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Topic 77 of 99: Living with Volcanoes

Sun, May 26, 2002 (16:37) | Marcia (MarciaH)
Common sense may not be enough.
192 responses total.

 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 1 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, May 26, 2002 (16:39) * 1 lines 
 
With Julie hiking Mount Saint Helens and my living between the world's most active and most maasive volcanoes, it seems to be a good idea for first hand experiences and learned-the-hard-way wisdom to be shared.


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 2 of 192: Curious Wolfie  (wolf) * Mon, May 27, 2002 (17:15) * 1 lines 
 
good topic, marcia!!!


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 3 of 192: Rob Glennie  (AotearoaKiwi) * Mon, May 27, 2002 (17:30) * 5 lines 
 
Hi all

Definitely true. I was wondering what it is like to live with volcanoes like Mayon where there is a permanent dangerzone. Mayon is a perfect stratovolcano rising off the fertile plain around Legaspi in the Philippines.

Rob


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 4 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, May 27, 2002 (17:38) * 3 lines 
 
Try Mexico City in the shadow of Popocatépetl or Tokyo with Mt Fuji. We have much to consider.

Currently, in Hawaii, the State Forestry people and Park Rangers are still battling the brush fires started by the current lava flows going in new areas of the park.


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 5 of 192: Curious Wolfie  (wolf) * Mon, May 27, 2002 (19:42) * 1 lines 
 
i was wondering about that since i saw a glimpse of some volcanic activity on the news near the hilo area....i sure hope you're far from it!


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 6 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, May 27, 2002 (19:46) * 3 lines 
 
Though it is about 50 miles from me by car whihc sounds close, it is on the other side of Kilauea from Hilo, so we are safe. Besides, a very wet rainforest exists between us and the summit and/or fire area, so though it sounds scary, it really isn't.

If I get the birthday present I want, I'll see the eruption and take more pictures of it. Once a year hardly sounds like enough...


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 7 of 192: Curious Wolfie  (wolf) * Mon, May 27, 2002 (19:53) * 1 lines 
 
ooooooooooohhhhh!!!!!!! fingers are crossed for you, sweetie!


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 8 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, May 27, 2002 (23:06) * 1 lines 
 
Right now, my life is so messed up, a volcano would be peaceful. Just wish me a peaceful birthday. Happiness will be delayed this year.


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 9 of 192: Curious Wolfie  (wolf) * Tue, May 28, 2002 (18:09) * 1 lines 
 
talk to me sweetie!! *HUGS*


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 10 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, May 28, 2002 (21:34) * 1 lines 
 
It's the same thing over and over... but this time I may just "jump ship" and flee. Sorry I missed you on IM. Stuff has pretty much settled down again. Still it makes my insides hurt. Ulcers anyone?!


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 11 of 192: Rob Glennie  (AotearoaKiwi) * Wed, May 29, 2002 (06:43) * 7 lines 
 
Hi all

I have two (and a suspected third existing in geological theory)large stratoshield volcanoes near me but they are extinct. The 5000 feet between where the summit was and sea level has been eroded taking much of the magma chamber with it. These volcanoes have not erupted for least 5.8 million years, and since the magma chamber has been flooded for probably a couple million years, you can safely assume they are extinct.

Marcia, dear. Take what time you can with Wolfie since things are decidely messy and you don't know when push will come to shove. Be careful, and scream if you need anything. *HUGS FROM ME AND JULIE*.

Rob


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 12 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, May 29, 2002 (14:19) * 1 lines 
 
I'll be ok. Thanks Rob. You are there in the middle of the night for me and I appreciated it. Back to our very NON-dormant volcano. I will thump on it and take it's temperature and other vital signs. I would really like to see some fountaining again. I have gotten spoiled in not being content to see just plain molten lava. Having my own volcano is very special. Especially when it is so safe to visit and appreciate. I'll be taking my digital camera with me. Now is when I need that strong telephoto lens that mine lacks.


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 13 of 192: Curious Wolfie  (wolf) * Wed, May 29, 2002 (17:41) * 3 lines 
 
oh sweetie girl!!!

