise, UNEP turned
WCMC into its Center for World Biodiversity
Information and Assessment.

The revamped center will expand and
emphasize its role in advice, technical
assistance and training. It will help
developing countries gather and handle biodiversity data while seeking partner
organizations to enhance and promote its work.

The center will negotiate agreements with relevant international conventions,
including the Biodiversity Convention, the Convention on International Trade in
Endangered Species (CITES), the Convention on Migratory Species, the Ramsar
Convention on Wetlands and the World Heritage Convention.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 87 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Jul  9, 2000 (18:24) * 5 lines 
Help Plant A Tree With Just A Click
One click a day. It'free.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 88 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Aug 17, 2000 (12:34) * 17 lines 

NASA Science News for August 16, 2000

Southern Africa offers a unique climate
sub-system where scientists can study the effects
of industrial activity, biomass burning and
changing patterns of land usage on the
environment. Last weekend an international team
of scientists launched an intensive campaign --
part of the SAFARI 2000 project -- to study this
complex region from the ground, the air and from


 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 89 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Sep  8, 2000 (19:56) * 15 lines 
Ozone Hole Update

NASA Science News for September 08, 2000

Antarctica's ozone hole now covers an area three
times larger than the entire land mass of the
United States - the largest such ozone-depleted
region ever observed.


There is a graphic:

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 90 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Sep 13, 2000 (15:14) * 78 lines 
From Maggie:

uesday September 12, 2:58 PM

ZDNet UK - - BBC - New Scientist

Bacteria 'hasten climate change'

By environment correspondent Alex Kirby in Ny-Alesund, Svalbard

A Swedish scientist working in the Arctic circle says he believes he has found a way in
which nature is speeding up the rate of global warming.

He says more carbon dioxide (CO2) is being released by bacteria in the soil to add to
that resulting from human activity.

Dr Kim Holmen has also found levels of another greenhouse gas, methane, are increasing fast.

He believes his discoveries probably mean some disturbing news ahead.

Dr Holmen is associate professor of global change studies and greenhouse gases in the department of meteorology
at Stockholm University.

He chairs the greenhouse gas monitoring programme of the World Meteorological Organisation, is working at the
Mount Zeppelin air monitoring station at Ny-Alesund, the world's most northerly settlement.


It has a population of about 60 scientists, and is on the west coast of Spitsbergen, the largest island in the
Svalbard group, about 600 miles from the North Pole.

The Mount Zeppelin station has instruments sensitive enough to detect cigarette smoke two kilometres away. Dr
Holmen has been using them to monitor the increase in the atmosphere of several greenhouse gases.

Using as a baseline the amount of CO2 in 1860 (the earliest reliable date, he says) as 290 parts per million (ppm),
he has found that it has now reached an annual average of 375 ppm. The figure fluctuates a little according to the

Molecule for molecule, methane is 30 times as potent a greenhouse gas as CO2. Dr Holmen has used analysis of
Greenland ice cores to establish a baseline for atmospheric methane in 1800 of 700 parts per billion.

In August 2000, he measured it on Mount Zeppelin at 1,850 ppb.

Speaking from Mount Zeppelin, Dr Holmen said: "The increase in the amount of CO2 and methane in the
atmosphere is very rapid.

Feeding on itself

"It's quite extraordinary, and we must expect surprises, probably nasty surprises."

Dr Holmen believes he has also found what scientists call a positive feedback - a way in which global warming
triggers processes which intensify its effects.

Ten years ago, he says, we knew that pollution was helping to warm the atmosphere. Then, in 1993, the
Phillipines volcano Mount Pinatubo erupted, spewing out aerosols which cooled the atmosphere during the two
following years.

Human influences continued unabated, but were not enough to outweigh Pinatubo's cooling effect. So Dr Holmen
concluded that there must be another factor at work as well.

In 1996 the cooling gave way to renewed warming. But Dr Holmen says only part of that is attributable to
pollution. The rest, he believes, shows nature taking a hand.

He says: "An outstanding feature of the global carbon cycle has been discovered because of the climatic
fluctuation caused by the Mount Pinatubo eruption.

"We've a positive feedback mechanism. We think it releases more CO2 because of the respiration rates of
bacteria in the soil. The natural system accelerates global warming."


He is also concerned at the effect on the atmosphere of aircraft, which can cause high, thin clouds to form.

These trap the Sun's heat and also enhance the greenhouse effect. "The greatest uncertainty is clouds", he says.

"An error of one or two per cent by a computer looking at clouds can make the difference between a warming
and a cooling world."

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 91 of 312: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Sat, Sep 16, 2000 (12:30) * 32 lines 
Countries Struggle Toward Global Climate Deal

LYON, France, September 15, 2000 (ENS) - Two weeks of international talks aimed at developing detailed rules for the 1997 Kyoto Protocol on climate change ended today in Lyon, France, with no breakthroughs reported on the key political issues that continue to divide countries.

Michael Cutajar is executive secretary of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (Photo courtesy Earth Negotiations Bulletin)
Whether even last minute ministerial negotiations now due to take place in November in the Hague will succeed in overcoming the obstacles remains unclear.
Here are the main Kyoto protocol-related issues that were debated in Lyon:

The CDM, or clean development mechanism for transferring technology to developing countries: The focus of discussion is which technologies will be eligible under the CDM. Some countries want to limit eligibility to a "positive list" of renewable energy and demand-side technologies. The EU is broadly supportive of an early start for the scheme, but even it is divided over whether nuclear should be excluded.

Land-use change and forestry sinks: At issue is the accountability of practices that reduce greenhouse gas emissions. While urging caution over the inclusion of sinks in the protocol, the EU is again split. The Lyon-conference developed draft texts on the relevant articles, but they still contain numerous "square brackets," denoting disputed options.
Environmental NGOs have criticised proposals by the USA and other countries, that they say would enable emissions credits to be sought for land practices that have been conducted for many years.

Compliance: Likewise, the key question of what should happen if a country fails to comply with Kyoto protocol rules or its own commitments. Delegations agreed on a framework containing both enforcement and facilitative elements, and that failures to meet gas reduction commitments should be dealt with through the former.
However, Russia, Japan and Australia continued to oppose so-called "binding consequences" for non-compliance.

Joint implementation projects between industrialised countries: Parties failed to agree on a proposed "positive list" of sustainable projects. Meanwhile, it emerged that Russia, where many JI projects could be sited, has failed to supply required annual reports since 1997.
Environmentalists estimate that official figures in fact overestimate by a factor of 40 the potential carbon emissions cuts from projects supposedly under way.

Emissions trading: After much bickering, the EU and the USA are reported to have agreed on eligibility criteria for engaging in an international trading system.
There is still no progress on the EU's demand that access to emissions trading and the other "flexible mechanisms" should be legally capped.

{Published in cooperation with ENDS Environment Daily, Europe's choice for environmental news. Environmental Data Services Ltd, London. Email:}

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 92 of 312: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Sat, Sep 23, 2000 (12:03) * 30 lines 
Benign Urine
Industrial cotton is the world's favourite - and most polluting - fabric fibre.
As David Hecht reports from Senegal,
small farmers have good reason to seek out 'eyes-on' methods
for growing the raw material of denim.
Research by Georges Badiane.

Every day Dass Sangare collects the urine of his seven cows. ‘It’s not exactly a pleasant job,’ he says, sitting in the shade beside his hut surrounded by one-and-a-half hectares of cotton. ‘They usually go in the morning just before they’re milked. If you don’t get a bucket under them in time you miss most of it.’

Sangare then leaves the urine to ferment for a few days, dilutes it with water and sprays it over his cotton plants. ‘It’s one of the best insecticides there is,’ he says. ‘It’s also a herbicide and fertilizer, and its free.’

Most important, the urine repels whiteflies (bemissia tabacci) which in 1997 were responsible for a 36-per-cent fall in Senegal’s cotton production. Most Senegalese farmers spray their cotton with substances like Politrine N, Tamaron 400CE, Sherpa Monochrotophos, Nivacron and Asodrine. None have worked. ‘If they would just spray cow urine once a week,’ says Sangare, ‘their whiteflies would go away.’

Organic-cotton farmers have had yields of up to 1.8 tonnes per hectare – almost double the national average – with no whiteflies. Helped by a non-governmental organization, Enda-Pronat, more than 500 cotton farmers around the village of Koussanar (in the region of Tambacounda, southeast Senegal) last year stopped using any chemicals to protect their crops. ‘And more want to convert. We just don’t have the support system,’ says Mohamedoun Ag Mohamed Abba, an Enda-Pronat agronomist.

Abba says farmers don’t just stop using chemicals – they have to have a whole new approach. ‘You can’t get around the fact that soils and plants need help,’ he says. ‘The difference is that conventional, chemical methods attempt to transform fields into controlled environments, eliminating everything that does not maximize the growth of one plant. Organic methods, on the other hand, focus on using elements in the environment to promote the natural health of the selected plant, so that it effectively resists insects, weeds and diseases.’

To see a dramatic demonstration of the results of organic methods, farmers just take a short walk down a dirt track leading away from Koussanar. There are two of Abba’s experimental cotton fields next to each other, only one of which is sprayed with cow urine. The plants on one are bright and bushy-green; on the other they are grey and straggly. It is hard to believe they are the same species.

‘Minerals like iron, potassium and magnesium in urine act as fertilizer, while its acidity kills newly sprouting weeds,’ says Abba. But he admits research is not conclusive on why only the urine repels whiteflies. ‘It seems a hormone in the cow urine is the active ingredient,’ he says. ‘We’re also finding that the urine of female goats and sheep works – and even the urine of women has similar properties.’ Women’s urine has the advantage that it is easier to collect.

The secret of Koussanar’s success is more than just urine. Potions are made from an unlikely array of raw materials – burnt animal bones, wood ash, chilli powder, garlic and the leaves, roots and fruits of dozens of local plants. One of the most remarkable is a plant called neem, which is abundant in much of sub-Saharan Africa and is used extensively by African herbalists to cure everything from malaria to dandruff. Recent experience of neem in the West has confirmed what traditional healers have known for centuries. The farmers in Koussanar use neem to make insect repellent from the leaves and nuts, and fertilizer from the nut shells.

Such techniques were largely replaced in Africa after 1945, when Western chemicals became readily available even to poor peasant farmers. For decades Senegal’s Government marketing board, SODEFITEX, has given chemicals to cash-crop farmers on condition that they sell their produce back to the board. The cost of the chemicals is then deducted from their profits from the harvest, at times leaving them with nothing.

Alternatives to growing cotton with chemicals were all but forgotten in Africa until 1993, says Abba. Now organic-cotton production has also begun in Benin, Tanzania, Mozambique, Uganda and Zimbabwe, with plans for Ghana and Mali as well. Organic cotton still only amounts to 0.08 per cent of all the cotton in the world, but that figure is on the rise, says N’Gone Toure, a co-ordinator at Enda-Pronat: ‘More importantly, a few years ago the experts said it was impossible to avoid artificial inputs. Now many are changing their mind.’

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 93 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Sep 23, 2000 (22:46) * 1 lines 
Amazing! And, totally organic! Remember that next time you eat your organically raised veggie salad...!

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 94 of 312: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Sun, Sep 24, 2000 (07:14) * 1 lines 
The Romans used human urine as part of the tanning process. Collecting jars were left at strategic points all over town ....the snippet courtesy of the Roman Army museum on Hadrians wall and the Vindolanda site museum.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 95 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Sep 25, 2000 (01:14) * 1 lines 
Urine from any source is still used in "third world" countries. By the time it is dyed, scraped, pounded, sewn and tooled, does it really matter with what it was tanned? As long as I do not get odd stares, it is ok with me!

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 96 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Nov 24, 2000 (13:59) * 89 lines 
Climate Talks Falter, Broad Deal Now Sought

THE HAGUE (Reuters) - The world's first effort to agree
practical measures to fight global warming stumbled in its final
stages on Friday as U.N. officials said time to seal a detailed
and comprehensive pact had run out.
Delegates at U.N. climate talks in the Hague said however
they would try until the last minute to agree a pact on emissions
controls and that a workable deal on practical steps was possible
before the conference winds up on Saturday afternoon.
But U.N. officials said the more modest goal was now only a
broad political accord mapping out a final route to emission
controls, rather than a detailed agreement.
Their comments dimmed prospects of achieving the conference's
formal purpose -- a legally-binding technical pact setting out
concrete measures by developed countries to reduce emissions of
heat-trapping gases implicated in global warming.
A European expert said a political agreement in preparation
would be detailed enough to allow countries to start implementing
some measures to fight emissions.
"It will be a detailed political statement that would be
sufficiently detailed to attach to the Kyoto protocol to show how
to implement the accord and give it practical effect," said
Michael Grubb, Professor of Energy Policy and Climate Change at
London's Imperial College.
"I still think the will to reach an agreement is palpable and
universal, with the possible exception of a couple of countries
in OPEC," said British Environmental Minister Michael Meacher,
referring to the oil exporting cartel.
The conference is trying to agree steps to implement a 1997
pact agreed in Kyoto, Japan, that called for a five percent
average cut in developed nations' 1990 levels of emissions by
It also wants to help poor nations avoid becoming big
emitters themselves as they develop, for example by adopting
clean energy technologies or planting forests to soak up the
greenhouse gas carbon dioxide.
International concern over the climate has risen in recent
years with experts pointing to global warming as the culprit in
increasingly erratic weather events like the floods ravaging some
Asian nations and Australia this week.
The officials in The Hague did not detail the reasons why
negotiations had made slow progress but delegates said this was
due to intractable disagreements between the big players at the
talks, the European Union and the United States.
U.N. spokesman Michael Williams said conference chief Jan
Pronk had told government ministers that he considered no final
technical deal was possible at the two-week talks even though he
had extended the finish by 24 hours to Saturday.
"Ideally Mr. Pronk is hoping we can have a political
agreement on this document that will have the broad outline of
what we need," Williams said, referring to a paper by Pronk
containing compromise proposals.
"We would take the broad-based political agreement (from The
Hague talks) and (later) translate this into technical detail,"
he added.
Williams said a broad political pact would have to be robust
enough to stop any later renegotiation of key political aspects
but allow enough negotiating space to clinch technical points.
Signaling the sheer complexity of global warming and the
political sensitivities surrounding plans to fight it, Williams
added: "All these things are so complicated that they cannot be
put into one paragraph."
The EU-U.S. row centers on a U.S. plan to allow developed
nations to count carbon dioxide soaked up by forests, so-called
carbon sinks, against emissions reduction targets set in Kyoto.
The plan would let developed countries claim credit both for
planting such forests at home and for paying developing nations
to expand their own forests, although Pronk's proposal does not
permit this practice to the extent demanded by Washington.
EU officials say the plan promoted by the United States, the
world's biggest polluter, would result in an increase in global
emissions of the greenhouse gases implicated in climate change,
rather than a drop as mandated by the U.N. environmental accord
sealed in Kyoto.
France as president of the 15-nation EU slammed U.S.
proposals, saying they would actually lead to a rise in emissions
of the greenhouse gases implicated in global warming.
"We are not taking a step in the right direction. We are
taking a step backwards," said French Environment Minister
Dominique Voynet amid last-minute efforts to clinch a deal.
A chorus of anti-U.S. protest swelled as Thailand, Malaysia,
Australia and Sweden battled floods seen by activists as the kind
of damage in store if humanity keeps using fossil fuels.
Those weather woes follow hard on the heels of flooding this
year in Vietnam, Cambodia, Bangladesh and eastern India that has
killed hundreds of people and left millions homeless.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 97 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Apr  3, 2001 (12:48) * 271 lines 


"We Cover the Earth For You"


KIRUNA, Sweden, April 2, 2001 (ENS) - The 15 countries of the European
Union will ratify the Kyoto climate protocol by 2002 with or without
American participation, Swedish Environment Minister Kjell Larsson said
this weekend.

For full text and graphics visit:



NAIROBI, Kenya, April 2, 2001 (ENS) - In a clear reference to the United
States, a high ranking United Nations official has asked those countries
with doubts about the science behind climate change forecasts, to present

For full text and graphics, visit:



By Susana Guzman

MEXICO CITY, Mexico, April 2, 2001 (ENS) - Protecting the plants and
animals of the world's most visited places was the focus of a three day
international meeting in Mexico City that wound up Saturday.

For full text and graphics visit:



VANCOUVER, Canada, April 2, 2001 (ENS) - The largest domed peat bog on the
west coast of North America could be permanently protected if a financial
offer made by Canadian and British Columbia governments is accepted.

For full text and graphics, visit:



ADELAIDE, Australia, April 2, 2001 (ENS) - Australia's largest river, the
Murray, has gained a new fish species - the Yarra pygmy perch - offering a
bright spot in the river's legacy of pollution and dwindling biodiversity.
But in other parts of the nation, species like the tiny brush tailed
phascogale and dozens of woodland birds may be vanishing forever.

For full text and graphics visit:



ABERDEEN, Scotland, April 2, 2001 (ENS) - Seventeen Greenpeace volunteers
appeared in a Scottish magistrates court this morning in connection with
the occupation of an oil drilling rig that was about to leave Cromarty
Firth to explore for oil and gas in the North Sea.

For full text and graphics visit:



Earthjustice: Roadless Forest Rule Still At Risk

Senators Introduce Renewable Fuels Act of 2001

Critical Habitat Designated for Arkansas River Shiner

Environmental Groups Take Aim at Southwestern Grazing

Toxic Metals, Organic Pollutants Persist in Charles River

California Cattle Ranch, Owner and Foreman Indicted

McDonald's Approves EarthShell Container for Big Mac

Recycled Bottle Promotes Plastic Recycling

For full text and graphics visit:

Copyright Environment News Service (ENS) 2000 All Rights Reserved.


E-Wire is a paid press release distribution service.
Responsibility for the factual accuracy of each press release rests
entirely with the individuals or organizations identified on the release.



First American sells 2 KDS Micronex™ Systems to a Fraser Valley Waste
Management consortium to convert chicken waste into energy for heating

VANCOUVER, B.C. April. 2 -/E-Wire/-- C.L. Kantonen, Chairman of FASC
is pleased to announce that FASC has received a signed purchase agreement and
deposit to supply two (2) KDS systems to be installed in the central Fraser Valley
region of BC, Canada. A pilot plant, costing $ 1.2 million Cdn, will be constructed
by B & B Poultry Waste Management Inc to process approximately 72 tons of
chicken waste per day through the KDS machine converting it to a fine
dry powder which will be fed into state-of-the-art powder burners. This
will generate sufficient energy to heat approximately 64 acres of
greenhouses at one half the cost of heating with natural gas. The
facility is expected to commence operation before the end of June 2001.
/CONTACT: Call Corporate Communications toll free at (877) 778 - 7101 or
(800) 561- 8656/
/Web site:
For Full Text Visit:



EarthCare Makes Solid Waste Acquisition in Growing Florida Market

DALLAS,, TX, Apr. 2 -/E-Wire/-- EarthCare Company (Nasdaq: ECCO),
announced today that it has acquired the assets of Palm Carting, Inc. Palm
Carting currently provides construction and demolition waste services in Palm
Beach and Broward counties in Florida and has plans to expand services into
Dade County. These three counties account for more than one-third of the
Florida population. Annual revenues for Palm Carting are approximately
$2 million.
/CONTACT: Bill Solomon, Vice President, Chief Financial Officer of
EarthCare Company, 972-858-6025/ (ECCO)
For Full Text Visit:



Major Car Wash Equipment Company Contracts
With EnviroClean Technologies For Pilot Program

MIAMI, FL, Apr. 2 -/E-Wire/-- EnviroClean Technologies, LLC, the
developers of ECT-2000, the next generation water disinfectant products,
announces that it has entered into an agreement with a major car wash
equipment company to conduct a pilot program utilizing EnviroClean's
wastewater treatment product -- ECT-2000W -- in their car washing facilities.
ECT-2000W is non-toxic, less-corrosive, environmentally safe, and would
replace the use of chlorine.
/CONTACT: Maxine Adler, the Adler Network, Inc., 954-776-6633
/Web site:
For Full Text Visit:



Bio-Services International, Inc. Signs Sales Agreement With
EnviroClean Technologies, LLC

To Market and Distribute Next Generation Water Disinfectant Products
That Meet or Surpass FDA and EPA Standards --
Without Health or Environmental Hazards of Chlorine

MIAMI, FL, Apr. 2 -/E-Wire/-- EnviroClean Technologies, LLC, announced
that it has signed a Marketing Representative Agreement with Bio-Services
International, Inc. that allows Bio-Services (BSI) to market, sell and
distribute EnviroClean's product, ECT 2000 to its current customer base within
the United States and the international export market.
/CONTACT: Maxine Adler, The Adler Network, Inc., 954-776-6633 for
EnviroClean Technologies, LLC/
/Web site: http://www.
For Full Text Visit:



Activists are needed for global finance reform
but have lessons yet to learn, study says

NEW YORK, NY, Apr. 2 -/E-Wire/-- Activists, NGOs, trade unions, lobby groups and other elements of civil society can play an important role in correcting major problems with the global financial system but to become more effective players they need to draw from several lessons of recent years, according to a new study by the U.N. University and the Centre for the Study of Globalisation and Regionalisation (CSGR) at the University of Warwick, U.K.
/CONTACT: Terry Collins, Tel: 416-538-8712, 416-878-8712 (cell), UNU Liaison Office, New York: 212-963-6346/
/Web site:
For Full Text Visit:


Breakthrough, Compostable Plastic Premiers as Dunlop Golf Ball Packaging Film

MINNEAPOLIS, MN, Apr. 2 -/E-Wire/-- NatureWorks(TM) PLA, the
revolutionary polymer made entirely from annually renewable resources such
as corn and wheat, is now being used in its first full-scale, mass market
packaging film application. Launched in the Japanese market by Mitsubishi
Plastics, Sumitomo Rubber Industries Ltd., Dunlop Japan Ltd. and Cargill Dow
LLC, the polymer is being unveiled as new, environmentally responsible
packaging option for Dunlop golf balls.

/CONTACT: Cargill Dow LLC, Michael O'Brien, 952/742-0523, michael_o' or Gibbs & Soell Public Relations, Jennifer Gray or
Steve Halsey, 847/519-9150,,

/Web site:
For Full Text Visit:


DynaMotive Announces DTI Renewable Energy Grant For BioOil Consortium

LONDON, U.K., Apr. 2 -/E-Wire/-- DynaMotive Europe Limited, a wholly
owned subsidiary of DynaMotive Technologies Corporation (OTCBB: DYMTF) and
producer of clean burning BioOil fuels, today announced details of one of the
UK Government's largest ever grants to support the development of energy from
biomass in the UK. The pnds stlg 1.16 million/US $1.7 million grant from the
Department of Trade & Industry (DTI), which was announced by the UK Energy
Minister Peter Hain, will enable commercial production testing of an
integrated BioOil and electricity generating plant to take place in the UK.
The project is expected to cost in excess of pnds stlg 4.5 million/US $6.6
million and will be funded equally by the partners.

/CONTACT: call Toll Free (in North America): 1-877-863-2268; Raymond
McAllister, Director, Corporate Communications, Tel: 604-267-6000,
/Web site:
For Full Text Visit:


Dave Foreman to be Keynote Speaker at the Appalachian
Wildlands Conference in Bethesda, MD, on April 7th

MECHANICSVILLE, MD, Apr. 2 -/E-Wire/-- Dave Foreman is one of the 100 most influential conservationists of the 20th Century and the Founder of the Wildlands Project, designed to protect and restore the ecological richness and biodiversity of North America. Dave is also the publisher of Wild Earth, a quarterly journal about conservation biology and wildlands activism. He is also the author of several books. Dave has agreed to speak at this meeting because he is excited about a wildlands recovery and restoration program in Maryland and the Chesapeake Bay Region, the Appalachian Wildlands Preserve-Maryland Project.

/CONTACT: Linda Murdock, Walk Lightly in Peace, Inc., P.O. Box 181, Persimmon Creek Road, Mechanicsville, MD 20659,, 301-884-0500/
/Web site:
For Full Text Visit:

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 98 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Apr  6, 2001 (00:05) * 290 lines 

"We Cover the Earth For You"


By Cat Lazaroff

WASHINGTON, DC, April 4, 2001 (ENS) - The best reasons advanced by European
environmental officials in Washington this week to reinterest the Bush
administration in climate negotiations did not appear to be persuasive. U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency Administrator Christie Todd Whitman gave
European environmental representatives little hope that the Bush administration
would reconsider its decision not to support the Kyoto Protocol.

For full text and graphics visit:



WASHINGTON, DC, April 4, 2001 (ENS) - Air pollution, development,
insufficient funding and recent actions by the Bush Administration threaten
U.S. national parks, says the National Parks Conservation Association. The
group released its third annual list of America's Ten Most Endangered
National Parks today, citing dangers to parks in nine states and the
District of Columbia.

For full text and graphics visit:



Bob Burton

PORT MORESBY, Papua New Guinea, April 4, 2001 (ENS) - The Papua New Guinea
Forest Authority has revealed that an eco-forestry project run by the U.S.
based World Wildlife Fund (WWF) as a model of well managed forestry, is
logging mangrove forests without permission. Mangrove forests are excluded
from logging under the PNG Code of Logging Practice.

For full text and graphics visit:



By Neville Judd

VANCOUVER, Canada, April 4, 2001 (ENS) - Loggers and bureaucrats call the
4.8 million hectares (11.8 million acres) of marine, foreshore and upland
area on the British Columbia coast, the central coast. In announcing the
protection today of a vast swath of the region's temperate rainforest,
British Columbia Premier Ujjal Dosanjh called it the Great Bear Rainforest.

For full text and graphics, visit:



OTTAWA, Ontario, Canada, April 4, 2001 (ENS) - Top European Union
environmental officials seeking support for the Kyoto climate protocol met
with a warmer reception in the Canadian capital today than they did in
Washington on Monday and Tuesday.

For full text and graphics, visit:



California Water System May Need Federal Investment

Spill for Fish Withheld Because of Drought

Klamath Mountains Steelhead Do Not Need Protection

Biomass Programs Promoted in Congressional Hearing

Reason Foundation President May Serve in Interior Department

Audubon Receives Million Dollar Grant for Wetlands Protection

Foot and Mouth Disease Could Pose Risk at Zoos

Soybean Hulls Eyed for Wastewater Filtering

For full text and graphics visit:

Copyright Environment News Service (ENS) 2000 All Rights Reserved.


E-Wire is a paid press release distribution service.
Responsibility for the factual accuracy of each press release rests
entirely with the individuals or organizations identified on the release.



Castrol and Earth's 911 Kick-off Oil Recycling Month


WHAT: An opportunity for Los Angeles area residents to be part of the solution by participating in a USED OIL DRIVE.

The first 50 people who bring their used oil to be recycled will receive a John Force autographed Castrol GTX t-shirt, and there will be free giveaway items for everyone who participates.

/CONTACT: CONTACT: Bill Holtz or Alan Taylor Comm. 212-714-1280/

/Web site:

For Full Text Visit:



Three Puget Sound Companies Plug in to 100% Green Energy

PORTLAND, OR, Apr. 3 -/E-Wire/-- Three Puget Sound area companies
announced today their purchase of Green Tags sourced by the Bonneville
Environmental Foundation(1) (BEF) in an amount equal to 100% of their energy
use. The companies, Xantrex Technology, Inc., for its Arlington facility,
Batdorf & Bronson Coffee Roasters of Olympia, and Global Energy Concepts of
Kirkland are the first in Washington -- and among the first in the U.S.
-- committing to 100% new renewable energy.

/CONTACT: Pam Field of Bonneville Environmental Foundation, 503-248-1905/

/Web site:

For Full Text Visit:



Bush's Former Oil Company Threatens Endangered Sea Turtles in Costa
Rica; 800 Turtle Scientists Issue Plea

SAN JOSE, COSTA RICA, Apr. 4 -/E-Wire/-- Plans by Harken Energy
Corporation, a Houston-based oil company with ties to U.S. President George
W. Bush, to drill for oil and natural gas just off the Caribbean port of
Limón in southeastern Costa Rica have run headlong into opposition from
hundreds of scientists. The proposed drill site is barely five miles off
the coastline in a region referred to as the "cradle" of the Caribbean's sea
turtle populations.

/CONTACT: Caribbean Conservation Corporation, 4424 NW 13th St., Suite
A-1, Gainesville, FL 32609, 352-373-6441,, Cindy Taft
(Director of International Programs) or Roxana Silman (Costa Rica Director),

/Web site:

For Full Text Visit:



New Nutrition Study Indicates Significant Increase in
Omega-3 Fatty Acid Levels in Wild California Salmon

USDA Nutrient Database for Standard Reference to Reflect Findings

LOS ANGELES, CA, Apr. 4 -/E-Wire/-- According to a recent study
reported by the USDA's Nutrient Data Laboratory, the level of omega-3 fatty
acid in wild California salmon is 29.4% greater than previously recorded.

/CONTACT: David Goldenberg, 916/358-2960, or Lee & Associates, Inc.,
Howard Pearlstein, 323/938-3300/

/Web site:

For Full Text Visit:



Mining of Cell Phone Mineral Suspended in Key Wildlife Area

BRONX, NY, Apr. 4 -/E-Wire/-- Park guards and military personnel have
successfully stopped illegal mining of coltan, a mineral used in the
manufacture of cellphones, in the Okapi Faunal Reserve in the Democratic
Republic of Congo, the Wildlife Conservation Society has learned.


