Prev topicNext topicHelp

Topic 7 of 99: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood

Sat, Jul 10, 1999 (20:34) | Marcia (MarciaH)
What they are, where they are and can you add them to your collection.
378 responses total.

 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 1 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Jul 17, 1999 (19:48) * 8 lines 
 
This is one of my favorite Geology subjects - an opinion not shared by my son. He hated it. But, I think he has the family fossils. For the record, a fossil is the remains of a formerly living organism in which each and every organic part has been replaced with rock (silica, usually) down to the minutest detail. Petrified wood is a good example. You can count the tree rings, and the bark looks like you could peel it off, but it is solid rock.

For those not into the very old and a little strange collecting of dead animal remains and what they left behind when they were here, allow me to introduce you to a few.
*Gastroliths* - these are the stomach stones from the belly of a dinosaur. You can tell that is what they are by their rounded appearance and the fact that they are found in bunches among the bones of the animal about where the midgut would have been. Technically, not a fossil, but I want one anyway!
*Coprolites* - This is something you likely would not want for an engagement ring, but it does get the most amazing reaction when you tell someone handling your specimen that it is fossilized dung left behind by those Jurrasic Parkers. If you find several and the teacher gets to have one, You will be treated very well, indeed!





 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 2 of 378: Annette Mercer  (laughingsky) * Mon, Jan 17, 2000 (19:27) * 4 lines 
 
I'll keep my eyes peeled for those, Marcia! (*grin)

Paleontology is one of my favorite subjects, too, Marcia! Not many folks around this area to talk to about it, though, so, I usually just read up. I've loved dinosaurs since I was a very small child, and, used to read the "Childcraft" books and World Book articles and stories about them. I'm minus satellite tv, right now, which means that I am missing all of those good shows on Discovery channel! Yikes! I frequently check out library books on paleontology, standing in line behind kids with history books a
d women with the romances. I get strange looks...then, again, I get those, anyway...:)


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 3 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Jan 18, 2000 (00:10) * 2 lines 
 
*lol* Annette, you are my kind of lady. People have long since given up on my being conventional. Check out Jurassic Park which is linked to Wolfie's and my SpringArk (really her idea, though!) It is hard to know which category best fits the coprolite. Precious or semi-precious stones...so I put them in Paleo.
I am jumping up and down Happy that you are here and also into this most esoteric branches of Geology. If ya find some, Talk to me...I have some pieces of the mantle which are all peridotite and look like finely ground peridots which is what it is!!!


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 4 of 378: Annette Mercer  (laughingsky) * Tue, Jan 18, 2000 (15:13) * 3 lines 
 
Happy to be here and discussing a most interesting subject, indeed!

Have you ever gotten your hands on the PIT (Passport in Time) magazine? I used to get one, every late winter, with all of the archaeology digs, etc. going on around the country that allowed "amateurs" to assist. Many interesting goings-ons! But, I moved, and, evidently, they don't forward, and, now, I can't find the address. I'll keep digging!


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 5 of 378: Annette Mercer  (laughingsky) * Tue, Jan 18, 2000 (15:14) * 1 lines 
 
"Digging"...hmmm...no pun intended, really...! ;)


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 6 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Jan 18, 2000 (17:09) * 2 lines 
 
Please keep digging. I currently subscribe to snailmail Archaeology, Odyssey, and Biblical Archaeology Review (Old Testament era archaeology)na dkeep up with my original love, British Archaeology on the net. Each spring the magazines publish digs which accept volunteers and how to get in touch and all that.
One of the most difficult things I ever did was to tear myself away from a huge pit in the middle of London which begged for volunteers to excavate finds before being covered by a skyscraper. Arrrrrgh!!!


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 7 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Jan 18, 2000 (17:11) * 3 lines 
 
uh...I dig your digging...*grin*

Never heard of that magazine but am most curious...


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 8 of 378: Annette Mercer  (laughingsky) * Tue, Jan 18, 2000 (18:22) * 1 lines 
 
I'll go a'searchin', then.....:)


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 9 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Jan 20, 2000 (14:25) * 50 lines 
 
The T-Rex Fossil
The fossil, currently owned by Detrich fossils, a
Kansas-based paleontological group, contains the
most perfect skull and largest teeth (some measuring
13 inches) ever discovered.

The fossil is nicknamed Mr. Z-Rex in honor of the
owners of the private property where the fossil was
discovered.
Bids for the T-Rex are beginning at $5.8 million. Appraisers believe a T-Rex fossil of this quality can
bring an additional $40 million in permanent, annual revenue to the museum that acquires it.
Mr. Z-Rex was discovered on October 6, 1992 by paleontologists Alan & Robert Detrich while
exploring fossil deposits on a private cattle ranch in northwestern South Dakota. The skull was found
in a sand formation. It is thought that the T-Rex died on the sandy shoreline of a prehistoric river, sea
or lake.
Mr. Z-Rex has the best skull with the largest teeth I have seen. The fossil is absolutely
breath-taking. This truly is the King of T-Rex's - a paleontologist's dream come true.
-Alan Deitrich
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
The specimen was excavated according to professional standards and transported without damage.
Skeletal elements have been exposed by partial preparation from the original undersurface of three
major blocks. These blocks contain, respectively, the skull, the presacral vertebrae, and elements of
the hind limbs and anterior portion of the tail. Great care was taken to collect all fragments of bone
from from the locality, which may permit the reassemblage of several bones which would otherwise
have been lost. Stabilization of the skeletal parts will present no unusual problems, and the
extraction of the bones from the sediment in which they are preserved will vary from relatively easy
to requiring considerable skill.

Details
Length of skull 1370 mm
Length of tooth row, left maxilla 560 mm (approximately)
Length of tooth row, left dentary 530 mm
Length of articulated cervicals from the anterior zygapophysis of C4 to the
posterior zygapophysis of C10 985 mm
Length of dorsal 4-6 taken at base of transverse processes 393 mm
Length of posterior dorsal vertebra 140 mm
Height of posterior dorsal vertebra 653 mm
Length of 13 articulated caudal vertebrae 2780 mm
Length of centra of two isolated caudals 152 and 132 mm
Length of femur 1330 mm Circumference of femur 588 mm (indicating a
weight of 5.5 metric tonnes)
Length of fibula 965 mm (approximately)
Length of metatarsal II 620 mm
Length of metatarsal III 750 mm
Length of metatarsal IV 640, 655 mm
Length of phalanx r-1 120 mm
The total length of the reconstructed skeleton is estimated to be
approximately 10.8 m (35 feet). The total reconstructed height at the hips is estimated to be
approximately 3.45 m (11.35 feet).



 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 10 of 378: Annette Mercer  (laughingsky) * Sat, Jan 22, 2000 (07:04) * 5 lines 
 
What a find! Think about a thirteen inch tooth...!

T-Rex...hunter or scavenger?

Opinions...???


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 11 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Jan 22, 2000 (11:32) * 1 lines 
 
He was the ultimate killing machine with powerful hind legs which allowed him to run down anything on earth. Nothing has even come clost to the T_Rex is the power concentrated in the enormous hind legs and the razor-sharp teeth.


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 12 of 378: Annette Mercer  (laughingsky) * Sat, Jan 22, 2000 (19:31) * 1 lines 
 
Definitely! I believe that T.Rex did whatever was necessary to survive, hunting or taking food away from others, having evolved into the "killing machine"!


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 13 of 378: Lucille Oftedahl  (alyeska) * Tue, Jan 25, 2000 (22:46) * 1 lines 
 
The news today showed a huge dinasaur egg in South Korea, at least twice as large as any other ever unearthed. Weird shape though, very long and narrow.


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 14 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Jan 25, 2000 (23:00) * 2 lines 
 
All the ones I have ever seen were long and narrow with blunt ends. I wonder what huge dinosaur was gonna hatch from that one. I am sure they will xray it.
Let me know if you hear anymore about it! Thanks Lucie!


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 15 of 378: Annette Mercer  (Laughingsky) * Tue, Feb  1, 2000 (13:23) * 24 lines 
 

Monstrous Dinosaur Found In Texas
Jan. 7, 2000 -- Texas paleontologists have discovered a hulking giant of a dinosaur with a neck more than 30 feet long and a vertebra weighing up to 1,200 pounds. The researchers say the fossil is probably by far the largest dinosaur ever found in the Lone Star State.

"This thing is just bloody enormous," says Homer Montgomery, a paleontologist at the University of Texas at Dallas, who along with his students found the creature in a wilderness area of South Texas’ Big Bend National Park last fall.

Montgomery and his team were able to haul out the two smallest cervical, or neck, vertebrae -- one weighing 367 pounds and the other 470 pounds -- by hand before leaving the dig for the winter.

Most of the creature remains in the ground near an established bone bed full of juvenile Alamosaurus remains dating to the Late Cretaceous, only a few million years before dinosaurs died out.

Alamosaurus, part of a dinosaur family known as titanosaurs, was the last of the long-necked dinosaurs called sauropods to roam North America, but is so far known only from scattered and broken remains. The 23-foot length of the new dinosaur’s neck may represent the largest intact section of the largest Alamosaurus ever found.

But its monstrous dimensions also suggest that it could be an entirely new species that exceeds the accepted 70-foot length of Alamosaurus adults by some 30 feet, Montgomery says.

"We know so little about this dinosaur that any find is important and something this large is doubly so," says Tony Fiorillo, a paleontologist at the Dallas Museum of Natural History who has also worked in Big Bend.

Montgomery plans to return to the remote desert site in February to remove more of the 10 vertebrae his team has already exposed and to excavate ribs and other bones protruding from the ground.

As the largest of the vertebrae measures more than five feet across and weighs about 1,200 pounds, a helicopter may eventually have to airlift the ancient creature out of the wilderness, says National Park Service geologist Don Corrick.

By Michael Milstein, Discovery News Brief





 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 16 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Feb  1, 2000 (14:19) * 3 lines 
 
Wow! Annette - didya see my wallpaper? It's back! Now I gotta go into the deep stuff and change the addresses for the other graphics...sigh...Maybe I better copy the information to file just in case. I'd hate to lose the entire conference in the configuring tweaking...!

Why am I not surprised that the mystery dinosaur was found in Texas?! It has to be the biggest baddest dino ever! Thanks for posting that.


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 17 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Feb  1, 2000 (14:22) * 1 lines 
 
Guess we gotta "remember the Alamosaurus," now?!


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 18 of 378: Annette Mercer  (Laughingsky) * Wed, Feb  2, 2000 (08:21) * 3 lines 
 
LOL, an Alamosaurus, indeed! ;-)

Wallpaper looks great - definitely save those files! Those are good conversations, as well as good reference material! :)


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 19 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Feb  2, 2000 (12:05) * 1 lines 
 
I save files of all topics which amuse and/or interest me...including your and my Screwed topics!


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 20 of 378: Annette Mercer  (Laughingsky) * Thu, Feb  3, 2000 (08:31) * 1 lines 
 
THOSE files could actually be used as "evidence"...! (*snickering)


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 21 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Feb  3, 2000 (12:47) * 1 lines 
 
Uhoh! shall I eat them? Hide them? hmmm... surely not as evidence of higher intelligence on Earth...*lol*


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 22 of 378: Annette Mercer  (Laughingsky) * Fri, Feb  4, 2000 (12:48) * 5 lines 
 
(I thought we vowed not to tell THEM about that.....)

(*looking cautiously over each shoulder)

;-)


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 23 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Feb  4, 2000 (17:41) * 1 lines 
 
....Sshhhhhhhh..... GULP! All gone!


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 24 of 378: Annette Mercer  (Laughingsky) * Fri, Feb  4, 2000 (19:04) * 3 lines 
 
Whew....!

I can breathe, again...


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 25 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Feb  4, 2000 (20:55) * 1 lines 
 
Those coprolite-flavored files were a little hard (*grin*) to swallow! Let's try a different flavor next time...!


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 26 of 378: Annette Mercer  (Laughingsky) * Sat, Feb  5, 2000 (02:53) * 1 lines 
 
LOL...ooooh, you're a reeeaal tough one, indeed!


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 27 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Feb  5, 2000 (10:50) * 80 lines 
 
Thanks, Annette, for sending this to me (via a different link, but this one posts better *grin*)

State Fossils

1. Alabama - archaeocete whale, Basilosaurus cetoides, Eocene
2. Alaska - woolly mammoth, Mammuthus primigenius, Pleistocene
3. Arkansas - none
4. Arizona - petrified wood, Araucarioxylon arizonicum, Triassic
5. California - sabertooth cat, Smilodon fatalis, Pleistocene

6. Colorado - dinosaur, Stegosaurus stenops, Jurassic
7. Connecticut - gigantic, three-toed dinosaur track,
Eubrontes giganteus, Triassic
8. Delaware - belemnite (cephalopod), Belemnite americana,
Cretaceous
9. Florida - sea urchin, Eupatagus antillarum, Eocene
(State Stone - agatized coral)
10. Georgia - shark's tooth, genus and species unspecified, Tertiary

11. Hawaii - none
12. Kansas - none
13. Idaho - Hagerman Horse Fossil, Equus simplicidens
(originally described as Plesippus shoshonensis), Pliocene
14. Illinois - Tully Monster, Tullimonstrum gregarium, Carboniferous
15. Indiana - none (crinoid did not survive legislative review)

16. Iowa - crinoid, genus, species unspecified, Upper Paleozoic
17. Kentucky - brachiopod, genus and species unspecified, Paleozoic
18. Louisiana - petrified palmwood, Palmoxylon sp., Oligocene
19. Maine - early vascular land plant, Pertica quadrifaria, Devonian
20. Maryland - gastropod, Ecphora gardnerae gardnerae, Miocene

21. Massachusetts - dinosaur tracks, genus and species unspecified,
Triassic
22. Michigan (State Stone) - Petoskey Stone, Hexagonaria
percarinata, Devonian
23. Minnesota - none
24. Mississippi - archaeocete whale, Zygorhiza kochii, Eocene
25. Missouri - crinoid, Delocrinus missouriensis, Carboniferous

26. Montana - duck-billed dinosaur, Maiasaura peeblesorum,
Cretaceous
27. Nebraska - mammoth, Mammuthus imperator mailbeni, Pleistocene
28. Nevada - ichthyosaur, Shonisaurus popularis, Triassic
29. New Hampshire - none
30. New Jersey - dinosaur (Hadrosaur), Hadrosaurus foulki,
Cretaceous

31. New Mexico - dinosaur, Coelophysis sp., Triassic
32. New York - eurypterid, Eurypterus remipes, Silurian
33. North Carolina - none
34. North Dakota - Teredo Petrified Wood, Paleocene
35. Ohio - trilobite, Isotelus sp., Ordovician

36. Oklahoma - none
37. Oregon - none
38. Pennsylvania - trilobite, Phacops rana, Devonian
39. Rhode Island - none
40. South Carolina - none

41. South Dakota - dinosaur, Triceratops prorosus, Cretaceous
NOTE: back in 1988 the state fossil was the cycad, Cycadopsida.
42. Tennessee - pelecypod, Pterotrigonia (Scabrotrigonia) thoracica, Cretaceous
43. Texas (State Stone) - petrified palmwood, Palmoxylon sp., Oligocene
State Dinosaur - Brachiosaur Sauropod, Pleurocoelus sp., Cretaceous.
44. Utah - dinosaur, Allosaurus fragilis, Jurassic
45. Vermont - Charlotte, The Vermont Whale (beluga whale),
Delphinapterus leucas, Pleistocene

46. Virginia - pelecypod, Chesapecten jeffersonius, Pliocene
47. Washington - Columbian Mammoth, Mammuthus columbi, Pleistocene
(State Gem - petrified wood, genus and species unspecified, Tertiary)
48. West Virginia (State Gem) - rugose coral, Lithostrotionella sp.,
Mississippian
49. Wisconsin - trilobite, Calymene celebra, Silurian
50. Wyoming -
State Fossil - fresh-water herring, Knightia sp., Eocene
State Dinosaur - dinosaur, Triceratops, Cretaceous




 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 28 of 378: Annette Mercer  (Laughingsky) * Sat, Feb 12, 2000 (07:15) * 2 lines 
 
Well, Marcia...remember my telling you about that dinosaur dig a few years in possibly (?) the Gobi where they discovered the remains of a "nameforgotten" with the crocodilish-type head and body similar to T-Rex? Just to let you know, it's driving me craaaazy until I find it! LOL, I am still tearing through boxes in the garage, knowing that I would have never thrown anything like that away!



 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 29 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Feb 12, 2000 (12:22) * 2 lines 
 
I am hanging on your every word and sending happy hunting vibes. Indeed, I remember your crocodile-headed wonder. Geez, I though I was the only one with boxes of that stuff I just could never imagine throwing away. If I can ever clear this house of the junk the resident male has stashed, I'm gonna got hrough them and put the articles in marked boxes in categories. and use the former office as my library!!!



 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 30 of 378: Annette Mercer  (laughingsky) * Sun, Feb 13, 2000 (09:45) * 1 lines 
 
LOL, I know the feeling! My resident male used to do the flea-market circuit, so, you can only imagine what the garage looks like!


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 31 of 378: World Builder  (MarciaH) * Sun, Feb 13, 2000 (13:55) * 1 lines 
 
Gadzooks! Not another flea market male?! Mine closed in my double garage and stacked it to the ceiling with metal shelves. We cannot even move in there, so he built a carport. Same! Built another carport. Alost same but our new car is sharing it...but truck was getting wet so built another separate garage. I said ENOUGH!!! Can't move in there, either, but that will have to do. We also have two vans parked on the lawn...and I do not drive! (Please, I know what I should have done years ago...!)


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 32 of 378: Annette Mercer  (laughingsky) * Fri, Feb 18, 2000 (09:36) * 1 lines 
 
Aaaaah, yes - another! I know all about the metals shelves, plus, stacks of LPs, antiques, collectible cards, furniture, old dishes, etc.,etc...heck, there may be a few fossils lying around out there - I just haven't found them, yet! :)


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 33 of 378: World Builder  (MarciaH) * Fri, Feb 18, 2000 (12:14) * 1 lines 
 
Might those fossils be old lovers best forgotten? We can make up a good story and pass it off like they did the Piltdown man...*lol*


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 34 of 378: Annette Mercer  (laughingsky) * Wed, Feb 23, 2000 (04:14) * 1 lines 
 
Ah, yes - it could work...for a while! There's gotta be a skeleton or petrified something-or-another out there...! Must dig around some more... ;)


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 35 of 378: Gi  (patas) * Wed, Feb 23, 2000 (07:13) * 3 lines 
 
Annette and Marcia, you do seem to have a hardtime with your RMs!
I hate clutter. When I moved into my appartment (wot! almost 4 years ago) I got rid of everything I did not truly like. Now I'm thinking I should move again ;-)
The US are so rich in fossils. We also have a couple or so dinossaurs around here, but I've never seen them, and don't even know what they are. One I think is just the footprints.


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 36 of 378: World Builder  (MarciaH) * Wed, Feb 23, 2000 (10:22) * 3 lines 
 
Oh Gi, there is one little problem.. MY stuff is not the problem. It is House male's clutter! Absolutely! That is why I hole up in the computer corner of the bedroom for refuge!

I heard yesterday that one of the most famous footprints of dinosaurs was man made with a chain saw!


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 37 of 378: Gi  (patas) * Wed, Feb 23, 2000 (10:38) * 2 lines 
 
Many interesting discoveries turn out to be frauds :-(
I had understood about the clutter being his... What I meant was, sometimes the only way to get rid of it is to move house!


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 38 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Feb 23, 2000 (11:58) * 1 lines 
 
...or move out the clutterer. I am considering it.


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 39 of 378: Annette Mercer  (laughingsky) * Thu, Feb 24, 2000 (04:16) * 2 lines 
 
LOL, I'm just afraid of going out to the garage and becoming on of those lost fossils, myself!
("Last time we saw her, she was going out there to find a lost family member...")


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 40 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Feb 24, 2000 (11:05) * 1 lines 
 
Yup! Know exactly what you mean. Even if I left a trail of bread crumbs, string or styrofoam packing thingies to help me find my way back, I am sure there is a monster living in there with the sole purpose of grabbing me and holding me inert for all time - sorta like Medusa.


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 41 of 378: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Thu, Feb 24, 2000 (16:39) * 1 lines 
 
Marcia is your significant other the one who keeps everything in the garage but the car?


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 42 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Feb 24, 2000 (17:11) * 1 lines 
 
YUP! Make that IO Insignificant Other, or OO Obsessive Other (the one I prefer as the O'O is an extinct Hawaiian bird - a striking similarity, actually!)


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 43 of 378: Wolf  (wolf) * Fri, Mar  3, 2000 (19:01) * 1 lines 
 
well, the AM in my lair likes to grab stuff off of garbage piles and fix them up. he's actually good at it except for a couple of barbecue grills out back. (he gives them away when he gets them running again-stuff like lawn mowers and weedeaters)....


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 44 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Mar  3, 2000 (19:24) * 1 lines 
 
Gads, yes! But for every one he gives away there are 3 waiting for a part off another salvage one which never seems to appear. *sigh*


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 45 of 378: Wolf  (wolf) * Fri, Mar  3, 2000 (19:32) * 1 lines 
 
been there, done that, no t-shirt :(


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 46 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Mar  3, 2000 (19:38) * 1 lines 
 
WAaaaaaaaaaa! Me too...=(


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 47 of 378: Wolf  (wolf) * Fri, Mar  3, 2000 (20:07) * 9 lines 
 
ok, i've got two fossils (or rocks with impressions on them):










 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 48 of 378: Wolf  (wolf) * Fri, Mar  3, 2000 (20:09) * 1 lines 
 
i've got all sides of the cylindrical fossil....


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 49 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Mar  3, 2000 (20:18) * 1 lines 
 
Thanks for the end-on shot of the columnar fossil. Too big for a crinoid...is it? It looks like a tiny palm tree truck the way the leaf scars appear in the top picture. Don't know...went to get my fossil book and found my Welsh Dictionary. *sigh* Do you have any idea what they are (were)? The on on the top right looks like a bivalve. A clam of some sort...


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 50 of 378: Wolf  (wolf) * Fri, Mar  3, 2000 (20:21) * 1 lines 
 
the column fossil looks like the inside of a mushroom (if you look inside it). and the measurements were in cm...don't know what a crinoid is!


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 51 of 378: Wolf  (wolf) * Fri, Mar  3, 2000 (20:42) * 3 lines 
 
fossil collections:

http://www.geocities.com/CapeCanaveral/Lab/8147/


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 52 of 378: Wolf  (wolf) * Fri, Mar  3, 2000 (20:47) * 1 lines 
 
i dunno, marcia, the pictures at http://bcrc.bio.umass.edu/Crinoid/ don't look anything like the fossil i have.....


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 53 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Mar  3, 2000 (20:53) * 1 lines 
 
These pictures are not very good about the crinoid stems - they are like sea anemones (animals) but are called sea lilies. The stems look like a stack of Smarties. All of their pictures show only head of the animal where the frond-like appendages wave in the water catching plancton for food.


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 54 of 378: Wolf  (wolf) * Fri, Mar  3, 2000 (20:55) * 1 lines 
 
i know...the picture of the living ones looked like centipedes......


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 55 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Mar  3, 2000 (22:41) * 1 lines 
 
Wow...that is a change. The ancient ones looked like tiny palm trees with a long stalk standing upright and feathery "arms" at the end collecting food by waving in the current like a tree in the breeze.


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 56 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, May 12, 2000 (17:49) * 26 lines 
 
Morocco finds 65-million-year-old reptile bones
RABAT, May 12 (Reuters) - Moroccan experts have discovered
remains of a 65-million-year-old reptile species about 200 kms
(125 miles) south of Rabat, an official said on Friday.
"On May 5 (they) found three skeletons of what was identified as
the mesosaurus species in the phosphates-rich area of
Khouribga," the mines ministry official told Reuters.
Ministry experts were alerted by local farmers in the village of
Oulad Bouali, near Khouribga, who reported having unearthed
"strange skeletons", he said.
"It is apparently the first time that this kind of species has been
found in Morocco. According to the first estimate, these
skeletons date back around 65 million years ... A scientific
analysis and assessment of this discovery will be announced
later this year."
The authoritative newspaper Liberation said a group of French
experts had joined the Moroccan researchers to help pin down
"the age and nature of these species".
Mesosaurus were early reptiles dating back up to 250 million
years. An slim, aquatic animal about one metre (3.3 feet) long, it
lived in freshwater lakes and ponds.
Khouribga is located in a basin that millions of years ago was
covered by Atlantic Ocean waters, which created a fertile
environment for such reptile species, experts said.




 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 57 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, May 15, 2000 (12:02) * 10 lines 
 
Hominids in Europe - Pre-humans go out of Africa.

Three skull dug from under a medieval town in the former Soviet Republic of Georgia and dating back 1.7 million years may represent the first pre-humans who migrated out of Africa and into Europe, researchers said on Thursday.The skulls look like those of early humans who lived in East Africa at the same time, and a wealth of tools found at the site look like tools made by the African pre-humans.

Previously Thought Too Primitive This is surprising because archaeologists had
believed the species of hominid, called Homo ergaster, was too primitive to have made the long and difficult journey from African savanna to the challenging terrain of Europe. “These constitute the first well-documented humans that came out of Africa,” Reid Ferring, a geologist and archaeologist at the University of
North Texas at Denton who worked on the study, said in a telephone interview. “We suggest that these hominids may represent the same species that initially dispersed from Africa and from which the Asian branch of H. erectus was derived,” the team of U.S., Georgian, French and German scientists wrote in their report, published in the journal Science.

The rest of the story is available at
http://www.abcnews.go.com/sections/science/DailyNews/hominid_caucasus000512.html


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 58 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, May 24, 2000 (22:36) * 59 lines 
 
Hunting Prehistoric Hurricanes
Storm-tossed sand offers a record of ancient cyclones
By J. Travis

to better look forward, investigators have decided to look
further back in time. As part of a fledgling discipline called
paleotempestology, they've begun to search for signs of
hurricanes that predate recorded history.

At the forefront of this effort is Kam-biu Liu of Louisiana State
University in Baton Rouge. By unearthing sand layers
deposited by massive hurricanes in coastal lakes and
marshes, his research group has identified storms that have
struck the U.S. coast over the past 5,000 years. In February,
Liu described his results at the annual meeting of the
American Association for the Advancement of Science in
Washington, D.C.

"It's the first time we've been able to peer back before the
historical record to see how hurricanes vary in time," says
Kerry A. Emanuel of the Massachusetts Institute of
Technology, who would like to use such data to test whether
the anticipated global warming will increase the number of
severe hurricanes.

Scientists aren't alone in taking an interest in
paleotempestology. Most of the field's funding comes from the
Risk Prediction Initiative, an effort bankrolled by insurance
companies in need of better data with which to predict the
odds of a severe hurricane landfall in a specific region.
Considering that category 4 and 5 hurricanes can cause
billions of dollars in damage, the future of these insurance
companies may rest on the accuracy of their estimates.

Paleotempestology "is a nice scientific challenge, but it's
[also] got a very practical outcome," notes Thompson Webb III
of Brown University in Providence, R.I., who has conducted
work similar to Liu's.

When the category 4 hurricane ripped through Galveston in
1900, wind and rain alone produced significant damage and
some loss of life. But as in many such tempests, the real killer
was the flooding by the storm surge. Hurricane winds blowing
over shallows near a coastline can raise up a dome of salt
water 50 to 100 miles across. This storm surge can send up
to 25 feet of water into the region where a hurricane makes
landfall.