/Web site:

For Full Text Visit:



University of California, Berkeley Awarded AT&T Industrial Ecology
Faculty Fellowship

NEW YORK, NY, Apr. 4 -/E-Wire/-- AT&T selected researchers from six
leading universities, including the University of California, Berkeley, to
receive an AT&T Industrial Ecology Faculty Fellowship. Researchers at
University of California, Berkeley received a $25,000 grant to support their
project, "Hybrid Life-Cycle Assessment of Telework and Teleconferencing."

/CONTACT: Cynthia Neale,(908) 221-7249,

/Web site:

For Full Text Visit:



Leading ecotravel nonprofit brings resources to top eco-lifestyles

BURLINGTON, VT, Apr. 4 -/E-Wire/-- The International Ecotourism Society
(TIES), a nonprofit membership organization, and, an online
network for nature and natural health enthusiasts, have teamed up to provide
travelers with expert ecotourism news and resources on the internet.

/CONTACT: For The International Ecotourism Society, contact Patricia
Carrington at 802/849-9729; for Wilderness Web, contact Mike McCarney at
802/863-4690; and for, contact Phil Horn at 212/279-0024./

/Web site:

For Full Text Visit:



CARB Advisory on Diesel Emergency Generators Understates Public Health
Benefits of Keeping the Juice On

WASHINGTON, DC, Apr. 4 -/E-Wire/-- In a strongly worded letter to the
California Air Resources Board, the Diesel Technology Forum today charged
the Board with the "use of unsubstantiated data" on the health effects from
the emissions of sporadically-used emergency diesel generators. Forum
Executive Director Allen Schaeffer warned that by doing so, "CARB blows out
of proportion the risks from the very machines whose primary purpose is
often the protection of public health and assurance of public safety."

/CONTACT: Forum Office: One Dulles Tech Center, Suite 100, 2191 Fox Mill
Road, Herndon, VA 20171; Media Contact at Forum office: Allen Schaeffer,
Tel: 703/234-4411
, Mobile: 301/346-2086, Email:; Media Contact at
Rowan & Blewitt Incorporated: Pam Jones, Cell: 650/576-9377, Tel:
650/598-9905, Email:

/Web site:

For Full Text Visit:

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 99 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Apr  7, 2001 (17:27) * 245 lines 


"We Cover the Earth For You"


LONDON, United Kingdom, April 5, 2001 (ENS) - The USA's decision to
abandon the Kyoto climate protocol is sparking a wave of calls from European
environmentalists and Greens for consumers to take revenge on President
George W. Bush by boycotting American firms.

For full text and graphics visit:



BRUSSELS, Belgium, April 5, 2001 (ENS) - Once Europe has eliminated the
current outbreak of foot and mouth disease, farmers and governments should
introduce "standstill" periods for livestock, says Europe's veterinarians
to help prevent future outbreaks.

For full text and graphics, visit:



By Thakor Patel and Rezaul H. Laskar

BHUJ, India, April 5, 2001 (ENS) - Former U.S. president Bill Clinton
capped a whistlestop tour of the areas worst affected by the January
earthquake in Gujarat saying India and the United States should "work as
partners till the villages are rebuilt and the people have work."

For full text and graphics visit:



WASHINGTON, DC, April 5, 2001 (ENS) - For the first time, researchers have
identified a direct link between global climate change and local factors
that cause the death of amphibian eggs in the wild. Their report traces one
link to another in a pattern that begins in the southern Pacific Ocean and
ultimately results in masses of dead, rotting toad eggs in a small alpine
lake many thousands of miles away.

For full text and graphics visit:



RIO DE JANEIRO, Brazil, April 5, 2001 (ENS) - The government of Brazil has
created a new protected area to aid in the recovery of the golden lion
tamarin - a tiny golden monkey that just a few years ago was on the brink
of extinction.

For full text and graphics visit:



OAKLAND, California, April 5, 2001 (ENS) - Embattled salmon have won a
fight over water in the drought stricken Pacific Northwest. A federal court
judge ruled Wednesday that the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation cannot deliver
water for agricultural irrigation without considering the needs of coho
salmon in the Klamath River.

For full text and graphics visit:



BRUSSELS, Belgium, April 5, 2001 (ENS) - Finland's decision to build the
Vuotos power plant in the country's northeast has landed it in hot water
with the European Commission, which says the area, known as the mires of
Kemihaara, is an important habitat for birds protected under the European
Union's oldest piece of nature conservation legislation.

For full text and graphics visit:



Judge Dismisses Suit Aimed at Blocking Climate Debate

Companies Challenged to Voice Support for Kyoto Protocol

Environmental, Labor Groups Criticize Contractor Rule

Norton Promotes Fossil Fuel Exploration

Reagan/Bush Veteran Could Join Justice Department

No Mad Cow Disease Found in U.S.

Longline Fishers Must Carry Tools to Untangle Turtles

EPA Targets Nitrogen Pollution in Long Island Sound

For full text and graphics visit:

Copyright Environment News Service (ENS) 2000 All Rights Reserved.


E-Wire is a paid press release distribution service.
Responsibility for the factual accuracy of each press release rests
entirely with the individuals or organizations identified on the release.



Industry Urged to Steer Clear of Illegal CFC Refrigerant

WASHINGTON, D.C., Apr. 5 -/E-Wire/-- The Alliance for Responsible
Atmospheric Policy today reminded industry and the public to be certain that
their chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) refrigerant purchases are legal, and to refuse
to buy illegally imported refrigerant. The warning came as reports are
beginning to surface that illegal CFC imports may be on the rise as these
ozone-depleting refrigerants become more scarce due to their phaseout under
U.S. law and international treaty.

/CONTACT: Dave Stirpe of the Alliance for Responsible Atmospheric Policy,

For Full Text Visit:



Sundance Channel Celebrates Earth Day 2001

'Our Spirited Earth,' 'Charcoal People' and 'Baraka'
Environmentally-Themed Films Air on Earth Day April 22

NEW YORK, N.Y., Apr. 5 -/E-Wire/-- Sundance Channel celebrates Earth Day on
Sunday, April 22nd with three films that highlight the beauty, complexity and
fragility of our planet. The program kicks off at 9:00pm with the world
premiere of "Our Spirited Earth," a new animated short film by Oscar(R)-
winning filmmaker Faith Hubley, and continues with two exceptional
documentaries: "Baraka," by Ron Fricke, and "The Charcoal People," by Nigel
Noble and Jose Padilha.

/CONTACT: Sarah Eaton, VP, Publicity, 212-654-1613, or fax, 212-654-4738,
or, or Katie Lanegran, Manager, Publicity,
212-654-3398, or fax, 212-654-4738, or,
both of Sundance Channel

/Web site:

For Full Text Visit:



Eco-friendly Spring Cleaning
Time-tested cleaning recipes offer safer alternatives

WASHINGTON, D.C., Apr. 5 -/E-Wire/-- This year homeowners can do their
Spring cleaning with safer, time-tested ingredients they already have in
their cupboards and closets, while avoiding toxic products that cause indoor
air pollution, endanger children and disrupt the environment.

/CONTACT: Ryan Walker, EMS, 202/365-5433/

/Web site:

For Full Text Visit:



Aquatic Cellulose And Cecco Trading, Inc./Timber
Holdings Ltd. Launch Environmental Partnership And Multimillion Dollar
Exclusive Supply Agreement,
Via Phase One Of Asbury Park, NJ Boardwalk Reconstruction.

VERNON, B.C., Canada, Apr. 5 -/E-Wire/-- Aquatic Cellulose (AQCI) today
announced it has entered into an environmental partnership and
multimillion-dollar exclusive supply agreement with Cecco Trading,
Inc./Timber Holdings Ltd. of Milwaukee, WI. The two companies will launch
this unique environmental partnership via the first phase of boardwalk
reconstruction at Asbury Park, NJ. Cecco Trading/Timber Holdings, which has
secured Aquatic Cellulose as a "green" material supplier for Asbury Park,
will place into the project as much production of Aquatic's reclaimed
material as it is capable of delivering, given time constraints for completion.

/CONTACT: Aquatic Cellulose International Corp., Mr. Gary Ackles,

/Web site:

For Full Text Visit:


TO BUSINESS, TECHNOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL EDITORS: Acquires Leading Waste Management Software Company Wixel, Inc.

Acquisition Brings Leaders in Waste Management and Regulatory Reporting
Software Together to Consolidate Market Share

TEMPE, AZ, Apr. 5 -/E-Wire/-- Environmental Support Solutions
( today announced the company has acquired Wixel, Inc.,
a Denver-based developer of waste management tracking, management and
regulatory reporting software.
/CONTACT: Robin Suzelis of Environmental Support Solutions, Inc.,
/Web site:
For Full Text Visit:

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 100 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Apr 10, 2001 (14:29) * 104 lines 

"We Cover the Earth For You"


By Dan Zinkand

CEDAR RAPIDS, Iowa, April 9, 2001 (ENS) - While the Iowa Corn Growers
Association (ICGA) and Monsanto disagree about safeguards that do - or do
not - exist for channeling Roundup Ready hybrids grown this year, they
agree on two things.

For full text and graphics visit:



VIEQUES, Puerto Rico, April 9, 2001 (ENS) - At the invitation of Governor
Sila Maria Calderon of Puerto Rico, New York Governor George Pataki today
led a delegation of New Yorkers to the Puerto Rican island of Vieques as
part of his effort to permanently end U.S. Navy bombing on the island.

For full text and graphics visit:



PARIS, France, April 9, 2001 (ENS) - Industrialized countries should launch
a coordinated program to remove environmentally damaging subsidies and
introduce environmental taxes, according to a new report by an organization
that represents the world's richest nations.

For full text and graphics visit:



OSLO, Norway, April 9, 2001 (ENS) - A lone wolf has escaped death after
hunters on skis, snowmobiles and in helicopters missed an April 6 deadline
set by Norway's government, which ordered the cull of 10 wolves in February.

For full text and graphics, visit:



VANCOUVER, Canada, April 9, 2001 (ENS) - Two British Columbia organizations
have produced a shortlist of dams ripe for decommissioning or dismantling.
The shortlist appears in "River Recovery - Restoring Rivers Through Dam
Decommissioning," a report published today by the Outdoor Recreation
Council (ORC) of B.C. and the B.C. Institute of Technology (BCIT).

For full text and graphics, visit:



LONDON, United Kingdom, April 9, 2001 (ENS) - More than a million United
Kingdom households are a step closer to getting their electricity from wind
power, after 18 offshore wind farm developers were granted leases to build
on the sea bed.

For full text and graphics, visit:



PG&E Bankruptcy Called No Threat to Nuclear Plants

Utility's Bankruptcy Offers Environmental Opportunity

Scotchgard Compound Widespread in Environment

Water Reclamation Project Approved for California County

$437,000 Supports Environmental Land Use Planning

California Governor Announces $388 Million for Local Parks

Kodiak Celebrates Whale Migration with 10 Day Festival

High Arsenic Levels in Water Near Bush Ranch

For full text and graphics visit:
Copyright Environment News Service (ENS) 2000 All Rights Reserved.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 101 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Apr 11, 2001 (13:33) * 303 lines 


"We Cover the Earth For You"


By Cat Lazaroff

WASHINGTON, DC, April 10, 2001 (ENS) - Though you cannot tell from the
glowing reviews provided by White House Cabinet members, President George
W. Bush's first federal budget would slash funding for environmental
programs, energy conservation and agricultural preservation. The budget met
praise from industry and Congressional Republicans, but was roundly
condemned by environmental and public interest groups, as well as
Congressional Democrats.

For full text and graphics visit:



WHITEHORSE, Yukon Territory, Canada, April 10, 2001 (ENS) - A former
Canadian prime minister wants Canada to use the forthcoming Summit of the
Americas to categorically state its opposition to American plans for oil
and gas development in Alaska's Arctic National Wildlife Refuge.

For full text and graphics, visit:



By Peter Isaac

WELLINGTON, New Zealand, April 10, 2001 (ENS) - Prime Minister Helen Clark
has agreed to improve services for Vietnam veterans who claim their health
has been damaged by Agent Orange. The toxic herbicide is central to another
conflict today as well, between people living near a plant where agricultural
herbicides were made and the company that produced them.

For full text and graphics visit:



By Donald Sutherland

CASTRIES, ST. LUCIA, April 10, 2001 (ENS) - Off the northern coast of the
popular tourist island of St. Lucia, a struggling killer whale was hauled
onto an unmarked fishing trawler in February. A few days later, tourists on
a St. Lucia whale watching trip were confronted by fishermen trying to
harpoon a sperm whale.

For full text and graphics visit:



CANBERRA, Australia, April 10, 2001 (ENS) - Australians use 65 percent more
water today than they did in the 1980s, according to a nationwide audit of
the country's land and water resources.

For full text and graphics, visit:



Koch Pleads Guilty to Covering Up Benzene Emissions

EPA, NWF Oppose Power Plant Lawsuit on Mercury

Smart Growth Bill Reintroduced in Congress

Pennsylvania Launches West Nile Virus Surveillance Program

Alaskan Land Trusts Receive Wetlands Conservation Grants

Scientists Survey Maui's Endangered Forest Birds

Test Exposes Bacterial Pollution Culprits

Website Provides Environmental Information for All Zipcodes

For full text and graphics visit:

Copyright Environment News Service (ENS) 2000 All Rights Reserved.


E-Wire is a paid press release distribution service.
Responsibility for the factual accuracy of each press release rests
entirely with the individuals or organizations identified on the release.


Itronics GOLD'n GRO Fertilizer Sales Increase 550 Percent

RENO, NV, Apr. 10 -/E-Wire/-- Itronics Inc. (OTC:BB ITRO) said today
that GOLD'n GRO fertilizer sales by its subsidiary, Itronics Metallurgical,
Inc., increased 550 percent in March 2001 compared to the same month in the
year 2000. March is considered a key month in fertilizer sales since it is
the beginning of good weather in some parts of the country.

/CONTACT: Paul Knopick, 888/795-6336/

/Web site:

For Full Text Visit:



Secretary of the Interior Gale Norton to Honor Private Conservation
During Second Annual Private Conservation Day, Thursday, April 12th

WASHINGTON, DC, Apr. 10 -/E-Wire/-- In a speech emphasizing the true
diversity of visions and approaches in environmental protection,
particularly within the private sector, the Honorable Gale Norton, Secretary
of the Interior, will commemorate private land stewardship during this year'
s "Private Conservation Day" Thursday, April 12th. The event, scheduled to
take place at the National Press Club in the Holeman Lounge at 10 a.m., is
sponsored by the Center for Private Conservation.

/CONTACT: Judy Kent, Manager, Media Relations, Center for Private
Conservation, 202-331-1010,

/Web site:

For Full Text Visit:



"Reading, Writing and Ritalin" TV Program Overlooks Evidence on Cancer
Risks in Children

CHICAGO, IL, Apr. 10 -/E-Wire/-- Bill Kurtis is to be warmly commended for his Arts &
Entertainment (A & E) balanced and informative 4/9/01 TV program on the
abuse and misuse of Ritalin for the treatment of children with
"Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders" (ADHD). As Kurtis noted,
the U.S. uses some 90% of the world's supply of Ritalin, now
overprescribed to up to 6% of elementary and pre-teen school children
for a "grab bag" of behavioral disorders. However, no mention was made
of the substantive evidence on the drug's cancer risks of which parents,
teachers and school nurses still remain uninformed and unaware.

/CONTACT: Samuel S. Epstein, M.D., emeritus professor of environmental
and occupational Medicine, University of Illinois School of Public
Health, Chicago, and Chairman, Cancer Prevention Coalition; phone
312-996-2297; fax 312-996-1374; email

/Web site:

For Full Text Visit:



Datachest Launches Enhanced Website for Environmental,
Health, and Safety Markets

Datachest's Products Enable EHS Companies and Professionals to Minimize
Research Time, Improve Data Accuracy, and Create Collaborative Environment

MONTREAL, Canada, Apr. 10 -/E-Wire/-- Datachest, Inc., a global leader in
online chemical and EHS information, today announced they've launched a new
website, Datachest now offers unique data
formatting and mapping technology, plus the most powerful search engine on the
market, enabling corporate clients to utilize proprietary data in their work

/CONTACT: Marie-Chantal Hebert of Datachest, Inc., 514-866-2437 or

/Web site:

For Full Text Visit:



EPA Co-Sponsors Brownfields 2001 Conference in Chicago September 24-26

Call for Presentations

CHICAGO, IL, Apr. 10 -/E-Wire/-- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
Illinois EPA, the International City/County Management Association and the
Engineers' Society of Western Pennsylvania are among more than a dozen
organizations co-sponsoring "Brownfields 2001," a national conference to
showcase brownfields cleanup, redevelopment and policy issues, September
24-26, 2001, at Chicago's McCormick Place Convention Center.

/CONTACT: Mick Hans, 312-353-5050, or Ginny Narsete, 312-886-4359, both
of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency/

/Web site:

For Full Text Visit:



Who Wants to be a Great Hazardous Materials Manager?

Environmental Resource Center(R) Has the Final Answer

CARY, N.C., Apr. 10 -/E-Wire/-- Environmental Resource Center won't
make you a millionaire, but they might save you that much in penalties. Under
the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), EPA requires training for
workers that manage or handle hazardous waste at accumulation points. Under
the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act, DOT requires training for all
hazmat employees. Companies that don't train their employees are subject to
stiff penalties.

/CONTACT: Tammy Silverthorne of Environmental Resource Center,
919-469-1585, ext. 226/

/Web site:

For Full Text Visit:



Cyanotech Begins New Clinical Evaluation for BioAstin: Antioxidant
Supplement for Sunburn Protection

KAILUA-KONA, HI, Apr. 10 -/E-Wire/-- Cyanotech Corporation (Nasdaq NMS:
CYAN), the world's leader in producing high-value, natural products from
microalgae, has initiated a new clinical evaluation of BioAstin(TM) to
measure its effectiveness for providing sunscreen protection from
ultraviolet light. The study is being conducted by a consumer products
testing company headquartered in New Jersey.

/CONTACT: Cyanotech Corporation, Ronald P. Scott, 808/326-1353, or Russell Communications Group, Bruce Russell,
310/216-1414 (investors),

/Web site:

For Full Text Visit:



DynaMotive's 10 TPD Plant Achieves Target Production Capacity

VANCOUVER, Canada, Apr. 10 -/E-Wire/-- DynaMotive Technologies Corporation
(OTCBB: DYMTF) announced today that its new 10 tonne per day BioOil plant has
met design production parameters. Fuel quality BioOil has been produced from
BC wood residue at the 10 tonne per day rated capacity.

/CONTACT: call Toll Free (in North America): 1-877-863-2268; Raymond
McAllister, Director, Corporate Communications, Telephone: 604-267-6000, Fax:
604-267-6005, Email:,
/Web site:
For Full Text Visit:

For the latest job openings for environmental professionals, visit:

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 102 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Apr 12, 2001 (19:20) * 130 lines 
"We Cover the Earth For You"
BRUSSELS, Belgium, April 11, 2001 (ENS) - A world trip undertaken by a
European Union delegation following America's withdrawal from the Kyoto
Protocol has resulted in five key countries pledging firm support for the
climate change negotiation process, according to team leader Kjell Larsson.
Larsson, who is Sweden's environment minister, joined Belgian Energy
secretary Olivier Deleuze and Jos Delbeke from the European Commission, in
a round of climate change talks with Canada, Russia, Iran, China and Japan.
The opinions of these countries were sought as a gauge of developed and
developing countries' opinions following the United States' withdrawal from
climate change talks in late March.
President George W. Bush left Christie Todd Whitman, head of the U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency, to announce March 28 that the U.S. had "no
interest in implementing that treaty," referring to the Kyoto Protocol.
A week later, Larsson and other European Union officials visited
Washington, DC, but received little encouragement that Bush would change
his mind. Whitman told the delegation that the U.S. believed the Kyoto
Protocol to be unfair to the U.S. and to other industrialized nations.
This was because the protocol exempts 80 percent of the world from
compliance, she said, which could damage the U.S. economy.
Under the 1997 Kyoto Protocol, 39 industrialized nations including the
U.S., committed to cutting their greenhouse gas emissions to an average of
5.2 percent below 1990 levels by the period 2008-2012. The Protocol will
not take effect until it is ratified by 55 percent of the nations emitting
at least 55 percent of the six greenhouse gases.
The European Union believes that since developed nations are the world's
biggest polluters they should take the lead in cutting emissions before
expecting developing nations to do the same.
"Reducing greenhouse gases is really a credibility issue for the developed
countries," said Delbeke today. "The EU believes that it is not realistic
to ask the developing countries to reduce or limit their emissions if we
cannot show that we, as the biggest emitters, have done something ourselves."
Since the U.S. emits roughly one quarter of all greenhouse gases released
into the atmosphere, its ratification of the protocol had been considered
essential. But even without the participation, it is numerically possible
to get ratification by countries emitting 55 percent of the world's
greenhouse gases.
After their whistlestop tour, the European Union delegation appears more
certain that the protocol can be ratified with or without the U.S.
"It must be in all our interest that the years of work and the efforts that
have been put into the Kyoto Protocol are not abandoned," said Larsson. "We
will lose a lot of time if we start from scratch."
Larsson said all countries visited expressed serious concerns about the
recent scientific evidence of climate change, reported in the Third
Assessment Report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).
They were also concerned about the new U.S. position on the Kyoto Protocol.
In January, the IPCC projected a "potentially devastating" global warming
of 1.4 to 5.8 degrees Celsius (2.52 to 10.44 degrees Fahrenheit) over the
coming century - higher temperatures than an assessment by the same panel
five years ago.
Iran is the chairman of the G77 group of the developing countries, and
Japan is a member of the so called Umbrella Group of non-European Union
industrialized countries, which also takes in the U.S. and Canada.
According to Larsson, the countries confirmed the importance of resumed
climate change negotiations in Bonn, Germany in July, so the Kyoto Protocol
can be ratified by 2002.
"Having heard the overwhelming support for the Kyoto process in those
countries - Canada, Russia, Iran, China and Japan - the EU sees a chance
for initiating a new momentum on the basis of the new proposals by Jan
Pronk at the New York meeting in April," said a European Union statement.
Dutch environment minister Jan Pronk, who chairs the international
negotiations to finalize the protocol, has unveiled new Kyoto Protocol
compromise proposals, which will be discussed in New York on April 21.
These will offer a "greater chance of being adopted" than proposals made in
The Hague last year," said Pronk last week.
Talks in The Hague, Netherlands last November were supposed to finalize
agreement on how Kyoto's targets could be met. Those talks, officially
known as the sixth Conference of Parties (COP 6) to the United Nations
Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), finished without agreement.
Officials from more than 160 governments will meet in Bonn, Germany, from
July 16 to 27, to reconvene COP 6. While Whitman said the U.S. will remain
"engaged" on the climate change issue, the presence at COP 6 of the world's
largest producer of man made greenhouse gases remains in doubt.
Larsson said that only Japan had received "somewhat more encouraging
signals" of the likelihood of the U.S. returning to the Kyoto process.
For full text and graphics, visit:

By Cat Lazaroff
WASHINGTON, DC, April 11, 2001 (ENS) - Energy production is slowly
strangling some of nation's most beloved rivers and the species that rely
on them, a new report charges. The 16th annual "America's Most Endangered
Rivers" report from American Rivers finds that almost half of the 13 rivers
cited have been damaged by impacts of hydropower dams, fossil fuel drilling
and pollution from fuel burning.
For full text and graphics visit:

VANCOUVER, Canada, April 11, 2001 (ENS) - Trains generate one fifth the
greenhouse gas emissions of trucking, one quarter the emissions of urban
autos, and one third the emissions of inter city autos or airplanes in
densely populated corridors.
For full text and graphics, visit:

LISBON, Portugal, April 11, 2001 (ENS) - The Portuguese environment
ministry yesterday formally approved plans for two cement kilns to burn
industrial waste as fuel following four years of scientific investigation and
public debate.
For full text and graphics visit:

NAIROBI, Kenya, April 11, 2001 (ENS) - The worst drought in East Africa in
living memory has created a desperate situation for millions of people,
particularly in Kenya. Aid agencies are warning that food shortages in the
country are critical, and emergency supplies could run out next month.
For full text and graphics visit:

By Alejandra Herranz
BUENOS AIRES, Argentina, April 11, 2001.- Activists from Greenpeace
Argentina staged a rally in front of the U.S. Embassy in Buenos Aires
Tuesday to protest U.S. President George W. Bush's withdrawal of support
for the Kyoto climate protocol.
For full text and graphics visit:

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 103 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Apr 24, 2001 (09:53) * 67 lines 
Big Turtle

HANOI, Vietnam (AP) -- The Vietnamese capital of Hanoi is buzzing with excitement following reported sightings
of rare giant turtles in a downtown lake where thousands of pedestrians pass daily. And amateur video footage
purportedly of the turtles, long believed to be nothing more than myth and legend, now has skeptics wondering
whether the giant beasts really do exist.

For years, people have reported sighting three giant turtles in Hanoi's Hoan Kiem Lake. The latest sighting, and
perhaps one of the most credible, came on March 24, when passersby caught a glimpse of the turtles as they
surfaced to take in the spring air.

Rare giant turtles reportedly spotted in a downtown Hanoi, Vietnam lake
1.4 MB / 13 sec. / 320x240
395 K / 13 sec. / 160x120
QuickTime movie

An amateur cameraman caught the creatures' appearance on video, which subsequently aired on Vietnamese
television. The station also claimed the turtles made a second appearance on April 5. Researchers who have been
trying to get a glimpse of the turtles believe they could be the only ones of their kind in the world.

Big turtle stories date back 5 centuries
Stories about the mysterious creatures have been circulating for about 500 years, starting with the legend of King
Le Loi and the giant turtle of Hoan Kiem Lake. According to legend, the gods gave Le Loi a magic sword, which
helped him battle the Chinese invaders.

Having freed Vietnam, the king and his courtiers were boating on the lake when a giant turtle arose, took the magic
sword, then plunged to the depths and returned the blade to its divine owners. Since that time the lake's name has
been "Ho Hoan Kiem," which means "Lake of the Returned Sword."

The story is retold in thousands of schoolbooks, and in popular performances at Hanoi's water-puppet theaters.

A Vietnamese television station broadcast this amateur recording of an alleged giant turtle in Hoan Kiem Lake

Mythology, science mix in turtle pursuit
Mythology and science mix in the work of Hanoi National University's Professor Ha Dinh Duc, the world's
foremost expert on the turtles of the Returned Sword Lake.

"The Hoan Kiem turtle is the world's biggest fresh water turtle. It can measure 2 meters (6 1/2 feet) long and can
weigh as much as 200 kilograms," said Professor Ha Dinh Duc of Hanoi National University.

Professor Duc has been studying the turtles for the past decade, sometimes in conjunction with international reptile
specialists. Some biologists feel these turtles could be the same as a rare species found near Shanghai, China, but
Professor Duc disagrees.

"I've compared these with other fresh-water turtles elsewhere in the world and I see real differences. I hope further
studies will show this is a new species," he said.

Hoan Kiem turtle could be new species
A Hoan Kiem turtle, found and preserved 30 years ago, is now displayed at a small temple on an island in the
lake. The plaque tells visitors it is thought to be more than 500 years old -- old enough, in fact, to be the turtle of
the legend.

A comparison of the preserved turtle with images of the Shanghai species shows clear differences in coloration and
head shape, supporting Dr. Duc's thesis that this could be a new species. Much remains unknown about these
ancient monsters living in the center of downtown Hanoi -- their number, reproductive ability, origins, and
especially, whether or not they're unique to the Lake of the Returned Sword.

"If we have cooperation from international experts and they determine this is a new species, it will be a significant
contribution to world biological diversity. And since the turtles are right here in the middle of urban Hanoi, many
people can easily come to see them," Professor Duc said.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 104 of 312: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Sun, May 13, 2001 (14:33) * 1 lines 
I hope that the urban dwelling giant turtles are well and reamain safe.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 105 of 312: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Sun, May 13, 2001 (14:33) * 1 lines 
Happy Mothers' Day to Gaia, the Mother to Us All!

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 106 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, May 13, 2001 (20:11) * 6 lines 
Indeed, Cheryl. My thoughts exactly.

Happy Mothers Day To The Mother Of Us All

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 107 of 312: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Tue, May 15, 2001 (19:18) * 1 lines 
Marcia, I love that graphic with the hearts girdling the Earth.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 108 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, May 15, 2001 (20:29) * 1 lines 
I used it last year and it is so fitting I'm just going to get it out each year just for this! Thanks!

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 109 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, May 26, 2001 (17:14) * 13 lines 
Caterpillar Blamed for Kentucky Horse Deaths
May 25 2001 1:01PM
LEXINGTON, Ky. (Reuters) - The illness that caused hundreds of
Kentucky mares to miscarry or deliver stillborn foals has been traced to
caterpillars which had eaten cherry tree leaves tainted with naturally
occurring cyanide, officials said on Friday.
Unusually high levels of the poison in populous black cherry trees was
somehow transferred to the mares -- possibly through feces from
Eastern tent caterpillars in bluegrass pastures -- and killed the unborn
horses in the womb.


 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 110 of 312: Paul Terry Walhus (terry) * Sun, May 27, 2001 (08:27) * 1 lines 
An argument for biological pest control, cyanide is pretty serious stuff, not the kind of stuff you buy at Walmart for your backyard garden. Wonder what they're doing to prevent this from recurring?