If a lake or marsh sits not far from the coast, the storm surge
may also leave an enduring imprint of the hurricane. Sand
from the ocean floor or beach can be thrown inland with the
water, eventually settling to the bottom of the lakes or marshes
in a discernible sediment layer that records the storm's
impact.


More of the story at http://www.sciencenews.org/20000520/bob2.asp




 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 59 of 378: anne hale  (ommin) * Thu, May 25, 2000 (06:09) * 1 lines 
 
okay which is you Marcia?


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 60 of 378: anne hale  (ommin) * Thu, May 25, 2000 (06:09) * 1 lines 
 
okay which is you Marcia?


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 61 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, May 25, 2000 (12:33) * 1 lines 
 
The one in the white shirt.


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 62 of 378: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Sat, May 27, 2000 (04:17) * 1 lines 
 
I think I must still be asleep - where's the pic marcia?


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 63 of 378: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Sat, May 27, 2000 (04:18) * 1 lines 
 
oops - is that the one you sent me?


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 64 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, May 27, 2000 (12:49) * 1 lines 
 
Yup - but it is also in the Travel conference in the Hawaii topic...where you and Terry were wandering around Hilo. Wouldn't it be fun to bump into you on your perigrinations?! (Virtual bumping is not as satisfying, somehow...)


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 65 of 378: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Sat, May 27, 2000 (14:31) * 1 lines 
 
You never know ....


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 66 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, May 27, 2000 (15:58) * 1 lines 
 
...this is true...and I might bump into someone who lives even closer - not at all out of the realm of possibility....


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 67 of 378: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Sat, May 27, 2000 (16:21) * 1 lines 
 
Hmmmm *severe look* *grin*


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 68 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, May 27, 2000 (17:30) * 1 lines 
 
*laugh* He is still at his computer - rest easy. Did you check the most recent post in Geo 2. it is amamzing and terrifying at the same time!


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 69 of 378: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Sun, May 28, 2000 (05:56) * 1 lines 
 
on my way ...


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 70 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Jun 18, 2000 (18:29) * 42 lines 
 






Science News Online - Week of June 17, 2000; Vol. 157, No. 25

Neandertals' diet put meat in their bones
B. Bower
Neandertals' bones preserve a
story of their consuming passion
for flesh. Telltale chemicals in
two fossils now portray
Neandertals as avid meat eaters
who hunted often and skillfully.
Neandertals lived in Europe and
the Middle East from about
130,000 to 28,000 years ago.
The new information counters a
theory that they mainly
scavenged scraps of meat from
abandoned carcasses, says a
team led by archaeologist
Michael P. Richards of the
University of Oxford in England.

"Our findings provide conclusive proof that European
Neandertals were top-level carnivores who lived on a diet of
mainly hunted animal meat," contends team member Fred H.
Smith, an anthropologist at Northern Illinois University in
DeKalb.

Richards' group analyzed the proportions of stable forms of
carbon and nitrogen in bone samples from a Neandertal jaw
and skull fragment. A preponderance of carbon signals heavy
consumption of plants in the last few years of an organism's
life; nitrogen's dominance betrays intense meat eating. The
finds came from a 28,000-year-old Croatian cave (SN:
10/30/99, p. 277).

More...http://www.sciencenews.org/20000617/fob4.asp


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 71 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Jun 21, 2000 (19:40) * 69 lines 
 
Fossil insects in rocks
By Xavier Martínez-Delclòs & Ed Jarzembowski

The fossil record of insects contrary to what we think, is abundant
and very diverse. If outcrops with fossil insects are rare compared
to those with other kinds of invertebrates, especially marine ones,
then they compensate by yielding large number of specimens and taxa.
The fossil insects are often well preserved and articulated, allowing
morphological comparisons with Recent forms, adoption of the same
systematic system, and inclusion in phylogenetic studies.

Fossil insects also occur as disarticulated remains, especially
wings, and various trace fossilsrecording ancient activity. In the
fossil record we have feeding traces (on leaves), colonial structures
such as termite nests and combs, galls, burrows etc. In the same
outcrops, insects can be found from different habitats, both aquatic
and terrestrial.

There is also evidence of palaeobiological associations such as
symbiosis, parasitism, commensalism, phoretic associations, and
examples of co-evolution.

The earliest reference to fossil insects is by Gaius Plinius Secundus
- Pliny the Elder (24-79 B.C.). In his work Naturalis Historia, he
described amber and the insect inclusions in it. In this period
another writer, Marcus Valerius Martalis (40-104 BC) poetically
described the occurrence of fossil insect inclusions.

HOW INSECTS FOSSILISE: factors which favour the preservation of
fossil insects.

Insects, because of their delicate exoskeleton, have usually been
considered by palaeontologist as soft bodied organisms! This is true
for example of some holometabolous larvae but it is not a good
description of the exoskeleton of common adult beetles (Coleoptera).
Nevertheless, if we compare insect preservation with invertebrates
possessing hard, mineralised exoskeletons, then insects need some
special conditions for fossilisation.

As always in the fossil record, the chances of preservation are
directly related to the degree of mineralization of the skeleton: in
insect, the sclerotisation or hardness of the exoskeleton is
significant. For this reason, we often find isolated parts such as
tegmina of cockroaches and elytra of beetles at outcrop. Chitin, one
of the principal compounds of the insect's cuticle, is one of the
most abundant biopolymers on Earth, it is more resistant to
degradation than protein, for example, but it is rarely preserved in
the fossil record. Usually, during diagenesis, chitin is transformed
to other organic compounds.

Another factor that favours the preservation of insect remains is
those individuals that lived in habitats close to or forming part of
the sedimentary palaeoenvironment such as lakes or lagoons; in the
case of amber, those insects living around resin-producing trees. It
is worth noting that, in terrestrial strata, the preservation of
chitin is more likely than in marine deposits (Stankiewicz et al.,
1998).

Insects are often found in rocks formed in lakes because they either
live in them, e.g. mayfly and dragonfly nymphs, adults of aquatic
heteropterans and coleopterans, or around the lake (terrestrial
insects) e.g. in the Lower Cretaceous of Montsec (Spain). Sometimes,
it is possible to find insects in lagoons or marine sediments, for
example in the Upper Jurassic of Solhnofen (Germany) where marine
animals such as the horseshoe crab (Limulus) and jellyfish occur with
terrestrial insects. In such cases, insects have been transported
into the depositional environment.

More at...http://www.ub.es/dpep/meganeura/52inrocks.htm


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 72 of 378: Ian Greenwood  (judgedred) * Mon, Jul 31, 2000 (16:40) * 1 lines 
 
A new convert to Geology, I have spent a weekend collecting fossil Trilobites, Graptolites and Tentaculites in Shropshire, England. They are all contained in mudstones which flake to dust as you touch them. Can anyone give me any ideas on how to preserve these fossils, is varnish a suitable coating?


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 73 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Jul 31, 2000 (23:12) * 2 lines 
 
Let me check my sources and get back to you tomorrow (most of them are in the middle of the night at this hour in the US). I am delighted you found such lovely fossils. I am more than a little bit envious! Welcome to Paleo and Geo.
Aloha Ian!


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 74 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Aug  2, 2000 (16:25) * 9 lines 
 
Ian, here is what I found doing a http://www.google.com search for "preserving fossils"

http://www.museums.org.za/sam/resource/palaeo/cluver/collecti.htm
This site mentions fast-setting glues.

http://www.anatomy.usyd.edu.au/danny/anthropology/sci.anthropology.paleo/archive/september-1995/0166.html
This site contains a discussion with threads at the bottom you might wish to follow.

In a pinch, I'd suggest you try (on some isignificant one)placing the specimen on a coffee can lid or other heavy plastic from which you can peel the hardened fossil later, then pouring come colorless (clear) acryllic nail polish over the fossil. Do not try to brush it on. Let dry till thoroughly hardened. There are casting epoxies and acryllics available in hobby and craft stores. You might try there for suggestions. Let us know what works!


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 75 of 378: Cocco  (Coccosteus) * Sun, Aug  6, 2000 (13:21) * 5 lines 
 
Hello there!
I'm looking for news about Suchomimus. I did read about it and it said that it looked like "a huge Baryonyx" anything new about?
I'd like to know too, about the true use of Smilodon fangs... tool or weapon?
One more thing: Were were the Sinopa fossiles found?
Thanx ;)


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 76 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Aug  6, 2000 (16:38) * 1 lines 
 
Thank you for posting such challenging questions. In the absence of anyone else looking into the answers, I shall now go hunting. My favorite thing to to (well, one of them, anyway!) Again, thank you for posting, Cocco, and Welcome to Geo!


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 77 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Aug  6, 2000 (16:57) * 18 lines 
 
http://dinosaur.uchicago.edu/Suchomimus.html


The illustration of suchomimus on the left was drawn by Dr.
Sereno; dinosaur artist Micheal Skrepnik created the fleshed
out version on the right,


"Crocodile mimic from theTénéré"
Long, narrow snout for catching fish
Discovered in Niger
Fossils 100 million years old
36 feet long, 12 feet high
Predator




Was this what you were looking for???


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 78 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Aug  6, 2000 (17:22) * 5 lines 
 
The image on the right:






 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 79 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Aug  6, 2000 (18:11) * 1 lines 
 
Still working on the Sinopa Fossils. A google search came up empty but I am determined. Interesting about the fangs...still workingon that too. *hugs*


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 80 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Aug  6, 2000 (20:12) * 19 lines 
 
More on your Alligator - saur (might we post one of your sketches of same here??)

http://www.prehistorics.com/suchomimus.htm
With a face like that, it would have to be a "crocodile mimic".

Suchomimus was discovered in the Tenere Desert of the west-central African country of Niger. Africa is a continent that is poorly understood in terms of dinosaur evolution. But this discovery along with Spinosaurus from Egypt in 1915, and Baryonix from England in 1983, have helped piece together a
picture of the therapod group Spinosauridae.

The skull features of Suchomimus point to a snatch and secure hunting style. Eating slippery prey items such as fish, large eels or something we just do not know of yet.

The head was very narrow and filled with about a hundred small conical shaped teeth, much like a crocodile. This kind of tooth shape is good for puncturing and gripping as opposed to tearing. It also
helps that the upper and lower teeth meshed together squarely to hold prey firmly once grabbed . The skull also has a hard palate separating the mouth from the nasal passages helping to reinforce the narrow skull from stress forces created by struggling prey and head shaking. Suchomimus also probably had a large gular or throat pouch, perhaps similar to what pelicans have, that expanded to hold large fish just prior to being swallowed head first, considering the narrowness of the jaws.

Suchomimus was found in rocks about a hundred million years old, putting it in the lower Cretaceous period. The skeleton was 36 feet long and is not considered to be full grown. The humerus, radius and ulna (arm bones) had very large flaring crests, especially at the elbow joint, which served as attachment sites for obviously huge muscles. The fingers were tipped with equally massive claws: The thumb claw alone was 16 inches long! These arms must have played an important role in grappling prey. Perhaps the arms helped to tear off huge chunks from prey that was too large to swallow whole.
Suchomimus was obviously powerful enough to subdue large animals.

Another curious feature were the tall neural spines of the vertebrae. Their function is open to speculation. see the page on Acrocanthosaurus for more discussion on these strange vertebrae.




 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 81 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Aug 10, 2000 (00:57) * 20 lines 
 
Concerning the SINOPA fossils, this from
http://www.britannica.com/bcom/eb/article/8/0,5716,28288+1+27844,00.html

Creodonta

order of extinct, primitive carnivores first found as fossils in early Tertiary deposits of Mongolia (the Tertiary Period lasted from 66.4 to 1.6 million years ago). The creodonts
evolved from Late Cretaceous mammals (the Deltatheridia), became the early
dominant carnivores, and reached the peak of their number and diversity during the
Eocene Epoch (between 57.8 and 36.6 million years ago). The creodonts retained
numerous archaic traits. The brain was small and primitive, and the skull was relatively
long and low. Prominent crests present on the skull served for the attachment of
well-developed chewing muscles. Two main families are distinguished: the Oxyaenidae
and the Hyaenodontidae. The oxyaenids, long-bodied, weasel-like animals with short
legs, first appeared during the late Paleocene Epoch (more than 57.8 million years
ago) and were extinct by the end of the Eocene Epoch. The hyaenodonts were more
diverse and abundant than the oxyaenids and had proportionately longer limbs. Some
forms grew to large size and paralleled the evolution of later, more advanced
carnivores, including the sabre-toothed cats. The hyaenodonts were active predators
and persisted much later than the oxyaenids. Some were able to compete with the
true carnivores and survived into the late Tertiary. Well-known genera of hyaenodonts include Sinopa and Hyaenodon.


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 82 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Aug 10, 2000 (01:07) * 43 lines 
 
Regarding the SMILODON
http://www.lam.mus.ca.us/cats/encyclo/smilodon/



Saber -toothed Cat
Smilodon fatalis



Size: The saber-toothed cat was the size of the modern
African lion.

Habitat: Probably lived on grassy plains and in open
woodland.

Primary prey: The saber-toothed cat probably
killed prey larger than themselves, such as ancient horses and buffalo but may have also taken smaller animals like
antelope and deer. They may also have eaten carrion .

Conservation Status: Became extinct around 11,000 years ago.

Distribution: North America and South America.

Notable Features: Of all the animals known from Rancho La Brea, the saber-toothed cat, sometimes called
the saber toothed tiger, most vividly captures the imagination. It has been named the state fossil of California.
Bones from nearly 2,000 individuals have been recovered from Rancho La Brea.

Although the saber-toothed cat has no close living relatives, paleontologists reconstruct how the saber-toothed cat
looked by comparing its bones with those of large cats living today. Very powerful front legs and a short tail
indicate that saber-toothed cats used stealth and ambush rather than speed to capture their prey.

Recent investigations suggest that the saber toothed cat probably used its long canines to bite open the soft belly of its prey.
Some fossils show healed injuries or diseases that would have crippled the
animal. Some paleontologists see this as evidence that saber-toothed cats were
social animals, living and hunting in packs that provided food for old and sick
members.

Two different types of saber-toothed cats lived in the Americas 12,000 years ago. One type was the
familiarSmilodon fatalis, discussed above. The second type was the Scimitar Cat (Homotherium serum). Both
cats had enlarged canine teeth although the canines of the Scimitar cat were shorter, about 4 inches compared to
Smilodon's seven inch canines. Some of the differences can be seen by comparing a photo of the skull of the
Smilodon (image courtesy of the U.C. Berkeley Museum of Paleontology) with that of a drawing of a Scimitar Cat
(image courtesy of the The Illinois State Museum).


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 83 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Aug 10, 2000 (01:14) * 4 lines 
 
Do my posting cover your questions? If so, send me on another chase for information since that is how I learn, too. If not, I will hunt further for your information. Again, Thank you for sharing your interests in fossils. If all else fails you can check this url to see what Coccosteus really looks like!
I just might post it if you do not have a sketch of it for me to post...
http://www.personal.u-net.com/~paleomod/p97/g-cocco.htm



 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 84 of 378: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Wed, Sep  6, 2000 (10:48) * 8 lines 
 
Wednesday September 6 7:56 AM ET
http://dailynews.yahoo.com/h/nm/20000906/sc/india_fossil_dc_1.html

Prehistoric Elephant Fossil Discovered in Kashmir

GALLANDER, India (Reuters) - Geologists in Indian-administered Kashmir said Wednesday they had excavated a 50,000-year-old elephant fossil, the first of its kind to be discovered in the Himalayan valley.``Our team of experts is working on it and in a few days we will reveal the proper details. Not only in Kashmir...it must be the largest ever known in the world,'' said G.M. Bhat, a teacher in the Geology and Geophysics Department of Kashmir University.
He said the fossil showed a skull five feet by four feet with complete lower and upper jaws, a broken tusk two feet and nine inches long and a vertebra.
The fossil was found after four days of excavation at Gallander near saffron fields nine miles south of Srinagar, the summer capital of Jammu and Kashmir state.``Its age we think is about 50,000 years, and the basis of our claim are rocks above this (fossil) which have been carbon dated approximately 50,000 years back,'' local geologist Abdul Majid Dar said. He added that a search for other parts of the fossil was on.


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 85 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Sep  7, 2000 (16:07) * 1 lines 
 
Fossil Elephant? Not Spanish? I had no idea elephants as we know them had ever been fossilized. I learned even more today. I like that! Thanks, Maggie, luv!


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 86 of 378: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Thu, Sep  7, 2000 (16:15) * 1 lines 
 
I try, I try ......anything to give you a smile....


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 87 of 378: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Thu, Sep  7, 2000 (16:27) * 20 lines 
 
West Runton Elephant Project
http://www.zagni.co.uk/elephant.htm
(I can't find a date on the site for this posting....site updated 1999)

One of the major events to happen in Norfolk in recent years has been the discovery of the oldest and largest fossil elephant skeleton ever to be found in Britain. Heavy seas during the winter of 1990 eroded the cliffs at West Runton and had revealed a tantalising glimpse of large-fossil bones. Part excavations took place in the following years until funds became available to allow a full excavation to take place during 1995. Since then painstaking research and conservation work has been undertaken at the Norfolk Rural Life Museum sited in Gressinghall.


It has been found, from examining the fossilised teeth, that the elephant is an early form of mammoth, Mammuthus Trogontherii. When alive, some 600,000 - 700,000 years ago, the mammoth would have had an estimated height at the shoulder of four meters and weighed an incredible 10 tonnes. To protect the largest fossil piece, the skull and one tusk, the fossils were wrapped in a plaster jacket and a steel frame-work was constructed to minimise damage in transit from the find site to Gressinghall. To allow the conservation work to be undertaken all of the protective materials, including the steel framework, were to be dismantled but this would cause a problem. How could you support such an awkward shape, with an estimated weight of up to 500 kgs, during the conservation work?, and then how could you safely transport the fully conserved piece from Gressinghall to it's final resting place at the Norwich Castle Museum? A further problem also came to light once conservation work started, the bones were not fully f
ssilised! This meant that the bones were in a fragile state much worse than had been anticipated.

Zagni International Freight offered their services in the form of sponsorship to solve this problem. An assessment was made and a highly specialised transit case was designed. The first stage was to provide a base to allow the conserved skull and tusk to be attached to it. Once secured it would be unable to move again due to its fragile state. The weight also formed a problem as it would mean that any movement would have to be made by mechanical means, i.e. a forklift truck or crane. During lifting a normal base would bend slightly which could possibly cause the fossil to crack. Vibrations during handling and subsequent transit to Norwich could also contribute to the possibility that cracking may occur. A highly specialised base was constructed, using heavy timbers and anti-vibration, doughnut-shaped feet, to a total thickness of 33cms/13 inches to ensure minimal risk of cracking. The skull and tusk, encased within its protective plaster jacket and steel framework, had to be raised using four jacks and ste
l bard to allow the base to be slid beneath it. A layer of barrier foil was placed on top of the base to ensure that the likelihood of penetration from moisture of sap contained within the wood, which could cause possible further damage to the fossils, was kept to an absolute minimum. The foil was in turn coated with a layer of heavy duty plastic to protect it from falling debris during the conservation work. The second and final stage is to be undertaken during 2000, when the conservation work has been completed. Wooden sides and a lid will be attached to the base with screws, thus reducing the risk of vibration, protection from the elements and to reduce the risk of damage if accidentally knocked. Zagni International Freight are providing their own vehicles to carry the wooden case and other fossilised remains from Gressinghall to the Norwich Castle Museum. To reduce vibrations from the uneven road surface and from the vehicles engine if stood still a Police escort is to be arranged. Travelling at speeds
s slow as 20mph will potentially cause a traffic hazard and it is intended for the vehicles not to stop until reaching the Castle Museum. As a result, the vehicle will have to be waved through road junctions and traffic lights. We are sure that this will attract a lot of media attention, certainly locally if not nationally, so be sure to keep your eyes and ears open when the time comes.

Further information can be obtained from the Norfolk Museum Website which can be found at
http://www.paston.co.uk/users/ncm/






 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 88 of 378: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Thu, Sep  7, 2000 (16:29) * 2 lines 
 
Here's the latest report I can find on the West Runton Elephant
http://www.paston.co.uk/users/ncm/elep_now.html


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 89 of 378: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Thu, Sep  7, 2000 (16:48) * 36 lines 
 

http://www.geo.tu-freiberg.de/~horna/geoafr/bbb.htm
Africa,
The Paleozoic Era.
The Paleozoic Era consists of the Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian, Carboniferous, and Permian periods and includes two major mountain-building episodes. The continent of Africa may be said to have taken shape during the Paleozoic. A glacial period during the Ordovician is evidenced by widespread deposition tillites, which may be seen in southern Morocco, throughout western Africa, and in subequatorial Africa as far south as Namibia. This tillite sequence marks the transition from the end of the Precambrian to the beginning of the Cambrian Period.

Marine fossils of the Cambrian Period (544 to 505 million years ago) are found in southern Morocco, the Western and Mauritanian Sahara, and Namibia. In Egypt and in the Arabian Peninsula, their presence has been revealed by drilling. Elsewhere, they remain unknown.


During the Ordovician Period (505 to 438 million years ago), fossiliferous marine sandstone completely covered northern and western Africa, including the Sahara. The Table Mountain sandstone of South Africa constitutes its only other trace. This period is, in addition, remarkable for broad, large-scale deformation of the African crust, which raised the continental table of the central and western Sahara by approximately 5,000 feet (1,500 metres). Each emergence resulted in the creation of valleys that became flooded when the continent subsided. Toward the end of the period, the Sahara became glaciated, and tillites and sandstones filled the valleys. A complete change of sedimentation characterized the Silurian Period (438 to 408 million years ago); this is indicated by the deposits of graptolitic shales (those containing small fossil colonies of extinct marine animals of uncertain zoological affinity) in the Arabian Peninsula and in northwestern Africa.


Marine fossils of the Devonian Period (408 to 360 million years ago) are found in North Africa and in the Sahara. Traces also have been discovered in parts of Guinea, Ghana, and Arabia, as well as in Gabon; they also occur in the Bokkeveld Series of South Africa. Fossilized plants that include Archaeosigillaria (ancient club mosses) may be traced in formations of the earlier Devonian Period in the Sahara and in South Africa (Witteberg Series).


The Carboniferous Period (360 to 286 million years ago) was marked by the onset of several major tectonic events. Evidence of marine life that existed in the earlier part of this period comes from fossils found in North Africa, the central and western Sahara, and Egypt. During the middle and later parts of the Carboniferous, the Hercynian mountain-building episodes occurred as a result of collision between the North American and African plates. The Mauritanide mountain chain was compressed and folded at this time along the western margin of the West African craton from Morocco to Senegal. Elsewhere, major uplift or subsidence occurred, continuing until the end of the Triassic Period (i.e., about 208 million years ago). These structures were synformal (folded with the strata dipping inward toward a central axis) in the Tindouf and Taoudeni basins of western Algeria, Mauritania, and Mali and antiformal (forming a mountainous spine or dome) at Reguibat in eastern Western Sahara.


The Late Carboniferous Period is represented throughout the Sahara by layers of fossilized plants and sometimes--as in Morocco and Algeria--by seams of coal. Different phenomena may be observed, however, in the region of subequatorial Africa, including the Dwyka tillite, which covers part of South Africa, Namibia, Madagascar, an extensive portion of the Congo Basin, and Gabon. At several places in South Africa, these Dwyka strata are covered by thin marine layers that serve to demarcate the transition from the Carboniferous to the Permian Period and that form the beginning of the great Karoo System.


Marine fossils of the Permian Period (286 to 245 million years ago) are visible in southern Tunisia, in Egypt, in the Arabian Peninsula, on the coasts of Tanzania, and in the Mozambique Channel. Elsewhere, traces of the Permian are of continental rather than marine origin and are included in the Karoo System in South Africa. There, the Lower Permian strata are known as the Ecca Series and are divided into three groups: the Lower Ecca (containing almost 1,000 feet of shales), the Middle Ecca (some 1,650 feet of sandstone, seams of coal, and fossilized plants), and the Upper Ecca (about 650 feet of shales again).


The Upper Permian is represented by the lower part of the Beaufort Series, which continued forming into the Early Triassic Period. The Beaufort Seriesis almost 10,000 feet thick and is famous for its amphibian and reptile fossils; a similar series is also found in the southern Soviet Union. Other Permian formations, not as rich in coal, occur in Zaire, Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, and Madagascar.


The absence of primary marine formations throughout southern Africa should be emphasized. It is not yet known whether this absence is due to a hiatus in deposition or to erosion.

source: Encyclopaedia Britannica








 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 90 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Sep  9, 2000 (15:15) * 3 lines 
 
Marvelous, Maggie!!! Can Spanish fossil elephants be far behind?! With Fossilized mangoes or it does not count (this is a very inside joke with someone too busy using his valuable time online talking privately with me...*sigh*)

Back to studying rather than downloading the entire 80's rock genre from Napster before the big money yanks the privilege from the masses...


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 91 of 378: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Thu, Sep 14, 2000 (12:04) * 21 lines 
 
Human Fossils and the Flood

Introduction
Could some fossil human bones and teeth that occur in caves be the remains of people who lived before the flood, who were destroyed in the great catastrophe? It seems unlikely that these cave sites all represent deliberate burials, or that whole races of man actually lived in caves in the past; the deeper recesses of cave systems are generally inhospitable places for man. It also seems implausible to say people kept falling down crevices and potholes, to become trapped inside caves, an explanation sometimes invoked to explain the presence of animal fossils in caves, which often include creatures that do not normally inhabit caves.
Many of the human fossils in European caves are Neanderthal types, a race which has become extinct. These were powerful, muscular people, such as Genesis 6:4 suggests was characteristic of at least some of the races of the antediluvians.

Most accounts of the human fossils mention stone implements associated with the fossil remains, which, if true, seems incompatible with an interpretation of these fossils as those due to drowning and burial in sediments of the flood, but perhaps there are other possible explanations for these objects. One suggestion is that investigators have mistaken naturally broken pebbles and stones of flint for tools worked by man. Dr Chris Stringer of Britain's Natural History Museum is quoted as saying:

"The argument is that these things may not be human artifacts at all. If you look at enough pebbles, you'll see some that look as if they have been artificially shaped." (The Times, 21 June 95, page 16. Cited in Britain's 'Oldest' Man.)
Genesis 4:22 indicates that the use of iron and brass was known to man before the flood, so, from a creationist viewpoint, it would seem that the evolutionary ideas of a "stone age" in man's early history may be simply misguided. Yet there are tribes still around, or that existed until quite recent times, that used primitive "stone age" technology, such as the Australian aborigines.

Some human fossils occur without alleged "tools" associated with them, but occur along with bones of extinct animals, which appears to fit the idea of these being the remains of antediluvian people. Some finds may represent reburials of fossil remains of flood victims. However, probably not all human remains from the caves are those of antediluvian man; some could represent burials of those who died since the flood, as suggested in the story in Genesis 25:9 about the burial of Abraham in a cave in Palestine. Where fossils occur lying in a fetal position, it seems to be a good indication of a deliberate burial.