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 111 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, May 28, 2001 (21:33) * 1 lines 
It is in the cherry leaves naturally, I understand. I questioned a wildlife specialist in the area and he says it has not been proven to be the cause. But the possiblity is very real. Tent caterpillars are a menace to cherry trees and their droppings are higly toxic. He imagines removing the trees to be the best bet.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 112 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, May 28, 2001 (21:38) * 1 lines 
The toxicity of the caterpillers from eating cyanide-laced leaves of the Black Cherry is well known to wild creatures. Nothing eats them!!! If they do they die or become very sick. The same is true of Monarch butterflies who feast on Milkweed. Birds do not eat them either for the same reason - the get very sick if they do. So sick that other butterflies not toxic immitate the color patterns as in the Viceroy butterfly. Thank you, JSK!

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 113 of 312: horrible horace  (horrible) * Wed, May 30, 2001 (14:21) * 1 lines 
As a long time Organic Grower and Free_range poultry and piggie producer,the above posts come as no surprise to me(said humbly)Nature has more tricks up her sleeve than a funfair cardsharp.I have used companion planting for eg. with great results and only wish I had listened to the old timers more closely when i was a kid.We have lost more knowledege in the last 100 years than we have gained.When the chips are finally down I will feed you chips bettre than Intel,at least you will find mine edible,Liam ,the horrible brat from Bree

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 114 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, May 30, 2001 (16:12) * 4 lines 
Well, Liam dear, plant marigolds around your tomatoes and keep the pests off them. I remember that... anyone else have ecological stuff to help your crops?
Please share themwith us!

Can anyone who learned thatching to restore his 250 year old home be all bad?

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 115 of 312: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Fri, Jun  1, 2001 (15:35) * 1 lines 
The subject of the black cherry tree relates to the Allegheny National Forest in Pennsylvania; not for the reason of caterpillers, though. The subject of clear cutting in the forest has come up again. The reason behind it is highly suspected that lumber companies want the fast lumber, but they also want to replant the deforested areas with the black cherry tree. Why? Because the wood is highly valuable in that it is prized for the manufacture of furniture.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 116 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Jun  1, 2001 (20:55) * 61 lines 
Yup, Black Cherry wood IS beautiful. I suspect they will not survive in large forests of single species. Too tasty and will encourage a huge infestation.

From Horrible Horace (he is SO sweet!)

Fish farms threaten the world's wild salmon
By Charles Clover, Environment Editor

THE Atlantic salmon is in trouble in half of the rivers in Britain and
endangered in more than a third, a report by WWF said yesterday.

The report, The Status of Wild Atlantic Salmon - A River by River
Assessment, argues that Britain, particularly Scotland, bears a heavy
responsibility for the survival of the species, which has been
completely extirpated from much of its original range and hangs by a
thread elsewhere.
After two centuries of slow decline that coincided with industrial
development, wild salmon catches have plummeted by more than 80 per cent over the past three
decades and stand at the lowest levels in history, according to the report.

Wild salmon have virtually disappeared from Germany, Switzerland, Holland,
Belgium, the Czech Republic and Slovakia and are on the brink of extinction
in Estonia, Portugal, Poland, the United States and parts of Canada. Nearly
90 per cent of the known healthy populations exist in only four countries:
Norway, Ireland, Iceland and Scotland, according to the report, released to
coincide with a meeting of the North Atlantic Salmon Conservation in Spain.

Of 76 historically salmon-bearing rivers in England and Wales, salmon
populations are endangered in 19, critical in 10 and extinct in seven, including
the Trent, Yorkshire Ouse and Mersey. Salmon are not extinct in any river in
Scotland, one of their last strongholds, but they are endangered in 129.
Mostly these are smaller rivers in the north and west, such as Wester Ross,
the Rivers Corrie and Shieldaig, which flow into Loch Torridon, and the
Rivers Kishorn, Attadale and Sguod.

In Lochaber district, rivers that run into Loch Linnhe have endangered
populations, as have the Rivers Strontian and Carnoch, which flow into Loch
Sunart. The principal threat to stocks in the north and west of Scotland is fish
farming, which, with its escapees, parasites and diseases, may now be the
principal threat to wild stocks everywhere.

Ross Finnie, Scottish environment minister, recently refused to hold an
independent inquiry into the effects of aquaculture but his decision has been
criticised by Charles Kennedy, leader of the Liberal Democrats. Elsewhere,
threats include driftnets - Irish driftnets take a third of salmon returning to
rivers in Wales and southern England - together with pollution from industry
and agriculture, dams and man-made obstructions such as hydro-electric
power and forestry run-off.

Elizabeth Leighton, a senior policy officer for WWF, said: "Being home to
such a huge proportion of the world's wild Atlantic salmon population the
British Isles, especially Scotland, bears a huge responsibility to raise its game
to protect this, the king of fish." The report is critical of Britain for failing to
undertake an assessment of salmon stocks in each river and for failing to
conserve stocks, which are genetically distinct, on a river-by-river basis.

Ms Leighton said: "When a river loses its salmon, that locally specialised
population is lost forever. The fate of the species is increasingly becoming a
sad story of extinction peppered across Europe. To save wild salmon in the
long term, governments must restore rivers where it is threatened or has
disappeared and take action to protect those rivers still hosting healthy

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 117 of 312: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Sat, Jun  2, 2001 (15:12) * 1 lines 
How can the wild Atlantic salmon be re-introduced into rivers in which it has become extinct? Would fertilized salmon eggs have to be harvested and seeded in the abandoned rivers; so that, hopefully, the introduced fish which hatch there would return there?

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 118 of 312: horrible horace  (horrible) * Sat, Jun  2, 2001 (15:54) * 1 lines 
It can be done that way but the Salmon have returned to rivers that have been "dead" for years by their little own selves.The river water must be cleaned up for this to happen. The Thames in England is a good example of where this has happened.Salmon usually return to the river of their birth but occasionally they get confused and go to the wrong river.The natural return depends on there being an adequate wild stock,over-fishing is the big danger and perversely this over fishing can be done by seals.I have seen lots of salmon bitten but not killed and eaten by seals and the poor things cant breed then.Poaching on a big scale and illegal netting at sea cuts the numbers drastically.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 119 of 312: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Sat, Jun  2, 2001 (16:09) * 1 lines 
Seals. That's interesting, but lots of animals enjoy the taste of salmon. It seems that like the black cherry tree the salmon is delicious.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 120 of 312: horrible horace  (horrible) * Sat, Jun  2, 2001 (16:27) * 1 lines 
Wild salmon is delicious,have you never eaten it? We have an excellent river nearby and the fish from it are beautiful.Never eaten a black cherry tree so I can't comment on the taste :^)

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 121 of 312: horrible horace  (horrible) * Sat, Jun  2, 2001 (16:29) * 1 lines 
I must stress that i will only eat fish caught by rod and line ,drift netting is an abomination

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 122 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Jun  2, 2001 (16:32) * 1 lines 
Just when I have discovered a most excellent way to prepare fresh salmon (rare in Hawaii!) I would feel too guilty to eat it. I also had never heard of seals biting them. It appears we are not the only cruel and wasteful species! I knew of the return of salmon to the Thames. The Hudson River in New York took ages to clean up, but they did it, and species they had forgotten ever went there have been happily breeding and increasing the population.. All is not apparently lost. The over-dammed rivers (Columbia and Colorado come to mind) on the west coast have just about doomed their salmon to extinction. Used car lots need 24/7 arc lights to illuminate their trashy existance. *Putting away my soap box before I really get wound up*

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 123 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Jun  2, 2001 (16:38) * 3 lines 
Tell a pelagic person about drift nets. They festoon our shores with their grim "catch" still entangled. How is it possible to get a self-serving nation to heed the warnings about drift netting and whale-eating. And , NO, this time I am not talking about the United States! Oh, they like porpoise, too! They insist on taking over the world one way or the other? Perhaps they should not have released that Pearl Harbor movie and the drift netting issue at the same time. It angers some of us past the tolerant politeness we usually try to maintain.

Wild salmon?! Never, that I am aware of, and only twice, fresh salmon. How exquisite it must taste. Next time you consume some, think of me... I am newly a fan of the taste, but have talked myself out of eating it on principle and the price of the beastie.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 124 of 312: horrible horace  (horrible) * Sat, Jun  2, 2001 (16:39) * 1 lines 
Back to the companion planting as pest control,The Marigolds attract hoverflies which eat the greenfly and other pests,Marcia,isnt it nice to use nature.I have also used plantings of Comfrey for the same reason(and also to feed the early bees as Comfrey flowers over winter)The smell of mint confuses the bugs that would attack brassicas . Garlic and chives grown near carrots are a marvellous deterent for carrot fly (which incidently can't fly at all!it hops and a tiny fence 9-10 inches will keep it at bay.We have also used tomatoes to control scutch grass,they release a hormone which attacks the grass rhisomes.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 125 of 312: horrible horace  (horrible) * Sat, Jun  2, 2001 (16:48) * 1 lines 
The dams on our rivers were designed with the salmon in mind and have special sluices to allow the fish to migrate up river.It is to the eternal credit of our power supply company(the Irish E.S.B) that they have become the biggest hatchers of salmon fry for the boosting of stocks.Dont be put off trying salmon Marcia but avoid the farmed junk like the plaugue.We had some imported Tiger Prawns last week and I swear they too have been farmed,last time i had tigers was in Singapore and they were completely different.The feed for these farmed beasties must be in the same class of rubbish as that fed to cattle,pigs and poultry.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 126 of 312: horrible horace  (horrible) * Sat, Jun  2, 2001 (17:07) * 1 lines 
Forgot to mention that I had to do 4 Caesarians today,very tiring

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 127 of 312: horrible horace  (horrible) * Sat, Jun  2, 2001 (17:12) * 1 lines 
Yep 4 Caesareans all by myself..3 duckies and 1 gosling,the temp.dropped drastically so they had trouble getting themselves born.We now have 6 goslings and 3 ducklings in the house stinking us out!and 3 more chipping in the incubator.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 128 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Jun  2, 2001 (17:26) * 4 lines 
You are a man of many talents! I did not know surgury was one of them. On eggshells, I hope, not the mommy-duckie or goose!

I am going to repost your information regarding the botanical pest control.
Modern farming caused you to have to use thatching from Poland. The chemicals in Irish and UK reeds made them rot. What do you think it is doing to the rest of the food chain? Not a good thing to ponder! Thanks for your wisdom and experienced knowledge. Everyone else, go look at Horace's website and his flora pages. The man even knows about the soapwort. The stuff ancient Celts were using to WASH themselves clean while the "civilizing" Romans were sweating and scraping to make themselves clean. Hardly a contest, I think! Pass the woad!

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 129 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Jun  2, 2001 (17:37) * 1 lines 
I know this man! He is sitting up with them - even in the middle of the night - to make sure the wee ones are warm enough. Please, no vulning! That is for genetic birds only. Tuck them in with your "field hand" Nick - they can keep one another warm! Wait... smelly? Don't do that. Back to Papa Goose/Duckie keeping them safe and warm though the night. You are so good! It makes me wish I were more duckie than I already am ;)

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 130 of 312: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Sun, Jun  3, 2001 (13:11) * 9 lines 
Unfortunately Horace, I've never eaten a wild Atlantic salmon. I've eaten Pacific salmon from the northwest U.S. and Alaska. I think that they were commercially netted, though. Forgive me, Marcia. Now as for eating the black cherry tree, they only part I've ever eaten is the fruit, the black cherries. Still, the black cherry tree is a huge favorite with insects.

One of my uncles used to live in Alaska. He said that salmon season there was a huge event. People came from Japan to go salmon fishing. People came from all over the world. The Kodiak bears showed up for salmon fishing. One of the older male bears was locally known for wading out into the stream and standing there with his mouth open waiting for a fish to jump in. It seemed to work for him.

Horace, I hope that the downy little water fowl are doing well. Are they very noisy?

When I visited my Mom in central Pennsylvania last weekend, I saw five mallards sleeping in her front yard. They had there heads tucked under their wings. There was one female and four males. Mom refers to them as Madam and her four suitors.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 131 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Jun  3, 2001 (14:39) * 3 lines 
There are so many things I miss about living on the mainland. We do have mallards out here but no sea gulls. Instead we have various plovers and terns and frigate birds. Your starlings are our mynah birds. The only things we get in our yard are bufos (cane toads - Ask any Aussie about them!) and mongoose, and dumped-off stray cats. I'd love to have wild ducks and geese around but the local dogs would end that enterprise in short order.

I'd wager by now, Horace has those three shell-chippers he mentioned before as live and imprinting on him. He will begin to sprout feathers soon!

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 132 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Jun  3, 2001 (14:41) * 1 lines 
Quite alright about the netting of salmon as long as it is not drift netted. They catch anything larger than plankton and waste it.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 133 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Jun  4, 2001 (00:48) * 44 lines 
From Horace.....

Migrating impurities in ancient ice can skew climate research findings
Chemicals trapped in ancient glacial or polar ice can move
substantial distances within the ice, according to new evidence from University of Washington researchers. That means past analyses of historic climate changes, gleaned from ice core samples, might not be entirely accurate.
"The ice cores themselves are wonderful records of climate. Nobody is questioning that," said Alan Rempel, a post-doctoral research scientist in the UW Applied Physics Laboratory.
In fact, the research shows that the fingerprint of chemical variations within ice cores is much sharper than had previously been expected. But it also shows that substances that are climate signatures – from sea salt to sulfuric acid –
travel through the frozen mass along microscopic channels of liquid water between individual ice crystals, away from the ice on which they were deposited. The movement becomes more pronounced over time, as the flow of ice
carries the substances deeper within the ice sheet, where it is warmer and there is more liquid water between ice crystals. By contrast, oxygen isotopes that can indicate past temperatures are carried mostly within the ice.
The possible movement of chemical signatures away from the ice on which they were deposited means scientists must re-examine questions such as whether warm summers coincided with high levels of sea salt in the air, Rempel said. But that is only true for ancient ice, since little movement is shown in ice less than
100,000 years old.
The findings by Rempel; John Wettlaufer, a senior physicist at APL; Edwin Waddington, a UW professor of
Earth and space sciences; and APL visiting scientist Grae Worster from the University of Cambridge in
England are published in the May 31 issue of the journal Nature.
Ice sheets (large polar glaciers) are built by thousands of years of accumulated snowfall, to depths of
thousands of meters. Each season's snowfall forms a distinctive layer that can be analyzed chemically after
being extracted in a core sample.
Certain impurities serve as markers that can tell scientists what was going on climatically at various times.
Those substances are found principally in unfrozen liquid that accumulates at the boundaries of individual
crystals within the ice sheets.
The new research shows those substances migrate deeper into the ice sheet, where it is warmer, faster than
the ice on which they were deposited, said Wettlaufer, an ice physics expert. The displacement is larger at
greater depths. The result is that substances found 3 kilometers (1.9 miles) deep could be 50 centimeters
(20 inches) or more away from the ice on which they were deposited many thousands of years ago, a
distance that accounts for about 100 years of snowfall.
"The point of the paper is to suggest that the ice core community go back and redo the chemistry," said
Wettlaufer. "That's a lot of work, and we're hoping to be involved in that."
The Nature article notes that the best high-resolution climate records over the past few hundred thousand
years have come from ice cores taken from Greenland and Antarctica. A core from interglacial ice in central
Greenland suggests that a sudden cooling took place in the Eemian period 115,000 to 125,000 years ago.
However, the new study shows that impurities used as climate markers may have moved as much as 20
inches, a distance large enough to offset the resolution at which the core was examined and alter the
interpretation of the ice-core record.
The Vostok core from Antarctica, which goes back some 450,000 years, contains even greater
displacement because of the greater depth, but it has not been examined at even the close spatial resolutions
of the Greenland core, Wettlaufer said.
Rempel said the researchers hope to devise models that can help scientists account for the relative
movement of different impurities when making their ice core measurements.
But in the meantime, said Wettlaufer, scientists doing that climate work have to take into account how much
their measurements might be skewed, and adjust their findings accordingly.
"That would be what we most would want to influence – the way people make their observations," he said.
"Since they are doing all that work, they can't afford to neglect these important physical processes in their

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 134 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Jun  4, 2001 (00:56) * 51 lines 
also from Horrible

The clear waters of the lough hide a dark side

Improved water clarity on Lough Derg, the largest of the
Shannon lakes, and the fourth largest in Ireland, has certainly
been dramatic during the last couple of years. This
improvement has been attributed to the presence of Zebra
mussels (Dreissene polymorpha) - the distinctively patterned,
non-native, freshwater bivalve molluscs similar in form to
marine mussels. They are also tiny, about the size of a 10p
piece. Their chance discovery during the summer of 1997 in
Lough Derg came about during studies of the lake's coarse fish
population. At that time, it was decided the mussels had been
already present, undetected, for at least two to three years.
With Lough Derg's waters appearing cleaner, some anglers
decided the Zebra mussels, filter feeders with the ability to
settle in mass concentrations, were welcome visitors. There
was also the feeling that some well-meaning zoologist may have
tipped a bucket load of them into the lake and the increased
water quality was the result. According to Dr Kieran McCarthy
of the Zoology Department at the National University of
Ireland, Galway, the exotic zebra mussel, with its range of
striking shell patterns, is not quite the crusading conservationist
we may have thought. It is, instead, "a notorious fouling
organism with potential densities of hundreds of thousands per
square metres capable of causing serious economic damage by
blocking pipes", as well as damaging submerged structures,
industrial equipment, and turbines.
Even more problematic are the resulting serious changes in lake
ecosystems, such as the removal of green algae. This holds
profound consequences for wildlife, fish species and aquatic
plant life. Zebra mussels are highly fertile. A mature female may
produce from 40,000 to more than 1 million eggs per year.
Colonialising at speed, they are also extremely tenacious and
invasive. Their discovery in North America in 1988 and
apparent invasion of all five of the Great Lakes and their
connecting waterways including the Erie Canal, the Hudson, the
Mississippi and Ohio, was greeted as an expensive ecological
and economic disaster in the making. These oval-shaped,
angled animals attach themselves to a wide range of man-made
structures, as well as other animals, such as the much-larger
swan mussel (Anodonta cygnea) by secreting durable elastic
strands, or byssal threads. Native to the Black, Caspian and
Aral Sea drainage basins of eastern Europe and western Asia,
the zebra mussel has spread to much of central and northern
Europe during the past 200 years through the development of
canal networks.


 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 135 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Jun  4, 2001 (17:03) * 31 lines 
From, The Telegraph (via 'orrible)

Native birds wild at Surrey's parakeets

AN Oxford University academic has established that the south of England is
now home to a thriving parakeet population and that more than half of them
live at Esher Rugby Club, in Surrey.
Last year 3,080 of the iridescent green ring-necked parakeets were counted
by Chris Butler as they roosted at the rugby club. He has also identified three
other main roosts: Lewisham Crematorium in London houses 641 of the
birds, Ramsgate in Kent is home to more than 500 and Reigate is home to
Mr Butler, who is working on his PhD thesis at the Edward Grey Institute of
Field Ornithology at Oxford University, said that the parakeet, which has a
red beak, lime-green feathers and a long yellow and blue tail, is now posing a
real threat to native British birds such as stock doves, jackdaws, owls and
green woodpeckers which are being pushed out of their tree holes by the
parakeets, which are unable to make their own nests.
Mr Butler, who is using a miniature video camera on a 33ft pole to monitor
treetop nests, said: "The parakeet nesting season starts earlier than the native
birds' so they claim nests and then defend them against other birds. I have
seen them driving kestrels, little owls and jackdaws away from cavities they
have claimed."
There have been sightings of parakeets as far north as Glasgow and Mr Butler
said that the population of almost 5,000 birds - which is believed to have
originated in the 1960s with escaped aviary birds - has quadrupled in the past
five years.
Mr Butler said: "It could be that the winters are getting warmer, because when
they were first introduced in the 19th century they didn't survive, or it could be
that there are more bird feeders in people's back gardens.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 136 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Jun  6, 2001 (19:12) * 24 lines 
It wasn't Horace after all

Wrong Culprit Blamed for Irish Potato Famine
Reuters - Jun 6 2001 2:10PM

LONDON (Reuters) - In a nifty piece of detective work American
researchers have discovered that scientists have blamed the wrong
culprit for the Irish potato famine that killed a million people and prompted
mass emigration in the 1840s.
DNA taken from leaves that had been preserved from the Irish famine
showed no signs of the strain of the fungus-like organism scientists had
thought caused the catastrophic crop failure that changed the course of
Instead the DNA fingered three other strains of the pathogen
Phytophthora infestans which had not even been considered.
By identifying the real culprit researchers from North Carolina State
University hope to develop better control methods to prevent future
famines and grow sturdier plants to resist the pathogen.
"The theory was that the 1b haplotype was the strain that had caused the
famine but that work was all based on studies of modern, 20th century
DNA from modern isolates (samples)," Dr. Jean Beagle Ristaino told


 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 137 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Jun  7, 2001 (20:42) * 19 lines 
Massive Methane Release Associated with End of Severe Ice Ages

RIVERSIDE, Calif., May 4 (AScribe News) -- Enormous releases of methane gas into the oceans followed the
extreme ice ages some 600 to 700 million years ago, a period of Earth history when microbes, algae and other simple
organisms were the planet's only inhabitants, new research suggests.
Writing in the May issue of the journal Geology, scientists at University of California, Riverside and Columbia
University report their findings of an unusual isotopic signature of carbon in rocks formed from sediments that were
deposited following at least two major ice ages in the deep past. The characteristic rock layers, called cap carbonates, are
found worldwide.
The findings indicate massive amounts of methane gas were released from gas hydrates - crystalline substances
composed of ice and gas - as Earth's climate warmed following the ice ages. Gas hydrates are known to exist today along
the edges of continents in water about 1,000 feet deep and in the continental permafrost of polar regions like northern
Siberia and Alaska. They are formed when methane gas, produced when buried organisms decay, accumulates in
sediments where temperatures are sufficiently cold and the overlying pressure is high enough to keep the gas locked into
the crystalline hydrate structure.


 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 138 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Jun  8, 2001 (14:39) * 9 lines 
More things to add to your bio-control for your garden:

Pungent German Plant Repels Pesky Pets

A German gardener has invented a plant that stinks so much it discourages cats and dogs from leaving unwanted ``gifts'' on lawns.


 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 139 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Jun  8, 2001 (14:55) * 16 lines 
Another from Liam on the climate change evidence from the past:

Fossil Leaves Confirm Ancient Greenhouse

Reading tea leaves won't accurately predict the future, but
reading gingko tree leaves can reveal the past. A new
study of pores on these fossilized leaves shows that
global temperatures have risen and fallen in concert with
the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere for
at least the last 300 million years. The discovery confirms
a link that had recently been questioned due to reports
that greenhouse gases decreased during several warm


 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 140 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Jun  8, 2001 (23:06) * 25 lines 

Bill Would Restrict Monument Designations

Wal-Mart Pays Millions for Water Pollution

Regional Agreement Aims to Clear Mountain Air

Lawsuit Filed Over Alameda Whipsnake Critical Habitat

Senator Baucus Could Derail Fast Track Proposal

Energy Department Seeks Public Input on Efficiency, Renewables

EPA Approves Charlotte Harbor Estuary Plan

Lake Okeechobee Needs Governor's Help

Puerto Rico Sewage Spills Lead to Lawsuit

Sustainable High Rise Powered by Solar Cells

For full text and graphics visit:

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 141 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Jun 11, 2001 (16:44) * 43 lines 
Graziers flock to block burps

Australian farmers are signing up their sheep and cattle in droves to take part in a proposed methane vaccine program
offered by CSIRO Livestock Industries.
Over 635,000 sheep and 410,000 cattle have so far been signed on to participate in the proposed program that will
involve use of a commercial methane vaccine.
"We are thrilled with the response in recent weeks," says Dr Rob Kelly, of CSIRO Livestock Industries, "but we still
need more to join our program."
"Our goal is to have 1 million cattle and 2 million sheep available for vaccination every year from around 2005 to 2012,"
he says.
The methane vaccine discourages 'methanogenic archae' - ancient living organisms which inhabit the animal's rumen and
produce methane by breaking down feed.
"Methane is a very potent greenhouse gas - around 21 times more potent in greenhouse terms than carbon dioxide," says
Dr Kelly.
"Sheep and cattle produce significant amounts of this gas as part of their normal digestive process, producing around 14
per cent of Australia's total greenhouse emissions, measured in CO2 equivalents," he says.
"Based on our current experimental results (in sheep), we expect that the commercial vaccine will be able to reduce
methane emissions by about 20% in these animals - or a total saving equivalent to that which would result from a
reduction of 300,000 tonnes in carbon dioxide."
"We also expect that there will be some modest gains in productivity on these animals' liveweight. In sheep it may also
improve wool production, as methane is a waste gas from feed digestion. A reduction in methane production should
leave more nutrients available to the animal."
It is anticipated that the program will offer the following benefits:
Vaccine available at minimal cost or free for some or all of the program
Productivity gains
Participation in greenhouse gas abatement to help reduce global warming
Possibility of labelling/marketing/trading as environmentally friendly and sustainable
Cattle and sheep producers interested in nominating their herds/flocks for use of a commercial vaccine, once it has been
developed and has passed the appropriate testing and regulatory standards, should contact:
Anton Coppens
Business Development Officer
CSIRO Livestock Industries
Private Bag No 5,
Wembley Western Australia 6913
Ph: 08 9333 6684, Fax: 08 9387 8991

More information:
Dr Rob Kelly, CSIRO Livestock Industries 08 9333 6685
Catherine Young, CSIRO Livestock Industries 07 3214 2927, 0408 615 359
Or visit the CSIRO Livestock Industries Methane Vaccine website at

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 142 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Jun 11, 2001 (16:48) * 17 lines 
Again, Liam, thanks for this and the above. This one has great links:

A Closer Look at Global Warming

The warming of the Earth has been the subject of intense debate
and concern for many scientists, policy-makers, and citizens for
at least the past decade. Climate Change Science: An
Analysis of Some Key Questions, a new report by a committee
of the National Research Council, characterizes the global
warming trend over the last 100 years, and examines what may
be in store for the 21st century and the extent to which warming
may be attributable to human activity. The committee was made
up of 11 of the nation's top climate scientists, including seven
members of the National Academy of Sciences, one of whom is a
Nobel Prize winner.


 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 143 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Jun 13, 2001 (13:52) * 110 lines 

"We Cover the Earth For You"
DALLAS, Texas, June 12, 2001 (ENS) - As few as two hours after being
inhaled, tiny, invisible air pollutants can penetrate the lungs' natural
defenses and may trigger a heart attack, says a new report. The study,
which appears in today's "Circulation: Journal of the American Heart
Association," warns of particular problems for people who are already at
risk for heart disease.
For full text and graphics visit:

AMSTERDAM, The Netherlands, June 12, 2001 (ENS) - Dutch Environment
Minister Jan Pronk has issued what could become the basis for world
agreement, even without America, on how to implement the United Nations
Kyoto climate protocol.
For full text and graphics visit:

WASHINGTON, DC, June 12, 2001 (ENS) Waste in the federal timber sale
program is at an all time high, even as logging levels have hit a record
low, according to a new report by Taxpayers for Common Sense, a national
budget watchdog group. The report found that the federal timber program
cost taxpayers $407 million dollars more than it received for its timber
sales in 1998.
For full text and graphics visit:

BRUSSELS, Belgium, June 12, 2001 (ENS) - More than 80 percent of
respondents to a new public opinion poll in four European countries want
their governments to go ahead with the Kyoto climate change protocol
whether the United States is involved or not.
For full text and graphics visit:

PORT VILA, Vanuatu, June 12, 2001 (ENS) - Vanuatu officials and the Red
Cross are racing to help about 1,600 people affected by a volcanic eruption
on the remote Pacific island of Lopevi Friday.
For full text and graphics visit:

Tax Bill Benefits Conservation Grants
Climate Change Affecting Remote Arctic Environment
Asbestos Exposure Claims Could Cost $200 Billion
Prescribed Fire Restores Natural Springs, Native Grasses
California Sea Otters in a Population Rut
Effort to Pull Zebra Mussels at Lake George Looks Promising
Center Targets Environmental Leadership in Business
Florida to Kick Off Water Conservation Initiative
Great Outdoors Weeks Lands at National Mall
Environmental Defense Mourns Death of Founder
For full text and graphics visit:
Copyright Environment News Service (ENS) 2000 All Rights Reserved.
E-Wire is a paid press release distribution service.
Responsibility for the factual accuracy of each press release rests
entirely with the individuals or organizations identified on the release.
he American Cancer Society Threatens To Hijack the National Cancer Program
Warns Samuel S. Epstein, M.D. and Quentin D. Young, M.D.
CHICAGO, IL, Jun. 12 -/E-Wire/-- The following was released by Samuel S.
Epstein, M.D., Chairman of the Cancer Prevention Coalition and Quentin
Young, M.D., Chairman of the Health and Medicine Policy Research Group and
past President of the American Public Health Association.
Operating behind closed doors and with powerful political connections,
Dr. Samuel Epstein, charges the American Cancer Society (ACS) with forging a
questionably legal alliance with the federal Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention (CDC) in attempts to hijack the National Cancer Program. The ACS
is also charged with virtual neglect of cancer prevention.
/CONTACT: Samuel S. Epstein, M.D., Chairman of the Cancer Prevention
Coalition and emeritus professor Environmental and Occupational Medicine,
University of Illinois School of Public Health, Chicago, 312-996-2297, fax
312-996-1374, or or Quentin D. Young, M.D., Chairman of the
Health and Medicine Policy Research Group, Chicago, 312-922-8057, or email //
/Web site:
For Full Text Visit:
Study Shows How Nonprofits and Corporations Can Collaborate
to Improve Environmental Management
CHAPEL HILL, NC, Jun. 12 -/E-Wire/-- A new breed of nonprofit and corporate
leader is trading tension and distrust for collaboration to improve corporate
environmental practices in significant and lasting ways.
/CONTACT: Dennis A. Rondinelli,
/Web site:
For Full Text Visit:

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 144 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Jun 13, 2001 (22:26) * 52 lines 
Liam, thanks for this:

Nature Science Update is
an entertaining, informative
and accessible round-up of
what's new in the world of
science brought to you by
the Nature News Service --
the popular science
syndication arm of the
leading international
science journal Nature.
To find out about buying
news and features like this
for your website or news
paper please e-mail:

climate: Cycle lock causes quick change


The processes that produce El Niño events may
also cause abrupt shifts in global climate, according
to new research. This could explain why the thaw
after the last ice age was interrupted by a frigid
spell lasting hundreds of years1.