The table below presents a list of some of the human fossils. Since about 6,000 human fossils are known, this is only a representative sample. In this list, the evolutionary sequence that is usually imposed on the fossil data has been discarded; references to dating schemes and associated implements, etc. have been dropped, as these involve interpretation. Other data that may possibly be appropriate for a proper interpretation may have been omitted. I encourage comments and suggestions for additions to the list and about any further details that may be relevant. I suggest that for a Creationist understanding of the human fossils, one should perhaps start with bare data, stripped of interpretations, (which is sometimes difficult to do) and consider how it may best fit the information God has provided us in Genesis about human origins. This list attempts to present bare facts; the order of fossils listed is roughly that of discovery, not the evolutionary one seen in most text books.

The statements in Genesis 6:1-13 about the conditions in antediluvian times may be helpful for our interpretation of these fossil finds; a possible mechanism by which they came to be buried in the caves is suggested by my disintegration theory of the drift. It is interesting and significant to note how many of the fossils listed below are from caves. I would be interested in hearing about other significant fossils that could be added to the list, and especially about references to the details on particular circumstances of burial of the fossils, as this seems especially relevant to the proper interpretation.

For the rest of this article go to
http://www.sentex.net/~tcc/humfoss.html




 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 92 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Sep 14, 2000 (20:19) * 1 lines 
 
Oh Maggie!!! Thanks for putting this here. I posted something yesterday when the news first broke - in archy (Geo 17) I think... Fascinating!!! Bob Ballard is a highly-respected scholar and can be trusted. I am delighted he is making this discovery rather than someone with a religious axe to grind!


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 93 of 378: Dimday  (Coccosteus) * Sat, Sep 30, 2000 (09:56) * 6 lines 
 
Greetings Marcia.
I decided to come again and bother you some more :p
Could you help me with the Coelophysis cranium?
I'm going to make a pic of it, and my books have Coelophysis skeletons, but the detail is not really accurate.
I hope you can help me :)
See you and Thanx!


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 94 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Sep 30, 2000 (12:42) * 1 lines 
 
Aloha, Cocco! What a delightful surprise to find you posting again. My happiness seeing you here is even more wonderful because you have sent me off on another hunt for an elusive fossil. Your interest and questions are what helps me learn about creatures which are new to me. Thank you...I am off to hunt down some information for you! By the way, perhaps you know this, but all should know that you are NEVER a bother, except in the most delightful sense of the word. *Hugs*


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 95 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Sep 30, 2000 (16:26) * 0 lines 
 


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 96 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Sep 30, 2000 (16:30) * 35 lines 
 
From: http://www.dallasdino.org/dinoworld/Coelophysis.cfm


Pronunciation:
see-lo-FISE-iss
Translation:
Hollow Form
Also Known As:
Rioarribasaurus
Description:
Carnivore, Bipedal
Order:
Saurischia
Suborder:
Theropoda
Infraorder
Ceratosauria
Micro-order

Family:
Podokesauridae
Height:
4 feet (1.2 meters)
Length:
9 feet (2.7 meters)
Weight:
100 lbs (45.5 kg)
Period:
Late Triassic

Coelophysis was an early theropod that is thought to have lived in family groups and hunted in packs.
Much of what is deduced of Coelophysis behavior is based on the hundreds of well-preserved skeletons
found at Ghost Ranch, New Mexico. Coelophysis has recently been renamed "Rioarribasaurus," but
some researchers believe that these are two different animals.



 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 97 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Sep 30, 2000 (16:53) * 5 lines 
 
From: http://www.abc.net.au/dinosaurs/dino_playground/gallery/dried/coelophysis.htm#






 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 98 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Sep 30, 2000 (18:51) * 11 lines 
 
This URL has great a great Cranial shot on it but takes too long to load to put it here: http://www.geocities.com/jeff_charity/Coelophysis.html

A museum diorama showing several angles of the head and entire body:
http://www.statemuseumpa.org/Paleo/Coelophysis%20Dioramam.htm

http://www.clpgh.org/cmnh/jurassic/fctcoelo.html

Please set me to work again if this is not sufficient for your use. My pleasure is fulfilling requests! Please let me see your interpretation when you are finished (or as you work on it...) - I am most curious! This Coelophysis has a vicious set of teeth!





 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 99 of 378: Carys  (Carys) * Sat, Oct 14, 2000 (12:59) * 1 lines 
 
Great reading! I really have nothing intelligent to contibute to this discussion. But I love reading it.


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 100 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Oct 14, 2000 (19:38) * 1 lines 
 
Thanks for being interested and reading - and, most especially, for saying so. My heartiest greetings and warmest hugs to those who pause long enough to appreciate Paleontology. There are not a lot of us around, but those of us who do so are my special treasures.


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 101 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Oct 16, 2000 (16:58) * 7 lines 
 
Per the request on post 93 of this topic, I posted several sources of Coelophysis cranuim images and a few here, as well. True to his word, he not only created the image he wanted, he is allowing me to post it here. He has also said he would do running for me which I will also post as soon as he has completed the artwork. Many thanks, Dimday. You add immeasurable pleasure to
a topic which I also find fascinating.


Coelophysis
(image created by Dimday © )



 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 102 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Oct 16, 2000 (16:59) * 0 lines 
 


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 103 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Oct 16, 2000 (17:09) * 1 lines 
 



 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 104 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Oct 16, 2000 (17:12) * 3 lines 
 
Mental note: Close embolden brackets before submitting. If you have to post a second time to correct the problem of non-closure, do not delete the post with the closure html and expect it to work, anyway.

Thanks, again Dimday. Your art made my day. I wish I could use the animal fonts here that you sent. Hmmm... thinking of how to do that....


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 105 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Oct 17, 2000 (17:47) * 7 lines 
 
The man has done it again. He sent me this one today and it is even more spectacular than the other one to me. Thank you, love!


Coleophysis running
Image by Dimday ©




 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 106 of 378: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Tue, Oct 17, 2000 (18:10) * 3 lines 
 
Would coleophysis have been a sprinter or run distance?

The art is impressive.


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 107 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Oct 17, 2000 (18:38) * 3 lines 
 
I would guess a sprinter but with that build, I think he can run until he catches what he wants to eat.

*beaming smiles* that you like his art. He is gifted and you should see the actual art he can create with standard sketching impliments! Now, to convince him...!


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 108 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Oct 18, 2000 (20:10) * 21 lines 
 
T.Rex Was a Terrifying, But Familiar Predator Says Scientist
By The Independent
October 12, 2000

TYRANNOSAURUS REX, the `king of dinosaurs', was
probably not a rare, terrifying sight. The discovery of five
skeletons in different places this summer suggests that in
the age of the dinosaurs, the building- sized carnivores
were actually a common and still terrifying sight.

The effect of the discovery could be to depress prices of
the skeletons, and to ensure that future finds will be
preserved for scientific examination.

Jack Horner, director of paleontology at the Museum of
the Rockies, Montana, who was the inspiration for the
dinosaur film Jurassic Park, led this summer's team. He
told New Scientist magazine: "They are basically a dime
a dozen."

more... http://www.ngnews.com/news/2000/10/10122000/toomanytrex_3134.asp


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 109 of 378: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Thu, Oct 19, 2000 (18:50) * 1 lines 
 
A smaller version of Tyrannosaurus Rex was found in Canada several years ago. The skull was CAT scanned to determine if it was a juvenile or an adult. The speciman was determined to have been an adult, even quite old when it died. There were enough differences from T. Rex for it to be classed as a different genus. It was called Nanotyrannus, or pygmy tyrant.


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 110 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Oct 19, 2000 (19:21) * 1 lines 
 
Fascinating. I did not know that. Gonna see if I can find a representation of the Nanotyrannus...or enough to entice my artist to create one...even though he much prefers things crocodilian...(his representation of self as such will be posted somewhere in Geo. I am still pondering the best place to put him. It must be special, because he is very special to me!


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 111 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Oct 19, 2000 (20:02) * 11 lines 
 
Only one drawing by someone I do not know and did not like the representation and since I have a far superior artist willing and ready to render sketches for me, I shall hunt further to see what is available. Google.com or google.net (they were smart enough to register both names) came up with only 4 hits, 2 of which were for toys without pictures! Cheryl, can you help find something? How did you hear of this mini-predator of scary appetite?

http://www.starcarver.com/FieldPage2.htm
Recently (during the late 90's) while excavating dinosaur bones in South
Dakota, Montana, and Wyoming, we (paleontologist types) have been finding
teeth that looked like they came from T. rex. However, they are usually too small
to be from an adult T. rex. They have been labeled Albertasaurus, a cousin of
Rexy. The problem with this is there are no Albertasuarus bones found in the Hell
Creek sediments. Now they are considered to be from a much smaller version of
the T. rex called Nanotyrannosaurus rex.



 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 112 of 378: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Sat, Oct 21, 2000 (10:22) * 3 lines 
 
I found out about the little tyrant from television of all places. It was mentioned on an episode of "Nova" on PBS. That particular segment was on carnivorous dinosaurs, so of course T. rex and relatives were prominently mentioned. The funny part was that the Nanotyrannos skull had to be taken to a hospital to be CAT scanned. As mentioned, that was done to determine beyond a doubt that it was an adult specimen.

I'll check to see if there are any good representations of Nanotyrannosaurus rex out there in cyberspace.


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 113 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Oct 21, 2000 (13:09) * 1 lines 
 
Thanks! I did the www.google.com search and came up just about empty. Then Altavista...*sigh* Your help is most appreciated!


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 114 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Oct 28, 2000 (15:27) * 3 lines 
 
Cheryl outdid me - she came up with an awesome site of great modelling and text I cannot read. However, it is certainly worth a visit. Mahalo, and hugs, Dear!

http://village.infoweb.ne.jp/~kobo/KINRYU/NANO.htm


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 115 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Nov  1, 2000 (20:05) * 18 lines 
 
News item like this scare me - A LOT!!! My precious artist and Paleo enthusiast lives in Barcelona! Awaiting hearing from him so I can breathe again!


Bomb Explodes in Barcelona, Injuring Two-Radio
MADRID (Reuters) - A car bomb exploded in central Barcelona
early on Thursday injuring two people, in an attack that bore
the hallmarks of the Basque separatist group ETA, Spanish state
radio reported.
The blast, which caused substantial damage to buildings in
the area, came two days after a Supreme Court judge, his driver
and bodyguard were killed in a car bombing in Madrid.
There have been no claims of responsibility for either
bombing, but ETA normally waits weeks to do so. The guerrilla
group has been blamed for 19 killings since it called of a 14
month cease-fire last December.





 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 116 of 378: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Tue, Nov  7, 2000 (15:53) * 1 lines 
 
Have you heard any news from Barcelona?


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 117 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Nov 13, 2000 (16:58) * 3 lines 
 
Never know where to put Neanderthal material, so I am puttin gthis link here and in Archaeolgy, thanks to Dar of Yahoo's anthropology club. It is a great site and the club is full of informative epople with a passion for the the subject.

http://www.neanderthal-modern.com/index.html


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 118 of 378: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Sat, Nov 18, 2000 (12:06) * 1 lines 
 
There are a lot of interesting theories about Neanderthals. One of the more interesting is that they could not interbreed with Cro-Magnons. Of course, there is the theory that they could and did; which resulted in their loosing their distinct identity and being absorbed into the population at large.


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 119 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Nov 18, 2000 (13:28) * 1 lines 
 
I tend to think that the latter has more going for it than the former. How else to explain some of the throw-backs which tried to date me in college?! (just kidding...)


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 120 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Jan 14, 2001 (18:31) * 73 lines 
 
Claims of Neanderthal-Human Mixing Leave Some Cold

WASHINGTON (Reuters) - The out-of-Africa theory is not dead,
anthropologists and other experts said, despite two studies that
challenge the idea we are all descended from a single African "Eve."
U.S. and Australian researchers published two reports that used
physical and genetic evidence to suggest there may have been mixing
of pre-humans with modern species.
They said they had proved wrong the mainstream out-of-Africa theory
-- that the ancestors of all living humans emerged from Africa some
50,000 years ago and either killed off or out-competed all other
human-like creatures who settled across much of the world.
One study used genetic evidence that suggested "Mungo Man" -- an
Australian skeleton dated to between 40,000 and 60,000 years ago --
is genetically unrelated to Africans. The researchers, Gregory Adcock of
Australian National University and colleagues, said their finding showed
the first modern humans evolved in Australia, not Africa.
Another, published in Friday's issue of the journal Science, analyzed
physical features of early human skulls to suggest there must have
been interbreeding among the migrating Africans and resident
Neanderthals and even Homo erectus species of pre-humans.
"There never was a marauding band of Africans," University of Michigan
anthropologist Milford Wolpoff, who led the second study, said in a
telephone interview.
"It certainly means that the "Eve" theory, the replacement theory,
seems to be wrong."
The Australian team and Wolpoff and colleagues belong to the
"multiregionalist" school of human evolution. They believe humans
evolved around the world at roughly the same time, and that they
probably mixed with earlier species such as Neanderthals and Homo
erectus.
The out-of-Africa school says that all earlier humans died out and were
replaced by a small group from Africa who quickly conquered the world.
Some experts say the two theories are not incompatible -- although
they predict a fight over the latest studies.
FINGER-POINTING AND EGOS
"There might be a lot of finger-pointing and name calling and debate
that is more heat than light," said Peter Underhill of Stanford
University, who has published genetic studies that date our common
ancestors to an African man who lived 59,000 years ago and an African
woman who lived 143,000 years ago.
"But I don't think it torpedoes the recent out-of-Africa scenario at all. I
don't think these two papers are going to turn the world of human
evolution on its head."
It does not matter whether early humans mixed or evolved into
"modern" forms in more than one place, Underhill said. The
out-of-Africa theory holds only that one lineage finally held sway, either
through luck, better genes, or a combination of the two.
We are all descended from that lineage, he said. "Everyone on Earth
today is very closely related," he said.
"It might suggest that there was some hybridization with moderns and
possibly other modern lineages that existed 60,000 years ago that are
now extinct, or it is possible there was some kind of hybridization with
some sort of archaic human that lived in the past," Underhill added.
"But no one is walking around so far in Europe with Neanderthal
(genes)."
So if both theories can co-exist, why argue? "Egos, egos, egos,"
Underhill said. "Scientists are human."
Clark Howell, a professor emeritus of human evolution at the University
of California Berkeley, agreed.
"There is a tendency in some instances for some people at some
times ... to jump to very wide, sweeping conclusions," he said. "In my
view these two studies don't upset any apple carts that are known."
In other words, modern humans may have indeed evolved in places
other than Africa. They may even have mated occasionally with
Neanderthals, who did live at the same time and in the same places.
But genetically, they have since died out.
"If we are looking for the ancestry of modern people, where people
alive today came from, where their genes came from -- if there was
such hybridization it is negligible. It is impossible to find today," Chris
Stringer, head of human origins at London's Natural History Museum
and an architect of the out-of-Africa theory, told Britain's Guardian
newspaper.


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 121 of 378: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Tue, Jan 16, 2001 (17:52) * 1 lines 
 
There was a competing "Eve" theory to the Out-of-Africa hypothosis: being that the female ancestor which modern humans can be traced back to lived in Asia. One of the reasons cited for the lack of success of such a theory is that in the in the world of paleoanthropology, theories which relate to Africa are favored over those pertaining to other parts of the world.


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 122 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Jan 16, 2001 (20:47) * 1 lines 
 
There has been some problem in using mitochondrial DNA as the determinant since it is non-nuclear and less reliable. I think the jury will be out for a long time on the *Eve* theory.


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 123 of 378: marshall smyth  (marshallsmyth) * Thu, Feb  1, 2001 (21:10) * 1 lines 
 
hi everyone. neanderthals and humans did mix! that's why i am alive.


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 124 of 378: marcia's marshall  (marshallsmyth) * Thu, Feb  1, 2001 (21:17) * 1 lines 
 
i love marcia!


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 125 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Feb  1, 2001 (21:37) * 1 lines 
 
Marshall!!! Welcome and *gasp* Oh my!!! Trust me about this man. He is not a Neanderthal in any sense of the word. I love you, too!


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 126 of 378: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Mon, Feb  5, 2001 (18:46) * 1 lines 
 
Poor Neanderthals! I thought that more recent research indicated that they have a worse reputation than they deserve.


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 127 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Feb  6, 2001 (19:27) * 8 lines 
 
a little adult humor...

According to archaeologists, for millions of years Neanderthal man was
not fully erect.

That's pretty easy to understand considering how ugly Neanderthal
woman were.



 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 128 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Feb  6, 2001 (19:28) * 1 lines 
 
Actually, I rather like Neanderthals - especially the male who is commonly known as the Red Lady of Pavilland - buried with red ochre and flowers. How primitive is THAT?!


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 129 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Feb  8, 2001 (16:12) * 38 lines 
 
from: http://clubs.yahoo.com/clubs/geneticsandevolutionclub

in the 25 january issue of "nature" magazine, page 504 is a description of a new species of dinosaur. most good
libraries carry nature magazine, especially college libraries. i mention this article because i would like everyone to
see how a new species discovered paleontologically is described these days. there is a paragraph in bold at the
beginning often called an "abstract" which is like a summary designed to introduce what the article is about. the title
of the article attempts to catch the eye with as few stringently chosen words as possible. under the title are the
authors names. usually there is more than a single author, the researchers involved. their institutions are stated using
different kinds of semaphores. for new species, a brief partial taxonomy is given, with the name of the discoverer
of the taxon, and when the taxon was discovered. a new taxon has a period of time before various taxonomic and
systematic societies accept it. a description of how the new name came about is given, called etymology. here, one
often hears about greek and latin derivations, but also tribute names of countries, cities, peoples, tribes, and even
names of songs. in this case, the name of an inspiring songwriter. then they describe where the holotype specimen
is, what it consists of. a holotype is the most similar other specimen already known. this is important. then they give
an anatomical account of the actual specimen parts they found, calling these referred specimens. localities and
horizons is next. this involves a geographic description of where the specimen was found, and the geological
description is given. they use terms such as stratigraphic horizon, which makes it quite cool to know something
about geology. geologists have scientific magazines too. also, all through, you will notice that things are given
numbers. parts are numbered. if you have memory to spare, memorize them. if you are like the rest of us, just be
able to recognize the number if it is referred to later in the article. the main part of the article is the description
section. there will be drawings and photographs given captions. usually at least a simplified postulated standard
phylogeny is also given, with a caption. (count the syllables here) stratigraphically calibrated cladogram of
phylogenetic relationships. cladograms are what many who make a postulated phylogeny for a new species, or for a
correction, use. there actually is software that scores the traits, homologs and apomorphies, so that closeness of
relationship can be decided on. i can see that new software will be needed very soon. after the description, the
dates that nature received and accepted the original article is given. this can involve months or years. throughout
the article, reference numbers are given here and there, and a listing of these references is given after the date of
acceptance. these are usually articles from other journals, and sometimes the journals mentioned are the kind that
few scientists can afford, but in our searches, we do find our ways to the information. often, the books and journals
mentioned can be found at your local library, or a local high school science teacher may have them right under his
coffee cup. or her. last, and VERY IMPORTANTLY, the acknowledgements is where the researchers thank
those who helped them in many kinds of ways. sometimes a paleontologist can be a great scientist with a phd, but
he can barely read, and this is true. other times, editing is very important. they write it all out, and it can seem all
jumbled, and an editor cleans it all up. societies that pay for travel and digging expenses, and for electron
microscopes, you name it, are thanked. agencies that gave grants are thanked. lately, an email address is given for
correspondence with one of the authors, or a secretary of their department. marshall smyth




 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 130 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Feb  8, 2001 (16:14) * 1 lines 
 
Sorry I neglected to comment that the above was written by marshall smyth whose time is better spent in creating than copying and pasting.


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 131 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Feb 24, 2001 (15:58) * 23 lines 
 
Pakistan Says More Dinosaur Fossils Discovered

QUETTA, Pakistan (Reuters) - Scientists in Pakistan have discovered
around 1,500 fossilized dinosaur bones thought to be about 70 million
years old, a geological survey official said on Saturday.
The latest finds follow the announcement in December of the first
discoveries of dinosaur fossils in Pakistan by geologists mapping in
arid Baluchistan province.
Ghanzfar Abbas, head of the Pakistan Geological Survey, said on
Saturday the newly-discovered fossils could shed light on the abrupt
end of the Cretaceous period -- just before dinosaurs died out -- and
on the end of the dinosaurs 65-72 million years ago.
"This is the second important discovery of dinosaur fossils within a year
and now Pakistan stands among a very few countries which witnessed
the dinosaur extinction around 65 million years ago," he said.
The discoveries could also help scientists understand more about the
spread of dinosaurs between different continents, he told a news
conference.
"This discovery has opened up new avenues of research on migration
pathways of dinosaurs and location of land bridges in central and south
east Asia during Cretaceous period," Abbas said. The latest discoveries
were made in the same area of Baluchistan as the first finds. Abbas
showed large fossilized limbs and vertebrae at the news conference.


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 132 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Mar  3, 2001 (21:52) * 23 lines 
 
Ancient Mammal Fossils Found in Ethiopia
Reuters
Mar 3 2001 8:31PM
ADDIS ABABA (Reuters) - Scientists in eastern Ethiopia said on Saturday
they had discovered 250 four-million-year-old mammal fossils which
could provide new clues about how humans evolved.
An international research group said they had discovered the skeletal
remains of hyenas, lions, giraffes, horses, antelopes, hippopotami, pigs
and the complete skull of a baboon.
Austrian scientist Horst Seidler said he believed it was just a matter of
time before fossils of human origin were found in the Gadamaitu region
of eastern Ethiopia.
"In our recent fieldwork we have no new findings of hominid fossils, but
each of the newly discovered fauna pieces have made a significant
contribution in the understanding of human evolution," he told a news
conference.
About 20 anthropologists, geologists and paleontologists from Austria,
Ethiopia, Germany, Italy and the United States took part in the four-week
field work last month.
The group plans to undertake more field work in the Gadamaitu area over
the next four years.
The newly discovered fossils will be displayed at the National Museum in
the Ethiopian capital, Addis Ababa.


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 133 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Apr 12, 2001 (17:47) * 37 lines 
 
On a discussion of Homo sapeins vs Neandertal

It is most certainly NOT as simple a question as are we neanderthal or
HSS?

Nope. It is not even as simple as the regionalists vs the out of africa
theories.

Before 170,000 years ago, your great to the 8,500th times mother's
mother's...was the same person as mine. Oh, not counting that the exact
number for you may be 8,612 generations, and I may be 8,439 generations
removed, but, the same gal she was. Yep. She did not look quite the same
as anyone we ever met. Is it interesting to you yet? Before her day,
folks in her population group COULD have taken Neanderthals for husbands
or wives. After her day though, only the women in her population could
have viable non-sterile children with a Neanderthal spouse. The men of
her tribe or population could have a Neanderthal wife, but if they had
any kids, none of THOSE kids are your ancestors or mine.
(((*Interesting YET???*))) By 56,000 years ago, none of our ancestors could have had
a Neanderthal spouse that bore children who have any descendents alive
today.

How in the heck do they know this??? They checked, then rechecked human
mitochondria DNA from humans that live in every population group all
around the world. They looked this time not at 9 genes, but all 3,000 of
them. They calculated when our common great to the X grandmother lived.
THEN!
They took a close look at every gene in the Y chromosome, and
calculated when our common great to the X grandfather lived. Then they applied
basic population genetics.

Now, folks are arguing about the results.
THAT IS INTERESTING!

Marshall H. Smyth





 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 134 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Apr 12, 2001 (17:49) * 1 lines 
 
I thought it was interesting - Marshall gave me permission to post it. Comments? H efirst posted it in


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 135 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Apr 12, 2001 (17:50) * 1 lines 
 
http://clubs.yahoo.com/clubs/archaeology


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 136 of 378: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Fri, Apr 13, 2001 (13:51) * 1 lines 
 
I was aware of the studies done with the mitochondrial DNA which resulted in the "Eve Theory". I know there was also an "Adam Theory", but I know very little as to the data that used to reach the conclusion. Am I right in supposing that a statistical application which used both of these theories is the basis for the conjecture posted on Response 133?


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 137 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Apr 24, 2001 (04:25) * 82 lines 
 
Official State Fossils

1. Alabama - archaeocete whale, Basilosaurus cetoides, Eocene
2. Alaska - woolly mammoth, Mammuthus primigenius, Pleistocene
3. Arkansas - none
4. Arizona - petrified wood, Araucarioxylon arizonicum, Triassic
5. California - sabertooth cat, Smilodon fatalis, Pleistocene
6. Colorado - dinosaur, Stegosaurus stenops, Jurassic
7. Connecticut - gigantic, three-toed dinosaur track,
Eubrontes giganteus, Triassic
8. Delaware - belemnite (cephalopod), Belemnite americana,
Cretaceous
9. Florida - (State Stone - agatized coral)
10. Georgia - shark's tooth, genus and species unspecified, Tertiary
11. Hawaii - none
12. Kansas - none
13. Idaho - Hagerman Horse Fossil, Equus simplicidens
(originally described as Plesippus shoshonensis), Pliocene
14. Illinois - Tully Monster, Tullimonstrum gregarium, Carboniferous
15. Indiana - none
16. Iowa - none
17. Kentucky - brachiopod, genus and species unspecified, Paleozoic
18. Louisiana - petrified palmwood, Palmoxylon sp., Oligocene
19. Maine - early vascular land plant, Pertica quadrifaria, Devonian
20. Maryland - gastropod, Ecphora gardnerae gardnerae, Miocene
21. Massachusetts - dinosaur tracks, genus and species unspecified,
Triassic
22. Michigan (State Stone) - Petoskey Stone, Hexagonaria
percarinata, Devonian
23. Minnesota - none
24. Mississippi - archaeocete whale, Zygorhiza kochii, Eocene
(State stone - petrified wood)
25. Missouri - crinoid, Delocrinus missouriensis, Carboniferous
26. Montana - duck-billed dinosaur, Maiasaura peeblesorum,
Cretaceous
27. Nebraska - mammoth, Mammuthus imperator mailbeni, Pleistocene
28. Nevada - ichthyosaur, Shonisaurus popularis, Triassic
29. New Hampshire - none
30. New Jersey - dinosaur (Hadrosaur), Hadrosaurus foulki,
Cretaceous
31. New Mexico - dinosaur, Coelophysis sp., Triassic
32. New York - eurypterid, Eurypterus remipes, Silurian
33. North Carolina - none
34. North Dakota - Teredo Petrified Wood, Paleocene
35. Ohio - trilobite, Isotelus sp., Ordovician
36. Oklahoma - none
37. Oregon - none
38. Pennsylvania - trilobite, Phacops rana, Devonian
39. Rhode Island - none
40. South Carolina - none
41. South Dakota - dinosaur, Triceratops prorosus, Cretaceous
NOTE: back in 1988 the state fossil was the cycad, Cycadopsida.
42. Tennessee - none
43. Texas (State Stone) - petrified palmwood, Palmoxylon sp., Oligocene
State Dinosaur - Brachiosaur Sauropod, Pleurocoelus sp., Cretaceous.
44. Utah - dinosaur, Allosaurus fragilis, Jurassic
45. Vermont - Charlotte, The Vermont Whale (beluga whale),
Delphinapterus leucas, Pleistocene
46. Virginia - pelecypod, Chesapecten jeffersonius, Pliocene
47. Washington - Columbian Mammoth, Mammuthus columbi, Pleistocene
(State Gem - petrified wood, genus and species unspecified, Tertiary)
48. West Virginia (State Gem) - rugose coral, Lithostrotionella sp.,
Mississippian
49. Wisconsin - trilobite, Calymene celebra, Silurian
50. Wyoming -
State Fossil - fresh-water herring, Knightia sp., Eocene
State Dinosaur - dinosaur, Triceratops, Cretaceous

Proposed State Fossil of Tennessee Page has information about the
GeoClub's (University of Tennessee at Martin) proposal to make Pterotrigonia
(Scabrotrigonia) thoracica the state fossil of Tennessee.