Amy Clement and colleagues of the
Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory in Palisades,
New York, are challenging conventional wisdom
about the reasons for the Younger Dryas event, a
return to near-ice-age conditions that took place
about 11,500 years ago. Clement's group provide a new explanation for the
sudden shifts in temperature that can occur across the globe.


 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 145 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Jun 14, 2001 (13:52) * 82 lines 

Images available at:
Potentially hazardous bacteria and fungi catch a free ride across the
Atlantic, courtesy of North African dust plumes. Government researchers who
made the discovery believe the stowaway microbes might pose a health risk
to people in the western Atlantic region.
Dale Griffin, Virginia Garrison, and Eugene Shinn of the U.S. Geological
Survey (USGS) and Jay Herman of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center outline
their findings in a paper titled "African Desert Dust in the Caribbean
Atmosphere: Microbiology and Public Health." The paper will be published
June 14 in the journal Aerobiologia.
"The National Institute of Health's National Institute of Allergy and
Infectious Diseases identifies airborne dust as the primary source of
allergic stress worldwide," stated Shinn. "The identification of microbes
in transported dust is important, as they may be a source of respiratory
stress and disease above and beyond that caused by exposure to particulate
African dust has produced red-tinged sunsets in south Florida for years.
The dust comes every year during northern Africa's dry season, when storm
activity in the Sahara Desert region generates clouds of dust. The dust,
originating from fine particles in the arid topsoil, is transported into
the atmosphere by winds and may be carried more than 10,000 feet high into
the atmosphere by easterly trade winds. Typically, it takes 5 to 7 days for
the dust clouds to cross the Atlantic Ocean and reach the Caribbean and
"The dust events are cyclical," Griffin said. "Studies by other researchers
have shown that from February to April, the winds bring an estimated
280,000 tons per event to 13 million tons per year to the Northeastern
Amazon Basin. From June to October the winds shift and typically bring dust
to North and Central America and the Caribbean."
During the peak of the dust season in July 2000, Garrison collected samples
of airborne pollutants and dust daily on the island of St. John in the
Virgin Islands and sent them to the USGS laboratory in St. Petersburg,
Fla., for microbial analysis by Griffin. He compared his results with
satellite observations tracking dust clouds from North Africa. The air
samples with high levels of microbes were collected on the days that NASA's
Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer satellite instrument observed the African
dust sweeping into the region, indicating that the microbes had been
transported from Africa.
"In the week it takes for North African dust to cross the Atlantic some of
the microbes die because of exposure to ultraviolet (UV) rays of the Sun,"
said Griffin. "However, microbes in the cracks and crevasses of dust
particles may be shielded from UV. We also believe that the upper altitudes
of the dust clouds deflect harmful UV rays, shielding microbes at lower
altitudes as they are transported across the Atlantic Ocean. Additionally,
when dust clouds move over open water in lower latitudes, the moderate
temperatures and high humidity are known to enhance microbial survival."
Florida receives more than 50 percent of all microbe-laden African dust
that reaches the United States. Over the last 25 years, dust quantities
reaching Miami have increased during periods of African drought. "The U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency says these tiny dust particles can
penetrate deep into your airways and react with lung tissue," Herman said.
"During major dust episodes reaching Florida, there could be a correlation
with increased respiratory problems."
In addition to the dust itself, even small concentrations of fungal spores
can trigger allergic reactions. A study by M.E. Howitt of the Queen
Elizabeth Hospital in Barbados documented a 17-fold increase in asthma
attacks in Barbados between 1973 and 1996, corresponding with the increase
in African dust transport to the region.
Fungi and bacteria that survive the trans-Atlantic journey in dust include
bacterial or fungal cultures that do not produce disease, as well as
species that do produce disease in both humans and plants. The fungus,
Aspergillus sydowii, which has been isolated in African dust, has been
determined to cause Sea Fan disease in coral reefs throughout the
The USGS serves the nation by providing impartial scientific information to
describe and understand the Earth, its resources and processes; minimize
loss of life and property from natural disasters, manage water, biological,
energy, and mineral resources; and enhance and protect our quality of life.
This press release and in-depth information about USGS programs may be
found on the USGS home page: To receive the latest
USGS news releases automatically by email, send a request to Specify the listserver(s) of interest from
the following names: water-pr: geologic-hazards-pr; biological-pr;
mapping-pr; products-pr; lecture-pr. In the body of the message write:
subscribe (name of listserver) (your name). Example: subscribe water-pr joe

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 146 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Jun 14, 2001 (17:40) * 14 lines 
more semsibility this time from Liam...

'The Greens are hurting the poor in Third World'

Skeptical environmentalist, Dr Bjørn Lomborg believes ecological groups
are misleading us iwith their doomesday predictions. Roger Highfield reports

What's the future for planet Earth?

GREEN activists may do more harm than good in the
developing world by focusing on "phantom problems" at
the expense of real ones, according to a forthcoming

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 147 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Jun 15, 2001 (18:51) * 36 lines 
Hugs, Liam...again!

Global Warming Natural, May End Within 20 Years, Says Ohio State University Researcher

COLUMBUS, Ohio -- Global warming is a natural geological process that
could begin to reverse itself within 10 to 20 years, predicts an Ohio State
University researcher.
The researcher suggests that atmospheric carbon dioxide -- often thought of
as a key "greenhouse gas" -- is not the cause of global warming. The opposite
is most likely to be true, according to Robert Essenhigh, E.G. Bailey Professor
of Energy Conservation in Ohio State's Department of Mechanical
Engineering. It is the rising global temperatures that are naturally increasing the
levels of carbon dioxide, not the other way around, he says.
Essenhigh explains his position in a "viewpoint" article in the current issue of
the journal Chemical Innovation, published by the American Chemical
Many people blame global warming on carbon dioxide sent into the
atmosphere from burning fossil fuels in man-made devices such as automobiles
and power plants. Essenhigh believes these people fail to account for the much
greater amount of carbon dioxide that enters -- and leaves -- the atmosphere
as part of the natural cycle of water exchange from, and back into, the sea and
"Many scientists who have tried to mathematically determine the relationship
between carbon dioxide and global temperature would appear to have vastly
underestimated the significance of water in the atmosphere as a
radiation-absorbing gas," Essenhigh argues. "If you ignore the water, you're
going to get the wrong answer."
How could so many scientists miss out on this critical bit of information, as
Essenhigh believes? He said a National Academy of Sciences report on
carbon dioxide levels that was published in 1977 omitted information about
water as a gas and identified it only as vapor, which means condensed water
or cloud, which is at a much lower concentration in the atmosphere; and most
subsequent investigations into this area evidently have built upon the pattern of
that report.


 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 148 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Jun 20, 2001 (16:57) * 82 lines 
Research turns rubbish into riches

What you put in your bin isn't rubbish, it is a source
of sugar, fertiliser, energy and more, according to a
researcher at NUI Galway, who explained her work
to Dick Ahlstrom
Discarded newspapers, disposable nappies and old cotton
T-shirts might be rubbish to you but to Dr Marie Tuohy they
represent valuable raw materials. All can be converted into
sugars which can be used in dozens of ways, from energy
production to drugs manufacture.
Dr Tuohy works in the Department of Biochemistry at NUI
Galway and in the university's Environmental Change Institute.
She also heads the Molecular and Glyco Biotechnology
Research Group which involves 14 graduate students and two
post doctorates.
Her research focuses on turning trash into resources by finding
ways of reducing all types of waste but particularly by turning
paper and other cellulose-based substances into sugars. The
key to this work lies with a number of enzymes, found in a
fungus, that enable this complex breakdown. "We are focusing
on carbohydrate-modifying enzymes from fungal sources and
are interested in cloning the genes and characterising the
enzymes," she explained. "We then want to find applications for
Paper waste is a particular problem around the world. Once
dumped into landfill it degrades very slowly and the bacteria
that reduce it tend to emit methane, a powerful greenhouse gas.
"What we want to do is look at the other angle; we can take
this waste and use enzymes to reduce it."
Breaking down paper and cellulose materials, including plant
waste, using enzymes would have a number of advantages, she
explained. "In practical terms it could save 70 to 75 per cent of
the landfill space."
Methane production would be reduced but the single greatest
advantage is that when these enzymes are used, the cellulose
breaks down into "waste" that can be taken off and used as a
valuable raw material.
A number of sugar forms come off in a liquid syrup that is easily
recovered. Much of the remaining residue is lignan, a tar-like
substance. It is a polyphenotic compound used by the plant as
a form of protection, but it can be burned as fuel or broken
down further by methane forming bacteria.
"This is where the economic benefits of waste kick in," she
said. "The sugar syrups can be subsequently fermented to
bioethanol, green motor fuel, and other chemical feedstocks by
yeast and fungi, while the lignan-rich residues represent an
important source of thermal energy and agricultural fertilisers."
Bio-ethanol is simply alcohol, produced by straightforward
fermentation and distillation. All that is needed is a cheap
source of sugars and the resultant alcohol can be added to
petrol for motor fuel. The sugars could also be used in drug
manufacture when used as a feedstock for yeasts in
fermentation or to feed bacteria or fungi in a reactor.
The fungus involved in the work actually produces a collection
of 15 to 20 enzymes important to the breakdown process, Dr
Tuohy said. "We found it on a compost heap. We knew if it
was living in the heap it was breaking down the compounds."
The research team isolated and purified the enzymes and
characterised a number of them. Their actions were studied as
individual proteins but also as collections in various groups. The
enzymes alone can reduce the paper faster than the natural
fungus, she said.
"To make the process more valuable we have cloned the gene
for some of the key enzymes." The team mixed and matched
the various enzymes as a way to achieve particular types of
waste breakdown. For example they can be used for total
cellulose reduction or waste newsprint can be de-inked while
retaining the cellulose fibres in paper recycling.
The team is also looking at other uses for the enzymes in textile
manufacture and processing, in functional foodstuffs and novel
food processing technologies.
Dr Tuohy believes that between two-thirds and three-quarters
of the paper volume could be recovered as sugars and much of
the remainder as lignans, leaving very little residue for landfill
other than ash. Bandages, fabrics and other cellulose-containing
wastes could be sterilised by heating while at the same time
being reduced by heat-resistant fungal enzymes. This process
would greatly reduce landfill and eliminating the risk of infection
from this material.
From Liam, of course!!!

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 149 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Jun 25, 2001 (16:00) * 19 lines 
From Liam, from whom floweth many interesting things *;)
Via The Telegraph

Dolphin sighted in the Thames

THE rare sighting of a dolphin in central London drew crowds of people to the waterside yesterday. The creature was spotted as far up the Thames as Wapping, Tower Bridge and Blackfriars Bridge.

Christine Trimbee, of east London, said: "Seeing a dolphin rolling up and down in the water with Tower Bridge in the background was unforgettable. As it played, we could see it was some 10 feet long. Then, from time to time, it just lay there, obviously enjoying the sunshine."

Dave Godwin, an Essex fisherman, who has studied Thames wildlife, said: "Dolphins were not uncommon before the river became heavily polluted. I cannot remember when I last heard of a sighting but the fish the dolphins depend upon for food are returning to the cleaner river."

Dolphins were also spotted off the south coast. In Brighton, up to eight dolphins played offshore, attracted north of their usual waters by the hot weather. London and the South East, the warmest region, sweltered in an airless 82F (27C), and weathermen predict hotter temperatures today.

The sun brought crowds to seaside resorts, parks and inland attractions. A free open-air pop concert in Preston Park, Brighton, featuring Hear'say, Steps and Catatonia among others, proved too much for some of the 20,000 crowd who were treated by St John Ambulance personnel for heat stroke.

In Windsor, Berks, firemen were called to Legoland to hose down propane cylinders, and at Drusillas Zoo in East Sussex, staff gave penguins showers. On the M3 and M27 in Hampshire, police reported a "huge number" of breakdowns as cars overheated.

The Meteorological Office warned of unsettled conditions with outbreaks of rain and thunder in northern parts tomorrow. A spokesman said: "Southern parts should escape until later in the day. Wednesday will become much cooler across the country."

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 150 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Jun 25, 2001 (17:13) * 42 lines 
From Liam

Saving planet Earth

A satellite network that gave advanced warning of
catastrophes such as hurricanes and oil spills would save
countless lives. Yet governments are letting a golden
opportunity to set up such a network slip away, says a leading
space scientist.
The proposed network could provide round-the-clock
monitoring of the entire planet for the first time. It would raise
the alarm at the first sign of a disaster and would give relief
workers invaluable data as events progressed, says Richard
Holdaway, director of the Space Science Division at the
Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in Oxfordshire.
"Too many parts of the world
are not monitored," agrees
Philippe Boulle, former head of
the UN's International Decade
for Natural Disaster
Reduction. "It is a terrible
tragedy that nobody is doing
something about it."
Using imaging technology
such as infrared and optical
cameras and
synthetic-aperture radar, the
network could spot a wide range of disasters, from volcanic
eruptions, earthquakes and oil spills to forest fires, landslides,
industrial pollution, algal blooms, hurricanes and tsunamis.
To provide 24-hour global coverage, at least 180 satellites are
needed, says Holdaway, who was asked to carry out a
feasibility study by Britain's Office of Science and Technology
(OST). Existing satellites can't provide such coverage, he says
(see p 3).
Launching so many satellites would be prohibitively expensive.
But the instruments could be piggybacked on other satellites.
As luck would have it, Teledesic, a company based in Bellevue,
Washington, is planning to put 288 telecommunications
satellites into low circular polar orbits.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 151 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Jun 26, 2001 (17:03) * 47 lines 
This subject was my secondary school senior thesis - actually I included many traditions from the middle ages which continued into the 20th Century.

Swan Upping

Swan Upping is the annual census of the swan population on
certain stretches of the River Thames from Sunbury Lock to
Abingdon Bridge, which takes place during the third week of
July each year. Swan Upping is organised by The Queen's Swan
Marker who has the responsibility of looking after The Queen's
swans all year round.
Swan Upping dates from the twelfth century. In medieval times,
the Crown claimed ownership of all mute swans (as a means of
protecting the swan population, which was then regarded as a
freely available luxury food source), although other people could
own the birds with the permission of the Sovereign. Today, the
Crown retains the right to ownership of all unmarked mute
swans in open water, but The Queen exercises her ownership
only on certain stretches of the River Thames and its
surrounding tributaries. This ownership is shared with the
Vintners' and Dyers' Livery Companies, which were both
granted rights of ownership by the Crown in the fifteenth
century. (The swans are counted, but no longer eaten.)
The Queen's Swan Marker and Swan Uppers, accompanied by
the Swan Uppers of the Vintners' and Dyers' Livery Companies
use six traditional Thames rowing skiffs in their five-day
journey upstream as far as Abingdon. By tradition, a scarlet
jacket with a of office on the arm is worn by The Queen's Swan
Marker, whilst the Swan Markers of Livery Companies also
wear traditional jackets and their teams of Swan Uppers wear
different colours to distinguish between them. Each boat flies
the appropriate flags and pennants: The Queen's boats have a
white flag depicting the royal crown and the royal cypher. The
first person to see a swan brood shouts 'all up' - the traditional
call warning all the boats to get into position to catch the swans
- hence the name Swan Upping.

The cygnets are weighed and measured to obtain estimates of
growth rates and the birds are examined for any sign of injury
(commonly caused by fishing hooks and line). The cygnets are
ringed with individual identification numbers by The Queen's
Swan Warden, whose role is scientific and non-ceremonial. The
swans are then set free again. The Queen's Swan Marker
produces a report at the completion of Swan Upping each year,
which provides data on the number of swans accounted for,
including broods and cygnets.


 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 152 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Jun 26, 2001 (17:04) * 1 lines 
don't DO that Marcia!

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 153 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Jun 26, 2001 (22:50) * 22 lines 

Scientists Monitor Global Air Pollution From Space

EPA Offers Flexibility in Meeting Smog Standards

Engineers Develop Technology to Reduce Industry Emissions

Fish Consumption Advisories On the Rise

PCBs Impact Hudson River Fishing

Whitman Signs Proposal to Improve Visibility in National Parks

Journalist Stossel Criticized for a Second Environmental Story

Irrigation Upgrades Benefit Farmers, Fish

McPherson Valley Gains Protected Wetlands

For full text and graphics visit:

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 154 of 312: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Mon, Jul  2, 2001 (18:10) * 1 lines 
Marcia, maybe it's just the computer I'm using, but what happened to the marble background here at Geo?

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 155 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Jul  4, 2001 (17:59) * 1 lines 
Oh Cheryl I noticed you were posting when Wolfie and I were trying to restore my original buttons and horizontal divider bars. Every time we tried to correct the problem it would get worse and everything disappeated. So I am back to here until I can get Terry to fix the problem. I DID manage to get my logo back, though!

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 156 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Jul  4, 2001 (21:25) * 11 lines 
From Liam the unfailingly eagle-eyed when it comes to goodies for Geo:

More than 15 years after the discovery of an ozone hole in the stratrosphere over the Antarctic, the remote continent is yielding another atmospheric surprise.

A team of researchers led by the Georgia Institute of Technology has found a surprisingly high level of an air-purifying chemical (or oxidizing agent) in the near-surface atmosphere over the South Pole. The finding has implications for interpreting historical global climate records stored in Antarctic ice cores.

The summertime 24-hour average value of the primary atmospheric oxidant -- known as the hydroxyl (OH) radical -- at the South Pole is higher than that estimated from OH measurements recorded at the equator. The researchers will report their findings this fall in the journal Geophysical Research Letters.

The OH radical is widely recognized as vital to scrubbing pollution and naturally occurring chemicals from the air throughout the globe; it prevents a buildup of toxic levels of these substances.

more... (plus other fascinating stuff there as well)

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 157 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Jul  4, 2001 (21:29) * 20 lines 
Another hug for Liam and his offerings.

Water Vapour

If the Sun got hotter, would we care? Probably not, according to Hsien-Wang Ou of the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory in Palisades, New York. Water, he suggests, minimizes the climatic effects of a cooler or warmer sun.

The Sun has got about 30 percent hotter since the world began. Four billion years ago it was a younger star, and burned less brightly. Geological imprints of global temperatures at that time indicate that our planet was then warm enough to support liquid water. Global average temperatures seem not to have varied much in either direction since then.

Somehow the planet has stayed indifferent to the Sun's changes.

Some explain this so-called 'faint young sun paradox' by assuming that the early atmosphere contained more greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, which trapped a greater proportion of solar heat. Ou thinks that such considerations may not be necessary.

Water alone is enough to buffer the global temperature against reduced or increased solar heating, he says. Water establishes lower and upper boundaries on how far the temperature can drift from today's.

Water vapour is, in fact, the most important greenhouse gas, although unlike carbon dioxide it is not produced directly in large amounts by human activity. Most water vapour in the atmosphere is the result of evaporation from the oceans. As long as the oceans do not freeze, says Ou, there will always be plenty of water vapour in the air, mitigating the effect of a dimmer Sun.


 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 158 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Jul  5, 2001 (14:29) * 27 lines 
Another problem noted, thanks to Liam, my roving reporter extraordinaire

Row erupts over chemical use

By Declan Fahy
A row over the possible health effects of a pesticide used in
Irish forests has broken out between Coillte and the Green
The party yesterday criticised the forestry company Coillte for
its use of the pesticide Permaset, saying it was based on a
chemical that could potentially cause cancer.
But Coillte maintains the chemical, permethrin, is not a potential
carcinogen. "According to a database compiled by the
International Pesticide Action Network, permethrin is a
possible carcinogen, a suspected endocrine disrupter (i.e.
disrupting the hormonal systems) and is highly toxic in the
aquatic environment," said the Green MEP, Ms Patricia
She claims permethrin was banned by the EU in 2000.
However, Coillte said it was not a banned substance for use in
The company said the State presented a review of the data on
permethrin to the EU in 1998, in which no evidence of
carcinogenicity was found.


 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 159 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Jul  6, 2001 (20:50) * 20 lines 
Will they ever agree on this? From Liam,of course!


LIVERMORE, Calif.--Researchers at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory who examined effects of gaps in temperature measurements during the 20th century have concluded that global warming during that time period may have been slightly larger than the previously estimated value of roughly 0.6 degrees Celsius. These findings contrast with claims by greenhouse skeptics who contend that the warming seen in the observational record is an error introduced by incomplete and changing geographical coverage of temperature measurements.

The measured increase in the Earth's surface temperature during the 20th century is based upon thermometer measurements, which become increasingly incomplete further back in time. For example, at the beginning of the 20th century, thermometer measurements covered only 20 percent of the Earth's surface, compared to more than 87 percent in 1987. Some greenhouse-warming dissenters have claimed that the gradual increase in coverage during the 20th century introduced an artificial warming trend into the temperature record, which accounts for most or all of the 20th century's measured warming.

In an article titled "Effect of Mission Data on Estimates of Near-Surface Temperature Change Since 1900," in the July 1 edition of the Journal of Climate, LLNL researchers Philip B. Duffy, Charles Doutriaux, Imola Fodor and Benjamin Santer studied effects of the incompleteness of surface thermometer records on the estimated 20th century warming by examining 16 climate model simulations of the surface temperature changes from 1899 to 1998.

The scientists compared temperature trends obtained from globally complete model output with temperature trends derived by sampling the model output at only those locations where temperature observations are actually available. The comparison enabled the researchers to assess the effect of missing observational data on the apparent temperature trend during the 20th century.

"We found no evidence to support the hypothesis that incomplete observational data has caused us to overestimate the true warming trend," said Duffy, lead author of the paper. "On the contrary, our results suggest that the actual warming during the 20th century may have been slightly larger than the warming estimated from the incomplete observational data of about 0.7 degrees Celsius instead of 0.6 degrees Celsius."

Livermore scientists examined climate models that incorporated estimated historical changes in both greenhouse gases and anthropogenic sulfate aerosols. Scientists concluded that in 10 of the 16 climate change simulations, missing data led to significant underestimates of the true global warming trend. In the remaining six simulations, missing data had no significant impact on the 20th century's warming trend.

If the climate simulations are credible estimates of human effects on historical climate and of natural climate variations, it is extremely unlikely that missing observational data caused the 20th century's warming to be overestimated.

"I hope that we've laid to rest the theory that warming that occurred during the 20th century is an artifact of missing data," Duffy said. "Knowing the accurate amount of the 20th century's warming is important because if it were much less than we've thought all along, we would have to fundamentally rethink our ideas about global warming."

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 160 of 312: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Sat, Jul  7, 2001 (15:17) * 1 lines 
I think that Global Warming is very real and that human technology has had an impact on it. However, that's just my point of view.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 161 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Jul  8, 2001 (00:08) * 14 lines 
Arctic Oscillation has moderated northern winters of 1980s and '90s

The Arctic Oscillation has been linked to wide-ranging climate effects in the Northern Hemisphere, but new evidence shows that in recent decades it has been the key in preventing freezing temperatures from extending as far south as they had previously.

"Public perceptions that winters are becoming less wintry appear to be as much or more due to the change in the Arctic Oscillation as to global
warming," said David Thompson, an assistant atmospheric science professor at Colorado State University.

The Arctic Oscillation – also referred to as the North Atlantic Oscillation or the annular mode – is a climate pattern defined by winds circulating
counterclockwise around the Arctic at about 55 degrees north latitude (about even with Moscow; Belfast, Northern Ireland; and Ketchikan, Alaska). Its effects on weather patterns appear to be as far-reaching as those triggered by El Niño in the South Pacific.

More with diagrams ...

From Liam, of course! Thanks, dear!

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 162 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Jul  8, 2001 (00:30) * 1 lines 
Beats me, Cheryl. I think we are going to have to know a great deal more before we begin to understand the nature of the world we inhabit. It is pretty clear we have not been good custodians thus far...

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 163 of 312: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Sun, Jul  8, 2001 (14:43) * 1 lines 
I think you're right in that, Marcia. We haven't been very good custodians and there is so much more we have to learn about the Earth and its complex workings.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 164 of 312: horrible horace  (horrible) * Sun, Jul  8, 2001 (16:32) * 2 lines 
And we haven't been as bad as we are made out to be either,Cheryl.I have been a goodie-goodie as regards the envirnoment for years,before most of the holy people who lecture us were even born,anf mother nature has more up her sleeve than you can think of.There are more pollutants spewed out by volcanoes than man has ever made in some instances.Marcia should have all the facts and figures on file but one example i always refer to is mercury,of which the Icelandic volcanoes have a fondness for.Those who would have us give up our automobiles should consider the difficulty people like myself would have in just doing our daily chores,I HAVE to drive 80 miles per day,and I can assure you that the amount of pollution I generate is very little in the order of things.Global warming is a natural variation and mans input is grossly exagerated by some factions for some obscure reasons.The sun for one thing is getting hotter,is that my fault? Carbon levels are rising along with Methane so should we stop breathing and pa
sing wind(which I know that Ladies definitly dont do)so its down to us boys :) The sheer size of the human race is now breathing out carbon dioxide at huge tonnages but not at disasterous levels in spite of the doom mongers .More later

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 165 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Jul  9, 2001 (01:00) * 1 lines 
It's the cows, Liam!! They do more belching of methane than all of humankind put together. Our volcano alone puts out more than Los Angeles does in a year we do in a day. I will get the statistics for you - it is late and my fingers are reluctant to type anymore. My brain went offline some hours ago!

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 166 of 312: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Mon, Jul  9, 2001 (19:12) * 1 lines 
There's some talk of using cow manure to manufacture electricity in California. Actually I think it has something to do with the methane trapped in the cow manure. The remaining "waste" from the process would be sold as high-grade fertilizer. That's the theory, anyway.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 167 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Jul 10, 2001 (16:16) * 27 lines 
From Liam - who should get some sort of honorarium for his continuing wealth of information:

Fish farms turn salmon into fatty food

Jonathan Leake, Science Editor

FARMED salmon - widely marketed as among the leanest and healthiest of fish - have been shown to be fattier than wild fish. Some have 20% fat, more than four times the amount in their natural, wild counterparts.

Such fat levels are similar to those in bacon and suggest that some farmed salmon should be eaten sparingly by anyone trying to control their weight.

The fats could also be contributing to increasing toxins in farmed salmon. Plump salmon from fish farms have been shown to accumulate higher levels of dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides because such poisons build up in fat far better than in muscle.

Researchers at Surrey University have traced the problems to the high-fat feedstuffs used by farmers to make their fish grow faster.

Miriam Jacobs, a nutritionist, said fish-feeds containing up to 36% fat or oil were now common. "You can see the ribbons of fat on farmed fish," she said.

Feed production techniques depend upon so-called industrial fishing where oily fish species such as capelin or sand eels are caught in their thousands of tons to be turned into fish-food. Oil is squeezed from the fish and concentrated in the feed to maximise its fat content.

Jacobs's work, due to be released shortly, shows that the process does not just raise the fat content, it is also highly effective at concentrating PCBs, dioxins and pesticides.

"When farmed salmon are continuously given such feeds they build up even higher levels of toxins than the fish they are eating," she said. "Some scientists fear that children exposed to low levels of toxins may suffer reduced cognitive function or lowered resistance to infection, while adults may suffer decreased fertility."

Until recently the Scottish salmon farming industry had been regarded as one of the country's success stories, contributing £150m to Scottish food exports. The industry employs about 6,500 people, often in remote areas where jobs are hard to find.

Recently, however, the increasingly industrialised nature of salmon farming has led to environmental and health fears.


 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 168 of 312: horrible horace  (horrible) * Tue, Jul 10, 2001 (16:41) * 1 lines 
Cheryl,I hate to sound rude but the methane thing is old news here in Europe where we ahve had high oil prices since forever.Digester plants (for that is what they are) have been used to ferment pig manure,much better than cattle,and the output from 3 pigs can provide the energy needs of one family for 1 day.If the great American people would stop wasting energy,them new sources would not be such a pressing need as it seems to be now.Over here we are amused at the high temperatures that visiting Americans demand in hotels,usually 10 to 15 degreesF more than is needed or indeed healthy.And the airconditioning requirements are equally astounding to us,why on earth do you want to freeze your asses off in moderate Irish weather? I remember in Corpus Christi in Teaxas some years back where the heat would boil your brain going into bar which was so cold that my teeth balance or sense of proportion

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 169 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Jul 10, 2001 (18:33) * 1 lines 
Yup, Liam. I agree with you. I have neither air conditioning nor heating in my home. I dislike having to take a sweater with me to keep from freezing while I am dining out. The greatest offense to my senses came from Southern California who wash their cars in fossil water from three states away and open doors so the walkways can be cool for the strolling shoppers. They also leave the lights on all night (but that may have changed by now.) Hawaii is now new to manure to methane production. Much of the south-eastern part of this island is off the power grid and they generate their own power either by wind generation or their own methane production (swine and human waste.) Sooner or later we will all have to moderate our "needs" - we have been willfully spoiled children for far too long!

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 170 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Jul 10, 2001 (18:35) * 42 lines 
More from the inestimable Liam:

Shetland birds starving to death
By Charles Clover, Environment Editor
(Filed: 10/07/2001)

YOUNG seabirds are starving to death in the
Shetland Islands - some of Britain's largest colonies
- because their parents cannot find enough food.

Kittiwakes and arctic terns are worst hit by the
shortage, which also occurred for a seven-year
period in the 1980s and early 1990s.

Other birds, including puffins, are also having
difficulty finding enough sand eels, the principal
source of food for the smaller seabirds.

Conservationists believe fishing for sand eels is not
to blame, because it has been controlled since the

Martin Heubeck, who works for Aberdeen University
and has been studying Shetland's kittiwake
population for the past 20 years, estimated that 80
per cent of this year's chicks had not survived.

He said: "It's early days yet, because there are no
chicks within three weeks of fledging. We could still
see a total collapse."

About one quarter of the chicks would have to
survive if current numbers were to be sustained, he

Pete Ellis, Shetland's RSPB officer, said arctic terns
were facing an equally difficult year: "Last year
wasn't good, but it was a lot better than what we're
seeing so far this year. It's going to be a very poor


 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 171 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Jul 10, 2001 (18:35) * 1 lines 

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 172 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Jul 10, 2001 (18:37) * 2 lines 
ok I did the command the first time and this time and it is not responding.
Are you playing with my display again? *grin*

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 173 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Jul 10, 2001 (20:58) * 23 lines 
We have wind farms on this island. They have them on Oahu. California is full of them. But Not In My Back Yard seems to be a big problem

Planned wind farm causes storm
By Cian McCormack

A proposed wind farm, which would power 8,000 homes on
the borders of north Tipperary and Limerick, is causing a storm
between locals and developers.

Ventus Energy Ltd plans to develop the six-turbine wind farm
at Curraghafoil, Knockastanna, in east Limerick. Locals say it
could have a detrimental impact on their environment and

Those opposed to the development plan to meet next week to
form a community action group. Mr Nigel Barnes, the meeting
organiser, is preparing to lodge an objection with Limerick
County Council against the wind farm. "I have had a number of
phone-calls in relation to this. There are petitions being signed,
and we are holding a public meeting in a local community hall in
Rearcross," he said.


 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 174 of 312: horrible horace  (horrible) * Wed, Jul 11, 2001 (15:44) * 1 lines 
Darned wind farms...ever been near one? There is a low pitched hum guaranteed to drive you nuts if you live anywhere near one.They are not to be confued with the pictureskew [ :*)] dutch windmills of the past,these things are industrial babies,designed to make money for investors who i can assure you live nowhere near the site of the machines.Mills for personal use are small inoffensive things and should be encouraged but beware the commercial interest in conservation,be very very aware.Liam

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 175 of 312: horrible horace  (horrible) * Wed, Jul 11, 2001 (15:56) * 1 lines 
When you recycle waste think..why do the holy people send you 3 or 4 bins to segregate your waste into..and why are these bins made of plastic? not wood from a renewable source but plain ol'oil based plastic.I wonder at the motives and sanity of the holy people sometimes.Then other times I dont wonder as having worked in all sorts of places I know that the world is full of holy people who know whats good for me.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 176 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Jul 11, 2001 (19:41) * 7 lines 
Here, Horrible Horace, are the windmill farms on the Tehapi ridges in California.

© David Little, 2001

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 177 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Jul 12, 2001 (00:00) * 76 lines 
WASHINGTON, DC, July 10, 2001 (ENS) - As the International Whaling
Commission prepares to meet in London in less than two weeks, a new report
released by World Wildlife Fund (WWF) today discloses some of the serious
threats which continue to threaten the survival of the world's whales.
For full text and graphics visit:

WASHINGTON, DC, July 10, 2001 (ENS) - The United States delegation to the
climate change negotiations in Germany later this month will be led by
Under Secretary of State for Global Affairs, Dr. Paula Dobriansky, the
State Department announced today.
For full text and graphics visit:


WASHINGTON, DC, July 10, 2001 (ENS) - The Bush administration's energy plan
would boost levels of dangerous air pollutants at a time when respiratory
diseases such as asthma are at an all time high across the nation,
environmental and public health groups charge.
For full text and graphics visit:


By Rowena Singh
VAVA'U, Tonga, July 10, 2001 (ENS) - Whale watching is a valuable legacy
that many in the Pacific hope to pass on to their children. It is a vision
shared by Felipe Tonga, educator and guide with Whales Alive! and Melinda
Sea Adventures in Vava'u, Tonga.
For full text and graphics visit:


By Alejandra Herranz
BUENOS AIRES, Argentina, July 10, 2001 (ENS) - Argentina's non-governmental
organizations have drafted an agenda to conserve Argentina's natural
heritage. The document is intended to become the Argentine national
strategy to protect the country's biodiversity.
For full text and graphics visit:


LONDON, United Kingdom, July 10, 2001 (ENS) - Despite its reputation as a
nation of animal lovers, animal cruelty is on the rise in the United
Kingdom, new research published by the Royal Society for the Prevention of
Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) shows.
For full text and graphics, visit:


Federal Fee Protesters Ticketed During Colorado Demonstration
Faulkner to Oversee DOE's Efficiency and Renewables Programs
Minnesota Orders Utilities to Use Renewable Energy
Cleaner Diesel Fuel Could Clear Mount Rainier Views
Peruvian Amazon Is Haven for Mammals
Automakers Asked to Help Get Mercury Out of Cars
Tallgrass Prairie Refuge Coming in August
Coastal Science System Could Foreshadow Nationwide Network
Arches Photo Wins Parks Pass Contest

For full text and graphics visit:
Copyright Environment News Service (ENS) 2000 All Rights Reserved.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 178 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Jul 12, 2001 (00:03) * 1 lines 
On my it has been a long day. Tehachapi it should have been spelled for that wind farm in California. Yes, I have heard them here, too. Not all that crazy about the sound, either!

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 179 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Jul 12, 2001 (14:01) * 14 lines 
More disasterous news about the climate. I am not placing my bets yet.
From Liam, of course!

Global warming 'worse than feared'
(Filed: 12/07/2001)

THE world is heating up at a much faster rate than scientists have previously predicted, according to the UN.

A report by the UN's International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) warns that global temperatures will rise by as much as 5.8C by the end of this century - almost twice the figure suggested five years ago.

Scientists predicted that such a temperature rise would cause massive crop failures which would wipe out up to a quarter of the food production in the world's poorest countries. Industrial pollution, and the gas emissions it creates, was cited as the main cause of climate change.

This latest report contradicts President Bush's questioning of the link between higher temperatures and pollution. Next week politicians from more than 150 countries will meet in Germany to try to salvage the Kyoto Protocol, which commits developed countries to reductions greenhouse gas emissions. President Bush has so far refused to back the agreement.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 180 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Jul 12, 2001 (17:06) * 62 lines 
This from Reuters to Rob wit love. Call me sentimental...

New Zealand Gets Wind of Greenhouse Gas Breakthrough
Jul 12 2001 9:29AM
WELLINGTON (Reuters) - While the world attempts to choke greenhouse
gases spewing from exhaust pipes and smokestacks, an even more
earthly battle is under way in New Zealand -- how to tame cattle and
sheep guts.
Belching and flatulent livestock are the biggest single contributor to New
Zealand's greenhouse gas emissions, accounting for 44 percent of its
temperature-raising gases, compared to less than 10 percent in most
developed countries.
Energy Minister Pete Hodgson, who will attend next week's climate talks
in Bonn aimed at salvaging the 1997 Kyoto pact, said the South Pacific
nation of four million was determined to deal with the gases emanating
from its 50 million livestock.
"We are dealing with belching actually and the really serious answer is
science," he said this week after the International Energy Agency warned
that New Zealand had to do something.
Global warming is set to hit New Zealand hard, the government said in a
new report issued on Thursday.
Temperatures are likely to rise significantly by 2100, affecting agriculture,
the environment and sea levels in a nation which derives two-thirds of its
income from the primary sector.
With that in mind, the country is keen to ratify next year the Kyoto protocol
on cutting greenhouse gas emissions, which is on the verge of
unraveling following its rejection earlier this year by the United States, the
world's biggest polluter.

Hodgson said the government hoped that by coming up with some
solution for belching and farting cattle and sheep, it would give itself more
room to tackle the harder task of cutting carbon dioxide emissions from
its cars, power stations and factories.
The minister has ruled out a "flatulence tax" to deal with New Zealand's
particular problem, and said the government would instead pump more
money into research to find a solution.
On Thursday, Hodgson announced an extra $400,000 in spending on the
government's research budget for climate change, lifting the total to about
$8 million.
At a news conference, Hodgson highlighted one breakthrough that has
already been made in the fight against methane.
After two-and-a-half years' work, micro-biologist and soil scientist Tim
Jenkins has developed a formula of live micro-organisms that kill
problem bacteria in the digestive system of cows, reducing gas output.
"Not only do they stimulate beneficial micro-organisms, improving
digestion, boosting production and the animal's condition, but the
beneficial bacteria produced in the rumen inhibit the levels of harmful
organisms, including methane-producing bacteria," Jenkins said on
A rumen is the first stomach of a ruminant -- a cloven-hoofed or
cud-chewing animal.
Wellington-based agri-business company Wrightson Ltd is working on
improving new types of seed.
"There is a lot of evidence to suggest that those grasses will produce
lower levels of greenhouse gases in the interaction of the gut," said Allan
Freeth, Wrightson's managing director.
The seeds cost up to three times that of average grass seed. But Freeth
said the seeds were one of the reasons the company's share price had
risen by 50 cents in the past 12 months to 97 cents.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 181 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Jul 12, 2001 (21:25) * 137 lines 

"We Cover the Earth For You"

NEW YORK, New York, July 11, 2001 (ENS) - Right now, on World Population
Day, the number of people on Earth is estimated at 6,169,224,890 and
climbing. In the three minutes it may take a reader to finish this article,
the world's population will have increased by 438 people, according to the
U.S. Bureau of the Census.
For full text and graphics visit:


BRUSSELS, Belgium, July 11, 2001 (ENS) - American firms operating in Europe
have rejected a key element of European Commission proposals for an
integrated product policy. In a new position paper, the EU Committee of the
American Chamber of Commerce says a plan to introduce lower sales tax rates
on ecolabelled products is "backward looking and innovation stifling."
For full text and graphics visit:


AMSTERDAM, The Netherlands, July 11, 2001 (ENS) - Over the past 300 years,
humans have dramatically transformed the land surface of the Earth,
changing vegetation, reshaping hills and valleys, and altering the course
of rivers. In doing so, humans have set in motion a scenario of global
environmental change with impacts that promise to be at least as severe as
global climate change, scientists reported today at a meeting in Amsterdam.
For full text and graphics visit:


SANTA CRUZ, Galapagos Islands, Ecuador, July 11, 2001 (ENS) - Ecuador's
Minister of the Environment, Lourdes Luque de Jaramillo, is preparing the
country for the likely declaration of the Galapagos Marine Reserve as a
UNESCO World Heritage Site. This wider ocean area surrounds the 19
Galapagos Islands which were listed as a World Heritage Site in 1978.
For full text and graphics visit:


MEXICO CITY, Mexico, July 11, 2001 (ENS) - Many developing countries might
reap great benefits from genetically modified foods, crops and other
organisms, concludes the Human Development Report 2001, commissioned by the
United Nations Development Program and released Tuesday. These crops could
significantly reduce malnutrition and help poor farmers working marginal
lands, the report says.

For full text and graphics visit:

Jeffords Assumes Chair of Senate Environment Committee
Hog Factory Farms Settle Water Pollution Suits
Interior Department Promotes Energy Development on Public Lands
$3.4 Million Program Targets Estuary Restoration
Greenpeace: Dry Cleaning Chemical Linked to Deaths
U.S., France Cooperate on Nuclear Power Research
Groups Ask Judge To Prevent Buffalo Slaughter
National Park Service Report Details Important Trends
Petition Seeks Endangered Listing for Green Sturgeon
Manatee Coalition Rejects Federal Delays in Creating Sanctuaries
For full text and graphics visit:

Copyright Environment News Service (ENS) 2000 All Rights Reserved.

E-Wire is a paid press release distribution service.
Responsibility for the factual accuracy of each press release rests
entirely with the individuals or organizations identified on the release.

YSI & SonTek Announce Acquisition of San Diego-Based SonTek by YSI
to Complement its Environmental Business
YELLOW SPRINGS, OH, Jul. 11 -/E-Wire/PRNewswire/-- YSI Incorporated
of Yellow Springs, Ohio and SonTek, Inc. of San Diego, California, announced
today that YSI acquired the assets of SonTek and formed a new company that
will operate as a wholly-owned subsidiary of YSI Incorporated on July 9, 2001.
SonTek/YSI will complement the existing YSI water testing and monitoring
product line.
/CONTACT: Rosalie Catalano of YSI Incorporated, 937-767-7241, ext. 405,
/Web site:
For Full Text Visit:


Interior Dept, US Fish & Wildlife Service Failing to Implement
Manatee Settlement; August 3 Deadline Set

Manatee Coalition Serves Notice To Interior Department,
Norton: No More Delays, Protect Manatees Now
WASHINGTON, D.C., Jul. 11 -/E-Wire/-- A coalition of 18 environmental,
animal welfare, and public interest groups served notice that it will brook
no more delays when it comes to protecting Florida's endangered manatees.
/CONTACT: Eric Glitzenstein/Meyer & Glitzenstein: (202) 588-5206;
Patti Thompson/Save the Manatee Club: (407) 539-0990; Howard White/Humane
Society of the U.S.: (301) 258-3072/
/Web site: http:// /
For Full Text Visit:


Call for Participants: The Grassroots Climate Education Project
LAKE OSWEGO, OR, Jul. 11 -/E-Wire/-- KEYNOTE SPEAKER: Honorable
Claudine Schneider, Former member of the US House of Representatives (R-RI),
and author, in 1988, of the first global warming legislation to be
considered by the U.S. government.
/CONTACT: Matthew Follett, Program Director, The Green House Network,
PMB 154, 16869 SW 65th Ave, Lake Oswego, OR 97035,,
/Web site: /
For Full Text Visit:

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 182 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Jul 12, 2001 (21:29) * 18 lines 
Rob, I see that not only is New Zealand building on geo-hazards, they are paving over their own paradise - just as Honolulu has done:

Managing Change in Paradise: Sustainable Development in Peri-urban Areas
Parliamentary Commissioner for the Environment - 2001-07-12

Dr Williams latest report, ‘Managing Change in Paradise:
Sustainable Development in Peri-urban areas’ looks at a number
of case studies where development pressure threatens the 'sense of
place' that attracted people there in the first place. The report
reveals that both nationally important landscapes, such as those
around Queenstown, as well as regionally significant areas, such as
the Waitakere Ranges near Auckland and the Pauahatanui Inlet north of
Wellington, face an uncertain future.

For more information, please refer to:

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 183 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Jul 12, 2001 (21:34) * 26 lines 
From Liam, a little good news:

Bugs make a meal of benzene
New found bacteria could remove benzene from the environment.
28 June 2001
Two newly isolated strains of bacteria could plug a gap in the environmental clean-up kit. The bacteria digest benzene, a carcinogenic pollutant. Because they don't need oxygen to survive, these bugs could be put to work in previously
untreatable air-free soils and sediments1. Benzene is used as a solvent in many chemical manufacturing processes, such as the production of paints and waxes. It is also in vehicle exhaust fumes.
The compound is slightly
soluble in water and does not break down easily, so it poses
a significant hazard to human health.

But like other hydrocarbons, benzene looks like food to
some bacteria because it is rich in energy. So oil spills are
sometimes treated by seeding contaminated ground with
such microbes and the nutrients they need - a technique
called bioremediation. The Pseudomonas bacteria, for
example, gobble up oil and petrol in contaminated aquifers.

Pseudomonas and most other oil-eating organisms need
oxygen to stay alive - they are aerobic. But soils and
sediments stricken with hydrocarbon pollution are often cut
off from the air. So an anaerobic bacteria with Pseudomonas'
appetite would be very useful.


 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 184 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Jul 18, 2001 (15:43) * 9 lines 
From Liam the Sleuth

WITHIN a century, Europe could be in the grip of a big freeze. The Amazon basin may be desert, the Arctic devoid of ice and the Sahara covered in forests.
These dramatic possibilities were endorsed by 1800 climate scientists from 100 countries who met in Amsterdam last week. Their warning comes on the eve of new talks on the Kyoto Protocol to stem global warming, and is targeted at politicians wavering over the need to halt the accelerating greenhouse effect.
The latest findings include the first hint of a slowdown in the Atlantic currents that keep Europe warm. They warn that climate change will have previously unimagined effects. Many of the predictions of standard climate models, including those published last week by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, could turn out to be wrong, they say.
The problem is that the Earth is prone to sudden and drastic flips in climate and ecology. This means that predictions from climate models, which assume steady warming and gradual responses from the ecosystem, could be well wide of the mark. In reality, the scientists say, the Earth takes up different stable states-and can change suddenly from one to another. That will play havoc with both human life and nature.
Take the Sahara, for example. Martin Claussen of the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research in Germany says the region was covered in forest and bush around 6000 years ago, when the world was last as warm as it is now. But within a few decades it switched to desert. It could flip back to forest again during the coming century, says Claussen's colleague Victor Brovkin.


 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 185 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Jul 18, 2001 (16:57) * 112 lines 
"We Cover the Earth For You"

BONN, Germany, July 17, 2001 (ENS) - As international climate negotiations
resume this week in Bonn, the Bush administration is fighting a battle on
both the domestic and international fronts to win support for President
George W. Bush's controversial decision to abandon the Kyoto Protocol. The
administration faces growing opposition from environmental groups and
Congressional Democrats over his stance on global warming.
For full text and graphics visit:

WASHINGTON, DC, July 17, 2001 (ENS) - The key issue at this year's annual
meeting of the leaders of the Group of Eight (G-8) countries will be
developing countries and poverty reduction, President George W. Bush told
an audience at the World Bank today.
For full text and graphics visit:

FORT SMITH, Alberta, Canada, July 17, 2001 (ENS) - Parks Canada officials
are struggling to contain an outbreak of anthrax among the bison in
Alberta's Wood Buffalo National Park.
For full text and graphics visit:

WASHINGTON, DC, July 17, 2001 (ENS) - The U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency announced Monday it will suspend a rule aimed at cleaning up
contaminated waters, and launch an extensive review of the Clinton era
regulation. The announcement prompted criticism from environmental groups,
who called the action another in a long line of Bush administration
attempts to weaken enforcement of environmental laws.
For full text and graphics visit:

Cheney Touts Bush Administration Conservation Initiatives
Report Advises Bush to Boost Fuel Efficiency Standards
Army Training Center Expanding Into California Desert
NAACP Plans Lawsuit Over Lead Paint Poisoning
Earthjustice Suits Challenge Defects In Federal Toxics Program
San Joaquin Air Pollution Prompts Lawsuit
Roosevelt IV Opposes National Monument Fairness Act
Seafood Watch Heads Nationwide
Global Warming Sweeps Over Mars
Benefit Concert Raises Awareness of Arctic Refuge
For full text and graphics visit:
Copyright Environment News Service (ENS) 2000 All Rights Reserved.
Pacific Salmon to Be Restored Through Community-Led Efforts
WASHINGTON, D.C., Jul. 17 -/E-Wire/PRNewswire/-- The National Fish and Wildlife
Foundation today awarded $630,000 to the Pacific Grassroots Salmon Initiative
for 20 salmon protection and enhancement projects in California and Oregon.
The Pacific Grassroots Salmon Initiative projects protect and restore chinook
and coho salmon and steelhead stocks by restoring and/or purchasing in-stream
and riparian habitat or water rights on private lands, improving fish passage,
removing exotic vegetation, and assisting with collaborative policy efforts to
improve salmonid management by responsible agencies.
/CONTACT: Cheree Peterson of the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation,
/Web site:
For Full Text Visit:

The Climate Trust Awards Funds to Innovative Landfill Gas Project
to Offset Global Warming Pollution
PORTLAND, OR, Jul. 17 -/E-Wire/-- The Climate Trust Board of Directors
has approved a contract with Klickitat County Public Utility District No. 1
for a project which will reduce levels of global warming pollution in the
atmosphere. This contract, one of five The Trust initiated with its initial
$1 million of funding, is The Trust's first renewable energy project.
/CONTACT: Mike Burnett, (503) 238-1915,
/Web site: /
For Full Text Visit:
ZENON Appoints New Head Of Production Facility
OAKVILLE, ONTARIO, Jul. 17 -/E-Wire/-- ZENON Environmental Inc.
(TSE:ZEN) is pleased to announce that Upen Bharwada has joined the company
as Vice-President of Membrane Technology, effective immediately.
/CONTACT: ZENON Environmental Inc., Andrew Benedek, 905/465-3030;
ZENON Environmental Inc., Nazeli Seferian, 905/465-3030 ext. 3055/
/Web site: /
For Full Text Visit:

Roex's Ultimate Calcium Mineral Formula Just Got Better
IRVINE, CA, Jul. 16 -/E-Wire/-- In its never-ending quest to remain in
the top of the boutique nutritional product industry, Roex Inc. yet again
improved upon the formulation of one of its top-selling products.
/CONTACT: Chris Bolduc, 888/727-2707/
/Web site: /
For Full Text Visit:

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 186 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Jul 20, 2001 (16:04) * 16 lines 
I posted the following story on Geo 40 and got a response from both my ex and my son questioning the veracity of the information:

SACRAMENTO, California, July 16, 2001 (ENS) - Added risk of miscarriage,
childhood leukemia, brain cancer and greater incidence of suicide are some
of the health risks associated with exposure to electric and magnetic
fields such as those that radiate from power lines, according to a
California health department review.
For full text and graphics visit:


my son's response:

To date, there is still no evidence that shows a link to any health problems and EMF. Still, for me there is the aesthetic concern. I prefer to use an external antenna when using a cell phone and prefer not to live near radio transmitters or power lines. Before whining about exposure, though, one must consider the environment that yields the most exposure to EMF. That's when one sleeps under an electric blanket. No warning labels on them or protesters around e-blanket manufacturers... Maybe it's just because they aren't ugly like antennas and power lines...

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 187 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Jul 20, 2001 (16:21) * 31 lines 
Oh no.....another dire warning from Liam (aka Cassandra)

Harmful gas is destroying the beauty of Africa

Nairobi's motorists didn't know what hit them. The streets were
being clogged by a new traffic obstacle, a stream of proud
Maasai herders driving cattle before them. The spearwielding
pastoralists had come to the Kenyan capital out of sheer

The normally lush pastures of their homelands had been burned
to a crisp, and grass remained in only one place, the suburban
hedgerows and public parks of Nairobi.

"This is not a good place for us to be," one herder admitted one
sunny afternoon as his cattle chewed up a city park. "But it's all
that's left."

Drastic climate swings have devastated large swathes of Africa
in the last five years. In the Horn of Africa the torrential El Niño
rains of 1998 flooded neighbourhoods, tore up roads and
destroyed property. No sooner had the waters subsided, than
a drought set in and lasted two years, triggering famines in
Kenya, Ethiopia and Somalia in 2000. Meanwhile to the south
the problem was too much rain. Mozambique was battered by
storms that brought devastating floods in their wake.

Frustrated Africans began to wonder why God had visited such
unpredictable calamities upon them.


 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 188 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Jul 20, 2001 (16:31) * 13 lines 
and this from my Stealth source. Nothing gets by Liam!

Who will save us from destruction?

Killer plagues and asteroids used to be stuff of science fiction - not any more.
The Government is almost on guard,
reports Roger Highfield

This has such good links - please go there to see the rest of the article!

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 189 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Jul 28, 2001 (18:52) * 55 lines 
This is not just New Zealand's problem - this is going on world wide!

Banned Booty Destined for Bathroom Shelf
Department of Conservation - 2001-07-26

There’s one desk in the Palmerston North DOC office that’s
not littered with the usual assortment of New Zealand native plants.

Instead its home to treasures from other countries such as polished
turtle shells, clam and conch shells, coral, and crocodile feet.

They're all banned booty collected from Palmerston North and
Ohakea airport by customs officials. They all end up on the desk of
Tom Rouse who is in charges of Compliance and Law Enforcement under
the Government policy for CITES.

CITES stands for Convention on International Trade in Endangered
Species of Wild Flora and Fauna and is a world-wide agreement to
prevent trade in endangered, threatened or exploited species. New
Zealand has been a party to it since 1989.

Tom Rouse says (CITES) prevents travellers from taking precious items
or taonga from another country and inadvertantly aiding in their
decline. He says many people don't realise that they can’t
bring home bits of coral and shell found lying on an overseas beach
without a permit.

Some items such as clam shells, crocodile skins (including
belts, bags, watchstraps or shoes) and bits of coral may be imported
with a CITES permit, but other taonga such as ivory, tortoise or sea
turtle shells can not be imported at all, said Mr Rouse.

He says the majority of confiscated items on his desk were declared in
good faith by shoppers, unaware that they were doing anything wrong.
The favourite items appear to be conch and clam shells, and bits of
coral destined for the bathroom shelf. Many of these items were picked
up from the beach.

It pays to buy exotic goods from a reputable dealer who can
advise you on whether you need a permit or not, and this will stop any
surprises at the airport.

If you know of something you would like to bring back from a trip, it
is worthwhile checking that it is legitimate before you leave New


For further information or photo opportunity please contact:
Tom Rouse at DOC Palmerston North 06-3509700
For more information, please refer to:

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 190 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Jul 28, 2001 (19:28) * 10 lines 
Too Horrible to contemplate from H_H


A bug inside a bug inside an insect not a horror movie, but an intimate bacterial relationship, revealed for the first time by Carol von Dohlen and colleagues of Utah State University, Logan, in this week s Nature.
Aphids, whiteflies, psyllids and mealybugs use metabolic products of bacteria inside their cells to supplement a poor diet of plant sap. Squeezed into mucus-filled packets, the bacteria gain food and shelter. Such intimate endosymbiotic relationships date back to early evolutionary history.
Prising open the bacterial packets in mealybugs revealed the relationship to be a threesome, von Dohlen and her colleagues discovered the first report of such a bizarre liaison. How the hidden bacteria got there and what they get from the relationship remains to be revealed.

I think Nature needs a CARE package of apostrophes. They seem to have run out of them!

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 191 of 312: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Sun, Jul 29, 2001 (13:39) * 1 lines 
Marcia and H_H, I can think of all of those little bacteria inside of aphids whenever I hear someone complaining of having aphids on his rose bushes.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 192 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Jul 29, 2001 (15:54) * 11 lines 
Indeed so. And termites cannot digest that antique they are devouring in your house. They have bacteria in their gut to do the job for them. I wonder what the bacteria has doing it for them.

Big fleas have little fleas,
Upon their backs to bite them.
And little fleas have little fleas,
and so ad infinitum.

Dr. Hegner wrote a book during the 1930's called "Big Fleas Have Little
Fleas or Who's Who Among the Protozoa." It contains his poems, cartoons,
and accounts of some of his adventures as a field protozoologist.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 193 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Jul 29, 2001 (16:07) * 5 lines 
actually, it is
"Bigger fleas have little fleas,
Upon their backs to bite 'um.
And Little fleas have lesser fleas,
So on ad unfinitum."

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 194 of 312: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Mon, Jul 30, 2001 (17:43) * 1 lines 
Ad naseum might be like it as well. Aphids, termites, fleas...not very appetizing.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 195 of 312: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Mon, Jul 30, 2001 (17:46) * 3 lines 
Make that ad nauseum.

Okay, there are things which love to eat aphids, termites, fleas. The only one I can think of right off is that anteaters do eat termites. The might eat aphids as well, since aphids are sometimes kept by ants. This could induce nausea if you think about it too much.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 196 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Jul 30, 2001 (23:18) * 1 lines 
Ah, Praying Mantis are protected in the US for their voracious aphid appetites. Fish eat anything that lands in the water, and we have some carniverous ants who patrol around outside waiting for the termites to shed their wings. They and the gekkos keep down the termite invasions. Ants, unfortunately, spread aphids. They like to milk them for the honeydew they produce. And now we have Shrieking Frogs! See below! I have no idea what they eat.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 197 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Jul 30, 2001 (23:21) * 30 lines 
Isles’ frog infestation is an earful

HILO: Hawaii's shrieking invader frogs haven't had their coffee yet, but some are already in hot water.
Two small, closely related species from Puerto Rico with piercing nighttime calls are overrunning
the Big Island and Maui and have a toehold on Oahu and Kauai.
A state request to kill the frogs with a high-concentration solution of caffeine in water is pending
with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
In the meantime, the University of Hawaii at Hilo and the state Division of Forestry and Wildlife
have developed a new weapon against the invaders: a three-minute hot shower kills them, said
state forester Edward Brodie.
And homeowners going nuts with the noise could also ponder a Hilo elementary school girl's
solution: NoDoz in a spray bottle.
The enemy that has inspired these inventive weapons is the coqui frog, pronounced co-KEE in
imitation of its shriek. Reaching concentrations up to 10,000 per acre, with males screeching for
female company, the frogs can be deafening. They have been measured at 100 decibels, as loud
as a car horn. Unlike a blaring horn, coqui frogs go on all night.
The smaller greenhouse frog is only somewhat quieter.
While U.S. Department of Agriculture scientist Earl Campbell searched for something that would
kill the frogs, insect scientist Arnold Hara at the Beaumont Research Center in Hilo and
agricultural engineer Marcel Tsang at the University of Hawaii at Hilo were dipping cut plants in
hot water to kill other pests.
The state forestry nursery workers in Hilo, aware that their nursery had the frogs and not wanting
them to spread, asked Hara and Tsang to try hot water on them.
The tests worked. The frogs died. But it was no magic bullet.
Forester Edward Brodie spent $11,700 setting up a computer-controlled system that showers
seedlings with 115-degree water at the leisurely rate of 25 plants every three minutes.
A commercial nursery, profiting from his mistakes, might put up a similar system for two-thirds
that cost, Brodie said.