Authorship and distribution
By Paul V. Heinrich
Baton Rouge, Louisiana
Version 4.0 February 15, 2000
http://www.intersurf.com/~heinrich/statefossil.html
Copyright (c) 1996-1999 Paul V. Heinrich All rights reserved.
This file may be freely used for non-commercial purposes provided its original source is indicated. Please contact the
author for other arrangements.




 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 138 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Apr 24, 2001 (04:30) * 5 lines 
 
As far as I know, the study cited in post 133 is based on that study below:
http://www.pb.org/secdocs/eve2.html

The fossil evidence is subject to change and so is the theory:
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2001/01/010111194453.htm


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 139 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Apr 26, 2001 (04:43) * 33 lines 
 
PALEONTOLOGY
Dinosaur Discovery Shows Feathers Came Before Flight

An exquisitely complete feathered dinosaur has emerged
from the famed fossil beds of northeastern China's Liaoning
Province. The new discovery, announced today in the
journal Nature, gives further weight to the argument that
birds evolved from dinosaurs and provides the strongest
evidence yet that feathers pre-date the origin of flight.

Earlier finds from Liaoning had hinted at the presence of
featherlike structures on several dinosaur specimens, but
critics charged that the structures were instead fibers of the
protein collagen or that the fossils represented not dinosaurs
but flightless birds. Opponents of the bird-dinosaur
connection also noted that no feathers were known from
dromeosaurs—a group of small- to medium-size theropod
dinosaurs that exhibit numerous traits in common with birds
and are therefore widely held to be their closest relatives.

The new fossil, however, appears to answer both of those
arguments. Paleontologist Mark Norell of the American
Museum of Natural History in New York City and his
colleagues report that the 130-million-year-old specimen
represents a dromeosaur covered with filamentous structures
that exhibit a branching pattern unique to feathers.

The presence of featherlike structures on such a creature indicates that feathers must have evolved
for some purpose other than flight—perhaps to help the animal keep warm. Indeed, for modern
birds, which are warm-blooded, feathers provide critical insulation. Thus, Norell says, non-avian
dinosaurs may have developed primitive feathers as they developed warm-bloodedness. —Kate Wong

more plus picture... http://www.sciam.com/news/042601/3.html


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 140 of 378: Annette Mercer  (laughingsky) * Sun, May  6, 2001 (08:50) * 3 lines 
 
Response #77, Marcia - yeeeeeeeessssssss!!!!!! Remember.....ummmmm.....the conversation we had.......ummmmmmm (*hiding face).....about a year (or so) ago about the "crocodile" dino? (Couldn't find the cutout from the newspaper) Yes - I am not mad!!!LoL

new e-mail:ekgnurse@bellsouth.net


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 141 of 378: Paul Terry Walhus (terry) * Sun, May  6, 2001 (23:28) * 1 lines 
 
Wow, Annette, mention your name and you pop out of the woodwork. What was this crocodile dino exchange?


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 142 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, May  7, 2001 (13:06) * 3 lines 
 
Annette!!! Yippee!! Whee you're back! Will email you ASAP (am typing with broken finger at present - and it iresents that very fact!)

Thanks for the new address - will be in contact!!! Mmmm yes!! I remember =)


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 143 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, May 10, 2001 (10:35) * 18 lines 
 


Ancestor of T-Rex Found in Britain
Eotyrannus lengi
(AP) - A previously unknown relative of
Tyrannosaurus rex has been unearthed in Britain,
adding a limb to the family tree of the fearsome
predator, scientists said Wednesday. Eotyrannus
lengi, named after collector Gavin Leng who found
the first bone on the Isle of Wight, was a
15-foot-long carnivore that lived 120 to 125 million
years ago.


More...
http://dailynews.yahoo.com/fc/Science/Dinosaur_and_Fossil_Discoveries/




 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 144 of 378: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Sun, May 13, 2001 (14:36) * 5 lines 
 
Marcia, you have a broken finger? Hope that you're doing okay.

Hi Annette and Terry.

Will you be posting any information on the "crocodile dinosaur" here, Marcia?


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 145 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, May 13, 2001 (19:16) * 3 lines 
 
Yup, the top joint middle finger right hand is broken. Oh well... atleast I don't have to walk on it!

http://www.cnn.com/TECH/science/9811/12/crocodile.dinosaur/ complete with pictures!!!


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 146 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, May 14, 2001 (17:24) * 14 lines 
 
T. Rex Relative Discovered

By Larry O'Hanlon, Discovery News
May 14 — Even the fearsome Tyrannosaurus rex had humble beginnings.

Paleontologists in the United Kingdom say they have found a
previously unknown, smaller early relative of the ferocious predator
in a dig on the Isle of Wight.

The more ancient, lighter-weight Eotyrannus lengi lived 55 million
years before T. rex came on the scene and may have led to the larger
beasts.

more... http://dsc.discovery.com/news/reu/20010514/newdino.html


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 147 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, May 14, 2001 (22:17) * 5 lines 
 
S.African Divers Find Fossil Fish, Put It on Web

The Paleozoic era met the Internet age Monday when South African divers filmed a coelacanth -- an ancient bony fish -- more than 330 feet down and then beamed the images to the World Wide Web.
http://dailynews.yahoo.com/h/nm/20010514/sc/environment_safrica_dc_2.html



 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 148 of 378: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Tue, May 15, 2001 (19:20) * 3 lines 
 
Hope the hand is healing nicely, Marica.

About that T. Rex relative, remember Horner's controversial find in Canada? Nanotyranus.


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 149 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, May 15, 2001 (20:33) * 1 lines 
 
Indeed - wonder what they did with it.


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 150 of 378: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Wed, May 23, 2001 (18:52) * 3 lines 
 
What they did with the hand or the Nanotyrannus?

How is your hand, Marcia?


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 151 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, May 23, 2001 (23:28) * 3 lines 
 
The Nanotyrannus is what I am wondering about.

My hand is still attached to me and I usually know what it is doing. *grin* It is very slowly getting back to normal. May I suggest if you do this to your finger you NOT sit at your computer and type for 14 hours a day until it heals up a bit! Thank you for asking!


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 152 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, May 25, 2001 (22:41) * 16 lines 
 
Scientist: Brazil Dinosaur Find May Be Oldest Yet
Reuters
May 25 2001 2:42PM
SAO PAULO, Brazil (Reuters) - A Brazilian paleontologist said on Friday
he may have discovered a new "strange" prehistoric reptile, which, if
proven to be a dinosaur, could be the oldest one ever found.
The creature, which had a 12-inch-long head and was about 8 feet long,
appears to be about 235 million years old -- placing it on the edge of the
middle and high Triassic period, said Jorge Ferigolo of the Rio Grande
do Sul Zoobotanical Foundation.
Discovered in Brazil's southern Rio Grande do Sul state in February, the
fossil shows signs that appear to make it either a very old dinosaur or
very evolved thecodont, which were early pre-dinosaur reptiles.


more... http://my.aol.com/news/news_story.psp?type=1&cat=0200&id=0105251443291898


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 153 of 378: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Sat, May 26, 2001 (04:00) * 1 lines 
 
ah ..sorry marcia ...put that in jurassic park .....


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 154 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, May 26, 2001 (14:15) * 1 lines 
 
Great!!! I was thinking of double posting it since Jurassic Park is linked to the SpringArk Conference (all about animals for those who has not been there for a while)


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 155 of 378: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Fri, Jun  1, 2001 (06:36) * 22 lines 
 
Thursday May 31 2:05 PM ET
http://dailynews.yahoo.com/htx/nm/20010531/sc/science_dinosaur_dc_1.html

Fossil of Gargantuan Dinosaur Unearthed in Egypt
By Will Dunham

WASHINGTON (Reuters) - Fossilized remains of a gargantuan plant-eating dinosaur, the second most massive animal ever to walk the Earth, have been unearthed in a desert oasis in Egypt at a site that eons ago was a lush coastal paradise,
researchers said on Thursday. The discovery of a partial skeleton of Paralititan stromeri was made by 31-year-old University of Pennsylvania doctoral student Joshua Smith, who went on a dinosaur hunt at a remote site that had yielded spectacular finds in the first half of the 20th century in expeditions led by German paleontologist Ernest Stromer von Reichenbach. But the fossils of the four new dinosaurs Stromer uncovered were lost to the world during World War Two when British warplanes bombed the Bayerische Staatssammlung museum during a
raid over Munich on April 24, 1944. Stromer's excavation site remained largely ignored in the decades since then. Paralititan (pronounced pah-ral-ih-TY-tan and meaning ''tidal giant'') lived 94 million years ago during the middle of
the Cretaceous period of the Mesozoic Era. The long-necked, long-tailed quadruped looked much like the familiar Brontosaurus (formal name Apatosaurus) that lived tens of millions of years earlier, except that its back may have been
studded with bony body armor as protection from predators. The finding was published in the journal Science. ``It was an enormous dinosaur by anybody's reckoning,'' Smith, who was 29 when he found it, said in an interview. ``We think that a large individual might have massed about 70 tons, 75 tons maybe and it might have approached 100 feet in length. As far as tall, stack four African elephants on top of each other. That's about the height. It would look through a third-story window without much problem.''

FIRST RUNNER-UP IN THE WEIGHT CATEGORY
The only dinosaur known to be heavier than Paralititan is Argentinosaurus, which looked much like the new dinosaur (both are classified as titanosaurid sauropods) but is estimated to have been about 7 percent more massive. The remains of only one example of these two colossal dinosaurs exist. Smith found the partial skeleton preserved in fine-grained sediments full of plant remains and root casts in the Bahariya Oasis in the Sahara desert some 180 miles southwest of Cairo. He said the evidence suggests that the arid Bahariya site once resembled the tropical mangrove coasts of Florida, a low-energy, shallow water area of tidal flats and tidal channels. He compares it to the Everglades.
And based in part on Stromer's earlier finding of three massive carnivorous dinosaurs at the site, Smith said the area must have been teeming with life.
Smith believes the massive herbivore was standing on the edge of a tidal channel in very shallow water when it died. His team also found evidence that the carcass had been scavenged by a flesh-eating dinosaur, including a tooth that
may come from Carcharodontosaurus, whose name means ''shark-tooth lizard'' and whose size, 45 feet (13.5 meters) long, was comparable to Tyrannosaurus rex. In addition, the pelvis was ripped apart as if it had been eaten. It's unclear whether Paralititan lost a life-or-death struggle with the predator or became a meal after dying for other reasons, Smith said. ``All we know is that the animal died and somebody came along and munched on it.''

PARTIAL REMAINS FOUND
Smith said the skeleton of Paralititan is only 20 to 25 percent complete. Most impressive is a humerus (upper forelimb bone) that measures 6 foot, 7 inches long. The remains also include several vertebrae, ribs and both shoulder blades. The Penn team also found fossils of fish, sharks, turtles, marine
reptiles and other dinosaurs. Dumb luck played a role in the discovery, Smith admits. He and University of Pennsylvania graduate student Matthew Lamanna, who at age 25 is a co-author of the study, dreamed up the idea of finding the sites that had been so productive for Stromer, who worked there extensively starting in 1911. Smith said in 1999 he tagged along on another Penn expedition to Egypt and was given all of two days to search for dinosaurs. Another problem was finding the Stromer's exact site because he did not leave behind any maps or directions. Scientific literature found in Cairo pointed the way, but Smith ended up in the wrong place anyway. But as luck would have it, on Feb. 23, 1999, Smith spotted from the window of his Toyota Land Cruiser three pieces of Paralititan's forelimb. He said he may have stumbled on ``dinosaur heaven,'' adding: ''Nobody thought for a second that we'd find anything, including me. Paralititan was the first thing we found the first morning we looked. It's just ridiculou
.''


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 156 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Jun  1, 2001 (13:56) * 1 lines 
 
Thanks, Maggie, this article got away from me yesterday.


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 157 of 378: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Fri, Jun  1, 2001 (15:39) * 1 lines 
 
I saw an artists rendering of what the Paralititan on the news this morning. The illustrator made it look something like a really large Brontosaurus. The Bronto isn't really called that anymore? Is it. Anyway, the new find is a very big long necked dinosaur.


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 158 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Jun  2, 2001 (23:41) * 5 lines 
 
Fossil of Gargantuan Dinosaur Unearthed in Egypt

Fossilized remains of a gargantuan plant-eating dinosaur, the second most massive animal ever to walk the Earth, have been unearthed in a desert oasis in Egypt at a site that eons ago was a lush coastal paradise, researchers said on Thursday.
http://dailynews.yahoo.com/h/nm/20010531/sc/science_dinosaur_dc_1.html



 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 159 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Jun  6, 2001 (19:17) * 14 lines 
 
Champion Chewer Spurred Evolution of Land Ecosystem
Reuters - Jun 6 2001 2:08PM

LONDON (Reuters) - A 260 million-year-old mammal-like reptile, the first
that could chew and digest thick vegetation, spurred the evolution of
modern-day land ecosystems, scientists said Wednesday.
Suminia getmanovi, a small creature similar to a monkey or rodent which
preceded dinosaurs by about 50 million years, was a champion chewer.
Unlike other herbivores of its time, which simply tore off leaves and
swallowed them whole, Suminia was able to chew and shred leaves with
its huge teeth -- allowing it to eat more, absorb more nutrients and
process food more efficiently.

More... http://my.aol.com/news/news_story.psp?type=1&cat=0200&id=0106061409310783


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 160 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Jun  8, 2001 (14:56) * 16 lines 
 
Another from Liam on the climate change evidence from the past:

Fossil Leaves Confirm Ancient Greenhouse

Reading tea leaves won't accurately predict the future, but
reading gingko tree leaves can reveal the past. A new
study of pores on these fossilized leaves shows that
global temperatures have risen and fallen in concert with
the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere for
at least the last 300 million years. The discovery confirms
a link that had recently been questioned due to reports
that greenhouse gases decreased during several warm
spells.


more... http://www.academicpress.com/inscight/05162001/graphb.htm


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 161 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Jun  8, 2001 (20:25) * 20 lines 
 
BBC NEWS ONLINE
Thursday, 7 June, 2001, 18:01 GMT 19:01 UK

New evidence in extinction whodunnit

By BBC News Online's Ivan Noble
Scientific research papers normally make dry reading, but this one reads almost
like the start of a whodunnit:
"All Australian land mammals, reptiles and birds weighing more than 100
kilograms perished in the late Quaternary," Richard G Roberts of the University
of Melbourne and his colleagues write in the journal Science.
And the question, of course, is indeed: Who did it? Who or what could possibly
have caused the extinction of so many different creatures in what was,
geologically speaking, a short period of time?
Investigations have been underway for more than a century and two main suspects
have emerged.

Full text:
http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/sci/tech/newsid_1375000/1375770.stm



 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 162 of 378: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Sat, Jun  9, 2001 (10:51) * 1 lines 
 
So that meant the end of the wompats the size of a rhinoceros, as well as the other giant fauna.


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 163 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Jun  9, 2001 (15:49) * 1 lines 
 
OH Cheryl, honey, you don't want to know how big the cockroaches and dragonflies were. I've seen them in the Museum of Natural History in NY City. Did you miss that room?


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 164 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Jun  9, 2001 (15:51) * 1 lines 
 
For their demise I am not sorry. I do not like the ones we share the tropics with, as it is!


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 165 of 378: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Sat, Jun  9, 2001 (16:01) * 3 lines 
 
No, Marcia, I do remember the fossilized giant dragonflies and cockroaches. I also remember the jokes about modern day New York City roaches which are the same size.

How big are those Hawaiian dragonflies? Do you have the really disgusting Asian flying cockroach there?


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 166 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Jun  9, 2001 (17:54) * 3 lines 
 
The largest cockraches we have are Pereplaneta americana which are some 2-3 inches when full grown and do fly into you. I have found denatured (rubbing) alcohol to be effective when one strays into the house. It kills them quickly and leaves little residue. They still make me cringe to think about them, and they are NOT native to my house!!!

Cheryl, I figured you would remember tose fossils - you and I haunted the same museums!


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 167 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Jun  9, 2001 (17:55) * 1 lines 
 
Dragonflies are not very common in Hawaii, and they are the usual sort. Nothing abnormal about them, happily!


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 168 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Jun 11, 2001 (16:35) * 12 lines 
 
Whodunnit?

Detective work fingers humans as the chief suspects in two of palaeohistory's
intriguing murder mysteries

Detective work by two groups of researchers has fingered
humans as the chief suspects in two of palaeohistory's most
intriguing murder mysteries - the extinction of the giant
animals and birds of North America and Australia more than
one hundred centuries ago in the Pleistocene era.

more... http://www.newscientist.com/dailynews/news.jsp?id=ns9999848


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 169 of 378: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Wed, Jun 13, 2001 (19:47) * 1 lines 
 
Good-bye to those beavers the size of black bears. Can you imagine the size of those buck-teeth? Good-bye, as well, to the rhinoceros sized wombats.


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 170 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Jun 13, 2001 (22:28) * 1 lines 
 
sigh... It was interesting to contemplate! That crashing sound is not your CPU but rather, a theory being replaced by another one.


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 171 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Jul  6, 2001 (22:47) * 6 lines 
 
From Liam:

Finding a fossil is one thing. Finding fossils that can, as an ensemble, plausibly be regarded as a snapshot of an ancient ecosystem is more difficult. This week, Andrew H. Knoll of Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, and colleagues present the richness and diversity of life as long as 1,500 million years ago, in what is now Australia.
The fossils are of eukaryotes: that is, cells with discrete nuclei and compartmentation, unlike bacteria. We are eukaryotes, as is almost every living form visible with the naked eye. Many eukaryotes, however, are microscopic, like the single-celled algae described by the researchers.
The distribution of these fossils shows how different forms lived in different environments: in other words, clear signs of ecological differentiation. Two decades ago, fossils like these were thought to have been no older than around 540 million years. Recent research has extended the record further back, and this report represents the earliest known eukaryote ecosystem



 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 172 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Jul 16, 2001 (14:35) * 73 lines 
 
Liam is now in the incredible category. He has outdone me on a local story and I am delighted in his tenacity and interest. Perhaps Cleopatra WAS a blonde surfer (you'd have had to be there to understand to what this alludes.)

9,500-year-old skeleton forces scientists
to consider whether Polynesians helped
to populate America


Clues to a Polynesian-American migration


By Jim Borg
jborg@starbulletin.com

SCIENTISTS WANT TO STUDY HIM. American Indians want to bury him.

Is he Polynesian, as the shape of his skull suggests? Or perhaps he's the descendant of Asian mariners who settled along America's now-sunken coasts.

A federal magistrate in Portland will soon decide the fate of Kennewick Man, a 9,500-year-old skeleton that may hold invaluable new clues to a perplexing old puzzle: Who were the first Americans?

"Kennewick is certainly stirring up a lot of feelings," says Rebecca Cann, a University of Hawaii geneticist.

College students stumbled across Kennewick Man five years ago this month on the banks of the Columbia River in Washington state. As nearly complete skeletons go, his is among the oldest found in the Western Hemisphere.

The bones are part of the growing body of evidence that is forcing scientists to recast their theories about how the New World was settled.

But their research has run headlong into a federal law called the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act. The 1990 law requires ancient remains to be turned over to Indian tribes for reburial if a historic linkage or "cultural affinity" can be shown.

The Interior Department last fall decided in favor of the tribes -- the Umatilla, Yakima, Nez Perce and others.

Eight scientists challenged the decision in court, claiming Kennewick Man bears no resemblance to the Mongoloid ancestors of North American tribes. In fact, some scientists say Kennewick man looks more like an East Asian or Polynesian.

Those claims -- and other recent discoveries -- have sparked a highly charged debate.

Mainstream thought holds no Polynesians reached the Americas during the last Ice Age.

But mainstream thought has been turned on its ear in recent years.

Through most of the 20th century -- until 1997 -- leading scientists believed that the first Americans crossed from Siberia into Alaska about 11,500 years ago.

Back then, as the Ice Age was just ending, so much water was frozen in glaciers that the ocean was dozens of feet lower, exposing a land bridge across the Bering Strait.

Across this land bridge trekked the Clovis people, named after their characteristic stone spear point, first found in Clovis, N.M. They were believed to be hunters who followed mastodons, giant sloths and other big game across the Americas.

For decades, anyone who came up with a different scenario was ridiculed. Scientists who found conflicting evidence often covered it up for fear of endangering their careers.




Theories on Pacific migration

[]

A coastal route around the North Pacific could have led early explorers to lands later submerged when melting glaciers raised sea levels. The possibility of an Ice Age migration directly across the Pacific is widely discounted, but Polynesians certainly had that capability by 500 A.D., when Hawaii and Easter Island were inhabited.



At dig sites, anthropologists would excavate down to the Clovis level -- to the dirt that was 11,500 years old -- and stop, so fervently did they believe that no earlier populations existed.

Then a funny thing happened. Scientists excavated a camp site that was 12,500 years old.

Not only was it old, it was in southern Chile. That's a long walk from the Bering Strait.

How did these campers reach the southern latitudes of the Americas so long ago?

Maybe by boat.

"Early people might have moved south from the Bering Strait by following a chain of small ice-free areas that existed along the outer Pacific coast," Knut Fladmark, a professor of archaeology at Simon Fraser University in British Columbia, told me by e-mail. "Many of those areas would now be underwater."

In 1997, Daryl Fedje, an archaeologist with the Canadian parks system, found a stone tool at a site now 160 feet under water off the coast of British Columbia. The artifact, 10,200 years old, shows that people once lived on that submerged land, Fedje says.

It will take more such discoveries to advance the theory of Ice Age ocean migration. But with affirmation of the discoveries at Monte Verde, Chile -- no bones, but plenty of artifacts, the old Clovis founding dates have died.

more... Clues to a Polynesian-American migration http://starbulletin.com/2001/07/15/editorial/special.html


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 173 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Jul 19, 2001 (21:54) * 15 lines 
 
Fossil of Oldest Crustacean Has Exquisite Detail

By Will Dunham
WASHINGTON (Reuters) - Limestone deposits in England have yielded the fossilized remains of the oldest known crustacean, with the tiny animal's soft parts, including the appendages with which it ate, preserved in extraordinary detail, scientists said on Thursday.

The crustacean, less than one 50th of an inch long, dwelt
in the ocean 511 million years ago and was an ancient relative of the crustaceans that live today, including crabs, lobsters, shrimps and crayfish, said Mark Williams, British Geological Survey paleontologist.

The discovery could force scientists to re-evaluate current beliefs about the
emergence of many complex organisms. The creature lived more than 50 million
years before the first fish appeared and 280 million years before the first dinosaur.

Williams and colleagues David Siveter of Britain's University of Leicester and Dieter Waloszek of the University of Ulm in Germany retrieved the fossil from rocks in Shropshire near the Welsh border dating from the early Cambrian period -- a time that bore witness to an explosion of marine life.

picture... http://reuters.com/news_article.jhtml?type=sciencenews&StoryID=125856#


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 174 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Jul 19, 2001 (23:30) * 0 lines 
 


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 175 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Jul 19, 2001 (23:32) * 26 lines 
 
Pay attention to this all you fossil fanciers (from Liam. of course!)This is the most valuable source on fossil collecting I have ever
found.

An Annotated Checklist for Fossil Collecting

by Erich Rose
erich@esinter.com

Having the right tools and supplies for the collecting of fossils can make the difference between a meaningless bag full of half
busted rocks and a well documented and productive collection of beautiful and valuable specimens.

I have been collecting fossils since I was eight years old. I started with one of my dad's hammers and a small cold chisel. I carried
the fossils in empty Band-Aid cans and threw the lot into a used boy scout back pack. Since then I have refined my equipment
with an emphasis on light weight and maximum versatility.

Almost all of my collecting has been for invertebrates and this list reflects that bias. The items needed to collect the smaller
Paleozoic or Mesozoic invertebrates common to most of us is what this list will emphasize.

If you will be collecting vertebrate material other than teeth or bone fragments then you will need both a different set of tools and
skills. There are special techniques and procedures needed to record, excavate and preserve skeletons. These include marking off

a site and recording positions of fossils in relation to each other, painstaking careful exposure of specimens, plaster jacketing and
equipment for removal of heavy loads. If this is what you hope to do then consult one of the excellent books on the subject
including several listed below.

for the links to the rest of the story: http://www.iwaynet.net/~mperona/chlist.htm


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 176 of 378: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Sun, Jul 29, 2001 (13:56) * 3 lines 
 
In the article about the possible population of the ancient Americas being atleat partially Polynesian they mentioned an over 1,000 year old skeleton found near Buhl, Idaho. It was found that this woman shared many physical similarities with Polynesians and that she ate fish as well as meat. Unfortunately, DNA testing of her bones was not allowed before she was "repatriated" by the Shoshone. Why? What harm would it have done to have taken a sample before returning her bones. Would it have indicated that she's no more related to the Shoshone than I am? That she's no more related to the Shoshone than she is to me? The theory of the "Clovis People" seems to no longer hold water.

Now for something completely different: Cleopatra was a blonde surfer? Mmmm. I"ll tell my mother about that one. I have heard the theory that Cleopatra VI was a blonde. There are also those that say that she may have had (natural) red hair.


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 177 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Jul 29, 2001 (17:10) * 5 lines 
 
Cheryl, you're correct on the Clovis point (pun intended)- that theory has been long since put to rest by older finds on the North American Continent.

I don't know why some people are using the Native American argument to reclaim everything Pre-Columbian. We let it happen to salve our consciences from far different cruelties inflicted on them by prior generations of white men? What sense does that make? I say toss everything back into the sea or into a volcano. That is where we really came from. THEY were here first!

On to Cleopatra. There once was a discussion group in which Cleopatra was being claimed to be everything from Black African to Helenistic Greek. Then some other-worldy religions got going on their theories of mankind and it became absurd. I suggested that since Thor Heyerdahl has his own theories of how people migrated, that perhaps teh early Polynesian voyagers had overshot Hawaii and landed at Malibu, California. Everyone knows that only Blonde surfers inhabit that place. Thence to cross the continent, make more reed canoes and thus on to Europe and down into North Africa. This was an exercise in effort to show to what extremes people can go to prove their ancestry was as they wish it was. I think I buried the discussion with that comment. Now, aen't you sorry you asked? *;)


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 178 of 378: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Mon, Jul 30, 2001 (17:54) * 5 lines 
 
No, I'm not sorry that I asked at all. *Laugh* It is true people will go to extraordinary extremes to prove the ancestry they want. I think that Cleopatra did have red or reddish hair, because she used that ancient beauty aid known as henna.

Marcia, I do think you're right about the guilt felt over cruelties inflicted on Native Americans by white men in the past is the reason for returning every Pre-Columbian find to the American Indians. Russell Means said that is okay to call them Indians. As he is a Native American, I'll take his work on that. I will never deny that the American Indians did suffer terribly. Still, the chance to know more about pre-history in America...It just seems we are missing great opportunities.




 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 179 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Jul 31, 2001 (15:26) * 3 lines 
 
Amen and well said, Cheryl. We all lose when they rebury the past without looking it over as well as they know how to do. Perhaps you have seen the article I posted on some Polynesian guy who is also claiming Kennewick man?

I think we all should claim him - after all we all descended from the same bolt of lightning, lump of clay or whatever your belief system says we did...!


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 180 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Aug  2, 2001 (20:07) * 19 lines 
 
Skull structure: The making of Neanderthals

Computerized analysis of the skulls of
Neanderthals and of anatomically modern
humans shows that the distinctive features of
Neanderthals were probably already evident in
the newborn, rather than developing gradually
through to adulthood. This supports the idea
that Homo neanderthalensis and Homo sapiens are
morphologically discrete, separate species. The
analysis uses virtual fossil reconstruction and
geometric morphometrics to compare shape
variation and reveals species-specific early
modes of growth and development in various
regions of the skull. The cover shows a series of Neanderthal
crania during development — see the movie in the supplementary
information section of the paper (below).

More... http://www.nature.com/nature/links/010802/010802-1.html


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 181 of 378: Rob Glennie  (AotearoaKiwi) * Fri, Aug  3, 2001 (04:09) * 14 lines 
 
Hi

Trilobites, Brachiopods, Cephalopods, Bivalves, just some of the life form types I have to learn for Geology where we are doing a segment on paleontology.
I am finding it okay but do not intend to do the exam questions at the end of the year on it if I can avoid it. Trilobites look interesting but I cannot describe one. How would you describe it in WORDS and not in a picture??

Brachiopods have the following sub groups (phylums aren't they??)if I am correct.

Ammonoidea (spelling is not right)
Nautoloidea
And one other one that I am missing (plus others which we are not concerning ourselves with.

Fortunately in geology 112 we have saved the best till last as the structural geology segment of Dr John Bradshaw does not begin until the start of term 4 but I have a short answer test to do on the last day of term as well as hand in a geography essay.

Rob


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 182 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Aug  3, 2001 (15:55) * 20 lines 
 
Trilobites! I have one in shale I dug out of a railroad grade in West Virginia. It is the classical inch long variety, helmet-shaped head, many segmented body but the cilia or little segment extentions with which they moved are not preserved - the usual case for trilobites. I can imagine them rippling as they move much like a centipede or sowbug does now. They resemble armored oval primitive crabs-cum-insects - true arthropods. Let me think some more. Meanwhile here is a great site for trilobites

ANCIENT ARTHROPODS
Trilobites were among the first of the arthropods, a phylum
of hard-shelled creatures with multiple body segments and
jointed legs (although the legs, antennae and other finer
structures of trilobites only rarely are preserved). They
constitute an extinct class of arthropods, the Trilobita, made
up of eight orders, over 150 families, about 5000 genera,
and over 15,000 described species. New species of trilobites
are unearthed and described every year. This makes trilobites
the single most diverse group of extinct organisms, and within
the generalized body plan of trilobites there was a great deal of diversity of size and form. The smallest known trilobite species is
just under a millimeter long, while the largest include species from 30 to 70 cm in length (roughly a foot to two feet long!). With such a diversity of species and sizes, speculations on the ecological role of trilobites includes planktonic, swimming, and crawling forms, and we can presume they filled a varied set of trophic (feeding) niches, although perhaps mostly as detritivores,
predators, or scavengers. Most trilobites are about an inch long, and part of their appeal is that you can hold and examine an entire fossil animal and turn it about in your hand.

More... http://www.aloha.net/~smgon/trilobite.htm





 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 183 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Aug  3, 2001 (16:09) * 13 lines 
 
Oh, I have ammonites, as well. No nautiloids, though. David has a huge slab of them, however! Brachiopods I also have - and, since you asked:

The Phylum Brachiopoda (or lamp shells) is known to have
existed from the Lower Cambrian period to modern times.
There are approximately 325 species of living brachiopods, and
over 12 000 fossil species. Brachiopods belong to a larger
group called the lophophorates. This group includes three
additional phyla, the Bryozoa, the Entoprocta, and the
Phoronida.

http://www.hanmansfossils.com/catalogs/fossils/brachiopods/brachiopods.shtml

Let me know if I can be of any further use - I love fossils, but I traded them in for a volcano long ago. Good luck, on your paper and all else. I'll dredge up real "experts" if you have difficulties. *Hugs*


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 184 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Aug 20, 2001 (17:27) * 16 lines 
 
From Liam, the dear man!

Peking Man Site Cleared Up

BEIJING, Aug 6, 2001 (Xinhua via COMTEX) -- The Zhoukoudian Peking Man Ruins in the capital's northwest suburb has taken on a
new look with 20 small workshops torn down around the site, according to Monday's Beijing Daily.
The World Heritage Site, where the first skull of Peking Man dating back 500,000 years was discovered, was reported at the risk of
being ruined due to damaged by unhealthy surroundings.
Experts worried that the improper protection or serious damage will lead the site to be ranked as an endangered heritage by the
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO).
The Chinese Academy of Sciences and the city's culture relics department jointly launched a three-phase repair project about two
weeks ago. An area of 1.8 square kilometers south of the museum is scheduled to be cleared up as the protection sphere.
The Peking Man site stores the evidence of the earliest human's use of fire and is known as the only site of continuous prehistoric
man activities between 500,000 and 10,000 years ago.
Copyright 2001 XINHUA NEWS AGENCY



 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 185 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Aug 28, 2001 (16:36) * 9 lines 
 
Somewhere above I mentioned Crinoids. They are ANIMAL fossils, not plant, as I misspoke. I know better! Their common name is "Sea Lily" but it is more like an anemone or tubeworm than anything in the plant kingdom. Thanks Jsk. You caught it and I appreciate it. Now come out of lurkdom and post something. I am rather flying blind in here.

Oh yes, Rob... I found my fossil collection. What is left of my entire large one consists of:
*Horn coral
*several brachiopods of various sizes
*bryozoan
*mollusca
and the worst little crinoid you ever saw. My large slab on them ended up as driveway gravel with the rest of my mineral collection.



 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 186 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Sep  7, 2001 (17:18) * 11 lines 
 
[1]EVOLUTION & PALEONTOLOGY

* The Ice Man Cameth Early
* How Grasses Got the Upper Hand
* Genes That Dictate Metabolic Processes in an Ancient Life Form
Being Identified
* Intimidation Tactics May Have Led to Speech

References
http://www.sciquest.com/cgi-bin/ncommerce3/ExecMacro/sci_level3.d2w/report?nav_banner=bio&resource=articles&gateway=B-evolut



 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 187 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Sep  7, 2001 (17:19) * 7 lines 
 
[1]GEOLOGY

* Permian Impact Caused Largest Mass Extinction on Earth

References
http://www.sciquest.com/cgi-bin/ncommerce3/ExecMacro/sci_level3.d2w/report?nav_banner=bio&resource=articles&gateway=S-geolog



 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 188 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Sep 19, 2001 (17:16) * 16 lines 
 
Fossil Finds Show Whales Related to Early Pigs

By Patricia Reaney

LONDON (Reuters) - Fossils recently unearthed in Pakistan show that whales
evolved from land animals related to sheep and pigs, and that hippos could be their closest living kin, scientists said on Wednesday.

How whales evolved and who their ancestors were has been hotly debated for
decades.

Scientists knew they were related to land mammals but they have been divided on
which ones because fossil evidence of the whale's 10-million-year transition from land to water has been sketchy.

But paleontologists have discovered 50-million-year-old fossils of early whales that lived on land, and ankle and skull bones from primitive aquatic whales that fill in the gaps.

more... http://reuters.com/news_article.jhtml?type=sciencenews&StoryID=232059#


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 189 of 378: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Tue, Oct 16, 2001 (17:34) * 1 lines 
 
Hippos are related to pigs and sheep. I thought they were somehow related to horses and rhinos. Or does the horse connection come from the word hippopotamus meaning "river horse"? So now the hippos are related to the whales. Interesting.


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 190 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Oct 16, 2001 (17:38) * 1 lines 
 
Yes, Alas, whomever decided they were river "horses" did us a great disfavor. Not related in the least as far as I know.


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 191 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Oct 25, 2001 (21:02) * 18 lines 
 
Gargantuan Ancient Crocodile Snacked on Dinosaurs

By Will Dunham

WASHINGTON (Reuters) - Dinosaurs were not the only bullies in the
neighborhood 110 million years ago.

Paleontologists said on Thursday they discovered the fossilized remains of a
gargantuan cousin of modern crocodiles during digs in the Tenere Desert of Niger in west Africa. The river-dwelling giant crocodile, whose scientific name Sarcosuchus imperator means "flesh crocodile emperor", measured at least 40 feet long and weighed up to 10 tons. It was 10 to 15 times more massive than the largest existing crocodilians.

Beyond its astounding dimensions, Sarcosuchus (pronounced
SARK-oh-SOOK-us) is notable for a massive, bulbous growth at the end of its
snout -- one of the scientists said it resembled a huge, scaly toilet bowl -- and a remarkably long life span.

"This animal was very dominant," paleontologist Paul Sereno of the University of
Chicago, who led the research appearing in the journal Science, said in an interview. "It would have been something that would have given dinosaurs nightmares."

More... http://www.reuters.com/news_article.jhtml?type=sciencenews&StoryID=320767#


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 192 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Oct 26, 2001 (16:00) * 14 lines 
 
* Super-Crocodile Crawls Out of the African Cretaceous
* Blame North America Megafauna Extinction on Climate Change, Not
Human Ancestors
* Chemistry Reveals Mummies' Secrets
* Ancient Roots for an African Language?
* Lady in Red
* Meat Fueled Midas' Rot
* Lemurs Leap Into Fossil Record
* Maykop People Left for Better Luck
References
1. http://www.sciquest.com/cgi-bin/ncommerce3/ExecMacro/sci_level3.d2w/report?nav_banner=bio&resource=articles&gateway=B-evolut





 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 193 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Oct 26, 2001 (20:19) * 3 lines 
 
* Corals Lock El Nino History in Radiocarbon
References
1. http://www.sciquest.com/cgi-bin/ncommerce3/ExecMacro/sci_level3.d2w/report?nav_banner=bio&resource=articles&gateway=S-oceano


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 194 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Nov 15, 2001 (16:51) * 32 lines 
 
Mass extinctions may be a Myth

Catastrophic mass extinctions, such as the one that saw the demise of the dinosaurs,could be a
myth according to the findings of recent research into 100 million-year-old marine fossils.

It is widely believed that there has been about a dozen mass extinctions during the history of life
on Earth, the most devastating of which saw 84% of the planet's species disappear. But research
by geologist Professor Andy Gale of the University of Greenwich and palaeontologists from the
Natural History Museum, published recently in the American journal Paleobiology, is now casting
doubt upon whether these mass extinctions took place.

"Large gaps in the fossil record are often cited as evidence of mass extinctions," says Professor
Gale. "But there are other explanations for this lack of fossil evidence which do not point to a
catastrophic annihilation of large numbers of species. During the Cretaceous period (146 to 65
million years ago), dominated by dinosaurs, there were periods of intense global warming which
saw dramatic rises in sea levels so severe that the oceans flooded Europe, turning it into an
archipelago of little islands. This forced shallow marine species and land animals to migrate from
their usual habitats.

"Once the sea level dropped again these species migrated back with it, and the fossil record laid
down in sedimentary rock during those periods of high sea level was largely destroyed over time
by wind, rain and glacial erosion," continued Professor Gale. "The interruption in the fossil record
during these periods was caused by species migration and the loss of the fossil record of that
migration, and not by a mass extinction."

Evidence of these "pseudoextinctions" can be seen in the fossil record of the chalk cliffs at Dover
in Kent and Beachy Head on the Sussex coast. Many of the shallow water organisms which
disappeared from the fossil record in these cliffs, 100 to 95 milllion years ago, reappeared millions
of years later when sea levels fell.


more... http://www.alphagalileo.org/index.cfm?fuseaction=readRelease&Releaseid=7869


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 195 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Dec 15, 2001 (15:56) * 27 lines 
 
t h e r e a l c y c l o p s

About 2,000,000 years ago elephants arrived on various Mediterranean islands -
including Sicily, and started to get smaller: some being eventually less than one
quarter of the size of their Mammoth relatives. The mini-elephants became extinct
only about 8,000 years ago - coincidentally at about the time that our Neolithic
ancestors were colonising the islands. The discovery of a dwarf elephant skull
would not have been an unusual event, even 5,000 years later, when the first
Mycenaean Greeks were making contact with the island.

All elephants, of course,
have a unique feature: their nose is elongated to form a trunk. But this proboscis
has no bones in it - an elephant's skeleton would give little clue as to the
physiognomy of its original owner- especially to a population unaware of a past
elephant population. In fact the nasal cavity looks like nothing so much as a single
enormous eye-socket. Hence the Cyclops legend? The dwarf elephant of Sicily
would not have been a giant to compare with the modern African elephant - but his
skull, with its single eye-hole would, in my opinion, certainly be enough to suggest
that a race of one-eyed giants had once roamed on the island.

There's a new book (Spring 2000) from Princeton University Press by Adrienne
Mayor, which advances the theory that tales of Griffins, Giants and Centaurs as
well as Cyclopes arose from interpretation of the fossil evidence by the ancients.
Watch out for Palaeontology in Greek and Roman Times. The dwarf elephant
theory to explain the Cyclops was first thought of in 1914 by Othenio Abel.

more and pictures... http://www.users.globalnet.co.uk/~loxias/odyssey/cyclops02.htm


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 196 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Dec 21, 2001 (21:31) * 3 lines 
 
Test your knowledge with the Mastodon vs Mammoth Quiz

http://dsc.discovery.com/convergence/mastodon/quiz/quiz.html


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 197 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Jan  4, 2002 (19:12) * 10 lines 
 
[1]EVOLUTION & PALEONTOLOGY

* Taking Wing
* Fish May Show How Nature Diversifies
* Primitive Microbe Offers Glimpse of Animal Evolution
* Ancient Technique Modernizes Mammalian Family Tree

References
1. http://www.sciquest.com/cgi-bin/ncommerce3/ExecMacro/sci_level3.d2w/report?nav_banner=bio&resource=articles&gateway=B-evolut



 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 198 of 378: Kilauea83  (MarciaH) * Sat, Jan  5, 2002 (14:16) * 4 lines 
 
One of the more famous fossil sharks is the Miocene Carcharodon megalodon, with serrated, triangular teeth (pictured on the
background of this page) ranging up to 17.5 cm (7 inches) in length. An early reconstruction of Carcharodon from its teeth suggested that this shark reached 30 meters (100 feet) in length. However, this reconstruction was made only from the largest single teeth found, without taking into account the fact that shark teeth taper in size from the center of the mouth to the edges. A revised estimate of the size of Carcharodon puts its length at "only" 12 meters (40 feet) -- about twice the size of the largest great white sharks of today.

more... http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/vertebrates/basalfish/chondrofr.html


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 199 of 378: Curious Wolfie  (wolf) * Sat, Jan  5, 2002 (21:26) * 1 lines 
 
euw!!!!!


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 200 of 378: Kilauea83  (MarciaH) * Sat, Jan  5, 2002 (21:55) * 1 lines 
 
Aten't we happy they bothered to measure it again? Who needs a shark 100 feet long (30.5 Meters)? I'm certain with those teeth, it did not eat plankton!


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 201 of 378: Curious Wolfie  (wolf) * Sat, Jan  5, 2002 (22:06) * 1 lines 
 
and it wasn't a whale shark (which would be cool to see IRL)


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 202 of 378: Kilauea83  (MarciaH) * Sat, Jan  5, 2002 (22:24) * 1 lines 
 
I have a picture of my Cajun friend swimming with a Whale Shark... and another one of him far below a whole school of Hammerhead Sharks. Talk about terrifying... I would also like to see a basking shark.


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 203 of 378: Curious Wolfie  (wolf) * Sat, Jan  5, 2002 (22:27) * 1 lines 
 
he's not the guy they show on animal planet with the long hair and shark tooth pendant is he?


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 204 of 378: Kilauea83  (MarciaH) * Sat, Jan  5, 2002 (22:40) * 3 lines 
 
Not unless he has changed a whole lot!! *laughing*

More in email.


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 205 of 378: Curious Wolfie  (wolf) * Sat, Jan  5, 2002 (22:41) * 1 lines 
 
*laugh* there is such an animal though but i can't remember who he is. but, he is passionate about the education of us humans about sharks!


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 206 of 378: Kilauea83  (MarciaH) * Sat, Jan  5, 2002 (22:50) * 1 lines 
 
The one I know is passionate enough, but I think sharks are off his list of things to feed. I hope they are!


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 207 of 378: Curious Wolfie  (wolf) * Sat, Jan  5, 2002 (22:52) * 1 lines 
 
i dunno if this guy feeds them, but he does swim with them. will have to look him up and post it in springark!


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 208 of 378: Kilauea83  (MarciaH) * Sat, Jan  5, 2002 (23:02) * 1 lines 
 
Yes, Please do, and I will seek permission to post one or two of Mike's photos in SpringArk, also!


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 209 of 378: Curious Wolfie  (wolf) * Sat, Jan  5, 2002 (23:03) * 1 lines 
 
marcia, i think this guy is out of hawaii and i can see his face clearly, but so far, no luck.....


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 210 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Jan  7, 2002 (12:26) * 1 lines 
 
I'm sure he is, but on Maui or some other island. Something kept seeming familiar about him to me, too. I'll find him.


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 211 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Jan  7, 2002 (14:10) * 41 lines 
 
Skeletons Found in Italy May Prove Dante Wrong
Reuters
Jan 5 2002 9:09PM
PISA, Italy (Reuters) - Science may rewrite history if bones found under an
Italian church prove to be those of "Cannibal Count Ugolino," one of the
darkest historical figures to make an appearance in Dante's "Inferno."
An Italian paleontologist says his work will show that Ugolino was not
slowly starved and driven to eat the flesh of his own dead sons as Dante
wrote, but killed by a blow to the head after five months in prison.
Professor Francesco Mallegni found five skeletons buried in a crypt under
a church in the central Italian city of Pisa last year along with a scroll
saying they were the bones of the Ugolino clan.
Initial bone and soil studies led him to believe that the skeletons do
indeed belong to the count and his family, but Mallegni is awaiting the
results of DNA testing early this year before announcing a final
conclusion.
"I am 98 percent certain they are the bones of the Ugolini since the time
period and number and sex of the skeletons is correct and the scroll
identifies them as belonging to Ugolino," Mallegni told Reuters.
"But with the DNA tests, science will finally rewrite history and show that
Dante may have produced beautiful poetry, but historically he was wrong,"
he added.
ETERNALLY GNAWING
In one of the most chilling passages of Dante Alighieri's "Inferno," Count
Ugolino is described as eternally gnawing at the brain of Archbishop
Ruggieri, the man who had him imprisoned for treason along with his
sons and grandsons.
He interrupts his gruesome meal to tell the story of how he and his
offspring were slowly starved to death. Famished, the count says he was
driven to eat the flesh of his own sons and grandsons who died before he
did.
"For three days (I) called them, after they were dead; then fasting had
more power than grief," the fictitious Ugolino tells Dante who then writes:
"When he had said this, with eyes distorted he seized the wretched skull
again with his teeth, which as a dog's were strong upon the bone."
But Mallegni said that Dante's tale, which has been adopted as an
accurate historical account, is full of literary license.
Mallegni's studies show that the oldest of the skeletons was a man in his
late 70s who was killed by a blow to the head, "a coup de grace," as he
describes it.



 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 212 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Jan 12, 2002 (22:26) * 14 lines 
 
[1]EVOLUTION & PALEONTOLOGY
* Abstract Engravings Show Modern Behavior Emerged Earlier Than
Previously Thought
* Bugs Could Travel in Comfort Aboard Meteorites
* Ancient Supernova May Have Triggered Eco-Catastrophe
* Primordial Air May Have Been "Breathable"
* SNPs as Windows on Evolution
* Evolutionary "Speed Limit" Governs How Quickly Life Bounces Back
After Extinction
* Armor-Plated Fish and the Evolution of Dentists
References
1. http://www.sciquest.com/cgi-bin/ncommerce3/ExecMacro/sci_level3.d2w/report?nav_banner=bio&resource=articles&gateway=B-evolut




 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 213 of 378: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Tue, Feb  5, 2002 (15:46) * 1 lines 
 
Speaking of the 100 ft. shark, that's a scary thought. Did anyone here see the TV special that was on about 2 months or so ago concerning the reconstruction of a giant fossil crocodile?


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 214 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Feb  5, 2002 (16:50) * 1 lines 
 
Oh yes. Terrifying set of teeth. I cannot imagine that is had any natural enemies. I wonder if it ate itself out of existence...! Enormity seems to doom any creature to extinction simply because there is not enough around to feed a viable breeding community.


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 215 of 378: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Tue, Feb  5, 2002 (17:00) * 3 lines 
 
Isn't that similar to what happened to the Irish elk. I think in that cause it was because the atlers became so massive.

The special noted that the ancient crocodile had physical similarities with a very rare crocodile native to modern day India. I'm uncertain of the spelling but I think that it's called the garial (sic).


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 216 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Feb  5, 2002 (17:15) * 13 lines 
 
Exactly what happened to the Irish Elk. Their antlers became so heavy that they were easy prey and that was their demise.

Gavialis gangeticus (GMELIN, 1789)
COMMON NAMES:
Indian gharial, Indian gavial (the latter probably created by a misspelling, even carried to the genus -
name derived from an Indian pot, a ghara, which resembles the bulbous nasal appendage present on
mature males), Fish-eating crocodile, Gavial del Ganges, Gavial du Gange, Long-nosed crocodile,
Bahsoolia, Nakar, Chimpta, Lamthora, Mecho Kumhir, Naka, Nakar, Shormon, Thantia, Thondre,
Garial

lots more... http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/natsci/herpetology/brittoncrocs/csp_ggan.htm

You're right - their closest living relatives seem to be the Gharial of the Ganges in India. (I am sooooo glad you are back!!)


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 217 of 378: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Tue, Feb  5, 2002 (17:29) * 1 lines 
 
Thanks for posting the link for lots of info on the gharial.


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 218 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Feb  5, 2002 (17:36) * 1 lines 
 
=) My pleasure! Thanks for bring it up. I was not aware of this possibility. In any case that is an excellent source for all things crocidilian.


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 219 of 378: Curious Wolfie  (wolf) * Tue, Feb  5, 2002 (18:47) * 1 lines 
 
don't forget springark where we have added several topics (to include giant squid)


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 220 of 378: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Tue, Feb  5, 2002 (18:48) * 1 lines 
 
I have to get over to Springark.


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 221 of 378: Curious Wolfie  (wolf) * Tue, Feb  5, 2002 (18:58) * 1 lines 
 
*woohoo*


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 222 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Feb  5, 2002 (20:38) * 1 lines 
 
Yay!! I have also sought out Rob for SpringArk. He is owned by a pussycat as is his brother. Each one more indolent than the other.


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 223 of 378: Curious Wolfie  (wolf) * Tue, Feb  5, 2002 (21:04) * 1 lines 
 
that's good to hear! we have to place the ownership issues in the right perspective--esp. with cats, they are so independent!


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 224 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Feb  6, 2002 (22:45) * 1 lines 
 
I have a dog issue to discuss with you also. To SpringArk to seek your advice.


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 225 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Feb 11, 2002 (13:08) * 36 lines 
 
I wish they would have used a different term, like emesis. I don't think I want to add this to my collection.

Scientists Find Jurassic Age Dinosaur Vomit

LONDON (Reuters) - British scientists said Monday they had discovered
what they believed to be the world's oldest fossilized vomit from a large
marine reptile that lived 160 million years ago.
Professor Peter Doyle of the University of Greenwich in London said the
vomit found in a clay quarry in northern England shed new light on the diet
and eating habits of the ichthyosaur -- a Jurassic Age fish-like reptile with
a long head, tapered body and four flippers.
"We believe that this is the first time the existence of fossil vomit on a
grand scale has been proven beyond reasonable doubt," Doyle said.
Other examples of fossilized vomit have been discovered, but Doyle and
Dr. Jason Wood of Britain's Open University said their sample was the
oldest.
"These are the oldest, definitely," Doyle said, adding that there was
scientific evidence to back it up.
Doyle and Wood presented their findings at a paleontology conference
and plan to submit them for publication in a peer-review journal.
The vomit contains the shells of dozens of belemnites, tiny shellfish that
were found in abundance in the water around Britain. They were a staple
food for extinct marine reptiles.
The scientists are convinced the sample is vomit because of the way the
belemnite shells were scattered in the fossilized sample. A microscopic
examination also showed the shells had been etched by stomach acid
from the digestive fluid of the marine creatures.
Skeletons of ichthyosaurs with stomach contents intact have previously
been found, but the belemnite shells were quite unpalatable and usually
expelled from the body.
Doyle said it was unlikely the shells passed through the ichthyosaur's
intestines because they would have damaged the soft tissue.
"The only alternative is that the shells were vomited out, in much the
same way that modern-day sperm whales regurgitate the indigestible
beaks of squid they have eaten," he said.



 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 226 of 378: Curious Wolfie  (wolf) * Mon, Feb 11, 2002 (15:37) * 1 lines 
 
alright, how'd they know it was barf? that is so gross!!


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 227 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Feb 11, 2002 (16:03) * 1 lines 
 
The scattering of the shells, I gather. Suddenly, being an archaeologist has lost some of its glamour!


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 228 of 378: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Mon, Feb 11, 2002 (16:26) * 1 lines 
 
Still, it's in the pursuit of knowlege and the name of science. It's still pretty gross, though.


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 229 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Feb 11, 2002 (18:40) * 1 lines 
 
If only they had used another word. I passed it by my archaeologist friend and he passed on finding this delicacy. I find it fascinating. In all actuality I would welcome a specimen. I just object to the use of the word. One does not use it in polite society.


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 230 of 378: Curious Wolfie  (wolf) * Mon, Feb 11, 2002 (19:23) * 1 lines 
 
barf sounds better than vomit or regurgitated substances ***EUW!!!*** how about fossilized oral excrement?


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 231 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Feb 11, 2002 (20:04) * 1 lines 
 
...or, as our friend Herman said in his book, "reverse eating" Let's face it, we are not meant to like it! I cannot imagine being bulemic. I am absolutely pathological about it. Well, almost...


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 232 of 378: Curious Wolfie  (wolf) * Mon, Feb 11, 2002 (20:08) * 1 lines 
 
"reverse eating" was so classic!


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 233 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Feb 11, 2002 (20:41) * 1 lines 
 
He wrote a splendid book. I heard from him today. He is so wonderful. I am full of admiration for the man who inspired Books conference topic 31


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 234 of 378: Curious Wolfie  (wolf) * Mon, Feb 11, 2002 (20:43) * 1 lines 
 
oh i hope more and more people are reading his book!!


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 235 of 378: Curious Wolfie  (wolf) * Mon, Feb 11, 2002 (20:44) * 1 lines 
 
g'night sweetie! (i'm dog-tired) *laugh*


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 236 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Feb 11, 2002 (21:42) * 1 lines 
 
G'night Wolfie! Yup, you have the book because I sent you one! I am going to send a bunch more out. It is way too good to let languish unread, though he seems to be busy signing books and sending out orders. I have two copies. One he signed just for me with a personal message, and one I read and make notes in.