 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 198 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Aug  1, 2001 (20:11) * 29 lines 
The resident Brewmaster has found a new use for BEER!

Feeding Old Beer to Hungry Bacteria May Help Clean Up Superfund Site

Imagine: hundreds of gallons of old beer being dumped while billions of hungry bacteria just wait for some stimulating brew to fuel a chemical reaction that can contain the pollutants in Oklahoma's Tar Creek, one of the nation's most contaminated sites.
University of Tulsa chemistry professor Tom Harris made the connection between the expired beer and its potential for improving the efficiency of man-made wetlands, which a governor's task force has recommended as a way of cleaning up the hazardous wastes emanating from the old zinc and lead mines in northeast Oklahoma.
Harris and TU chemistry student Crystal Redden, a Picher native who used to play on the mine tailings, are working this summer to determine how helpful old beer might be.
Redden, a sophomore, is a student in TURC (Tulsa Undergraduate Research Challenge), a program that offers highly motivated undergraduate students challenging research, advanced coursework and one-on-one mentoring with faculty. Her work is funded by TURC and through TU's Science, Mathematics, Engineering, and Technology program, which is funded by the National Science Foundation. She attended the Oklahoma School of Science and Mathematics.
Also assisting is TU biology professor William Rosche. Another TU chemistry student, Brooke Stephenson, helped lay the groundwork for the current experiments.
"We are seeking innovative but practical ways to enhance the efficiency of engineered wetlands so that they can be made smaller," explains Harris. "While wetlands accumulate the heavy metals, they must be 'cleaned out' at the end of their useful lifetime." The soil-trapped pollutants must be removed from the ground and placed in a safe place where they no longer pose a health hazard. Thus, the smaller the wetlands, the less expensive.
When groundwater seeps into the mines, it flushes out iron, zinc, lead and cadmium. In a natural wetland, bacteria can capture such heavy metals and hold them in place in the soil. However, it appears that in a matter of months the bacteria's work rate fades and ends.
"The goal is to get the mine drainage to pass through the organic matter and trap the heavy metals," says Harris.
Key players in this clean-up system are sulfate reducing bacteria -- or SRB -- that convert sulfate ions to sulfide ions, a process that precipitates or separates the iron out of the water, trapping it in the soil. Another key microorganism is the fermenting bacteria, which consume the beer. These capsule-shaped bacteria measure about one micron. This means 1,000 bacteria placed end to end could fit in a millimeter.
The SRBs use simple organic acids, such as lactic acid, as their energy source, and they use sulfate ion for respiration, converting it to sulfide. The acids are produced by the fermenting bacteria -- which the TU research team believes are consuming the carbohydrates found in the beer. The quantity of simple organic acids is the limiting factor of SRB activity.
"We believe it is the fermenting bacteria that break down the big sugar molecules from the beer into a form that the SRBs can use," says Rosche. "One organism's waste provides the other's food."
Rosche says that when the beer is added, "it almost appears that we're giving the bacteria an appetizer." He and TU biology student Karen Gaber, a junior from Tulsa, are conducting laboratory studies to try to identify specific bacteria that make the system work.
If the approach works, one could build smaller wetlands and then stimulate them periodically with an inexpensive source of organic carbon. "Initially we were going to use molasses," says Harris. "However, we then learned that a beer distributor in Tulsa disposes of hundreds of gallons of waste beer each month, so we switched to beer."
For now, Harris is using store-bought beer, but hopes beer distributors could be persuaded to donate their stale beer if he is able to construct a small-scale version of an engineered wetland in the Tar Creek area.
Experiments have been conducted using plastic flower boxes that are 2 to 3 feet long with a depth and width of about six inches. Gravel is placed on the bottom followed by a layer of mucky organic matter -- laden with SRBs and fermenting bacteria -- from the Tar Creek area.
In one study conducted by Stephenson, simulated mine drainage was slowly pumped through the gravel and soil beds, and by adding just 24 ounces of beer once a month, approximately 60 percent of the sulfate and iron was removed over several months. By contrast, a control bed that received no beer was completely inactive after only one month of operation. These initial research findings were presented in April at the American Chemical Society meeting in San Diego.
Now, Redden is retesting the addition of beer but using different types of test beds. One box has a deep layer of soil, another has a column of gravel going down the middle of the bed, and a third has a thinner layer of soil.
Redden uses a syringe to draw some liquid from inside the soil layer, and then runs samples through an ion chromatograph -- to test for sulfate -- and an atomic emission spectrometer -- to test for heavy metals. New technology involving use of microelectrodes plugged into the soil is providing additional information on the chemistry and biology within the test beds.
Tar Creek, deemed as a Superfund site by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, covers about 40 square miles in a limestone area, including Picher, Cardin, Quapaw, Commerce and north Miami.
According to Gov. Keating's task force report, which was issued last October, underground mining began in 1891 and ended in 1970, leaving 300 miles of tunnels, 165 tons of tailings, known as chat piles, and more than 1,300 mine shafts.
Harris says pollutants may also emanate from the chat piles, either washed out by rainwater or blown off by the wind. The chat has been used for aggregate in cement and asphalt, although the Bureau of Indian Affairs has prohibited the Quapaw and Miami tribes from selling chat found on tribal lands.
When large-scale mining stopped, Harris says, the pumping of water also ceased. As the mines filled with water, the exposed sulfide minerals were exposed to oxygen and bacteria, which caused them to dissolve, creating acid mine water. The drainage began feeding into the creek in 1979 via natural springs, boreholes, and open mine shafts. The ferrous material gives Tar Creek its orange color. In addition, the mine tailings, known as chat, which contain some lead, zinc and cadmium, remain on the surface of the ground, looking like bare hills or dunes.
The EPA says it has removed topsoil from more than 1,500 homes to reduce exposure to lead, especially among children. EPA reports that lead levels of children that had been over the limit set by the federal government have gone down from 50 to 20 percent since the topsoil removal. Additional soil and turf removal is slated for approximately 600 properties.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 199 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Aug  2, 2001 (16:21) * 21 lines 
Geo-Sleuth Liam is at it again, this time on behalf of the Canadian woodlands.

As resin-loaded pine trees explode into flame hundreds of kilometres into the primal Canadian forest, high-tech firefighters are turning to the latest in satellite technology this summer to battle these ferocious blazes. Now the mopping-up operation is under way, REMSAT, an ESA-supported satellite ground station which supplies up-to-the-minute fire mapping and logistics support, is clearly a vital part of the firefighters arsenal.

160 kilometres up a muddy, one-track logging road in British Columbia, REMSAT was deployed to aid 180 fire-fighters battling two project fires - those that require a full incident management team, with logistical and administrative support, camp facilities for crews and much more. The REMSAT system is housed in a container, carried by a truck or large helicopter to within sniffing distance of a fire, deploying a 1.2 m satellite dish aerial, which has a 2 Mb receiving data rate (96 Kb transmitting rate) communicating through the ANIKE-1 geostationary satellite.

"We had no access to any type of non-satellite based telephone service," explains Steve Newton, Manager of the Lillooet Fire Zone for Canada s Kamloops Fire Centre. "FM Radio for the area also had severe limitations and had to be supplemented with local temporary repeaters set up exclusively for this project. The Sullivan Creek fire was approximately 725 hectares, caused by lightning. The Game Creek fire covered about 412 hectares and the suspected cause is from industrial activities."

"The fires were both located in extremely rugged and steep terrain, and most of the area within and around the fire perimeters was only accessible by helicopter, explains Newton. As if that wasn t enough, he continues, "the valley where the fires were situated is also used for the relocation of grizzly bears who are causing problems with humans. There were magnificent glaciers cascading out from between surrounding mountain ranges. And on a daily basis, the crews were working on slopes in excess of 100%."

"Some of the REMSAT systems equipment was damaged on the drive in but in a manner that would shock most engineers, we were able to rebuild it with a roll of duct tape. Because of the extreme topography in the area, we had some initial concerns about being able to see the satellite but they proved unfounded once on site." Newton adds.

Firefighters were quick to appreciate the value of REMSAT, he explains. "They were like children in a candy store when the IKONOS imagery arrived via the downlink to the field," comments Newton. "The Incident Management Team and other operations personnel were amazed at our ability to deliver such high quality one metre resolution imagery to the middle of nowhere. When the initial resource request came in for the REMSAT unit, we put in a request for the most recent satellite imagery of the area available on a Friday morning. IKONOS was able to task their satellite the following morning, Saturday, and by Sunday night we had the final processed product on our laptop in the field."

"Once the satellite link was established," Newton continues, "we were able to download archived satellite imagery and GIS data sets almost immediately to begin our mapping. We then took the Incident Management Team's hand drawn maps and digitized a preliminary perimeter for each fire. The next day we walked and flew the perimeters and control lines and generated some GPS data sets, which gave us a more accurate picture of what was out there. What was absolutely amazing, however, was when the one metre imagery arrived from the IKONOS people. We were able to zoom in to a level such that hand-cut control breaks less than one metre in width and the large boxes that deployed fire hose was packaged in were recognisable. When the GPS satellite land topology was overlaid on the one metre imagery, I was able to zoom in and edit the line geometries by hand so that they were exact."

The REMSAT system provided telephone and fax support functions for the Incident Management Team. Reliable communications are critical to managing any emergency incident, especially to the administrative, planning, logistical, and line operations functions. High speed internet access provided by the REMSAT system proved invaluable to the Incident Commander, as well as the Fire Behaviour Specialist because they were able to access several online weather sites containing such tools as near real-time satellite imagery, 500 millibar charts and long range forecasting models. E-mail with digital photo attachments was used to keep senior managers regularly updated on daily activities.

"Information management in forest fire and other emergency incident types will not be the same in British Columbia after this summer, says Newton. "This REMSAT system definitely filled an operational void that has existed for far too long."

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 200 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Aug  4, 2001 (16:10) * 20 lines 
The EPA finally won this round. From Liam, of course!

NWF Wins Major Court Victory Against Power Plants

On Thursday, July 26, 2001, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia
Circuit dismissed two electric utility industry lawsuits which threatened to impede
the development of national standards for the emission of mercury from power
plants. The Court granted Motions to Dismiss filed by the National Wildlife
Federation (NWF), Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC), and other
environmental groups, as well as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

"For more than 10 years, the electric utility industry has been trying to block efforts
to regulate its mercury emissions, despite mounting evidence of the public health
and ecological risk of mercury exposure and the increasing public and political
support for national controls," said NWF Senior Counsel Neil Kagan. "The U.S.
Court of Appeals' decision is welcome news that the industry cannot block EPA's
development of standards to reduce mercury emissions which will protect people
and wildlife."


 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 201 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Aug 13, 2001 (15:45) * 21 lines 
Liam has returned with goodies for newly-restored geo:

Genes Passed From Crops To Weeds
Persist For Generations

MADISON, Wisc. - Genetic traits passed from crops to their weedy relatives
can persist for at least six generations, and probably much longer, according
to an Ohio State University study conducted with radishes.

This means genetic traits that are developed in crops - such as resistance to
insect pests - can become a permanent part of the weed population, in turn
posing possible risks to crops.

These results suggest that biotech companies should steer clear of developing
transgenic radish varieties with beneficial traits that could be passed on to
weeds, said Allison Snow, a study co-author and a professor of ecology at
Ohio State University.


That means all those chicken genes in tomatoes are going to show up in ragweed?

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 202 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Aug 16, 2001 (14:01) * 19 lines 
Study Shows Perils of Importing Non-Native Species

WASHINGTON (Reuters) - Documenting the ecological perils of introducing
non-native species to control pests, researchers said on Thursday parasitic wasps
brought to Hawaii as part of sugar cane farming had become the dominant players in
a native ecosystem.

In research appearing in the journal Science, ecologists Jane Memmott and M.
Laurie Henneman of the University of Bristol in Britain sought to determine the
degree to which alien species imported as so-called biological control agents had
infiltrated a local ecosystem.

They found that parasitic wasps transplanted from Texas and China into Hawaii
more than half a century ago to prey on pests that devour sugar cane have emerged
as commanding figures in the complex food web of a boggy forest on Kauai island,
many miles (kilometers) away from where they were introduced.


 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 203 of 312: Paul Terry Walhus (terry) * Thu, Aug 16, 2001 (16:43) * 1 lines 

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 204 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Aug 16, 2001 (23:09) * 1 lines 
Looking good, Terry! Check out John epic post on Geo 9. It is stunning.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 205 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Aug 29, 2001 (14:04) * 27 lines 

New BLM Director Named

Workplace Air Pollution Can Hurt Hearts

NOAA Begins Sound Research Underwater

Energy Department Lab Develops Cleaner Fuel

Campfires Contribute to Great Lakes Pollution

Lawsuit Challenges Approval of Rock Creek Mine

Pennsylvania Requires Cleanup Bonds for Coal Mines

Landfill Named as Historic Landmark

Indian Point Nuclear Plant Licenses Transferred

The Cats Might Bite Harder Than the Mosquitoes

For full text and graphics visit:

Copyright Environment News Service (ENS) 2000 All Rights Reserved.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 206 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Aug 30, 2001 (19:45) * 10 lines 
Desert Dust Kills Florida Fish

New research has revealed a surprising connection between red tides in the
Gulf of Mexico and giant dust clouds that blow across the Atlantic Ocean
from the distant Sahara Desert. Satellites can spot such dust clouds en
route from Africa to the Americas, so space-based data could help
scientists predict when red tides will strike the Florida coast.


 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 207 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Sep  4, 2001 (18:24) * 63 lines 
CHICAGO, Illinois, August 30, 2001 (ENS) - Crops which have been
genetically modified to resist pests are only useful until the bugs
outsmart them, developing their own protections against the toxins produced
by the plants. A Michigan entomologist argues that some crop eating insects
must be protected in order to keep them all from becoming resistant to
engineered crops.
For full text and graphics visit:


PUERTO AYORA, Galapagos, Ecuador, August 30, 2001 (ENS) - Ecuadorian naval
personnel have given Sea Shepherd Conservation Society founder Captain Paul
Watson a written order to leave Ecuador aboard his ship the Ocean Warrior
by 0800 hours on Friday.
For full text and graphics visit:



BRUSSELS, Belgium, August 30, 2001 (ENS) - Europe's chemical industry has
made its first official response to hard line proposals for tougher EU
chemicals policies by Swedish Green Member of the European Parliament Inger
For full text and graphics visit:


HOBART, Tasmania, Australia, August 30, 2001 (ENS) - A satellite tag found
by a beachcombing dog has recorded the journey of a black marlin tagged
last November off Cairns. The pop-up archival tag was attached to the fish
for a month before detaching automatically.
For full text and graphics visit:



Hidden Cracks Could Plague Nuclear Power Plants

DOE Seeks Cooperation from South Carolina Over Plutonium

Shortages Cause Gas Prices to Rise

Wildfires Force Evacuations, Burn Homes

Yellowstone Business Owners Protest Planned Drilling

Wisconsin Promotes Fish Passageways on Dams

New Technology Treats Dairy Wastes, Odors

Saggy Tires Reduce Fuel Efficiency

For full text and graphics visit:

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 208 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Sep  7, 2001 (17:23) * 12 lines 

* Big Freeze for Britain?
* Beefy Butterfly Warns of Unpredictable Climate Change Effects
* Bigger Than Weather, El Niño a Force of History, New Book Says
* Earth Is Becoming a Greener Greenhouse; Data Show More Lush Plant
Life in Far North
* Rain-Making Linked to Killer Flood


 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 209 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Oct  3, 2001 (23:53) * 19 lines 
I know this belongs in the Garden Conference Wolfie and I host. But it was too good to just put there. I will post it later in its correct place.

Grow your tomatoes upside down! Start out with a large container that
can be used as a hanging basket. The hole in the bottom of the container
should be about the size of a ping pong ball (you may have to enlarge the
hole on some containers). Then take a small tomato seedling and work it
carefully through the hole from the inside of the container. Fill the
container with good potting soil, and hang your upside-down tomato
outdoors in an appropriate spot. Carole says she gets lots of surprised
looks and comments about this unusual way of growing tomatoes. Another
plus, she notes, is no staking, no slugs, and diseases are reduced.
Remember, though, the potted plants need to be watered daily (larger
varieties may need watered twice a day). Although any variety of tomato
will work, we think the cherry type tomatoes would be the most attractive
hanging. Before you know it, you'll be picking delicious, home-grown

(I'd think they'd do just fine growing as a normal hanging plant. I am definitly going to try it.)

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 210 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Nov  2, 2001 (13:01) * 78 lines 
The latest from NASA's Earth Observatory (10/30/2001)

New Reference:

* On the Shoulder of Giants: Verner Suomi
Using a unique combination of determination, hard work, inspiration, and those freshman physics, Suomi became known as the "father of satellite meteorology." His research and inventions have radically improved forecasting and our understanding of global weather.


In the News:

* Latest Images:
New England's Autumn Colors

Chetumal Bay Coral Reef

Early Snowstorm Sweeps Across Northern Plains

Autumn Twisters Rip Through Midwest

Aerosols Over India

Elevation Map of Kathmandu, Nepal

MODIS Global Sea Surface Temperature

* NASA News
- Studying Coastal Eddies
- Earth's Auroras Make Rare Joint Appearance in a Feature Film
- NASA Astronaut Photos Contribute to New Coral Reef Atlas

* Media Alerts
- Autumn Foliage May Affect Air Quality, Climate
- Alaskan Gambling Contest Yields Treasure Trove of Scientific Data
- Corals Lock El Niño History in Radiocarbon

* Headlines from the press, radio, and television:
- Global Warming Alert Issued for U.S. Gulf States
- Global Warming Warns Seas Will Rise
- A Blustery Winter Forecast
- Advancing Weather Prediction

New Data:

* Updated Data:
Cloud Radiative Forcing data for March 2000 - July 2001

Outgoing Longwave Radiation data for March 2000 - July 2001

Net Radiation data for March 2000 - July 2001

Reflected Shortwave Radiation data for March 2000 - July 2001
Earth Observatory Announcements
To unsubscribe: send body "unsubscribe eo-announce "

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 211 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Nov  2, 2001 (20:12) * 29 lines 

N.P.Petropoulos, E.P.Hinis, and S.E.Simopoulos
Nuclear Engineering Section, Mechanical Engineering Dept., National
Technical University of Athens, 15780 Athens, Greece


Right after the Chernobyl reactor accident a systematic soil sampling and
analysis programme has been undertaken by the Nuclear Engineering Section
of the National Technical University of Athens in order to detect and
quantitatively analyse the long-lived isotopes in the Chernobyl fallout in
Greece. In the frame of this programme, 1242 soil samples of 1cm thick
surface soil were collected over Greece during the period May - November
1986. The samples were counted and analysed using Ge-detector setups for
fission products from the Chernobyl fallout, which led to the mapping of
Cs-137 deposition in the form of a five-class histogram, extending between 0
- 150 kBq/m², with boundaries defined by isolines of 5, 15, 35, 65 & 150
kBq/m². To investigate the radiological impact of the Cs-137 fallout on the
Greek population, the NEA/OECD computer code PABLM was run using as
input the above isoline data. According to the results obtained, the total body
collective effective dose commitment of the Greek population is estimated to
340 manSv over the first year after the accident and 8800 manSv over a
period of 40 years. Concerning the 6000 inhabitants within the 65 kBq/m²
isoline the results are 2 manSv over the first year after the accident and 55
manSv over a period of 40 years. The above radiological impact was further
compared to that due to fly ash releases from the Ptolemais Lignite Power
Plants, in northern Greece.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 212 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Nov  2, 2001 (20:14) * 22 lines 
Things I wish I had not found... did not wish to know...

NRE VI, International Symposium, June 5-9, 1995, Montreal,


S.Katsanevakis, N.P.Petropoulos, E.P.Hinis and S.E.Simopoulos
Nuclear Engineering Section, Mechanical Engineering Dept., National
Technical University of Athens, 15780 Athens, Greece

A.Louizi and C.Proukakis
Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, Athens University,
11527 Athens, Greece

Tobacco from Greek cigarettes was analysed for natural radioactivity;
according to the results already obtained the concentrations of both Ra-226
and Th-232 are less than 13 Bq/kg, while that of K-40 is relatively high, up
to 1250 Bq/kg.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 213 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Nov  2, 2001 (20:16) * 1 lines 
More information on the global nature of the Chernobyl "accident" is found in other studies cites the long term fallout in Greece of nuclear isotopes.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 214 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Nov 11, 2001 (19:35) * 39 lines 
Meeting announcement:
Stewardship of an island arc nuclear test site

10 December, 8-10 pm, Room 220, Moscone Convention Center, San Francisco
Moderators: John Eichelberger and David Barnes, University of Alaska Fairbanks
About 16% of the explosive energy of the US underground nuclear test
program was released beneath Amchitka Island, 1300 km east of
Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky and 2100 km southwest of Anchorage. This seemingly
remote location is situated within an international fishery and in an area
where indigenous people retain a largely subsistence life style. Unlike the
Nevada Test Site where the majority of US tests were conducted, water is
abundant on Amchitka and the path length from test site to the accessible
environment is short.
Whether or not this proximity of radioactive contaminants to food sources
poses a real hazard has not been established. When pre-test geoscience
studies were conducted on the island and in the surrounding ocean, the
island was pronounced “geologically stable”. Since that time we have come
to understand Amchitka as a fragment of island arc crest caught in highly
oblique subduction of North Pacific lithosphere beneath the North American
plate. Is this paradigm-shift in the “big picture” pertinent to the smaller
distance- and time-scale problem of fluid transport of contaminants from
the shot cavity to the ocean? What are the important questions regarding
contaminant transport and how might modern geophysical observations be
applied to answer them? What is the responsibility of geoscientists as
citizens in helping to address this Cold War legacy?
This discussion will follow a poster presentation on Amchitka (AGU Abstract
V12D-1015; by Eichelberger et al. It is hoped that we can
consider the issue of contaminant transport at Amchitka from a range of the
many scientific and political perspectives that surround the problem. The
moderators are supported by the Consortium for Risk Evaluation with
Stakeholder Participation (CRESPII) to conduct research toward a plan for
long-term stewardship of the island. Please pass this announcement on to
your colleagues who may be interested.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 215 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Jan  4, 2002 (19:07) * 12 lines 
* Fuels Clean Up
* Iceland Launches Energy Revolution
* High-Impact Environmental Research
* Preaching to the Converted
* Of PCBs and the River
* Scientists Awarded Patent for Coal-Purifying Bacteria


 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 216 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Jan 12, 2002 (22:21) * 24 lines 
* Abstract Engravings Show Modern Behavior Emerged Earlier Than
Previously Thought
* Bugs Could Travel in Comfort Aboard Meteorites
* Ancient Supernova May Have Triggered Eco-Catastrophe
* Primordial Air May Have Been "Breathable"
* SNPs as Windows on Evolution
* Evolutionary "Speed Limit" Governs How Quickly Life Bounces Back
After Extinction
* Armor-Plated Fish and the Evolution of Dentists

* Scientist Bias Helping Cause Mass Extinction
* Extinction Rate Across the Globe Reaches Historical Proportions
* Navy Admits Sonar Killed Whales
* Satellite Tracks Secret Migration of the Great White
* Fluorescence Makes for a Pretty Bird
* The Lioness and the Oryx

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 217 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Jan 12, 2002 (22:25) * 11 lines 
* Microbe First to Break Down PCBs
* Whose Nuclear Waste?
* Electricity From Earth's Core
* Team Identifies Promising Alternative to Waste Incineration
* Researcher to Demonstrate New Technology for Cleaning Up Hazardous

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 218 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Jan 15, 2002 (16:29) * 10 lines 
Easing off the (Greenhouse) Gas

NASA Science News for January 15, 2002

Greenhouse gases are still accumulating in Earth's atmosphere, but more
slowly than before, say NASA-funded researchers.


 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 219 of 312: John Tsatsaragos  (tsatsvol) * Thu, Feb 21, 2002 (06:17) * 11 lines 
I am not ecologist but I cannot stay silent seeing our walking to death. I will underline three dangerous examples for the humanity.

First. Nature has its special mechanisms to recycle its materials. Our technology in conjunction with our economy system has produced materials like Plastics or synthetic Cauchouk for the wheels of the cars that nature cannot recycle them with a rhythm corresponding to the production. If we try to burn them they produce dioxins, which are very toxic for us. So, What we are doing?

Second. Our civilization is based on the burning solid or liquid fuels. As much quantities of fuels we burn, as higher level of civilization we say that we have. By this way we reduce oxygen of the atmosphere. From the other hand, we reduce also the trees that can recycle oxygen from the gas products of the combustion. So, What we are doing?

Third. Enhancement of the CO2 in atmosphere has as result to increase the mean temperature of the planet (by phenomenon of conservatory) and weather is changing fast and gives extreme phenomena. So, What we are doing?

Who can invert this path to death?


 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 220 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Feb 21, 2002 (14:48) * 13 lines 
Mankind has proven to be both short-sighted and selfish. If I were not part of the species known as human, I would observe:

First - They use more than they need of everything. They heat their dwellings and offices to the point they open windows even as the heater continues to burn non-renewable fossil fuel. In the summer, they do the same in reverse, but it uses just as much fossil fuel.

Second - they waste natural resources on trash mail and packaging. Every single piece of plastic made uses more fossil fuel. Look at the toy department of your local Walmart, America. Look at the cheap and throw-away things there. Is it worth freezing to death in the future to make these? As John said, we cannot be rid of them once made.

Third and most important - we are the only species on earth which toxifies both their water and air resources which are the two most necessary things for life.
Then, with that pollution, we make our food resources toxic by dumping what we know to be deadly into the seas and rivers. If you do not believe me, check what mercury poisoning did to Japan.

Deforestration is just another example of our greed and selfishness. What can be done? I fear that it will take a catycalismic event to make us change our ways. We have to go back to the basics of working with natural resources to live within our limits. But, we cannot even stay out of debt - we spend more than we will ever make and put it on the plastic card. Foreign countries own this debt. If they ever call them in, America will cease to exist as we know it. The generation we leave the world to has "values" alien to the realities of the real world. I do not have much hope for their future.

Lastly, if you ever cherished the wildernes, marvelled at a night sky or wept at the sight of nature so majestic you could not contain your emotions, please avoid Southern California. Everything there offends me. They continue to borrow fossil water from THREE STATES AWAY to water their lawns in a desert they were not meant to populate. They drive short distances just to buy something
they don't really need (and could walk to) then go to health clubs and pay to get rid of extra weight. The air is unbreathable. I have found NO reason to live there. Every drink of water is a sacrament for which I feel unworthy. No one seems to care or wants to know about this. I will not go back.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 221 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Feb 21, 2002 (15:31) * 9 lines 
What to do about it? If I were king:

1. Limit size, speed of personal vehicles and make the power plant run on renewable fuel

2. Plan ahead. I already so since I do not drive. I make lists and do my shopping on one day only per week or even less frequently than that. Forget about running to the store for cigarettes, soda or other impulse items.

3. The whole world needs to reinvent their power consumption patterns - for building heat and air conditioning and for manufacturing. We existed for millions of years without consipcious consumption. It is time we got back in touch with reality and thought beyond our own selfish desires.

*Putting my soap box away*

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 222 of 312: Curious Wolfie  (wolf) * Thu, Feb 21, 2002 (20:04) * 3 lines 
and i am one of those that marcia describes--nature lover, and guess where i am!

these people are into recycling but not into saving the air that we breath. it is miserable.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 223 of 312: Curious Wolfie  (wolf) * Thu, Feb 21, 2002 (20:05) * 1 lines 
(marcia, it must be going around because i spent a good amount of time preaching in springark)

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 224 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Feb 21, 2002 (20:49) * 5 lines 
Oh Wolfie, I read your preaching last night in SpringArk and crashed before I could respond. I'll do it though because you are absolutely right!

As for where you live, you got your orders and not a choice. I think where you are would be at the bottom of your wish list.

Recycling in Southern California took on a whole new aura when I found a once fruitful orange grove with all sorts of heaps of "recycle" things and no factory near it to do it. It is an empty gesture - at lest the civilian side of the coin. I think they recycle metals because foreign countries will buy it. Presently, there is not much of a market for recycled things since only a few are using it. It just seems to be easier to use raw materials. Hawaii is just as bad!!

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 225 of 312: Curious Wolfie  (wolf) * Fri, Feb 22, 2002 (19:07) * 3 lines 
we are required to recycle stuff on the base. but no one said where to put our compost (except for yard waste).

yes, this was the bottom of my list but the Good Lord chose it for a reason. now if i can be patient enough to listen for it.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 226 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Feb 22, 2002 (19:44) * 1 lines 
Perhaps to make the next assignment look good by comparison? Or, heaven forbid, the opposite?