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 237 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Feb 16, 2002 (19:24) * 12 lines 
 
Supernova link to ancient extinction

http://physicsweb.org/article/news/6/2/11
Supernova explosions in a local cluster of stars could have caused a
wave of extinction on Earth two million years ago, according to Narciso
Beni'tez of Johns Hopkins University in the US and colleagues. The
astronomers have calculated that supernova explosions in the
`Scorpius-Centaurus association', which is relatively close to Earth,
took place at around the time of the extinction. An excess of iron-60
deep in the Earth's crust - which is old enough to have been deposited by
the supernovas - appears to support their theory (N Beni'tez et al 2002
Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 081101).


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 238 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Feb 22, 2002 (21:47) * 14 lines 
 
[1]EVOLUTION & PALEONTOLOGY
* Dust Didn't Do in Dinosaurs
* Lords of the Jungle...But Why?
* Duck Croc Found
* Remains of Seven Types of Edible Nuts and Nutcrackers Found at
78,000-Year-Old Archaeological Site
* California Creosote May Be World's Oldest Living Thing
* Early Humans Dressed for Dinner
* Humans May Not Be as Aggressive and Competitive as Thought
* Is the Evidence for Human "Replacement" Really Clear?

References
1. http://www.sciquest.com/cgi-bin/ncommerce3/ExecMacro/sci_level3.d2w/report?nav_banner=bio&resource=articles&gateway=B-evolut



 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 239 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Feb 22, 2002 (21:49) * 8 lines 
 
GEOLOGY
* Dust Didn't Do in Dinosaurs

References

1. http://www.sciquest.com/cgi-bin/ncommerce3/ExecMacro/sci_level3.d2w/report?nav_banner=bio&resource=articles&gateway=S-geolog




 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 240 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Feb 25, 2002 (21:15) * 5 lines 
 
Does anyone know how I can get one of these?

I need one - unfortunately they were sold out:

http://seis.natsci.csulb.edu/rmorris/cophap.htm


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 241 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Feb 25, 2002 (21:17) * 0 lines 
 


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 242 of 378: Curious Wolfie  (wolf) * Tue, Feb 26, 2002 (13:55) * 1 lines 
 
*laugh* you want some dinosaur poop?


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 243 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Feb 26, 2002 (14:26) * 1 lines 
 
YES!!! I even want a gastrolith. I want anything ancient, and it doesn't get any older than that except for the chunks of the mantle I have that Mauna Kea managed to erupt. And bits of Precambrian rock from Wales. I am delighted that Mike3 will be sending it to me. I'd never have asked, but he did offer and I am delighted. It will go right next to my tektite and my petrified wood.


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 244 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Mar  8, 2002 (20:52) * 9 lines 
 
ohn Noble Wilford has written a nice piece on the debate over
when humans became identifiably 'human':
http://www.nytimes.com/2002/02/26/science/social/26HUMA.html
cf: http://dsc.discovery.com/news/briefs/20020225/eve.html

... and it would appear that the Neanderthals-weren't-so-dim
articles are making the rounds again:
http://www.dailytelegraph.news.com.au/common/story_page/0,5936,3836688%255E703,00.html



 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 245 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Mar 20, 2002 (21:24) * 80 lines 
 
Skull Shows Homo Erectus One Big Happy Family
Reuters
Mar 20 2002 6:17PM

WASHINGTON (Reuters) - The skull of an unfortunate early human
chewed up by a lion or a hyena a million years ago may help show that
our ancestors evolved in Africa and then spread through the world,
scientists said on Wednesday.

The million-year-old skull clearly belongs to the species known as Homo
erectus -- a robust early human who stood upright and used tools, the
report, published in the science journal Nature, says.

It adds to the debate over whether early humans evolved in Africa and
then moved to the rest of the world, or whether modern humans evolved
separately in Africa, Asia and Europe.

Tim White, an anthropologist at the University of California Berkeley who
helped direct the study, said the skull settles for him the question of
whether humans evolved from a single ancestor -- Homo erectus.

"This new fossil is really important for two reasons," White said in a
telephone interview.

"It sort of completes this series of fossils in Africa between 1.8 and half a
million years ago that shows the lineage we call Homo erectus was an
evolving lineage. This is a wonderful example of human evolution. You
can see progressively human-like forms the younger you get in time."

The skull was found in a region of Ethiopia rich in the remains of early
humans -- the Middle Awash area, about 140 miles northeast of
Ethiopia's capitol Addis Ababa.

Henry Gilbert, working on his doctoral degree at Berkeley, found the skull
in 1997. It took a year to completely remove the fossilized bone from the
block of rock it was embedded in.

"When we cleaned the matrix off, we saw these weird scratches all
across the top of the skull," White said.

A million years ago, large lions and huge hyenas lived in the area. "They
would have had a gape big enough to crunch the entire face away in an
attempt to get into the brain," White said.

The result was the skull has no face, but what is left of the cranium is
enough for the experts to identify the species as Homo erectus, White
said.

"This African fossil is so similar to its Asian contemporaries that it's clear
Homo erectus was a truly successful, widespread species throughout
the Old World," he said.

Many anthropologists have argued that fossils dating back as far as 1.7
million years actually belong to a separate species of humans, which
they have dubbed Homo ergaster. The most recent example of Homo
ergaster was found in the former Soviet republic of Georgia.

White argues that Homo ergaster is actually an early Homo erectus.

Homo erectus was actually a single, widespread species, White said. It
did not start to fragment into different species, such as Europe's
Neanderthals, until the Ice Ages separated populations.

Examples of Homo erectus include Java Man, found in what is now
Indonesia, and Beijing Man, found in modern-day China.

These Asian branches never really evolved further and may have been
replaced by modern Homo sapiens -- but White said there is not yet
enough evidence to show what happened.

"When you stack these fossils up in time ... we see that somewhere
between 100,000 and 200,000 years ago, anatomically modern people
arose," White said.

These modern people then populated the world.

"They walked, but they didn't wake up one morning and say 'get out of
here -- Pakistan looks better.' They said 'the hunting in the next valley is
better'. It was like a diffusion or dispersion out of Africa," he said.



 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 246 of 378: Curious Wolfie  (wolf) * Thu, Mar 21, 2002 (18:42) * 1 lines 
 
it's further proof that the garden of eden was in africa (euphrates river and all)


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 247 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Mar 21, 2002 (19:55) * 1 lines 
 
I never thought of Iraq (home of the Mesopotamian rivers mentioned above) as being in Africa. However, point taken! Maps come and go - Mankind is ephemeral on the grand scale of time.


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 248 of 378: Curious Wolfie  (wolf) * Fri, Mar 22, 2002 (17:11) * 1 lines 
 
(did i misread? thought it had said africa *blush*)


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 249 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Mar 22, 2002 (21:19) * 1 lines 
 
It did say Africa, but you suggested the area between the Tigress and Euphrates River was Eden. You have a worthy following, and you are likely right. Whether you believe in spontaneous appearance of human kind (in Mesopotamia in the Middle East) or in Evolution (quite possibly Out of Africa though that has been under a lot of question lately,) the earliest civilizations were settled in that area in what is today's Iraq.


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 250 of 378: Curious Wolfie  (wolf) * Sat, Mar 23, 2002 (09:32) * 1 lines 
 
the euphrates is not in africa? ok, now i'm confused *grin*


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 251 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Mar 23, 2002 (12:54) * 1 lines 
 
Only if you consider Iraq part of Africa.


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 252 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Mar 23, 2002 (21:24) * 20 lines 
 
EVOLUTION & PALEONTOLOGY

* Iceman "Died After Knife Fight"
* Excavations in Eastern Europe Reveal Ancient Human Lifestyles
* Scientist Probes Fossil Oddity: Giant Redwoods Near North Pole
* Deviations From the Mean
* Ancient Penguins Yield Evolution Clue
* Big Genes Are Back
* Darwin's Time Machine: Scientists Begin Predicting Evolution's
Next Step
* New Dinosaur Related to Triceratops
* Ethiopian Fossil Skull Indicates Homo erectus Was Single,
Widespread Species 1 Million Years Ago
* Heads Up: Problem Solving Pushed Bright Primates Toward Bigger
Brains

References

1. http://www.sciquest.com/cgi-bin/ncommerce3/ExecMacro/sci_level3.d2w/report?nav_banner=bio&resource=articles&gateway=B-evolut



 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 253 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Mar 23, 2002 (21:30) * 13 lines 
 
GEOLOGY

* Scientist Probes Fossil Oddity: Giant Redwoods Near North Pole
* Researchers Describe Overall Water Balance in Subglacial Lake
Vostok
* Years of Research Lead Geologist to Propose New Supercontinent
Columbia
* Global Warming Episode Between Paleocene and Eocene

References

1. http://www.sciquest.com/cgi-bin/ncommerce3/ExecMacro/sci_level3.d2w/report?nav_banner=bio&resource=articles&gateway=S-geolog



 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 254 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Apr 24, 2002 (22:48) * 40 lines 
 
Scientists Find Oldest Placental Mammal Fossil
Reuters
Apr 24 2002 7:28PM

LONDON (Reuters) - A team of Chinese and American scientists say they
have found a 125-million-year-old fossil of an animal that is the most
primitive known relative of today's higher mammals, including humans
and primates.
The remains of the creature, Eomaia scansoria, push back the fossil
records of so-called placental mammals by millions of years and provide
a wealth of information about them.
Mammals that nourish their young in the womb through an organ called
the placenta account for the vast majority of all mammals, with a few
notable exceptions such as marsupials.
"This mammal could be our great, great aunt or uncle, or it could be our
great-grandparent 125 million years removed," said Dr. Zhe-xi Luo of the
Carnegie Museum of Natural History in Pittsburgh.
"Across a wide range of mammals we all share one common ancestry.
We are all placental mammals. With this new fossil we can trace the root
of all the placental group," he added in an interview.
The tiny creature, which was no bigger than a large mouse, scurried on
the ground at the feet of the dinosaurs and may have made a tasty treat
for some of its monstrous contemporaries.
Its detailed features -- teeth, foot bones and fur -- suggest it lived in low
branches and bushes, was adapted for climbing and fed on insects.

"We have extended the quality record to the earliest time interval of
placental evolution," Luo explained.
The fossil will allow scientists to determine which features placental
mammals have inherited from their earliest ancestors and which are
newly evolved characteristics of the group.
"In order to distinguish those two possibilities for any anatomical
features, we have to trace back to this earlier fossil record. That is why it
is so exciting," said Luo.
Before the discovery of the fossil, which is reported in the science journal
Nature, the earliest record of a placental mammal was a few isolated
115-million-year-old teeth.
The new find was discovered in a quarry in the Liaoning Province of
China, an area where remains of feathered dinosaurs and very primitive
birds have also been found.


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 255 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Apr 25, 2002 (16:50) * 0 lines 
 


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 256 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, May 11, 2002 (18:30) * 6 lines 
 
Oldest Worm Trail Discovered

References
1. http://www.sciquest.com/cgi-bin/ncommerce3/ExecMacro/sci_level3.d2w/report?nav_banner=bio&resource=articles&gateway=S-geolog




 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 257 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, May 16, 2002 (17:00) * 12 lines 
 
Giant dinosaurs arrived with a bang

A massive meteorite impact may explain the rapid rise of huge,
carnivorous dinosaurs, as well as their demise. Scientists have
found the hallmarks of an impact and mass extinction in rocks just
below strata containing the earliest footprints of the giant
dinosaurs.

To read the full story go to:
http://www.prq0.com/apps/redir.asp?link=XbdeaeafBH,ZbccedehecCJ&oid=UcjjbCB




 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 258 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, May 20, 2002 (20:43) * 77 lines 
 
He was my hero.

Harvard Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould Dies
Reuters
May 20 2002 7:01PM

BOSTON (Reuters) - Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould, who unlocked
the mysteries of evolution for millions of readers with essays on the
panda's extra thumb and helped bring natural history museums to
popular audiences, died on Monday at his home in New York after a long
battle with cancer.

Gould, a Harvard professor best known for modifying Charles Darwin's
theories, died at 10:35 a.m. EDT, a spokeswoman at his Harvard office
said. He was 60.

Some of Gould's best-known works are "Ever Since Darwin," "The
Panda's Thumb," which won an American Book Award in 1981, and "The
Mismeasure of Man," which won the National Book Critics Circle Award
for 1982.

"He connected science with other areas of pursuit such as baseball...
Most people aren't scientists. They need those connections," said
Michael Novacek, provost of science at New York's American Museum of
Natural History.

"Probably more than anyone else, he provided a contextual sense of
science that was incredibly effective. His writings influenced so many
people, scientists and nonscientists."

A Harvard professor since age 26, Gould wrote chatty, educational
essays using unusual details such as the flamingo's smile or the
panda's extra thumb to introduce readers to more general themes in an
exciting way.

In "The Panda's Thumb," discussing a type of mite, he wrote: "Fifteen
eggs, including but a single male, develop within the mother's body. The
male emerges within his mother's shell, copulates with all his sisters
and dies before birth.

"It may not sound like much of a life, but the male Acarophenax does as
much for its evolutionary continuity as Abraham did in fathering children
into his 10th decade."

CHOCOLATE BARS TO LAND SNAILS

Technically his field was fossils but Gould taught geology, biology,
zoology and the history of science, and wrote about everything from
chocolate bars to baseball to Bahamian land snails -- on which he was
probably the world's foremost expert.

"Science is not a heartless pursuit of objective information," Gould wrote
in his 1977 book "Ever Since Darwin." "It is a creative human activity, its
geniuses acting more as artists than as information processors."

In July 1981, when he was 40, Gould learned he had abdominal
mesothelioma, a rare and deadly form of cancer that is usually
associated with exposure to asbestos.

Gould researched the disease and wrote in an article in Discover
magazine in June 1985: "The literature couldn't have been more brutally
clear. Mesothelioma is incurable, with a median mortality of only eight
months after discovery."

He went on to say that "most people, without training in statistics, would
read such a statement as, 'I will probably be dead in eight months."'

But he added, "all evolutionary biologists know that variation itself is
nature's only irreducible essence. ... I had to place myself amidst the
variation."

During his illness, Gould continued to write and teach while undergoing
experimental treatment for the disease.

Born on Sept. 10, 1941, in New York, Gould decided to be a
paleontologist after his first sight, at age 5, of a 20-foot high reconstructed
dinosaur in the American Museum of Natural History.


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 259 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, May 27, 2002 (17:34) * 5 lines 
 
* DNA traces found in ancient rock *
Scientists believe they have found traces of DNA dating back dozens of millions of years.
Full story:
http://news.bbc.co.uk/go/em/-/hi/english/sci/tech/newsid_2004000/2004993.stm



 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 260 of 378: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Thu, May 30, 2002 (18:24) * 1 lines 
 
Marcia, I too, I'm sorry to hear about Dr. Gould. Didn't he co-develop, with Niles Aldridge, the evolutionary theory of punctuated equalibrium?


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 261 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, May 30, 2002 (19:58) * 6 lines 
 
Regarding "Punk Eek" this website tells much with a wry twist
http://www.skeptic.com/01.3.prothero-punc-eq.html

In many ways Niles Eldredge and Stephen Jay Gould taught paleontology to play twenty years ago, publishing a paper that helped revitalize the science. Long associated in the public minds with musty old bones, paleontology had the well-deserved reputation of being a stagnant backwater among the sciences.

God Love them. I thought I was the only one who loved Paleo. My son sure disliked it as do most geologists. To me it combines my love of archaeology with my love of geology. What could be better than that?


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 262 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Jun  2, 2002 (16:31) * 4 lines 
 
From TheMaharaja, one of his wonderful fossils. His dinosaur tooth is defying scanning expertise even of his most cyber-advanced friends so we must content ourselves with this for the present.





 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 263 of 378: Curious Wolfie  (wolf) * Mon, Jun  3, 2002 (17:11) * 1 lines 
 
am i the only one who sees a shell in this image? i guess i've never seen a dinosaur tooth before.....


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 264 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Jun  3, 2002 (17:24) * 2 lines 
 
Oops, Wolfie, it is a shell. The design has not changed in millions of years!
Sikander is having great difficulty sending me the tooth image. We'll keep trying!


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 265 of 378: S B Robinson  (SBRobinson) * Mon, Jun  3, 2002 (17:45) * 1 lines 
 
*laughing*


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 266 of 378: S B Robinson  (SBRobinson) * Mon, Jun  3, 2002 (17:46) * 1 lines 
 
I sympathize Marcia -that's the kind of day i'm having also.... :-D *hug*


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 267 of 378: Curious Wolfie  (wolf) * Mon, Jun  3, 2002 (20:13) * 3 lines 
 
*laugh*

speaking of shells and teeth--i'll have to scan it and send it to you marcia, my son found what looks like either a big tooth or a turtle claw. we haven't taken it to the aquarium to get an "experts" opinion but it sure is interesting!!!


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 268 of 378: Curious Wolfie  (wolf) * Mon, Jun  3, 2002 (20:14) * 1 lines 
 
shoot, i just remembered my scanner isn't compatible with this machine now *rats*!!!


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 269 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Jun  3, 2002 (23:04) * 3 lines 
 
Off you go to the aquarium or have someone bring their digital camera to take a picture for you. Sounds Fascinating, Wolfie.

As for the Shell from Pakistan, Sikander says it will fit in a one inch circle.


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 270 of 378: Sikander Zawawi  (TheMaharaja) * Tue, Jun  4, 2002 (17:00) * 6 lines 
 
This was found some 160 kms north of the Arabian Sea. Either the sea was
there or this thing traveled. There are many more of this type lying there,
so perhaps the sea extended upto there. Are there are shells found in rivers
Expert opinion required. Still working on the dinosaur tooth. I now call it
the mystery tooth.
Marcia, thanks for posting it. It looks beautiful.


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 271 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Jun  4, 2002 (23:35) * 3 lines 
 
Aloha, Sikander! I did a little "tweaking" to make your shell as beautiful as possible while remaining faithful to the original. I should perhaps post a bit about how the sea creature ended up on top of a mountain. It has everything to do with the subcontinent "slamming" into (geologically speaking) into the EurAsian plate. This event has pushed up the highest mountains on earth and the sea floor between them with it.




 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 272 of 378: Sikander Zawawi  (TheMaharaja) * Wed, Jun  5, 2002 (06:29) * 3 lines 
 
Marcia, your explanation makes sense but there is still a little bit of
puzzle left. Shouldn't there be different sizes of fossilized sea-shells?
Why just one species?


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 273 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Jun  5, 2002 (14:00) * 1 lines 
 
Why only crinoids and brachiopods when I took the field trip kiddies to the railroad cut in West Virginia? Apparently they were not isolated but I did not happen on any cephalopods and bryozoans who shared their world. I suspect it was because of simillar size and layering. I just wish I had been wise enough to aim a bit higher and lower on that road cut to find what other things had been trapped in other layers. There should be different sized creatures of all sorts. Size differentiation may be a matter of sifting out. Just as when smallest sand grains at on the top and larger ones (heavier) filter out first.


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 274 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Jun  5, 2002 (14:06) * 1 lines 
 
Sikander, My most recent issue of National Geographic came with a fantastic map of Pakistan, Kashmir and Afghanistan. This has set me to studying the Geology of the area with a particular goal of paleogeology and what happened and in what order. As soon as I have a moment, I will get on it. As it is now, I should be packing!


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 275 of 378: Curious Wolfie  (wolf) * Wed, Jun  5, 2002 (18:28) * 1 lines 
 
is that the june issue, marcia? i've got china and nepal on that map. maybe my may issue....hmmmmm


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 276 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Jun  5, 2002 (20:45) * 1 lines 
 
When I renewed my lapsed membership they sent it separately. It is listed as "Afghanistan" in their map list. I also got the Peru map with the issue with the mummy on the cover.


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 277 of 378: Curious Wolfie  (wolf) * Thu, Jun  6, 2002 (17:41) * 1 lines 
 
ok, i remember that one now *grin*


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 278 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Jun  7, 2002 (15:49) * 1 lines 
 
Ok, Wolfie, at the bottom of that map you can see where Karachi and Sikander are. The appear to be far from mountains since theonly ones I really know are in the north near Imran and Islamabad. In any case, I brought mine with me so I could enjoy it and keep track of the World According to Sikander.


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 279 of 378: John Tsatsaragos  (tsatsvol) * Sat, Jun 29, 2002 (02:19) * 5 lines 
 
Dear Sikander,
We are ready to see your infrequent and precious finding. Good luck with HTML code.

John



 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 280 of 378: John Tsatsaragos  (tsatsvol) * Sat, Jun 29, 2002 (03:25) * 13 lines 
 
The Greek Island Lesvos (Or Mytilini) lies in central east Aegean Sea, opposite to Asia Minor, in a distance of 5 to 8 miles. It has an area of 1630 square kilometres and a coastline of 370klm.

About 15 millions years ago Lesvos was covered by tropical and subtropical forests, a unique characteristic both for Greece and the Mediterranean. This special vegetation was due to the great water resources that the island had and continues to have till today, but mainly to the active volcanoes that existed under the ground. These tropical forests with the gigantic trees were suddenly covered by lava and volcanic ash, following an intense volcanic activity.



The water running through these volcanic grounds for thousands of years crystallized the trunks of the trees. The stone trunks preserved till today, at an area of 150.000 acres on the northwest side of the island, are mainly comprised of quartz and opal, while the characteristics of the trees are clear.
The Fossil Forest has been proclaimed as a Perceivable Monument of Nature and visitors are free to visit the greater part of it.

http://www.greekislands.com/lesvos/message.htm

John



 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 281 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Jul  3, 2002 (15:55) * 3 lines 
 
John! Lovely post. You have petrified forests, too? The ones in the US were not involved in volcanism as far as I know. In Hawaii we have two kinds of tree reminders (since nothing of the actual tree remains.) One is a tree mold which is a hole in the ground where the tree used to be encased in lava. The root system and bark are visible in the cooled lava mold.

Lava trees are much the same only they preserve the tree above ground while va[porizing what were the organic parts. The trunk and some branches can often be seen. Black and shiny, they are totally basalt and nothing is fossilized.


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 282 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Jul  3, 2002 (17:30) * 4 lines 
 
Since you asked about the mass extinctions, there have been several, but two fom4e to mind. The discovery of the iridium layer world wide indicated at least one was due to massive strikes on earth of extraterrestrial bodies. Asteroids.

I found this to be useful
http://www.bbc.co.uk/education/darwin/exfiles/massintro.htm


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 283 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Jul 20, 2002 (20:23) * 8 lines 
 
IMPORTANT FINDINGS IN THE PERAMA CAVE

Important findings among them, human bones, came to light during the recent exploratory
missions conducted in the Perama Cave by the Speleology Club of Ioannina.
The human bones and the cave-bear teeth found by an exploratory team were discovered 60
meters away from the spot where the bones of another cave-bear, that lived 300.000 years
ago, were found 40 years ago.
http://www.hri.org/news/greek/mpa/2002/02-07-08.mpa.html


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 284 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Jul 20, 2002 (20:25) * 1 lines 
 
I have just been out fossil hunting with Don. I need to clean what I have found then share them with you. Lots of new brachiopods - many species types. I am still looking for my first trilobite!


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 285 of 378: Paul Terry Walhus (terry) * Sun, Jul 21, 2002 (06:43) * 4 lines 
 
For the novices among us, can you explanin the difference between a brachiopod and a trilobyte?

And where is Ionnina?



 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 286 of 378: John Tsatsaragos  (tsatsvol) * Mon, Jul 22, 2002 (01:27) * 29 lines 
 
Hi Terry and all,
Ioannina is a city located at the north-west Greece. Perama is a region near Ioannina where is a nice cave with stalactites and stalagmites. Here is the map of Greece that I use to present the recent seismicity in Greece. You can see where is Ioannina on it.



**************************


Brachiopod shells are probably the most commonly collected fossils in Kentucky. Brachiopods had two shells and lived attached to the sea bottom or some object on the sea bottom.



Although they had two shells or valves, as clams (pelecypods) have, all similarity ends there. The internal structure of brachiopods is entirely different from that of the clam. Brachiopods still exist today but are very rarely found as seashells on the beach. However, in ancient Kentucky, they were very common and far outnumbered the fossil clams and snails living in the sea. Brachiopods can be found in Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian, Mississippian, and Pennsylvanian rocks in Kentucky.

From:
http://www.uky.edu/KGS/coal/webfossl/pages/brachs.htm

**************************


Trilobites are hard-shelled, segmented creatures that existed over 300 million years ago in the Earth's ancient seas. They went extinct before dinosaurs even existed, and are one of the key signature creatures of the Paleozoic Era, the first era to exhibit a proliferation of the complex life-forms that established the foundation of life as it is today. Although dinosaurs are the most well-known fossil life forms, trilobites are also a favourite among those familiar with Paleontology.



More:
http://www.aloha.net/~smgon/trilobite.htm

John



 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 287 of 378: John Tsatsaragos  (tsatsvol) * Mon, Jul 22, 2002 (01:38) * 16 lines 
 
PERAMA CAVE (GREECE)



Located just 4 Km north of Ioannina, in the Perama settlement, the Perama Cave is at least 2 million years old!

Greece’s largest cave in terms of area (14,800 square metres) and the 7th largest in terms of total length of its passages (1,700 metres), the Perama Cave is well-known world-wide for its beauty and scientific value and the subject of a number of publications in international journals.

The cave was first discovered by geologist Ioannis Petrohilos and his wife Anna in 1951 and explored by the couple through 1955.

There are at least 14 different types of stalagmites and stalactites in curious shapes and sizes, which can be admired by visitors on a guided tour along a 1 Km-long illuminated pathway.

http://www.epcon.gr/metsovo/10tours/sight.htm

John



 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 288 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Jul 22, 2002 (17:21) * 3 lines 
 
Oooh John! Thank you VERY much for the map of Ionnia and also of the Kentucky fossils. I know I have a mold and a cast of two different pelecypodia amongst the things I have found. Not nearly as spectacular as the brachiopods but unique in their own way. I suspect that is the tubular fossil I found is nnot a crinoid stalk it is from a epelcypoid since many were in the area though none nearly large enough to have had one like this.I will show it to a friend in Louisville who is far better versed in local fossils than I. He also thinkks it is a croinoid though of a far different one than I am used to seeing.

The Perama cave is not only fascinating it is also beautiful. Thank you for that also!


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 289 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Jul 22, 2002 (17:21) * 4 lines 
 
Geologists have found a fossil bonanza in Central Otago, including the first
evidence that New Zealand once had snakes.
http://www.gns.cri.nz/news/release/snake.html



 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 290 of 378: John Tsatsaragos  (tsatsvol) * Fri, Jul 26, 2002 (02:08) * 30 lines 
 
THE NATURAL HISTORY COLLECTION OF VRISA-LESBOS (MYTILINI)-GREECE

The Region of Vrisa - Vatera, with the most unique beach in the entire Mediterranean, is characterised as exceptionally rare for its Palaeolithic fossils, unique not only to Greece, but perhaps to the whole of Europe. During recovery excavations in the region of Vatera, various fossils were found in lakes, lake-banks and river deposits.



In clay deposits of the flowing river, various size fish fossils were discovered, the largest of which was 80cm. The environment was found to be freshwater and apart from the fish fossils, various plant fossils were discovered, including aquatic carnivorous plants and bulrushes, types of which no longer exist today.

The banks of this lake were used as a watering hole where animals came to drink. In certain areas their animal prints have been preserved.

The most important of fossilised animal remains discovered, include: The jawbone, tusks and skeleton segments of the proboscidean and mastododon ANANCUS ARVENENSIS which became extinct more than 1.6 million years ago.

In various locations fossilised horse bones of variable size were discovered, one of which had hooves attached of greater dimension than that of the common EQUUS STENOSIS.