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 227 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Feb 22, 2002 (21:53) * 11 lines 

* Berkeley-Trent: A BETR Model of Toxic Transport
* Nuclear Waste Decision Provokes Storm of Protest
* Half of Amazon Forest Being "Profoundly" Damaged
* Bush Unveils US Alternative to Kyoto Protocol



 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 228 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Feb 24, 2002 (14:16) * 37 lines 
Dissapearing Dugong

Recently, a U.N. environment agency reported to the world's
environment ministers at a conference in Columbia that the
dugong is disappearing from the planet.
Dugongs, or sea cows, whose closest living aquatic relatives
are the manatees, are the only marine animals that feed al-
most exclusively on plants. They graze on seagrasses which
form meadows in coastal waters. Marine algae are also con-
sumed when seagrass is scarce. Seagrass beds in many areas
of the world are being cleared for development or smothered
by silt and mud from runoff caused by overgrazing or defor-

Dugongs are mammals who must surface to breathe, and cannot
hold their breath underwater for more than a few minutes.
They have poor eyesight, but their hearing is acute. Dudongs
can live for 70 years. Females give birth to a single calf
every three to seven years.
Being large animals, only large sharks, saltwater crocodiles
and killer whales are a danger to the dudong. They are also
accidental victims to large net fishing.

The dugong is gone from many of its habitats in the Indian
Ocean and South China Sea, including tropical waters off
Mauritius, Sri Lanka, Hong Kong, and the Seychelles. It is
on the brink of vanishing from the Indian Ocean off East
Africa, predictably the next place where the dugong becomes
The dugong is a "key indicator species", meaning that if it
is declining, then the coastal environment which provides
protein in the forms of fish and income in terms of tourism
is also being degraded.


 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 229 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Mar 20, 2002 (21:29) * 69 lines 
CORRECTED: Ice Shelf Collapse Reignites Global Warming Fears
Mar 20 2002 11:23AM

LONDON (Reuters) - The sudden collapse of a huge shelf of Antarctic ice
into the sea, described by scientists as "staggering," reignited fears on
Wednesday of global warming and its catastrophic knock-on effects.

About 500 billion tonnes of ice known as the Larsen B shelf has
disintegrated over the last month, the result of 50 years of sharp
temperature rises on the Antarctic Peninsular unmatched elsewhere on
the icy continent and in the rest of the world.
The British glaciologist tracking the movement of ice on the Earth's
southern tip said the link between the shifting shelf and global climate
change was not proven and that the dramatic events of recent weeks
need not give people sleepless nights.
"A prime candidate is global climate change, but there are other reasons
why the climate in that area may have changed, including ocean currents
and atmospheric circulation," said David Vaughan of the British Antarctic

"What we've seen in the last month is the final phase of the collapse of
that ice shelf. It may not be driven by climate change, but was structural,"
he told Reuters, adding that the collapse did not affect sea levels
because the shelf was afloat.
But Vaughan said eroding ice shelves could affect mainland ice sheets
over time, raising the specter of rising ocean levels.
"There are ice shelves which do help control the sea level," he said. "The
question is, when we are looking far into the future -- decades and
centuries -- how long will those big shelves remain intact?"

Environmentalists said the sudden erosion in a remote part of the world
was symptomatic of a broader problem -- the world is getting warmer with

potentially catastrophic results.

"It is hard to attribute each case like this to man-made activity, but we can
say that such changes are consistent with global warming and what is
predicted in the future," said Friends of the Earth climate campaigner
Kate Hampton.
"There is a high probability that this (shelf collapse) has something to do
with global warming and this is something we expect to see more of. We
are extremely concerned about it."
Britain's Meteorological Office predicted that global temperatures will rise
between 1.4 degrees Celsius and nearly six degrees Celsius by the end
of the century, depending on the policies adopted by governments to cut
down on greenhouse gas emissions.
"The worst case scenario would be catastrophic," a Met Office
spokesman said.

Temperatures rose by between 0.6 and 0.7 degrees Celsius over the last
150 years.
"There is very strong reason to believe that in the last century on top of
natural changes there have been man-made additions," Vaughan said.

The implications of a sharp rise in temperatures are apocalyptic,
according to environmentalists.
"Everybody will suffer in some way or another," Hampton said.
"Temperatures will rise, there will be more intense precipitation, the
increased risk of floods and landslides, changes in disease patterns and
crop productivity."
She called on industrialized nations, notably the United States which has
rejected the Kyoto Protocol on greenhouse gas emissions, to heed the
warning signs and cut pollution.
President Bush rejected the pact, saying it would hurt the economy. He
has offered an alternative voluntary plan to slow the growth of emissions
of harmful gases.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 230 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Mar 23, 2002 (21:34) * 16 lines 

* Hyperspectral Imaging Tracks Local and Global Impacts on
* "Mercury Sunrise" Phenomenon Found in Antarctica; Pollution Could
Enter Food Chain
* Riverways Create as Much Pollution as Highways
* Can Green Chemistry Promote Sustainable Agriculture?
* Medicines, Caffeine and Antibacterial Soap Among Contaminants
Found in American Streams
* New Technique Monitors Chromium Contamination in Groundwater



 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 231 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Apr 12, 2002 (19:59) * 12 lines 
Massive coral bleaching strikes Great Barrier Reef

High sea temperatures are causing an epidemic of coral bleaching on
the Great Barrier Reef in Australia, the world's largest coral reef.
It is also reported to be spreading through the coral islands of
the South Pacific. A full survey is in progress, but coral expert
Thomas Goreau says: "Catastrophic mortality will certainly have
taken place."

For the full story go to:,ZbccedehecCJ&oid=UcjjbCB

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 232 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Apr 15, 2002 (17:07) * 58 lines 
Weedkiller Makes Male Frogs Into Females

WASHINGTON (Reuters) - The most popular weedkiller in the United
States can give male frogs female sex organs and other attributes,
researchers said on Monday, in a study that could shed light on the global
decline in amphibian populations.
Very low levels of the herbicide atrazine can cause male frogs to grow
female sex organs and curtail their croaks -- key to attracting mates in the
frog world -- a team at the University of California Berkeley found.
The frogs appear normal on the outside, but often have both male and
female sex organs, the researchers said, adding that the findings may
help explain the amphibian population decline.

The decline worries scientists because amphibians such as frogs
respond to environmental dangers before other species.
"Atrazine is the most commonly used herbicide in the U.S. and probably
the world," the researchers wrote in their report, published in the
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. "It can be present at
several parts per million in agricultural runoff and can reach 40 parts per
billion in precipitation."
Such a common pollutant would reach many animals as well as
humans, so the team, led by Tyrone Hayes, tested its effects on the
African clawed frog Xenopus laevis.
They put tadpoles into water laced with levels of atrazine much lower than
allowed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and found that the
weedkiller had serious effects on 16 percent of them.
These genetically male frogs had testicles and ovaries, and many had
testicles that did not function properly and contained eggs and sperm.
Their levels of testosterone were much lower than normal.

The male frogs also had much smaller larynxes than normal, which could
affect their ability to croak and attract mates, Hayes' team reported.

The researchers determined that atrazine is an endocrine disruptor -- a
class of chemicals that disrupts the hormones in the body. Many
pesticides fall into this category and it is one of the qualities that can
make them dangerous.

"We hypothesize that atrazine ... promotes the conversion of testosterone
to estrogen," they wrote.
"This widespread compound and other environmental endocrine
disruptors may be a factor in global amphibian declines."
Environmentalists responded with alarm.

"This research is further proof that this pesticide is a major threat to
public health and the environment," the Natural Resources Defense
Council said in a statement.
"EPA's tap water standard for atrazine is 3 parts per billion -- 30 times
higher than the level at which these dramatic sexual side effects
occurred. At higher levels, the frogs developed additional health
problems," it added.
"This rigorous scientific study reinforces what we and other scientists
have been saying for years -- atrazine is a dangerous pesticide," the
council's Jennifer Sass said. "It's no surprise that it's been banned by
many European countries."
She said the study had implications for humans, especially children who
have not reached puberty.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 233 of 312: Curious Wolfie  (wolf) * Mon, Apr 15, 2002 (17:17) * 1 lines 
*LAUGH* i know it's not funny but in a way it is!!

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 234 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Apr 15, 2002 (21:22) * 1 lines 
I suspect that will be the next injections for Southern Californians. Currently injecting Botulinum toxin under the skin is being used to rid the face of wrinkles. Can transgender weed killer be far behind?

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 235 of 312: Curious Wolfie  (wolf) * Mon, Apr 15, 2002 (21:32) * 1 lines 

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 236 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Apr 15, 2002 (21:49) * 1 lines 
They even have clubs of participants. Eeew? You are right about that!

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 237 of 312: Curious Wolfie  (wolf) * Tue, Apr 16, 2002 (14:13) * 1 lines 
i still say they need to figure out how to move fat around the body so we can have our plastic surgery and be safe about it (no risk except for the surgery itself). it has been said that the fat would just be reabsorbed and moved back to its original place. too bad, my butt would make some great boobs *LAUGH*

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 238 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Apr 17, 2002 (20:28) * 1 lines 
*SIGH* Too much of a good thing? Alas!

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 239 of 312: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Mon, Apr 22, 2002 (18:24) * 1 lines 
Happy Earth Day to Gaia!

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 240 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Apr 22, 2002 (18:59) * 1 lines 
Thanks, Cheryl. I knew I should have put it here instead of Geo 50. *sigh*

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 241 of 312: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Tue, Apr 23, 2002 (17:43) * 1 lines 
There's nothing wrong with putting Earth Day wishes at Geo 50. I think that they work there as well.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 242 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Apr 23, 2002 (20:23) * 1 lines 
I went outside and yelled "Happy Earth Day, Gaia" and succeeded in scaring a few dogs. Actually, everywhere is about Earth so it is fitting no matter where it is posted. Earth Day was just two days after Astronomy Day, this year. When is Arbor Day? That day keeps changing.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 243 of 312: Curious Wolfie  (wolf) * Tue, Apr 23, 2002 (21:26) * 1 lines 
always thought arbor day went with earth day cuz they stress planting a tree. hmmmm...use to be a member of the national arbor day foundation......believe it or not, the local base is a certified member and there's hardly any trees there--maybe it's for trying really hard!

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 244 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Apr 23, 2002 (22:25) * 16 lines 
National Arbor Day is April 26!

Arbor Day Weekend, April 26-28, 2002,
marks the 130th anniversary of the tree
planters' holiday. April 27 is also the
centennial of the death of Arbor Day founder
J. Sterling Morton. Since his death a century
ago, Arbor Day has come to be celebrated
in all 50 American states and in many
countries around the world.

This year, be a part of history by celebrating
Arbor Day. Plant a tree, or join in your town's
Arbor Day festivities. Donate a tree to a local school to
encourage a love of trees in our future environmental

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 245 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Apr 23, 2002 (22:26) * 14 lines 

“Take care of the land and the
land will take care of you.”

~ Hugh H. Bennett

Arbor Day is a nationally celebrated
observance that encourages tree planting and
tree care. Founded by
J. Sterling Morton in Nebraska in 1872,
National Arbor Day is celebrated each year on
the last Friday in April.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 246 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Apr 23, 2002 (22:28) * 2 lines 
Everything you wanted to know about Arbor Day except that it varies from state to state as to the date.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 247 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Apr 23, 2002 (22:31) * 55 lines 
State Arbor Days (state trees in brackets)

Alabama Last full week in February (Longleaf Pine)
Alaska Third Monday in May (Sitka Spruce)
Arizona Last Friday in April (Paloverde)
Arkansas Third Monday in March ( Pine)
California March 7-14 (California Redwood)
Colorado Third Friday in April ( Blue Spruce)
Connecticut April 30 ( White Oak)
Delaware Last Friday in April ( American Holly)
District of Columbia Last Friday in April (Scarlet Oak)
Florida Third Friday in January ( Cabbage Palmetto)
Georgia Third Friday in February ( Live Oak)
Hawaii First Friday in November (Kukui)
Idaho Last Friday in April ( Western White Pine)
Illinois Last Friday in April ( White Oak)
Indiana Last Friday in April (Tuliptree)
Iowa Last Friday in April (Oak)
Kansas Last Friday in March (Cottonwood)
Kentucky First Friday in April (Tulip Poplar)
Louisiana Third Friday in January (Baldcypress)
Maine Third full week in May ( Eastern White Pine)
Maryland First Wednesday in April ( White Oak)
Massachusetts April 28-May 5 ( American Elm)
Michigan Last Friday in April ( Eastern White Pine)
Minnesota Last Friday in April (Red Pine)
Mississippi Second Friday in February ( Southern Magnolia)
Missouri First Friday in April ( Flowering Dogwood)
Montana Last Friday in April (Ponderosa Pine)
Nebraska Last Friday in April (Cottonwood)
Nevada Southern: February 28; Northern: April 23 (Singleleaf Pinyon)
New Hampshire Last Friday in April ( Paper Birch)
New Jersey Last Friday in April ( Northern Red Oak)
New Mexico Second Friday in March (Pinyon)
New York Last Friday in April ( Sugar Maple)
North Carolina First Friday following March 15 ( Pine)
North Dakota First Friday in May ( American Elm)
Ohio Last Friday in April (Ohio Buckeye)
Oklahoma Last full week in March (Eastern Redbud)
Oregon First full week in April (Douglas Fir)
Pennsylvania Last Friday in April (Eastern Hemlock)
Rhode Island Last Friday in April ( Red Maple)
South Carolina First Friday in December ( Cabbage Palmetto)
South Dakota Last Friday in April ( White Spruce)
Tennessee First Friday in March (Yellow Poplar)
Texas Last Friday in April (Pecan)
Utah Last Friday in April ( Blue Spruce)
Vermont First Friday in May ( Sugar Maple)
Virginia Second Friday in April ( Flowering Dogwood)
Washington Second Wednesday in April (Western Hemlock)
West Virginia Second Friday in April ( Sugar Maple)
Wisconsin Last Friday in April ( Sugar Maple)
Wyoming Last Monday in April (Cottonwood)

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 248 of 312: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Mon, May  6, 2002 (18:46) * 1 lines 
I couldn't find an eastern hemlock so I wished a Happy Arbor Day to an oak tree and a blue spruce instead.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 249 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, May  6, 2002 (22:28) * 1 lines 
That is lovely. I thought Hawaii would have Koa as their tree - it is the native hardwood and quite beautful. Kukui is not a very good tree but it makes high fat nuts which the Hawaiians used instead of candles. I hugged my Royal Poinciana.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 250 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, May 12, 2002 (16:32) * 3 lines 

Happy Mother's Day, GAIA

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 251 of 312: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Mon, May 13, 2002 (17:01) * 3 lines 
I wished Gaia a Happy Mother's Day on another Geo conference. How silly of me to forget to post my wishes here at Gaia's conference. So a Happy Belated Mother's Day to Gaia, the Great Mother, the Earth.

Marcia, the graphic with the hearts around the Earth is wonderful. It's like a big hug for Gaia.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 252 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, May 13, 2002 (17:27) * 1 lines 
I love that too... It also comes in handy when hugging all of Geo's far-flung members who are so special. It is an excellent graphic. Each year without fail you wish Gaia Happy Mother's Day and in the process, you remind me. Many thanks and hugs for you too for doing so!

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 253 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, May 16, 2002 (18:16) * 57 lines 
A Brief History of Drinking Water

The history of water
treatment is still being
written, as discoveries
continue to document its

Early Egyptian paintings from
the 13th and 15th centuries
B.C. depict sedimentation
apparatus and wick siphons,
and it is speculated that the
ancients utilized alum to
remove suspended solids.

15th Century B.C.
Historically, water was
considered clean if it was
clear. Hippocrates, the
Father of Medicine,
invented the "Hippocrates
Sleeve", a cloth bag to
strain rainwater, in the 5th
century B.C.

Skilled Roman engineers
created a water supply
system that delivered 130
million gallons daily
through acqueducts
between 343 B.C. to 225

Public Water Supply
Systems were born at the
end of the 3rd century
B.C. in Rome, Greece,
Carthage and Egypt.
Storage or settling cisterns
were constructed to remove
silt by plain sedimentation.

From about 500 to 1600
A.D., there was little
progress in water treatment
and its connection to public

Sir Francis Bacon, the great
Elizabethan philosopher,
chronicled only 10 scientific
experiments in the preceding
1,000 years which related to
water treatment.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 254 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, May 16, 2002 (18:16) * 40 lines 
Drinking Water in the 16th and 17th Centuries

In 1680 the microscope was
invented by Anton van
Leeuwenhoek, and in 1685
an Italian physician named
Lu Antonio Porzio designed
the first multiple filter. These
two unrelated events were to
play important parts in the
future of water treatment.

Van Leeuwenhoek was
accused of inaccuracy. The
scientific community
regarded his sketches of
microscopic organisms as
unimportant curiosities.
200 years later, the scientists
of the 19th century made the
connection between these
"animacules", water and

Porzio's filter used plain
sedimentation and straining
followed by sand filtration. It
contained two compartments
(one downward flow, one
In 1746, Parisian scientist
Joseph Amy was granted
the first patent for a filter
design, and by 1750 his
filters for home use could
be purchased. The filters
consisted of sponge,
charcoal and wool.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 255 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, May 16, 2002 (18:17) * 126 lines 
Drinking Water in the 19th and 20th Centuries
The first water facility to
deliver water to an entire
town was built in Paisley,
Scotland in 1804 by John
Gibb to supply his bleachery
and the town, and within
three years, filtered water
was even piped directly to
customers in Glasgow,

In 1806 a large water
treatment plant began
operating in Paris. The
plant's filters were made of
sand and charcoal and were
renewed every six hours.
Pumps were driven by horses
working in three shifts. Water
was settled for 12 hours
before filtration.

In the 1870's, Dr. Robert
Koch and Dr. Joseph Lister
demonstrated that
microorganisms existing in
water supplies can cause
disease. Since then, America
has relied on several
processes of water treatment
to progressively ensure the
best water quality.

The Civil War interrupted the
development of filtration in
the United States; however
once the North and South
were reunited, the U.S.
became a leader in the art of
water treatment.

The year 1906 saw the use of
ozone as a disinfectant in
Nice, France. Because of the
equipment's complexity and
cost, ozonation was less
prevalent in the U.S. Jersey
City Water Works became
the first utility in America to
use sodium hyperchlorite for
disinfection in 1908, and the
Bubbly Creek plant in
Chicago instituted regular
chlorine disinfection.

Allen Hazen proved the
effectiveness of filtration in

The initial treatment process
utilized slow sand filters to
provide a more aesthetic
product. Within several years
filtration was recognized for
removal of undesirable
particles and deadly bacteria,
as those communities that
utilized it had fewer
outbreaks of typhoid.

William Stipe, superintendent
of water works at Keokuk,
Iowa, organized a meeting of
all persons concerned with
water-works at Washington
University in 1881. The 22
participants founded the
American Water Works
Significant improvements
to water treatment in the
latter part of the 19th
century included the
development of rapid
sand filters, improved slow
sand filters, and the first
applications of chlorine
and ozone for disinfection.
At the turn of the century,
chlorination became the
most popular method in
the United States and
numbers of typhoid
dysentery and cholera
case plummeted.

In 1914, the U.S.
Department of The
Treasury promulgated the
country's first drinking
water bacteriological
standard, a maximum
level of 2 coliforms per
100 mL.

By the 1920's , the use of
filtration and chlorination
had virtually eliminated
epidemics of major
waterborne diseases from
from the American
landscape. These two
decades also saw the
development of dissolved
air flotation, early
membrane filters, floc
blanket sedimentation,
and the solids-contact

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 256 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, May 16, 2002 (18:19) * 47 lines 
Drinking Water in the 19th and 20th Centuries

Desalination Equipment 1940

A major step in the
development of desalination
technology arrived during
World War II when various
military establishments in
arid areas required water to
supply their troops.

In 1942 the U.S. Public
Health Service adopted the
first set of drinking water
standards, and the
membrane filter process for
bacteriological analysis was
approved in 1957.

By the early 1960's, more
than 19,000 municipal
water systems were in
operation throughout the

Since the 1974 enactment
of the Safe Drinking Water
Act, the government, the
public health community,
and water utilities
throughout the country have
worked together to
safeguard the nation's
drinking water supplies and
to ensure that law protects
public health in the best
possible ways.

Today, the AWWA leads the
effort to advance science,
technology, consumer
awareness, management,
conservation and
government policies related
to drinking water.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 257 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, May 16, 2002 (18:24) * 6 lines 
When you live on a finite island you never take drinking water for granted. Most Americans do take it for granted and waste it. Some use fossil water from three states away (Southern California) to water their lawns and wash the cars.

The following brought to mind the radio announcer who ws on duty when we had a middle-of-the-night strong earthquake and we were all wide awake. We all had our radios turned on. Callers would ask this guy if it was safe to drink the water. He told them to hold it up and look through it. If it is clear is ok. I guess he was a few thousand years out of step with progress

15th Century B.C. Historically, water was considered clean if it was clear. Hippocrates, the Father of Medicine, invented the "Hippocrates
Sleeve", a cloth bag to strain rainwater, in the 5th century B.C.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 258 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, May 26, 2002 (21:28) * 18 lines 
Mauna Loa data show pollution is global
Substances such as arsenic in
Hawaii's air come from China

LOS ANGELES (AP) Atop Mauna Loa, thrust 13,677 feet into the sky, one would expect nothing but the
freshest air, save the occasional gaseous burp from the volcano.

But environmental monitoring stations crowding the peak find arsenic, copper and zinc that was kicked
into the atmosphere five to 10 days earlier from smelting in China, thousands of miles distant.

When industrial pollution first showed up at Mauna Loa a few years ago, scientists were startled. Now,
after intense study, they know that the pollution that dirties the world's largest cities affects the whole

"It turns out Hawaii is more like a suburb of Beijing," said Thomas Cahill, a University of California, Davis,
atmospheric scientist.

more and graphics...

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 259 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, May 29, 2002 (22:09) * 19 lines 
In my efforts to understand the people who make Geo and my life more wonderful, I reread some email I had received from TheMaharaja cncerning his beautiful but strife-torn country, Pakistan. I noted a national park in in danger of being corrupted by our continuing lust for oil. I do not know the person who wrote it but it is worth reading and considering.


by: Ayaz Latif Palijo

Three international oil companies have begun preparations for oil exploration in Pakistan's largest park, Kirthar National
Park but the provincial and the federal government have not taken a notice. Should we open wider the doors of our national
parks for Premier Oil, Lasmo Oil and Shell Exploration? Should we allow these multinationals to violate the international
rules of nature and wildlife conservation in our region?.

As many of us know that Pakistan has six national parks – Kirthar, Chiltan, Lal Suhanra, Ayubia, Chattar, Chitral and
Khunjerab. Kirthar national park is 152 kilometers from Karachi where visitors can watch endangered Sindh ibex, urial, and
chinkara from special points in the hours of morning. Stony wood and many interesting fossils have been discovered in the
Kirthar mountains. Kirthar is the largest wild-life sanctuary in Sindh and Pakistan and is the first one from Pakistan that was
listed with the United Nations. It is also the home to many endangered species of animals, but in its usual style, some
departments are willing to cause its destruction by allowing oil exploration in the park.


 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 260 of 312: Curious Wolfie  (wolf) * Thu, May 30, 2002 (21:37) * 1 lines 
you know, all that stuff in pakistan and india has me thinking about the maharaja, take care of yourself!! *hugs*

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 261 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, May 30, 2002 (22:16) * 3 lines 
I email him daily, and he comes here to read what we write. I worry about him, also. He is a gentle soul bringing a bit of Hawaii (can you believe?!) to his teenage students learning English. I am a challenge to him because I break out all of my really big vocabulary words for him so he can expand his own. TM is a noble soul who feels acute sorrow for the futility of the battles raging around him. I am grateful he can escape to the mountains for a bit of sanity and beauty.

TheMaharaja, we care about you! *HUGS*

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 262 of 312: John Tsatsaragos  (tsatsvol) * Sun, Jun 23, 2002 (13:00) * 60 lines 
I found this report very interesting even if this is one year old

AUSTRALIA: June 27, 2001

SYDNEY - For centuries, sailing has been about how to catch the wind. Now it is becoming a question of how to catch the sun.

Australian inventor Robert Dane has designed and built the world's first solar-powered ferry, the Solar Sailor, which is driven by both solar and wind power and took top prize in this year's Australian Design Awards.
"Solar energy and boats are at the same stage as where the Wright Brothers were when they were first developing the plane," says Tom Godfrey from the Australian Design Awards.

"The global potential for such an invention as the Solar Sailor is unlimited." The Solar Sailor offers an environmentally friendly alternative to conventional diesel-powered craft and has been operating commercially on Sydney Harbour for the last six months.

It combines four sources of energy - sun, wind, battery power with stored solar energy and a back-up fuel generator.

Capable of speeds of up to 7.5 knots on wind and solar power alone, the ferry's solar wings or fibreglass solar panels act as sails while absorbing sunlight and storing solar energy in batteries which power the ferry's electric motor. "We angle our solar panels to the sun in two planes which increases the amount of energy we get from the sun by 40 percent," Dane says.

"But also we can use that same structure to do another job which is also the sail, and so these wing sails actually provide propulsion to the vessel just like a soft sail does," he adds.

The solar ferry's hybrid power system of renewable and non-renewable energy is controlled by an onboard computer.

The computer monitors the sun and the wind and adjusts the angle of the solar wings to absorb most sunlight. If wind and sun are not readily available, stored energy in the batteries can run the electric motor for up to five hours.

A fuel-powered generator is a last resort.

"If the batteries are too low, then (the computer) turns the generator on so the boat is always able to meet a commercial schedule, or get from point A to point B no matter what the conditions," Dane explains.

The Solar Sailor has minimal wash and makes no noise, making it suited to urban waterways.

"When we do use the generator, we burn probably about 90 percent of what you would burn for a conventional vessel in terms of fuel, but we only turn the generator on 10 percent of the time, so there's less greenhouse gas emissions," Dane says.


The Solar Sailor technology had an unlikely genesis.

While reading a book on the evolution of insects, Dane was struck by how insects used their wings as solar collectors to warm themselves up before flying.

"When I read that, I realised there was a precedent in nature for what we were going to do, which was to use a solar wing to collect solar energy and also to sail," he says.

"Given that 90 percent of species on the planet are insects and 90 percent of insects fly, using their wings as solar collectors, it made sense to apply this logic to boats on Sydney Harbour where there is an abundance of wind and sun." Dane sees the solar wings technology as the future of sailing, with applications ranging from urban transport to commercial cargo ships.

He says the bigger the boat the more feasible the solar technology as the solar batteries needed to store the sun's energy and propel a bigger boat become lighter in comparison to the weight of a larger vessel.

While the cost of the technology is about 25 percent more expensive than that of a conventional motor cruiser, Dane believes the low maintenance required by the electric motor would eventually compensate for the initial price.

"We anticipate that the operator would get that back in maintenance and fuel savings within three to five years, depending on the usage," he predicts.

Dane says that transport officials in San Francisco, who are looking at expanding the city's ferry fleet, have expressed an interest in Solar Sailor and he is also targeting ferry and shipping operators in Japan and China, two major ferry markets.

Captain Cook Cruises, the largest ferry tour operator on Sydney Harbour, is leasing the first Solar Sailor and says it has been a hit among both tourists and locals.

"People are attracted to the clean technology," says the company's Allison Haworth. "It is an excellent way to utilise natural resources to provide a unique and environmentally sensitive experience of Sydney Harbour."

Story by Justine Toh



 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 263 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Jun 24, 2002 (13:41) * 1 lines 
Solar powered? Fascinating. I knew a solar powered sailing yacht was entered in one of the large sailing contests a few years ago but alas I cannot look it up since I am using my host's computer and AOL is not very cooperative! I'll be interested in knowing more about this technology!

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 264 of 312: John Tsatsaragos  (tsatsvol) * Tue, Jun 25, 2002 (03:14) * 8 lines 
Solar cell

Solar cell is semiconductor devised to convert light to electric current. It is a specially constructed diode, usually made of silicon crystal. When light strikes the exposed active surface, it knocks electrons loose from their sites in the crystal. Some of the electrons have sufficient energy to cross the diode junction and, having done so, cannot return to positions on the other side of the junction without passing through an external circuit. Since the current obtained from these devices is small and the voltage is low, they must be connected in large series-parallel arrays if useful amounts of energy are to be converted. Practical devices of this kind are about 10% to 15% efficient and are commonly used to provide electric power for spacecraft. For large-scale power conversion solar cells offer a number of practical problems; one of the most serious of these is the wide variation of output voltage and current accompanying changes in the amount of incident light.


 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 265 of 312: John Tsatsaragos  (tsatsvol) * Tue, Jun 25, 2002 (03:20) * 35 lines 
How do Solar Cells Work?

To understand the operation of a PV cell, we need to consider both the nature of the material and the nature of sunlight. Solar cells consist of two types of material, often p-type silicon and n-type silicon. Light of certain wavelengths is able to ionise the atoms in the silicon and the internal field produced by the junction separates some of the positive charges ("holes") from the negative charges (electrons) within the photovoltaic device. The holes are swept into the positive or p-layer and the electrons are swept into the negative or n-layer. Although these opposite charges are attracted to each other, most of them can only recombine by passing through an external circuit outside the material because of the internal potential energy barrier. Therefore if a circuit is made (see figure 3) power can be produced from the cells under illumination, since the free electrons have to pass through the load to recombine with the positive holes.