The bones and jaw of the carnivorous NYCTEREUTES MEGAMASTOIDES were also found, a possible relative of today's nyctereytis, as well as the bones of camels, rhinoceroses, various sized deer, antelopes, gazelles and other bovine creatures and tortoises.

The fossilised bones discovered belonging to the giant tortoise are amongst the most impressive finds, since it is believed to have been about 2.5 metres in length, a size that can be compared to that of a modern car.

The most amazing of all discoveries however, was the find of extremely rare animal species, including a family of giant apes of the species of PARADOLICHOPITHECUS, the earliest in representative age ever found in Europe.

The abundance of fossils of gazelles, horses, deer, tortoises and antelopes indicate an early savannah environment, while the deposits point to the existence of river systems which crossed the region's forest expance and flowed into the lake.

It is worth noting the existence of a rich fauna of fossilised freshwater fish, shells and flora. The age of the finds (using paleo-magnetic methods of dating) is 2 million years old.

The Natural History Collection of Vrisa, apart from its collection of fossils, has an extensive collection of rocks, plants and embalmed animals.

http://www.vatera-lesvos.co.uk/naturalhistory.htm

John



 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 291 of 378: John Tsatsaragos  (tsatsvol) * Fri, Jul 26, 2002 (02:11) * 30 lines 
 
Walking with mastodons
Palaeontologists unearth the largest animals ever to inhabit Greece


Two mastodons - one aged three million years,
the other 200,000 years - were found near Grevena

When it comes to popular travel destinations Greece's ancient history is a magnet for millions of tourists. Recently however the land's prehistory has been brought to the foreground thanks to some astounding finds unearthed in a comparatively unfrequented northern region of the mainland.

The important finds have placed the area of Grevena under the paleontological limelight, where relics of an elephant aged 200,000 years and of a mastodon that lived three million years ago were found.

The scientific team credited with the important find, a group of researchers from the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki lead by palaeontologist Dr Evangelia Tsoukala, have been searching the mountains and streams of Grevena over the last decade for the remains of the largest animals ever to inhabit Greece.

The fossils of the eldest mastodon (an extinct elephantine mammal), found in the area of Milia, belonged to a male aged three million years. Fittingly nicknamed Giant, this mammal lived during the Pliocene Epoch and boasted tusks of 4.4 metres in length, which was exactly what the researchers found at a hilltop! It must be noted that these tusks, weighing 400 kg each, are the largest ever found and they exceed those of contemporary African elephants by well over a metre.

The second mastodon - actually the first to be found in the mid-nineties in the area of Ambelia - is aged around 200,000 years. Its scientific name is Palaeoloxodon antiguus and it lived during the Plistocene Epoch. It was given the nickname of Astrakhan.

Although mastodons once had a worldwide distribution, making them quite common and often very well-preserved, this find exceeds expectations because the elephant jawbone is the most complete of its kind ever found in Europe. It is believed that these animals migrated to Greece in search of refuge from colder regions of northern Europe. As Tsoukala pointed out in an interview with Greek daily Kathimerini, "we suspect that there was a prolonged period of dry, arid weather that killed these animals".

In search of the past
The scientists prehistoric 'hunt' in Grevena was ignited by a fluke, when in 1990 student Dimitris Zissopoulos came across some fossilized bones on his grandfather's land. "Upon examining them," explains Tsoukala, "we realized that they were the bones of a prehistoric animal and we decided to conduct investigations in the area." There followed a decade characterized by both luck and 'detective' work.

Between 1991 and 1995 Tsoukala's team unearthed various fossils located at 585 metres of altitude at Ambelia, in the region where Astrakhan was subsequently found. Some years later the finding of the Giants relics brought sheer elation to researchers. "The fossilized tusks of the lower jaw, which disappeared during the evolution of the elephant species, and their excellent state of preservation, make this find unique in Europe," said Tsoukala.

Similar prehistoric finds have also been uncovered in other areas of Greece such as on the islands of Tilos, Lesvos, Samos and Evia as well as in mainland areas of Thessaloniki and east Attica prefectures.

http://www.greece.gr/ENVIRONMENT/ScienceAndTechnology/walking_with_mastodons.stm

John



 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 292 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Jul 26, 2002 (09:40) * 6 lines 
 
Wonderful information, John. We do not have anyhting like that little gazelle-like creature but we have more mammoths than anyone seeminly knows what to do with in Kentucky. I would love a little piece of one but that is unlikely.

Here is a sampling of the many different types of Bradhiopods I have found. The smallest less than an inch across; the largest is about 2 inches across the widest part.





 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 293 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Jul 26, 2002 (09:41) * 0 lines 
 


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 294 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Jul 26, 2002 (09:43) * 3 lines 
 
An interesting accretion of various sea creatures from the Ordivician in Limestone




 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 295 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Jul 26, 2002 (09:44) * 4 lines 
 
My favorites so far. Two brachiopods with geodes in them.





 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 296 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Jul 26, 2002 (09:47) * 1 lines 
 
The larger of the two is the most beautiful but is the most difficult to photograph. I'll keep working on it. Lovely little perfect quartz crystals poking straight into the center of the geode and using up most of the cavity. These are much heavier than plain limestone specimens. I have one that is also heavy but has no sign of silicacious intrusions. I could crack it open but I wonder if it is worth the risk.


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 297 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Aug  1, 2002 (19:00) * 0 lines 
 


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 298 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Aug  1, 2002 (21:06) * 10 lines 
 
I discovered a little bowl of stones in the kitchen (don't we all keep them there?!) so I took a photo of them and other things oceanic that were found on a much more productive dig than the one we went on today.


Location: ~.75 miles north of Madison, Jefferson County, (southeastern) Indiana
Collection context: Gravel bars in Crooked Creek
Collector: Don Ball
Date: May 9, 2002





 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 299 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Aug 18, 2002 (16:21) * 6 lines 
 

Location:ca. 0.75 miles north of Madison, Jefferson County, Indiana
Collection context: gravel bars in Crooked Creek
Specimens: Silurian Horn corals, honeycomb coral, brachiopods and numerous other species packed together in highly rich Indiana limestone.
Date: August 17, 2002



 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 300 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Aug 18, 2002 (16:31) * 4 lines 
 
"Highly rich" is bad terminology and even worse English.However, the percentage of fossils in the limestone was staggering. The rock hardly stayed bonded together as it exfoliated and tumbled the fossils intact down the cliffs. Most is considered oolithic but I found many far more complex creatures along with the small rounded fossils that form most oolithic rock. We will return after a winter storm has had a chance to deposit more gravel on the bar.





 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 301 of 378: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Tue, Aug 20, 2002 (17:49) * 1 lines 
 
Wow, Marcia. Thanks for posting your finds. Would "profligately packed" been a better or worse way to phrase the density of the fossils than "highly rich"?


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 302 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Aug 20, 2002 (20:04) * 1 lines 
 
*Laugh* that would work, Cheryl. I need to buy my fpt program for this laptop so I can keep it working. It cancelled out on me and my membership number for my other computer is at home. Bear with me. I'll get lots more pictures posted. I especially want to get a good closeup of the horn coral internal structure. It is amazing it survived so long!


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 303 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Aug 24, 2002 (23:50) * 17 lines 
 
Cemetery Of Prehistoric Animals Discovered In Chalkidiki
(8/24/02)
A cemetery of prehistoric animals was unearthed in Kriopigi, Chalkidiki in
northern Greece by a team of Aristotle University of Thessaloniki
paleontologists.

They discovered a great number of fossilized bones belonging to animals that
used to live in the region between 5 and 7 million years ago.

The most important discovery is the bones of a primate that lived 5-7 million
years ago. They also discovered the bones of two kinds of prehistoric
horses, gazelles, antilopes, giraffes, prehistoric elephants and carnivores.

According to scientists, the region was a savanna similar to those found in
Africa today. Fossilized trees estimated to be about 20 million years old were
also discovered at a close distance, near the town of Fourka.
http://www.mjourney.com/news/News_from_Greece/e/1522.CEMETERY-PREHESTORIC_ANIMALS.html


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 304 of 378: John Tsatsaragos  (tsatsvol) * Tue, Aug 27, 2002 (01:11) * 18 lines 
 
BACTERIUM IN A FOSSIL

Researchers from the Engineering Department of the University of California is St. Louis Obisco have reported the revival of a thirty million year old bacterium. This was found in the body of a bee that had been preserved in perfect condition inside a large drop of amber. Amber consists of petrified tree resin, a natural polymer, which hardens with the passage of time and becomes completely waterproof and airproof. Because of this specific property, amber fully protects and preserves any organism, which happened to be trapped within the original resin.

"This ancient bacterium, which had been transformed into a spore, remained in an inert condition, in deep sleep as it were, and we woke it up", says senior researcher Raul Cano, whose report was published in the May 19th issue of Science magazine. Except for the bacterium itself, the scientists are also studying a natural antibiotic produced by it, in the hope that it may prove useful to medicine.

"Some bacteria transform themselves into spores in order to be able to survive [in hostile environments] for long periods of time. They are very resistant to chemical action as well as to high temperatures and pressures".

Cano thinks that the revived bacterium is genetically similar to today's Bacillus sphaericus, which develops in the digestive system of bees. He has established a private company whose scientific personnel engages exclusively in the study of fossilized organisms found in amber. One of their most impressive accomplishments has been the production of beer fermented from ancient yeast!

Some scientists doubt the validity of Cano's assertion that the microbe he isolated is indeed that old, while others worry that some of the microorganisms from the past might turn out to be pathogenic or dangerous.

The more probable thing, however, is that, with the deeper study of palaiobacteria, worry will give way to awe and admiration for these microscopic organisms which know how to survive against all odds, to the utter frustration of other larger and "smarter" creatures, which... one day you see them, one day you don't.

Source: GEORAMA Magazine

John



 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 305 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Aug 27, 2002 (21:33) * 1 lines 
 
Oh Dear! This harkens back to the Mummy's Curse and catching plagues long dormant from eons past. I will be happy if they keep it just to bacteria.


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 306 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Aug 27, 2002 (21:42) * 80 lines 
 
Dinosaurs make tracks on the isles

Fifteen footprints were found on the beach
Fossilised dinosaur footprints found on a
Scottish island have been hailed as the biggest
and best ever unearthed north of the border.

Experts say the tracks were probably made by
huge meat-eating dinosaurs which left their
prints in the sand 165 million years ago.

Scientists have described the discovery on the
east coast of the Isle of Skye as significant.

The first print was
spotted on a beach
looking across to
Staffin Island, off
Skye, by local hotelier
Cathie Booth.

She was out walking
her dog when she saw
intriguing marks on a
loose slab of rock.

She and her husband
Paul called in experts
from the Hunterian
Museum at the University of Glasgow.

They confirmed that she had found a dinosaur
footprint from the Jurassic period.

Further searches in the area revealed a total
of 15 sets of tracks.

Rock horizon

Each footprint is made up of three huge toes in
an arrow-head formation.

It is not clear exactly what sort of dinosaur
left the marks.

However, it was thought to be something like
the Megalosaurus, a 10m long meat eater
which walked on two legs.

Scientists say the tracks are important
because they are still in the rock horizon
where they were formed.

Dr Neil Clark from the
Hunterian Museum
said: "Dinosaur remains
are very rare in
Scotland, and every
attempt should be
made to protect them.

"Sadly, these
footprints were found
on a beach that is
battered by winter
storms."

This means that the
footprints are being eroded by the tide and will
eventually disappear.

"It is important that we have a permanent
record of these footprints in our museums
before tidal erosion destroys them or sand
engulfs them," he said.

Palaeontologists are now embarking on a
project to make casts and moulds of the
tracks to preserve them for the future.
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/scotland/2217874.stm


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 307 of 378: Paul Terry Walhus (terry) * Wed, Aug 28, 2002 (06:47) * 12 lines 
 
There's a great chart of the periods of the varying Dinosaurs at:

http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/dinosaurs/mesozoic/jurassic/

A sample:

At the beginning of the Jurassic, the Earth's continents were still jammed together, forming the supercontinent Pangaea, but they were beginning to drift apart. There had been a minor extinction at the end of the Triassic period, which gave rise to an abundance of dinosaurs in the Jurassic. The climate was hot and dry and at the beginning of the Jurassic, strongly seasonal.

The dinosaurs dominated the near-tropical Earth during the Jurassic, and many new groups appeared. The gigantic sauropod dinosaurs, like the Diplodocus and Apatosaurus, diversified. Carnivorous theropods, like Allosaurus and Compsognathus, were abundant. Bird-like dinosaurs also flourished.
About 140 million years ago, during the late Jurassic period, the flowering plants (angiosperms) evolved, and would soon change the face of the Earth.




 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 308 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Aug 28, 2002 (14:09) * 1 lines 
 
That is great, Terry! Thank you for the link and items from it. With all the huge names and different geological ages it becomes very confusing, even for the ones who make their living doing paleontology.


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 309 of 378: John Tsatsaragos  (tsatsvol) * Thu, Sep  5, 2002 (01:34) * 20 lines 
 
Neanderthal skeleton rediscovered
By Dr David Whitehouse


Neanderthals became extinct more than 20,000 years ago

The beautifully preserved and extremely rare skeleton of a newborn Neanderthal, thought to have been lost to science for almost 90 years, has been rediscovered. It could lead to new insights into the evolution of modern humans and our relationship with our extinct cousins.

The fossil is of a baby Neanderthal that was just four months old when it died. It is called Le Moustier 2 after its discovery in 1914 in an exposed cliff near Le Moustier in the Dordogne, southwest France. A few years after it was found, the fossil vanished.

Some scientists believed it had been taken to a Paris museum. But in 1996, the fossil remains of a newborn Neanderthal were discovered among the archives of the National Museum of Pre-history in Les Eyzies in the Dordogne. Modern dating techniques suggest that it is about 40,000 years old.

Writing in the journal Nature, Bruno Maureille of the University of Bordeaux in Talence confirms that the Dordogne skeleton is that of Le Moustier 2. In addition, other bones from a newborn Neanderthal at another museum in France have been found to be from the same skeleton.

Reunited with its missing bones, Le Moustier 2 only lacks shoulder blades and its pubic bone, making it one of the most complete Neanderthal skeletons ever found.

Source: BBC NEWS, Wednesday, 4 September, 2002

John



 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 310 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Sep  7, 2002 (14:02) * 1 lines 
 
I am delighted you posted this, John! I always figured the Neanderthals got a rather bad press. They have found evidence that they had rituals just as the current inhabitants of earth have. I suspect more will be discovered of this nature if allowed to pursue the scant evidence.


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 311 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Jun 14, 2003 (19:03) * 6 lines 
 
Oldest 'modern' human skulls found in Africa

Scientists have unearthed three 160,000-year-old human
skulls in Ethiopia.

Pictures and more... http://www.ananova.com/news/story/sm_789516.html?menu=news.scienceanddiscovery.archaeology


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 312 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Jul 30, 2003 (13:28) * 3 lines 
 
The fossil record, online
By analysing masses of data compiled from fossil collections throughout the world, a group of leading palaeontologists hopes to address the big questions about the history of life on Earth. Quirin Schiermeier logs on to the Paleobiology Database.
www.nature.com/nature/featureoftheweek/


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 313 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Jul 30, 2003 (13:29) * 2 lines 
 
Fossil record online:
http://www.nature.com/nature/featureoftheweek/


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 314 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Oct 23, 2003 (19:00) * 38 lines 
 
30ft dinosaur fossil unearthed


An international team of palaeontologists has found a
dinosaur fossil dating back more than 180 million years -
possibly one of the oldest ever discovered.

The 30ft long dinosaur, resembling a rhinoceros with a long
neck and tail, was discovered in the High Atlas mountain
village of Tazouda, said Morocco's minister for Energy and
Mines Mohammed Boutaleb.

He said the fossil was the "oldest one known in the world".

The dinosaur has been dubbed "Tazoudasaurus naimi" for
the village in which the fossil was found, about 370 miles
southeast of Rabat.

Only its head, jaw and some vertebrae are exposed out of
the ground, the officials said.

"It's an exceptional discovery," said team member Philippe
Tacquet, a palaeontologist at the Natural History Museum in
Paris. "We're writing a new page of history about the great
giants of the Mesozoic" period, he said.

Experts from Morocco, Switzerland and the United States
also took part.

Dating studies and other analyses have been conducted on
the fossil since Moroccan authorities investigating the
illegal traffic of bones stumbled across the find in 1998.

The oldest known dinosaur fossil, 'Atlasaurus imelakei', is
believed to be 160 million years old and was also found in
Morocco, Tacquet said.

http://www.ananova.com/news/story/sm_821952.html?menu=news.scienceanddiscovery.archaeology


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 315 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Oct 23, 2003 (19:02) * 9 lines 
 
Scientists unearth world's oldest vertebrate fossil


Scientists believe a fossil which has recently been
unearthed in Australia may be the oldest vertebrate ever
found.


article and photos... http://www.ananova.com/news/story/sm_831249.html?menu=news.scienceanddiscovery.archaeology


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 316 of 378: Marshall Smyth (marshallsmyth2) * Wed, Nov 19, 2003 (14:07) * 1 lines 
 
Trying to catch up on the reading...


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 317 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Nov 29, 2003 (13:56) * 1 lines 
 
MARSHALL!!! Come back and talk to us!!! I miss you!


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 318 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Jan 23, 2004 (19:39) * 55 lines 
 
Neanderthals 'were frozen out of existence'

Scientists say Neanderthals, the human species that once
lived alongside our ancestors, were probably frozen out of
existence.

Mystery surrounds the extinction of the Neanderthals, which
abruptly vanished from Europe almost 30,000 years ago.
The effects of climate and failure to compete with Homo
sapiens are two theories that have deeply divided experts.

Now a team of scientists, led by lTjeerd van Andel from the
University of Cambridge, has pointed to the harsh winters of
the last ice age as being the chief reason why the
Neanderthals died out.

Their study suggests Neanderthals did not have the right
clothes or technological know-how to deal with the cold, and
that there is evidence that the first early modern humans
almost suffered the same fate.

The team of archaeologists, anthropologists, geologists
and climate modellers compiled a vast new set of evidence
on life between 20,000 and 40,000 years ago.

Ice cores from Greenland showed that Europe's climate
varied hugely during the last ice age, especially in the
period between 70,000 and 20,000 years ago. Cold glacial
periods were punctuated by warmer times, and the average
temperature could rise and fall several degrees within a
decade.

Studies of permafrost patterns, the remains of small
animals, pollen grains and fossils, showed that the changes
had a tremendous effect on the flora and fauna of the time.
Neanderthals and early modern humans were not immune
to these effects, New Scientist magazine reported.

Facing temperatures that plummeted to minus 10C in
winter, Neanderthals retreated south from northern Europe
and the advancing ice sheets 30,000 years ago. The extent
to which the Neanderthals were deterred by the cold
surprised the team.

But the scientists discovered that the Aurignacian people,
the earliest modern humans, who appeared about 40,000
years ago, did not seem able to cope with the cold either.
They retreated south too, co-existing with the Neanderthals
in southern Europe for thousands of years.

Both struggled to compete for ever diminishing resources,
and neither may have survived were it not for the arrival of a
more advanced race of humans.

http://www.ananova.com/news/story/sm_858049.html?menu=news.scienceanddiscovery.archaeology


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 319 of 378: Marshall Smyth  (marshallsmyth2) * Tue, Jan 27, 2004 (10:59) * 3 lines 
 
I would think that also as the weather got worse, that pocket valleys isolated the various groups of the three kinds of neanderthals, thereby leading to inbred depression buildup. Everything conspired to extinction for them, of course except for my neanderthal ancestor, who was busy picking daisies the day the modern humans came to finish them off.

Marshall Smyth


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 320 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Feb 10, 2004 (19:23) * 3 lines 
 
Do you think their DNA got into the human mix before they all died out as a "species"? Is DNA still obtainable from their fossil remains?

I think I surely dated at least one of them during college *;)


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 321 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Feb 11, 2004 (19:19) * 24 lines 
 
more on the Neanderthal question:

Neanderthals 'were frozen out of existence'

Scientists say Neanderthals, the human species that once
lived alongside our ancestors, were probably frozen out of
existence.

Mystery surrounds the extinction of the Neanderthals, which
abruptly vanished from Europe almost 30,000 years ago.
The effects of climate and failure to compete with Homo
sapiens are two theories that have deeply divided experts.

Now a team of scientists, led by lTjeerd van Andel from the
University of Cambridge, has pointed to the harsh winters of
the last ice age as being the chief reason why the
Neanderthals died out.

Their study suggests Neanderthals did not have the right
clothes or technological know-how to deal with the cold, and
that there is evidence that the first early modern humans
almost suffered the same fate.

more: http://www.ananova.com/news/story/sm_858049.html


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 322 of 378: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Fri, Feb 27, 2004 (16:21) * 1 lines 
 
The Aurignacian people were considered to be, according the article, the first modern humans. The article goes on to postulate that there was also a later arrival in southern Europe of more "modern people". I'm assuming they would have been the Cro-Magnons. Okay, my question is were the Aurignacians considered to be Cro-Magnons?


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 323 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Mar 18, 2004 (16:58) * 1 lines 
 
I'll run down stairs and ask the anthropologist-in-residence!!!


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 324 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Mar 18, 2004 (17:23) * 3 lines 
 
Don and I got out a considerably massive pile of OLD books to check on your question regarding Aurignacian and Cro Magnon connections. Bearing in mind that these tomes are rather dated and paleontologists hate making simple chronological charts, I find that th Aurignacians were indeed considered Cro Magnon.

Cheryl, where would Geo be without you?! You're the best!!! Big *Hugs* for keeping me "honest" by asking hard questions.


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 325 of 378: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Wed, Mar 24, 2004 (07:20) * 1 lines 
 
Thank you, (blush). Big thanks to both you and Don, Marcia, for perusing through all those dusty tomes.


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 326 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Apr  8, 2004 (05:17) * 1 lines 
 
Did anyone else see the fantastic Nova about the discovery of the Coelacanth on PBS? The most amazing footage contained more than one live one swimming in their native benthic depths. What an amazing find!!!


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 327 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Dec 30, 2004 (13:47) * 18 lines 
 
Campaign to bring 'Red Lady' back to Swansea after 180 years

Dec 27 2004

Robin Turner, Western Mail


THE chairman of Swansea's tourism association is backing an Elgin Marbles style campaign to secure the return to Wales of the Red Lady of Paviland.

The skeleton of the "red lady", complete with jewellery and a mammoth's head grave marker, is regarded as one of the world's most important archaeological finds.

It was discovered in 1823 at Paviland Cave on Gower.

Later analysis showed the skeleton to be that of a man, probably a chieftain, but the Red Lady tag has stuck.

Despite being found in Swansea the remains have been on show for decades at the Oxford University Natural History Museum.

more ... http://icwales.icnetwork.co.uk/0100news/0200wales/tm_objectid=15015937&method=full&siteid=50082&headline=campaign-to-bring--red-lady--back-to-swansea-after--180-years-name_page.html


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 328 of 378: Conf admin  (cfadm) * Wed, Mar  2, 2005 (15:20) * 3 lines 
 
http://www.docfossil.com/




 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 329 of 378: Conf admin  (cfadm) * Wed, Mar  2, 2005 (15:22) * 3 lines 
 


From the above website, this is a "crinoid". Any Questions?


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 330 of 378: Paul Terry Walhus (terry) * Wed, Mar  2, 2005 (17:27) * 1 lines 
 
Yeah, just what is a crinoid?


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 331 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Mar  9, 2005 (17:19) * 1 lines 
 
It is a "sea lily". Animal with long neck and feeding arms resembling the feathery palm tree at the top. Modern sea anemones are sort of in the same group and you can see the resemblamce. CFA, those are amazingly well preserved examples. The stalk always survives but the top seldom in any way discernable.


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 332 of 378: Paul Terry Walhus (terry) * Thu, Mar 10, 2005 (06:59) * 1 lines 
 
It's a cool name.


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 333 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Mar 10, 2005 (22:12) * 1 lines 
 
Yup. Perhaps Crinoid might make a cute puppy name but for me, it has to be a cat :)


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 334 of 378: Paul Terry Walhus (terry) * Fri, Mar 11, 2005 (08:31) * 42 lines 
 
http://www.nova.edu/ocean/messing/crinoids/w1title.html

It says:

ADVANCED STUDENTS OF ECHINODERMS ONLY!

If you don't know your madreporite from your blastoid, entering this web
site may result in a variety of clinical symptomatologies including but
not restricted to Victorian Era brain fever, bruxism, habitus fuscus
(brown study), kicking of small inanimate objects, and hip dysplasia (if
you’re a German shepherd).

and goes on talk about crinoids:

INTRODUCING CRINOID PARTS
Most of a crinoid's body, in fact usually at least 80% or so, consists of
a skeleton of calcium carbonate pieces, or ossicles, held together by
ligaments and muscles. This skeleton explains both why crinoids make good
fossils (calcium carbonate is basically limestone) and why not too many
creatures subsist on a crinoid diet (they’re highly crunchy). It also
forms the basis for crinoid classification. Fortunately for taxonomists
around the world, this skeleton is usually covered only with a thin
epidermis (and is thus an endoskeleton) and is clearly visible although
you generally need a dissecting microscope to see many diagnostic
features. With few exceptions, crinoid soft parts are not especially
important in classification, but this is probably because they’re a pain
to deal with and few people have bothered. We’ll discuss visceral matters
later.

The crinoid body consists of three basic parts. A segmented stalk (1)
supports a cuplike calyx or aboral cup (2), which contains or supports the
viscera and from which radiate five segmented and usually branched rays
(3). Stalks consist of a series of ossicles called columnals held together
by ligaments, plus a variety of holdfast structures. Sea lilies retain a
stalk throughout their lives. Comatulids develop a stalk following a
larval stage, but shed all but the topmost segment to take up a
free-living existence as juveniles.







 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 335 of 378: Curious Wolfie  (wolf) * Fri, Mar 11, 2005 (21:11) * 1 lines 
 
that does look like a plant!


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 336 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Mar 11, 2005 (21:37) * 1 lines 
 
I love that they also have roots and hair roots just like a real plant. I know of at least one small child who remained adamant about their being plants... for way too long, actually.


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 337 of 378: Curious Wolfie  (wolf) * Fri, Mar 11, 2005 (21:39) * 1 lines 
 
well, some sea critters have roots and everything too. they really do look like plants! *giggle*


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 338 of 378: Paul Terry Walhus (terry) * Sat, Mar 12, 2005 (06:29) * 1 lines 
 
Crinoids. Gotta love 'em.


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 339 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Mar 12, 2005 (15:04) * 5 lines 
 
Arizona meteor crater mystery solved

http://www.abc.net.au/science/news/stories/s1321259.htm

I have been to this site. In such desloate country it is amazing that meteorites have managed to miss populated areas. The last meteorite strike was in 1908 in Siberia (Tunguska). It seems we are about overdue.


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 340 of 378: Curious Wolfie  (wolf) * Sun, Mar 13, 2005 (18:23) * 1 lines 
 
interesting (though, did it say why there was no evidence of melted rock?)...we drove by the exit for the meteor on our way from california to here.


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 341 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Mar 14, 2005 (20:12) * 1 lines 
 
Wolfie, that was exactly what I asked myself upon finishing the article. Maybe THEY know. If they do, they are still keeping the solution to the mystery to themselves. I thought I was the only one who couldn't figure it out! I'll hunt up a better article. Surely someone else covered this information...