Figure 3: The Photovoltaic Effect in a Solar Cell

The amount of power available from a PV device is determined by;

the type and area of the material;
the intensity of the sunlight; and
the wavelength of the sunlight.
Single crystal silicon solar cells, for example cannot currently convert more than 25% of the solar energy into electricity, because the radiation in the infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum does not have enough energy to separate the positive and negative charges in the material.

Polycrystalline silicon solar cells have an efficiency of less than 20% at this time and amorphous silicon cells, are presently about 10% efficient, due to higher internal energy losses than single crystal silicon.

A typical single crystal silicon PV cell of 100 cm2 will produce about 1.5 watts of power at 0.5 volts DC and 3 amps under full summer sunlight (1000Wm-2). The power output of the cell is almost directly proportional to the intensity of the sunlight. (For example, if the intensity of the sunlight is halved the power will also be halved).

Figure 4: Graph showing current and voltage output of a solar cell at different light intensities.

An important feature of PV cells is that the voltage of the cell does not depend on its size, and remains fairly constant with changing light intensity. However, the current in a device is almost directly proportional to light intensity and size. When people want to compare different sized cells, they record the current density, or amps per square centimetre of cell area.

The power output of a solar cell can be increased quite effectively by using a tracking mechanism to keep the PV device directly facing the sun, or by concentrating the sunlight using lenses or mirrors. However, there are limits to this process, due to the complexity of the mechanisms, and the need to cool the cells. The current output is relatively stable at thigher temperatures, but the voltage is reduced, leading to a drop in power as the cell temperature is increased. More information on PV concentrators can be found later in this information file.

Other types of PV materials which show commercial potential include copper indium diselenide (CuInSe2) and cadmium telluride (CdTe) and amorphous silicon as the basic material.

Find complete description in this excellent site:


 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 266 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Jun 25, 2002 (10:09) * 1 lines 
Wonderful material,John. Many people use solar panels to heat water in Hawaii for household use. All though the US on the big roadways they use solar panels to power emergency telephones. I am certain there are many other uses of them in daily lives. My little calculators have them and even a lamp can make enough electricity to make it run well.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 267 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Jun 25, 2002 (10:10) * 1 lines 

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 268 of 312: John Tsatsaragos  (tsatsvol) * Wed, Jun 26, 2002 (05:33) * 23 lines 
You are certain that are existing many other uses of Photovoltaics Marcia. I will report some of them.

Photovoltaics can be used in a variety of environments, on Earth, Space and Mars.

A Photovoltaic powered battery charging system usually consists of a small PV array plus a charge controller. These systems can be used in a variety of applications:

For houses:
Emergency power systems.
Power for security systems.
Communicating systems such cell-phones, vehicle communications.
Computing systems such your laptop.
Auto-lighting your pleasure ground such as your courtyard.
Portable radio-receivers.
For other use:
Communications for vehicles.
Portable power supplies for camping and fishing.
Electricity consumer products such as watches, toys and calculators.
Vaccine and blood storage refrigerators for remote areas.
Aeration systems for ponds.
Power supplies for satellites and space vehicles.


 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 269 of 312: S B Robinson  (SBRobinson) * Wed, Jun 26, 2002 (12:17) * 3 lines 
Last I heard, it took more energy to produce a solar panel, than that solar panel would ever be able to create in its life time...
Is that still true? or have they improved it now?
Would be great to have a viable alternative... We Californian's are heartily sick of black outs! :-)

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 270 of 312: John Tsatsaragos  (tsatsvol) * Thu, Jun 27, 2002 (02:57) * 10 lines 
The average amount of radiant energy received by the earth's atmosphere from the sun is about 2 calories per min incident on each square centimetre of the upper atmosphere. Or with other words is about 1.353 Kilowatts per square meter. It is the same.

This value is known as Solar Constant. A small part of this energy is developable on Earth’s surface. Additionally, the efficiency of our receiving-converting systems is less than 20%. So, these are the main difficulties. We need enough big solar panels, for a sensible percentage of the energy that we need.

Today, the advancement of technology improved the efficiency and the cost of the needed installation, especially for hot water and electric power.

Perhaps you need a system with automatic re-charge batteries (i.e. like those that we use in cars) in California ES-BE. I have made one such system and I have it in use in my house. A power supply 12 V is keeping full a common car battery 12 Volts. I have installed also 5 (emergency 12 volt) fluorescent lighting fixtures in my house. So, I have light during blackouts for several hours. It works perfectly.


 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 271 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Jun 27, 2002 (13:33) * 3 lines 
John and my son David were cut from the same bolt of cloth (as we are wont to say here!) He has the same backup system in his house and definitely a power supply to keep his scanners and at least one CPU working. All of them are photo-voltaic. With the thunder storms they have where I am now, it would be wise to install the same, but in cities it is difficult to get enough sky room to charge cells for personal use - especially in high-rise buildings with small roof area.

I hope your family realizes what a treasure you are, John! You have planned well for every contingency. Knowing you has been an honor.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 272 of 312: John Tsatsaragos  (tsatsvol) * Fri, Jun 28, 2002 (02:54) * 14 lines 
I changed my way to think when I started to construct programs on my first ancient (Texas Instruments of 1979) computer.

-First, we have to see all the available data without vibes.
-Second, we must think all the possible phases of the problem.
-Third, we have to see what things we have available and what we can do with them. (If we can do something). Else, we must see in the market and ask experts.
-Fourth, we must summarise all the possible solutions.
-Fifth, we must find the best and the most economic solution. (Technical, secure and non-expensive solution).
-Follows the implementation.
Important is that if we are so impatient so many mistakes we will do.

It is a common way to programming correctly. So, it is not impressive that David and I we are like cut from the same bolt of cloth. The difference is the age and the place. David has advantage in both. This is very good for him. You must be proud for your son Marcia.


 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 273 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Jun 28, 2002 (13:15) * 3 lines 
I am proud of both of you. Differently, of course, on from the other. You have a supremely logical mind as does David. Mine is a bit less pragmatic and a lot more contemplative. I think you are not as impulsive as he is - or was. He seems to be coldly detached at times.

Sorry I brought my feelings into a discussion on something as important as the use of photovoltaic panels to save using fossil fuel. I have been admonished sufficiently. Thank you.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 274 of 312: John Tsatsaragos  (tsatsvol) * Wed, Jul  3, 2002 (05:09) * 29 lines 
By Whit Gibbons

A basic endeavor in the field of ecology involves attempts to explain the distribution and abundance of plants and animals. That is, why does a given species occur in some places but not others, and what determines how abundant it is? But in order to address the larger question of where organisms are found or not found, detailed studies must be conducted on specific aspects of their ecology. These detailed studies often take on a character and interest of their own while contributing to the larger question of what determines distribution and abundance.

During the past year, research on animals ranging in size from insects to marine mammals addressed a variety of questions relating to the basic ecology of certain species. Among the answers were those to the question of where seals go beneath the ice and what they do there. Along another line, scientists from Germany discovered how the smell of smoke is vital to the survival of certain beetles.

Randall W. Davis of Texas A&M University and his colleagues provided information on underwater hunting behavior of the Weddell seal, which is found in Antarctica and other regions of the southern hemisphere. Weddell seals use their incisors to cut holes in the ice when it is only a few inches thick and have been observed to have openings in ice more than six feet thick.

Weddell seals are phenomenal divers. Although they commonly dive to depths of 300-1000 feet (SCUBA divers seldom go below 200 feet) for periods of 25 minutes or less, some have been recorded to reach ocean depths of more than 1800 feet and to stay under water for more than an hour! However, some of the things seals do while they are under the ice for such long periods had not been resolved until this year.

Extensive research has been conducted previously on how large, terrestrial predators locate and stalk their prey. But little comparable information is available on the whereabouts and underwater behavior of large marine mammals. Consequently, where and how the nine- to ten-foot-long seals find prey or their behavior during the dive period is virtually unknown.

To keep a close track of what a seal does during a dive, what better way than a "seal-cam"? The investigators placed video systems and data recorders that measured depth, swimming speed, compass direction, and sound on four adult seals. The goal was to record their hunting behavior beneath ice in the Antarctic.

The recording devices revealed that the animals stalked cod and other large fish by diving beneath them to provide backlighting from the surface ice. The seals also were observed blowing bubbles into ice crevices to flush out a species of small fish that retreated there. The study not only uncovered heretofore unobserved behavior in seals but perhaps the most significant revelation was that the observations underscored the research opportunities available through use of video and advanced data-recording technologies.

Meanwhile, far, far away in a warmer and drier climate, evidence for how jewel beetles locate suitable egg-laying sites was investigated by S. Schuetz of Justus-Liebig University, Giessen, Germany, and colleagues. Jewel beetles, members of the metallic wood-boring beetle family, always lay their eggs in wood that was recently killed by fire.

The beetles were already known to have pit organs in the thorax, the central segment of the body, that serve as infrared receptors capable of detecting forest fires from great distances. I assume this means female jewel beetles ready to lay eggs will head toward the fire in anticipation of logs that have been cooked the way they like them. The researchers conducted laboratory experiments to find out if olfactory cues (that is, the sense of smell) are also used in the process of nest site selection.

What the scientists discovered was that the beetles use their antennae to detect the volatile compounds released from smoldering pine trees. Thus the beetles are capable of finding fire-damaged trees after the fire is over, without detecting a flame itself.

The intricate behavior of Weddell seals and jewel beetles is intriguing in itself, but equally amazing is how scientists unravel nature's mysteries.


 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 275 of 312: John Tsatsaragos  (tsatsvol) * Tue, Sep  3, 2002 (05:19) * 21 lines 
Global warming triggers public health warning

By Margot Higgins

Climate change could have a far-reaching impact on health patterns in the United States, according to a recent assessment by a broad coalition of scientists from academia, government and private industry.
The evaluation, published in the May 2001 issue of the Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives, identifies and examines five key health problems that could be influenced by global climate change. Those problems include heat-related illness and death, health effects related to extreme weather events, health effects related to air pollution, water-borne and food-borne diseases, and vector-borne and rodent-borne diseases.

"This assessment is not one of doom and gloom, but does warrant concern within the public health community," said co-chairman of the report Jonathan Patz, an assistant professor of environmental health sciences at the Bloomberg School of Public Health. According to the report, those people who face the highest health risk from climate change include the poor, the elderly, children and people with weak immune systems.

In order to reverse that threat, the report recommends improving the nation's public health infrastructure and increasing research efforts to fill crucial knowledge gaps about the connections between climate and health.

The assessment follows a report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. It found that Northern Hemisphere countries are expected to become hotter, leading to a rise in deaths from heat stroke in cities and the arrival of diseases that until now have been restricted to more tropical areas.

According to a 2001 National Assessment Document that was reported to Congress, annual temperatures in the U.S. are expected to rise between five and seven degrees Fahrenheit during the 21st century. With warmer air temperatures, certain regions in the United States can expect to receive an increase in events of heavy precipitation and drought.

More than 950 communities in the United States currently have combined sewer systems that service both sewage and storm water runoff. During periods of heavy rainfall these systems often discharge excess wastewater directly into surface water that may be used for drinking.

Source: Environmental News Network


 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 276 of 312: John Tsatsaragos  (tsatsvol) * Wed, Sep  4, 2002 (05:05) * 11 lines 
Giant Research Balloon Launched into Ozone Layer

(CANADA NEWSWIRE PHOTO/Environment Canada)

A giant research balloon, as tall as 25 story building, was launched into the ozone layer at 4:02 EDT on September 3, from Vanscoy, Saskatchewan, by scientists from Environment Canada, the Canadian Space Agency and the University of Toronto. The balloon will collect information on the effects of industrial chemicals and climate change on the ozone layer.

More: Canada NewsWire


 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 277 of 312: Paul Terry Walhus (terry) * Wed, Sep  4, 2002 (08:41) * 1 lines 
How long will it be up?

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 278 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Sep  7, 2002 (13:57) * 3 lines 
In California they have just discovered the first authenticated cases of West Nile Virus. Bioweapons are being made by very unstable people. I think concentrating on the ozone layer to the deficit of the other disasters possible is not a good idea. I like John's little dove with the olive branch in his beak. How much nicer the world would be if we all saw it that way!

I suspect the baloon will be up there until gravity brings it down again. How long is that? I suspect it is a rough guess.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 279 of 312: John Tsatsaragos  (tsatsvol) * Tue, Sep 17, 2002 (04:14) * 6 lines 
Recycled buildings? It's possible

Britain has opened a unique research centre to look at ways of using waste as aggregates for building just as an Australian-developed recycled building material has had to go overseas for funding. More

Complete story in News in Science

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 280 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Sep 27, 2002 (06:55) * 60 lines 
Rare vultures tagged and released by into the wild
By Soteris Charalambous

ON TUESDAY, a very rare Black vulture and two Griffon vultures were released by
the Forestry Department after being captured, tagged, and fitted with
transmitters, as part of the department's fauna conservation programme.

According to Haris Nicolaou, Assistant Forest Officer at the Forestry Department,
the presence of the Black vulture represents quite a fillip for Cyprus.

"For the Black vulture to come to Cyprus and remain here for so long suggests
the programme is going well. If we are lucky, others will come next winter with
the possibility that they will start breeding," said Nicolaou.

The bird is one of the largest birds of prey, weighing up to 13kg with a wingspan
of three metres but has been virtually extinct in Cyprus for approximately 20
years. The last of them are believed to have been shot for target practice by
Turkish soldiers camped in the Pentadactylos Mountain range years ago.

This Black vulture is approximately two to three years old and arrived
in December. It is believed to have flown from Turkey, Georgia or
Ukraine, attempting to avoid the heavy winter conditions, and trapped at a cage
in Ayios Ioannis in the Paphos District, tagged, and measured and then
fitted with a transmitter to enable its movements and habits to be studied.
Such practice mirrors a host of other European countries where the
bird's numbers have dropped to virtual extinction.

The fact that it arrived late last year having not been previously tagged is also a
'feather in the cap' for the island. "The black vulture is unique in Cyprus. It existed
in large numbers during the 80s but became virtually extinct because of
poisoning, illegal hunting and destruction of nesting sites," said Nicolaou.

The forestry officer was also keen to emphasise the importance of the survival of
the species. Often depicted as the harbingers of doom that swirl around helpless
victims in Westerns, their true role is that of 'nature's noble caretakers' according
to environmentalists. "They are very important creatures because they clean the
eco-system. They are exclusively carrion feeders and they prevent the spreading
of diseases because they only feed on carcasses and thus clean the
eco-system. They have to be protected and helped to recover to its former
numbers," said Nicolaou.

In addition to the Black, two Griffon vultures were also released after being
captured as part of a project launched 12 years ago by the Forestry department
for the conservation of Griffon vultures.

"We released them in accordance with an action plan launched by the UN
two years ago which we co-operate with to help Griffon numbers recover,"
said Nicolaou, "They used to be very common 20 years ago but present numbers
are down to 30-40 birds. During the 80s, there were more than 20 nesting
sites, now there is only one. We are trying to encourage the birds to breed further
inland at other fauna mating sites because they are very vulnerable. One
poisoning could wipe out these birds forever."

All three birds arrived on the island in good condition, but others that do not are
kept and looked after until they are ready to survive in the wild again. It has been
difficult to gauge quite how many vultures have been lost over the years because,
"there wasn't anybody studying them 20 years ago but we know for sure from
records of ornithologists in other countries and visitors here that they were in
good numbers in Cyprus."

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 281 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Mar 23, 2003 (13:58) * 7 lines 
Fuel cells promise to be the environmentally-friendly power source of the
future, but some types run too hot to be practical. NASA-funded research
may have a solution.


 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 282 of 312: Paul Terry Walhus (terry) * Sun, Mar 30, 2003 (11:19) * 3 lines

is the streaming audio version.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 283 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Apr  1, 2003 (00:16) * 3 lines 
Ah thanks! I get the information via email and I posted that.

We are now going through a CME. The DXing should be terrible.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 284 of 312: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Sat, May 10, 2003 (16:08) * 3 lines 
It's that time again to wish Gaia a Happy Mother's Day!

Also, a big Happy Mom's Day to Marcia, the "Mother of Geo" and Wolfie, the proud mom of two precocious pups. As well as Mother's Day felicitations to any and all other moms out there!

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 285 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, May 11, 2003 (00:54) * 3 lines 
Happy Mother's Day to BJ too... she has lots of furry dependent children!

Thanks for reminding me, Cheryl... Best wishes all roung, Ladies!

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 286 of 312: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Tue, May 13, 2003 (18:56) * 1 lines 
Sorry, that I forgot BJ who is a Mom to lots of furry, and perhaps even the occasional feathered, dependents. Hope that all of you had a Happy Mother's Day!

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 287 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Jul 30, 2003 (16:24) * 9 lines 
A New Form of Life

NASA scientists have discovered a new extreme-loving microorganism in
California's exotic Mono Lake


 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 288 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Dec 30, 2004 (14:45) * 11 lines 
Major Climate Change Occurred 5,200 Years Ago: Evidence Suggests That History Could Repeat Itself

COLUMBUS, Ohio -- Glaciologist Lonnie Thompson worries that he may have found clues that show history repeating itself, and if he is right, the result could have important implications to modern society.

Thompson has spent his career trekking to the far corners of the world to find remote ice fields and then bring back cores drilled from their centers. Within those cores are the records of ancient climate from across the globe.

From the mountains of data drawn by analyzing countless ice cores, and a meticulous review of sometimes obscure historic records, Thompson and his research team at Ohio State University are convinced that the global climate has changed dramatically.

But more importantly, they believe it has happened at least once before, and the results were nearly catastrophic to emerging cultures at the time. He outlined his interpretations and fears today at the annual meeting of the American Geophysical Union in San Francisco.


 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 289 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Dec 30, 2004 (15:00) * 9 lines 
On The Antiquity Of Pots: New Method Developed For Dating Archaeological Pottery

The contents of ancient pottery could help archaeologists resolve some longstanding disputes in the world of antiquities, thanks to scientists at Britain's University of Bristol. The researchers have developed the first direct method for dating pottery by examining animal fats preserved inside the ceramic walls.

Archaeologists have long dated sites by the visual appearance of pottery fragments found around the site. The new analytical technique will allow archaeologists to more accurately determine the age of pottery and, by extension, the age of associated artifacts and sites. The research builds on recent work that has shed light on the types and uses of commodities contained within the vessels.

The findings will appear in the Sept. 30 edition of Analytical Chemistry, a peer-reviewed journal of the American Chemical Society, the world's largest scientific society.


 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 290 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Dec 30, 2004 (15:04) * 1 lines 
I seem to have forgotten the scribble command. The above was posted in the wrong place. Sorry about that.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 291 of 312: Naropa U offers  (cfadm) * Sun, Mar  6, 2005 (10:04) * 39 lines 
ENV535e/ENV235e Gaia, Ecology and Evolution - 3 Credits

This online class runs in spring semesters. It is available both for credit and non-credit. Click here to find out when it is offered next and to register. Click here for tuition information. Click here to find out if you are ready to take an online class.

Course Description

Deep in the roots of human culture lies the notion that the earth is alive. Ancient stone effigies of fertility goddesses hint of a mother earth that was central in our earliest beliefs of a higher order. Gaia, the name given to the Greek goddess of mother earth, is also the name given to a recently formulated scientific theory that the earth is alive, a theory conceived and advanced by several notable scientists, including British scholar James Lovelock and American iconoclast Lynn Margulis. Gaia is the theory of the earth as an autopoietic, living system. No less alluring than the depictions in Greek mythology of Gaia the dancer, daughter of Chaos and mother of the Titans, Gaia theory and the science of geophysiology are founded on the fundamental idea that all the ecosystems of the earth operate and evolve coherently to achieve planetary self-regulation. This course provides a rare opportunity to learn and discuss current ecological, evolutionary, and complex systems approaches to understanding Gaia.

Reconciling Gaia theory with the accepted principles of ecology and evolution has, over the past decade, been the unifying theme for a host of geophysiological studies and syntheses, many of which will be considered in this course. The introductory lecture will include a chronology of the historical development of the Gaian principle in western science. This will be followed by overview lectures on ecology, evolution, complex systems, and Gaia theories. We will then attempt to rewrite earth's creation story based on a new synthesis of ecology, evolution, complexity, and certain cosmological principles. Attention in the course will then be given to describing the key ecological/geophysiological metabolisms sustaining Gaia today and on the empirical evidence relevant to their functions. There will then be a comprehensive treatment of humans' place in Gaia, especially regarding our species' involvement in global change and planetary consciousness. In the end we will consider the future of Gaia from a novel, in
ormed, and more hopeful perspective of both the earth and her people.

This is a required course for a completion of Master of Arts in Transpersonal Psychology with Ecopsychology Concentration.


Introduction to Gaia
Gaia Theory
Complexity Theory
Principles of Ecology
Principles of Evolution
The Origins of Gaia
The Ecology & Evolution of Gaia
The Ice Ages of Gaia
Geophysiology I - Atmospheric & Oceanic Regulation
Geophysiology II - Geologic & Geomagnetic Regulation
Exploration of Gaia
Humans and Gaia I - Global Change
Humans and Gaia II - Planetary Consciousness
Gaia and Ecopsychology
The Future of Gaia

Required Texts

The Ages of Gaia by James Lovelock, Norton & Co., New York, 1995.


 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 292 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Mar  9, 2005 (17:11) * 3 lines 
I just found this link and was amazed. Buddhist? I had no idea. It sure can't hurt anything to do this sort of study. To earn your keep with it is another thing. Are you attending? I'm all for advancing education no matter what age !!

Gaia lives. And we wondered if it was a good name for the topic. It appears the suggestion came from one way less conservative than I *;)

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 293 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Mar  9, 2005 (17:12) * 1 lines 
I seem to remember taking the above courses and calling it historical geology. Good stuff !!

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 294 of 312: Paul Terry Walhus (terry) * Thu, Mar 10, 2005 (06:58) * 1 lines 
I wish I had time to attend. But I'm not even attending sxsw this year, I've got so many down and dirty issues (eg. making a living).

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 295 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Mar 10, 2005 (22:03) * 3 lines 
Ah reality! I am still fighting a court case in Hilo so I may be going BACK there again to meet my adversary. Talk about venal people. I have exhibit A sitting across the courtroom from me. Where does it say I am responsible for his living for the rest of his life??!!

Go Terry! One day you may be old enough to retire *;)

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 296 of 312: Paul Terry Walhus (terry) * Fri, Mar 11, 2005 (08:25) * 1 lines 
I don't think it says that anywhere. I hope you can at least have a good time visiting the island.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 297 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Mar 11, 2005 (21:03) * 1 lines 
We had a great time visiting for the 6 weeks last time despite the heavy labor involved. Work hard and play hard was the rule of the day. Whenever and wherever we go, we determine to have a good time after taking care of business. It does wonders for the mind and body.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 298 of 312: Curious Wolfie  (wolf) * Fri, Mar 11, 2005 (21:09) * 1 lines 

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 299 of 312: Paul Terry Walhus (terry) * Sat, Mar 12, 2005 (06:24) * 1 lines 
So, has the home sold? You probably told me already, so excuse me if I'm repeating a question you've already answered.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 300 of 312: Paul Terry Walhus (terry) * Sat, Mar 12, 2005 (07:09) * 4 lines 
No question is a dumb question right?

Well, it's cool to say that to folks anyway.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 301 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Mar 12, 2005 (15:23) * 3 lines 
The money is in the bank in my name. It pays to sell to a local whose daughter-in-law is the agent and is doing it for her son to live in eventually. It took less than a month with just about no fees involved.

NO questions is dumb. If you want to learn, ask. That is the way we all do it. Please, none of us were born knowing everything !!! Please bring your questions here and we'll give it a go. That way we all learn !!!

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 302 of 312: Curious Wolfie  (wolf) * Sun, Mar 13, 2005 (18:20) * 1 lines 
exactly! glad that your house sold and you weren't robbed in the process!

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 303 of 312: Paul Terry Walhus (terry) * Mon, Mar 14, 2005 (12:19) * 1 lines 
Really, time is for closure on the whole house, Hilo, and nutcase ex boyfriend scenario.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 304 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Mar 14, 2005 (20:04) * 3 lines 
You won't like that I have to return to be sued for about a third of what I got for the house. That is at the end of April. So much for being nice.

Enough from the rain forest. I won't miss that at all. Here we had snow last night and some is still on the ground. Spring is only a few days away?!

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 305 of 312: Curious Wolfie  (wolf) * Tue, Mar 15, 2005 (19:01) * 1 lines 
we're having a cold snap with flurries expected in the hill's, it's cold and threatening to rain.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 306 of 312: Paul Terry Walhus (terry) * Tue, Mar 15, 2005 (21:31) * 6 lines 
Brrr is right wuffie. I stayed inside today and recorded children's stories.

I could use some feedback on whether or not they sound professional enought.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 307 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Apr 24, 2005 (19:15) * 1 lines 
checking... what a great thing to do, Terry !! I'm with Wolfie. Wwe holed up in the third floor cyber room with the heating turned on and pretended the rest of the cold world did not exist.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 308 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Apr 24, 2005 (19:16) * 3 lines 
Terry, there are tons of stories. Which oned did you do?

Happy Earth Day, Geo. Yesterday was her celebration !

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 309 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, May 11, 2006 (19:42) * 81 lines 



Once in the Jurassic about 150 million years ago, the Great Sun Buddha in this corner of the Infinite Void gave a discourse to all the assembled elements and energies: to the standing beings, the walking beings, the flying beings, and the sitting beings--even the grasses, to the number of thirteen billion, each one born from a seed, assembled there: a Discourse concerning Enlightenment on the planet Earth.

"In some future time, there will be a continent called America. It will have great centers of power called such as Pyramid Lake, Walden Pond, Mt. Rainier, Big Sur, Everglades, and so forth; and powerful nerves and channels such as Columbia River, Mississippi River, and Grand Canyon. The human race in that era will get into troubles all over its head, and practically wreck everything in spite of its own strong intelligent Buddha-nature."

"The twisting strata of the great mountains and the pulsings of volcanoes are my love burning deep in the earth. My obstinate compassion is schist and basalt and granite, to be mountains, to bring down the rain. In that future American Era I shall enter a new form; to cure the world of loveless knowledge that seeks with blind hunger: and mindless rage eating food that will not fill it."

And he showed himself in his true form of


A handsome smokey-colored brown bear standing on his hind legs, showing that he is aroused and watchful.

Bearing in his right paw the Shovel that digs to the truth beneath appearances; cuts the roots of useless attachments, and flings damp sand on the fires of greed and war;

His left paw in the mudra of Comradely Display--indicating that all creatures have the full right to live to their limits and that of deer, rabbits, chipmunks, snakes, dandelions, and lizards all grow in the realm of the Dharma;

Wearing the blue work overalls symbolic of slaves and laborers, the countless men oppressed by a civilization that claims to save but often destroys;

Wearing the broad-brimmed hat of the west, symbolic of the forces that guard the wilderness, which is the Natural State of the Dharma and the true path of man on Earth:

all true paths lead through mountains—

With a halo of smoke and flame behind, the forest fires of the kali-yuga, fires caused by the stupidity of those who think things can be gained and lost whereas in truth all is contained vast and free in the Blue Sky and Green Earth of One Mind;

Round-bellied to show his kind nature and that the great earth has food enough for everyone who loves her and trusts her;

Trampling underfoot wasteful freeways and needless suburbs, smashing the worms of capitalism and totalitarianism;

Indicating the task: his followers, becoming free of cars, houses, canned foods, universities, and shoes, master the Three Mysteries of their own Body, Speech, and Mind; and fearlessly chop down the rotten trees and prune out the sick limbs of this country America and then burn the leftover trash.

Wrathful but calm. Austere but Comic. Smokey the Bear will Illuminate those who would help him; but for those who would hinder or slander him...


Thus his great Mantra:

Namah samanta vajranam chanda maharoshana Sphataya hum traka ham mam


And he will protect those who love the woods and rivers, Gods and animals, hobos and madmen, prisoners and sick people, musicians, playful women, and hopeful children:

And if anyone is threatened by advertising, air pollution, television, or the police, they should chant SMOKEY THE BEAR'S WAR SPELL:





And SMOKEY THE BEAR will surely appear to put the enemy out with his vajra-shovel.

Now those who recite this Sutra and then try to put it in practice will accumulate merit as countless as the sands of Arizona and Nevada.

Will help save the planet Earth from total oil slick.

Will enter the age of harmony of man and nature.

Will win the tender love and caresses of men, women, and beasts.

Will always have ripened blackberries to eat and a sunny spot under a pine tree to sit at.


...thus we have heard...

(may be reproduced free forever)

With thanks to Æ for telling me about this poem reproduced from

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 310 of 312: Lucie  (alyeska) * Thu, May 11, 2006 (20:04) * 1 lines 
I can bring up your sites but have a problem talking on them. When I just tried to. send an e-mail it was refused.

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 311 of 312: geomancer (cfadm) * Fri, Jul 14, 2006 (13:27) * 7 lines

Kind of slow loading. But pretty cool site.

It's for kids mostly. Kind of like a gaia myspace.

Cool anime characters, you get to pick your own. Not that I would endulge in such childishness!

 Topic 4 of 99 [Geo]: Gaia:  Geological Ecology
 Response 312 of 312: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Jul 22, 2006 (12:46) * 3 lines 
Lucie, I'm sorry it has taken me so long to get back to you. I'll email you and see if it goes thru. I was wondering why I had not heard from you in a long time. Everything here is working as it usually does. AOL was very weird early in July. I guessed it was overuse. Try again.

Thanks for the Gaia online link. I will be reading it shortly. Thanks for keeping this alive while I was being perepetic, Geomancer. What a great name!

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