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 342 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Sep 29, 2005 (16:16) * 21 lines 
 
Supernova Storm Wiped Out Mammoths?
By Jennifer Viegas, Discovery News


Sept. 28, 2005— A supernova blast 41,000 years ago started a deadly chain of events that led to the extinction of mammoths and other animals in North America, according to two scientists.

If their supernova theory gains acceptance, it could explain why dozens of species on the continent became extinct 13,000 years ago.

Mammoths and mastodons, both relatives of today's elephants, mysteriously died out then, as did giant ground sloths, a large-horned bison, a huge species of armadillo, saber-toothed cats, and many other animals and plants.

Richard Firestone, a nuclear scientist at the U.S. Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, who formulated the theory with geologist Allen West, told Discovery News that a key piece of evidence for the supernova is a set of 34,000-year-old mammoth tusks riddled with tiny craters.

The researchers believe that in the sequence of events following the supernova, first, the iron-rich grains emitted from the explosion shot into the tusks. Whatever caused the craters had to have been traveling around 6,214 miles per second, and no other natural phenomenon explains the damage, they said.

They think the supernova exploded 250 light-years away from Earth, which would account for the 7,000-year delay before the tusk grain pelting. It would have taken that long for the supernova materials to have showered to Earth.

Then, 21,000 years after that event, the researchers believe a comet-like formation from the supernova's debris blew over North America and wreaked havoc.

Firestone said they think the formation created superheated hurricanal winds in the atmosphere that rolled across North America at 400 kilometers per hour (about 249 mph).

more... http://dsc.discovery.com/news/briefs/20050926/mammoth.html


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 343 of 378: Paul Terry Walhus (terry) * Fri, Sep 30, 2005 (11:18) * 1 lines 
 
This is worse than the Day After Tomorrow.


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 344 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Sep 30, 2005 (18:18) * 14 lines 
 
This is a very new theory yet to be tested. On another note here are twins in a Neanderthal burial. 27,000 years ago:

Ice age 'twins' found in ancient burial ground
18:23 27 September 2005
NewScientist.com news service
Will Knight

Two ice-age human infants, buried together with great ceremony, have been discovered on a hillside overlooking the Danube in Austria.

The pair, who may well be biological twins, were found near Krems in northern Austria by Christine Neugebauer-Maresch of the Austrian Academy of Sciences and her colleagues.

The remains have yet to be carbon-dated but are thought to be at least 27,000 years old, because other artefacts from the area have been dated to between 40,000 and 27,000 years old. During this period, which falls within the Upper Palaeolithic, Neanderthals were superseded by modern humans, who were developing increasingly sophisticated hunting abilities and forms of culture.

more plus picture http://www.newscientist.com/article.ns?id=dn8063


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 345 of 378: Curious Wolfie  (wolf) * Fri, Sep 30, 2005 (18:34) * 1 lines 
 
how neat!


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 346 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Oct  1, 2005 (17:39) * 1 lines 
 
I thought so too. The image of Neanderthals as mindless brutes is passe, thank goodness. I am still wondering about the pitting in the Mammoth tusks. That fascinates me.


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 347 of 378: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Mon, Oct  3, 2005 (16:05) * 3 lines 
 
Hi Marcia. Would the hot hurricanal winds have left geological traces on the landscape, as well?

As for the Neanderthals, wasn't there the finds from a famous Neanderthal burial in what is modern day Afghanistan of a person buried with great care, even with flowers?


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 348 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Oct  3, 2005 (17:23) * 5 lines 
 
Big Hugs Cheryl for being so faithful to Geo. I missed you !!

A Neanderthal burial in Wales (Red lady of Pavilland) who turned out to be male was buried with flowers and red ochre (thus the name). Quite possibly in Afghanistan, as well.

Now everyone go take this test to be posted on et cetera


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 349 of 378: Curious Wolfie  (wolf) * Mon, Oct  3, 2005 (20:36) * 1 lines 
 
you had to say "test" now i'm a big chicken! (but i'm gonna check it out anyway)


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 350 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Oct  3, 2005 (22:15) * 1 lines 
 
This is so silly - the questions are boobytrapped so no one does well. That is the point. They want to educate you and playing a game to do it works. No test scores will be posted.


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 351 of 378: Paul Terry Walhus (terry) * Tue, Oct  4, 2005 (23:44) * 1 lines 
 
Cheryl can be a rock star too!!!


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 352 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Oct  5, 2005 (13:56) * 1 lines 
 
Oh yes indeed. Thia is America !!! YOu can be anything you want to be, I hear.


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 353 of 378: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Thu, Oct  6, 2005 (14:32) * 1 lines 
 
Gee, *Blush*, I'll try not to let that rock star status go to my head.


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 354 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Oct  6, 2005 (15:57) * 5 lines 
 
If alligators are living fossils of the dinosaur ilk, please consider that biting off more than you can chew might just fit this category:

http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2005/10/1006_051006_pythoneatsgator.html

This image is worth going to the link. Amazing. DB has said lots of pythons are released by owners whose pets grew too large. The Fish and wildlife personnel have a real problem on their hands. SO do the alligators!


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 355 of 378: Curious Wolfie  (wolf) * Thu, Oct  6, 2005 (18:37) * 1 lines 
 
i had to study that picture to figure out which part was gator and which part snake *gross*


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 356 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Oct  7, 2005 (14:54) * 1 lines 
 
I had to do that, too. Yup gross, but, look at the size of the python !!!


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 357 of 378: Paul Terry Walhus (terry) * Fri, Oct  7, 2005 (22:55) * 1 lines 
 
Is anyone watching that new tv show, Surface? Speaking of sea creatures.


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 358 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Oct  8, 2005 (01:04) * 1 lines 
 
It must be on cable. It doesn't sound familiar to me.


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 359 of 378: Curious Wolfie  (wolf) * Sat, Oct  8, 2005 (14:47) * 1 lines 
 
me either....when does it come on?


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 360 of 378: Paul Terry Walhus (terry) * Sun, Oct  9, 2005 (16:36) * 11 lines 
 
It's on mainstram network tv

I found this.

Airs: Monday 8:00 PM on NBC (60 mins)
Status: New Series
Premiered September 19, 2005
Show Category: Science-Fiction , Action/Adventure


Ever wonder what life would be like if a new form of sea life began to appear in locales all over the earth? “Surface” is an expansive drama and undersea adventure that centers on the appearance of mysterious sea creatures in the deep ocean -- and tracks the lives of four characters. They are: Laura Daughtery (Lake Bell, “Boston Legal”), the young oceanographer who discovers the secret;...


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 361 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Oct  9, 2005 (16:40) * 1 lines 
 
I'll look for it. Thanks !


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 362 of 378: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Thu, Oct 13, 2005 (15:39) * 62 lines 
 
Little meat-eater is no bird, but close

Buitreraptor fossil found in Argentina has scientists adjusting timelines for some close relatives of birds

By William Mullen

A turkey-size, carnivorous dinosaur that looked something like a diminutive but malevolent version of Big Bird from "Sesame Street" is changing scientists' thinking about when and where some of the closest relatives to birds evolved.

Buitreraptor is named for La Buitrera, an area of the Patagonian desert in Argentina where paleontologists found an almost complete skeleton of the 90-million-year-old, probably feathered creature in January 2004. It is described in Thursday's issue of the science journal Nature.

The fossil buitreraptor (pronounced bwee-trey-rap-ter) conclusively proves that a family of small, swift dinosaurs called dromaeosaurs evolved tens of millions of years earlier than previously believed, said Field Museum paleontologist Peter Makovicky, the article's lead author.

Until now, scientists believed that dromaeosaurs--meat-eaters that include the famous velociraptor--evolved in the Northern Hemisphere after the world's land mass split into two supercontinents, Gondwanaland and Laurasia, 135 million years ago.

The presence of buitreraptor in South America proves dromaeosaurs evolved before that split--140 million to 145 million years ago--and spread throughout the world.

"We can now push the history of dromaeosaurs as far back as the first birds, like archaeopteryx," Makovicky said.

Close relation to birds

Buitreraptor and dinosaurs like it are not the ancestors of birds--they lived simultaneously--but they are closely related.

"Dromaeosaurs are really interesting because they are so close to birds in evolution, having feathers and other, similar attributes," said American Museum paleontologist Mark Norell, who called the work by Makovicky and two Argentine colleagues an important discovery.

Dromaeosaurs are a subgroup of theropods, two-legged carnivorous dinosaurs that also include Tyrannosaurus rex. Buitreraptor has the characteristic wishbone, birdlike pelvis and long, winglike forelimbs of a dromaeosaur.

"It is the most complete small theropod ever found in South America," said Makovicky.

Yet buitreraptor is also something of an odd duck. Its skull and jaws are more slender and less powerful than other known dromaeosaurs, and its relatively short teeth lack the sharp, serrated edges of most theropod teeth.

"Instead of powerful jaws, it relied more on being able to very quickly open and close its jaws," Makovicky said. "Other dromaeosaurs and theropods tended to feed on large prey, but this one seems to have eaten small prey, like rat-sized mammals that ran around then, and lizards and the primitive snakes of that time."

The fossil presents "a very neat evolutionary picture," Makovicky said, because the presence of dromaeosaurs shows how old that family of animals is, "how it was distributed, how the north and south branches of the family evolved differently in isolation."

Similar to China fossils

Though the fossil was located in a type of rock formation that could not preserve evidence of feathers, Makovicky said he believed it almost certainly was feathered because of its similarities to two dromaeosaur fossils found in China, microraptor and sinornithosaurus. Those specimens were found in extremely fine limestone beds that preserved impressions of the animals' extensive plumage.

"It could not fly," Makovicky said of buitreraptor, "but it may have had some aerodynamic capability," perhaps being able to glide.

Prior to buitreraptor's discovery, paleontologists had found bone fragments of animals that some suspected were dromaeosaurs, but the finds were too incomplete to confirm it.

In 2003, Argentine paleontologist Sebastian Apesteguia found a bone sticking out of a rock cliff in Patagonia that he thought might be from a dromaeosaur. In 2004 he invited Makovicky, who specializes in carnivorous dinosaurs, to collaborate with him and another Argentine colleague, Federico Agnolin.

The fossil was embedded in rock so hard that they had to remove a 4-foot-long, half-foot-thick slab from the cliff so the bones could be chipped out in a laboratory. After preliminary work in Argentina, the final preparation was done at the Field Museum in Chicago.

The skeleton is back in Argentina, which owns it, but a replica is at the Field.

The Patagonian region in which it was found is rich with dinosaur fossils. Buitreraptor lived in a forested plain where it and other small animals shared the ecosystem with huge plant-eaters and T. rex-style predators, including the 45-foot-long giganotosaurus, a fossil of which was found 60 miles from the buitreraptor site in 1993.

Buried during flooding

Buitreraptor and other small animals found near it probably died and were buried during seasonal flooding, said Makovicky.

"Those flood events would barely wash the ankles of the big dinosaurs in the forest," he said. But big animals like giganotosaurus could get caught and killed in deep, raging rivers in the region, with flood debris eventually preserving their bones in rock.

"This area of Patagonia is one of the only places in the world where the fossil record has both big and small fossil animals," said Makovicky. "They just aren't together. Each was fossilized in a different depositional mechanism that tended to sort out the size of animals.

"In terms of figuring out the ecosystem it is pretty nice."

http://www.newsday.com/news/health/chi-0510130118oct13,0,1942769.story?coll=ny-leadhealthnews-headlines



 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 363 of 378: Curious Wolfie  (wolf) * Thu, Oct 13, 2005 (18:02) * 1 lines 
 
interesting cheryl!


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 364 of 378: Paul Terry Walhus (terry) * Fri, Oct 14, 2005 (08:01) * 3 lines 
 
Patagonia almost sounds like a mythical place.

What a great place for a fossil vacation! Anyone have a cruise ship?


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 365 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Oct 15, 2005 (16:25) * 1 lines 
 
They have plenty of cruises going to Patagonia yearly. It can be rugged so don't pack the ball gowns and maybe leave the good jewelry home. See the Nazca lines at the same time. Cruise the Straits of Magellan in a racing dinghy. Go wild.


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 366 of 378: Paul Terry Walhus (terry) * Sun, Oct 16, 2005 (17:25) * 1 lines 
 
Wild stuff.


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 367 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Mar 26, 2006 (12:14) * 129 lines 
 
This is my new favorite poem not written by AE But thanks to him here it is:


Evolution

By Langdon Smith (1858-1908)

When you were a tadpole and I was a fish
In the Paleozoic time,
And side by side on the ebbing tide
We sprawled through the ooze and slime,
Or skittered with many a caudal flip
Through the depths of the Cambrian fen,
My heart was rife with the joy of life,
For I loved you even then.

Mindless we lived and mindless we loved
And mindless at last we died;
And deep in the rift of the Caradoc drift
We slumbered side by side.
The world turned on in the lathe of time,
The hot lands heaved amain,
Till we caught our breath from the womb of death
And crept into life again.

We were amphibians, scaled and tailed,
And drab as a dead man's hand;
We coiled at ease 'neath the dripping trees
Or trailed through the mud and sand.
Croaking and blind, with our three-clawed feet
Writing a language dumb,
With never a spark in the empty dark
To hint at a life to come.

Yet happy we lived and happy we loved,
And happy we died once more;
Our forms were rolled in the clinging mold
Of a Neocomian shore.
The eons came and the eons fled
And the sleep that wrapped us fast
Was riven away in a newer day
And the night of death was passed.

Then light and swift through the jungle trees
We swung in our airy flights,
Or breathed in the balms of the fronded palms
In the hush of the moonless nights;
And oh! what beautiful years were there
When our hearts clung each to each;
When life was filled and our senses thrilled
In the first faint dawn of speech.

Thus life by life and love by love
We passed through the cycles strange,
And breath by breath and death by death
We followed the chain of change.
Till there came a time in the law of life
When over the nursing sod
The shadows broke and the soul awoke
In a strange, dim dream of God.

I was thewed like an Auroch bull
And tusked like the great cave bear;
And you, my sweet, from head to feet
Were gowned in your glorious hair.
Deep in the gloom of a fireless cave,
When the night fell o'er the plain
And the moon hung red o'er the river bed
We mumbled the bones of the slain.

I flaked a flint to a cutting edge
And shaped it with brutish craft;
I broke a shank from the woodland lank
And fitted it, head and haft;
Than I hid me close to the reedy tarn,
Where the mammoth came to drink;
Through the brawn and bone I drove the stone
And slew him upon the brink.

Loud I howled through the moonlit wastes,
Loud answered our kith and kin;
From west to east to the crimson feast
The clan came tramping in.
O'er joint and gristle and padded hoof
We fought and clawed and tore,
And cheek by jowl with many a growl
We talked the marvel o'er.

I carved that fight on a reindeer bone
With rude and hairy hand;
I pictured his fall on the cavern wall
That men might understand.
For we lived by blood and the right of might
Ere human laws were drawn,
And the age of sin did not begin
Til our brutal tusks were gone.

And that was a million years ago
In a time that no man knows;
Yet here tonight in the mellow light
We sit at Delmonico's.
Your eyes are deep as the Devon springs,
Your hair is dark as jet,
Your years are few, your life is new,
Your soul untried, and yet --

Our trail is on the Kimmeridge clay
And the scarp of the Purbeck flags;
We have left our bones in the Bagshot stones
And deep in the Coralline crags;
Our love is old, our lives are old,
And death shall come amain;
Should it come today, what man may say
We shall not live again?

God wrought our souls from the Tremadoc beds
And furnish?d them wings to fly;
He sowed our spawn in the world's dim dawn,
And I know that it shall not die,
Though cities have sprung above the graves
Where the crook-bone men made war
And the ox-wain creaks o'er the buried caves
Where the mummied mammoths are.

Then as we linger at luncheon here
O'er many a dainty dish,
Let us drink anew to the time when you
Were a tadpole and I was a fish.



 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 368 of 378: Curious Wolfie  (wolf) * Mon, Mar 27, 2006 (19:24) * 1 lines 
 
that is such a long piece but i like it!


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 369 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Mar 29, 2006 (17:03) * 1 lines 
 
I was not going to post it but it seemed so right. When I first started reading it I was appalled at how long it was. But, upon reading it I was delighted - and here it is. I love the way it flows and how the meter works. Glad you enjoyed it.


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 370 of 378: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Thu, Apr 13, 2006 (08:48) * 1 lines 
 
Great reading! I enjoyed it very much, thanks for posting it Marcia.


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 371 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Apr 13, 2006 (09:34) * 1 lines 
 
We have Æ to thank for that poem. Glad it was enjoyed as much as we did.


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 372 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Apr 18, 2006 (15:46) * 27 lines 
 
A Meat Eater Bigger Than T. Rex Is Unearthed

By JOHN NOBLE WILFORD
Published: April 18, 2006
A new dinosaur species, one of the largest known carnivorous dinosaurs, has emerged from the red sandstone of Patagonia, in Argentina, where reptilian giants seem to have thrived 100 million years ago.

The New York Times
An analysis of the bones showed that an adult exceeded 40 feet in length, which the discoverers said was slightly larger than specimens of both its close relative, Giganotosaurus, and Tyrannosaurus rex. Some scientists think that a Spinosaurus species from North Africa is the largest meat-eating dinosaur, but that is still debated.

The discovery was made in sediments of a 100-million-year-old water channel at a site 15 miles south of Plaza Huincul, Argentina. It was reported at a news conference in Plaza Huincul and described in the French journal Geodiversitas.

Rodolfo A. Coria of the Carmen Funes Museum in Plaza Huincul and Philip J. Currie of the University of Alberta in Edmonton, co-leaders of the excavations, said they found hundreds of Mapusaurus bones in the sediments. Nearly all of the bones were scattered, and not in their original skeletal arrangements.

The skull is lighter than that of Giganotosaurus, but with the sharp, blade-shaped teeth that are the trademark of predatory dinosaurs. One of the most intriguing bones, the paleontologists said, was the longest known fibula, or shin bone, for any meat-eating dinosaur.

The fossils were excavated over five years, beginning in 1995, before scientists realized they were dealing with a new species of giant carnivores, members of the broader meat-eating carcharodontosaurids, Dr. Currie said.

"Preparation later revealed that skeletal parts represented more than a single individual," the two scientists wrote in the journal. They estimated that the dinosaurs ranged in size from slender juveniles 18 feet long to a robust adult of at least 40 feet long.

The scientists said Mapusaurus apparently lived at the same time and place as the largest known dinosaur, the 125-foot-long Argentinosaurus plant eater that Mapusaurus presumably hunted. The genus name Mapusaurus is derived from the word for earth among the Mapuches, the native people of western Patagonia.

The discovery, along with other recent ones in Canada, Mongolia and the United States, appeared to support an emerging interpretation of the hunting behavior of predatory dinosaurs. Instead of being solitary hunters, as once thought, they may have operated in groups.

"The presence of so many animals in one quarry," Dr. Currie said in a statement released by the University of Alberta, "suggests that they were living together in a pack at the time leading up to their catastrophic death."

http://www.nytimes.com/2006/04/18/science/18dino.html?ex=1145505600&en=cb20d6ae059dbf6f&ei=5087%0A



 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 373 of 378: geomancer (cfadm) * Fri, Jul 14, 2006 (13:32) * 17 lines 
 
http://www.strangescience.net/

A coupla excerpts:

Ever wonder how people figured out there used to be such things as dinosaurs? Curious about how scientists learned to reconstruct fossil skeletons? The knowledge we take for granted today was slow in coming, and along the way, scientists and scholars had some weird ideas. This Web site shows some of their mistakes, provides a timeline of events, gives biographies of a few of the people who have gotten us where we are today, and lists resources you can use to learn more.

. . .

Among the discoveries of the ancient Greeks were the realizations that species changed over time, and that certain fossils belonged to organisms that had once lived in very different environments. Findings such as these, however, were not widely available to medieval Europeans — to them, fossils were steeped in mystery and superstition. The Renaissance saw a surge of interest in the natural world, and in collecting curiosities. Some aristocrats even published descriptions of their collections, like this sample of flora and fauna from the court of Emperor Rudolf II. Collections often consisted of misidentified or forged specimens, but we should be grateful for these collections just the same — they were the forerunners of modern museums.

Strange ideas didn't end with the Middle Ages. Savants took centuries to unravel the process of fossilization, many of them suspecting that nature fashioned odd stones just for fun. Living animals often proved as puzzling as fossils when scholars had to make sense of the weird specimens that explorers brought back to Europe from other continents. And belief in monsters and omens persisted well into the Renaissance, fueled in part by the religious tensions of the Reformation. But over time, fascination with oddities led to a better understanding of the history of life. Starting in the late 18th century, Georges Buffon and later Georges Cuvier suggested that the earth was much older than anyone had previously imagined. By studying the fossil record, 19th-century geologist John Phillips divided the ages of the earth into three eras: Paleozoic (old life), Mesozoic (middle life) and Cenozoic (new life). Charles Darwin published On the Origin of Species describing natural selection as a driving force in evolution
William Buckland and Gideon Mantell published the first descriptions of a certain group fossil reptiles, later to be given the much more popular name of "dinosaurs" by Sir Richard Owen.

While scientists began to accurately identify fossils on the other side of the Atlantic, knowledge lagged behind in America as people who found fossil bones in the New World often attributed them to giants. U.S. President Thomas Jefferson, clung to the hope that animals thought extinct elsewhere would turn up living in western North America.

Once people understood what dinosaurs were, two of the America's most famous fossil collectors, E.D. Cope and O.C. Marsh, devoted the last 20 years of their lives to outdoing each other in naming new species. By the early 20th century, dinosaurs were big business, or at least big social events. This menu announced the banquet at the Museum of Natural History in Paris for the unveiling of Diplodocus. A little over a decade later, the American Museum of Natural History would launch a series of spectacular excavations in Mongolia, the world's next fossil treasure-trove.



 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 374 of 378: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Thu, Aug  9, 2007 (10:58) * 49 lines 
 
Fossils challenge old evoluton theory

By SETH BORENSTEIN, AP Science Writer

WASHINGTON - Surprising research based on two African fossils suggests our family tree is more like a wayward bush with stubby branches, challenging what had been common thinking on how early humans evolved.

The discovery by Meave Leakey, a member of a famous family of paleontologists, shows that two species of early human ancestors lived at the same time in Kenya. That pokes holes in the chief theory of man's early evolution — that one of those species evolved from the other.

And it further discredits that iconic illustration of human evolution that begins with a knuckle-dragging ape and ends with a briefcase-carrying man.

The old theory is that the first and oldest species in our family tree, Homo habilis, evolved into Homo erectus, which then became human, Homo sapiens. But Leakey's find suggests those two earlier species lived side-by-side about 1.5 million years ago in parts of Kenya for at least half a million years. She and her research colleagues report the discovery in a paper published in Thursday's journal Nature.

The paper is based on fossilized bones found in 2000. The complete skull of Homo erectus was found within walking distance of an upper jaw of Homo habilis, and both dated from the same general time period. That makes it unlikely that Homo erectus evolved from Homo habilis, researchers said.

It's the equivalent of finding that your grandmother and great-grandmother were sisters rather than mother-daughter, said study co-author Fred Spoor, a professor of evolutionary anatomy at the University College in London.

The two species lived near each other, but probably didn't interact, each having its own "ecological niche," Spoor said. Homo habilis was likely more vegetarian while Homo erectus ate some meat, he said. Like chimps and apes, "they'd just avoid each other, they don't feel comfortable in each other's company," he said.

There remains some still-undiscovered common ancestor that probably lived 2 million to 3 million years ago, a time that has not left much fossil record, Spoor said.

Overall what it paints for human evolution is a "chaotic kind of looking evolutionary tree rather than this heroic march that you see with the cartoons of an early ancestor evolving into some intermediate and eventually unto us," Spoor said in a phone interview from a field office of the Koobi Fora Research Project in northern Kenya.

That old evolutionary cartoon, while popular with the general public, is just too simple and keeps getting revised, said Bill Kimbel, who praised the latest findings. He is science director of the Institute of Human Origins at Arizona State University and wasn't part of the Leakey team.

"The more we know, the more complex the story gets," he said. Scientists used to think Homo sapiens evolved from Neanderthals, he said. But now we know that both species lived during the same time period and that we did not come from Neanderthals.

Now a similar discovery applies further back in time.

Susan Anton, a New York University anthropologist and co-author of the Leakey work, said she expects anti-evolution proponents to seize on the new research, but said it would be a mistake to try to use the new work to show flaws in evolution theory.

"This is not questioning the idea at all of evolution; it is refining some of the specific points," Anton said. "This is a great example of what science does and religion doesn't do. It's a continous self-testing process."

For the past few years there has been growing doubt and debate about whether Homo habilis evolved into Homo erectus. One of the major proponents of the more linear, or ladder-like evolution that this evidence weakens, called Leakey's findings important, but he wasn't ready to concede defeat.

Dr. Bernard Wood, a surgeon-turned-professor of human origins at George Washington University, said in an e-mail Wednesday that "this is only a skirmish in the protracted 'war' between the people who like a bushy interpretation and those who like a more ladder-like interpretation of early human evolution."

Leakey's team spent seven years analyzing the fossils before announcing it was time to redraw the family tree — and rethink other ideas about human evolutionary history. That's especially true of most immediate ancestor, Homo erectus.

Because the Homo erectus skull Leakey recovered was much smaller than others, scientists had to first prove that it was erectus and not another species nor a genetic freak. The jaw, probably from an 18- or 19-year-old female, was adult and showed no signs of malformation or genetic mutations, Spoor said. The scientists also know it isn't Homo habilis from several distinct features on the jaw.

That caused researchers to re-examine the 30 other erectus skulls they have and the dozens of partial fossils. They realized that the females of that species are much smaller than the males — something different from modern man, but similar to other animals, said Anton. Scientists hadn't looked carefully enough before to see that there was a distinct difference in males and females.

Difference in size between males and females seem to be related to monogamy, the researchers said. Primates that have same-sized males and females, such as gibbons, tend to be more monogamous. Species that are not monogamous, such as gorillas and baboons, have much bigger males.

This suggests that our ancestor Homo erectus reproduced with multiple partners.

The Homo habilis jaw was dated at 1.44 million years ago. That is the youngest ever found from a species that scientists originally figured died off somewhere between 1.7 and 2 million years ago, Spoor said. It enabled scientists to say that Homo erectus and Homo habilis lived at the same time.

http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20070808/ap_on_sc/human_evolution


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 375 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Aug  9, 2007 (17:12) * 1 lines 
 
I am concerned that one small piece of bone can be extrapolated into a whole creature. The house archaeologist agrees with me. However, this is fascinating. Wayward bush, indeed.


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 376 of 378: geomancer (cfadm) * Thu, Aug 30, 2007 (15:58) * 1 lines 
 
Wow, marci, you're back!!! Hallejujah!


 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 377 of 378: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Jun 30, 2008 (19:22) * 7 lines 
 
Spring Wizards, why cannot I find Geo on my own list or the conference list.
Please fix.

Cosmo, I need your advice. Thanks for staying in touch.

On to catch up with the rest of the conference. *;)



 Topic 7 of 99 [Geo]: Paleontology: fossils, coprolites, and petrified wood
 Response 378 of 378: geomancer (cfadm) * Mon, Jul 21, 2008 (19:22) * 3 lines 
 
I will fix!
Email me marci
This conference still gets a ton of hits every day.

Prev topicNext topicHelp

Geo conference Main Menu