*****HUGS!!!!*****



 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 14 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, May 29, 2002 (22:18) * 16 lines 
 
HUGS back, Wolfie! It looks good for viewing on the 31st. This is today's eruption report :

0750 May 29
The west arm of the Mother's Day flow has broken into fairly open grassland and is now rapidly moving down Pulama pali. This morning at 0444, the broad front of the flow is about 250 m wide and down as low as the 950-foot elevation. Spectacular scenes of the rolling lava, flaming grass and brush, and flaring trees can be seen from the end of the Chain of Craters Road. The west arm is moving south-southeast and is now about 2.8 km from the road. Its front is close to, if not below, the historic Kalapana Trail that once was the main route between Kilauea's summit and Kalapana.

The central and east arms of the flow (a simplification of the complex front) are moving southeastward toward the 1995 Jason flow. These arms have moved fairly swiftly during the past 24 hours, as they have encountered rather steep slopes on Pulama pali. Consequently they are nearly as low as the west arm, down to about 1000 feet or perhaps a little less. They remain in forest, their traces being best seen by the smoke and fire of burning vegetation.

The Boundary flow remains dark this morning, though lava is feeding onto the coastal flat through one or more tubes. As of May 25, the front of the flow was about 1.8 km from the coastline. Another branch, which turns east at the foot of Pulama pali, is less active. On May 25, it had reached about 1.3 km east of the foot of the cascade down the pali and was adding more lava to the previously buried intersection of Lehua and Prince Streets in Royal Gardens.

The HALP flow continues its slow advance into upper Royal Gardens subdivision. Glow from just above its front is plainly visible this morning. How far the flow has moved from the intersection of Warrior and Ekaha Streets is not known.

The crater of Pu`u `O`o is dark this morning, though incandescent spatter cones were observed from the air yesterday.

Seismicity across the volcano is at a background level. Volcanic tremor at Kilauea's summit is low, broken occasionally by short-lived long-period earthquakes. Pu`u `O`o has weak to moderate tremor. Tiltmeters are showing nothing unusual.

http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/kilauea/update/main.html


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 15 of 192: John Tsatsaragos  (tsatsvol) * Fri, May 31, 2002 (05:21) * 4 lines 
 
It is 31st. See these spectacular scenes but think Marcia first. Take care yourself Marcia. Stay far off an unforeseen event.

John



 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 16 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Jun  1, 2002 (00:26) * 1 lines 
 
My travel to the volcano is off until the first of the week. I have asked Mme Pele to please plan on more good things for me to photograph for you.


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 17 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Jun  8, 2002 (18:54) * 97 lines 
 
USGS volcano news June 6, 2002 - Eruptions and fires

Lava is not fire. People sometimes talk about lava as fire, as in "fire
fountain," "curtain of fire," and "river of fire." Most realize that these
and similar terms are misleading and confusing metaphors, but bad habits
are hard to break. Volcanologists are weaning themselves away from using
the terms, and they are no longer used by HVO scientists in their
publications. Lava is liquid rock, nothing else.

Lava can, however, cause fire. In that sense, the two words are
sometimes intertwined. The fire caused by the Mother's Day lava flow at
Kilauea is an example. The fire owes its start to hot lava igniting
vegetation. The lava didn't need a fire to get going, but the fire needed
the lava's heat.

The Pu`u `O`o eruption has caused many fires in the past 19 years,
some fairly large but most of them small. The Kupukupu Fire, the name given
by Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park to the fire ignited by the Mother's Day
lava flow, is the largest of the eruption, burning more than 1,480
hectares (3,660 acres) by June 4. But it is only the latest fire of the
eruption. Each time lava enters even the tiniest vegetated kipuka, a fire
is generated.

Old-timers will recall the heroic efforts of the park to save the
Naulu Forest and picnic area during the Mauna Ulu eruption in 1970-1972.
Most of this forest, consisting almost entirely of native vegetation,
eventually succumbed to the lava flows that spread downslope near and east
of the Kealakomo shelter and overlook. The largest fire burned 1,300
hectares (3,200 acres) in 1972, but an earlier fire in 1970 took the real
jewels. It was a sad day, indeed, when a large `ulu (breadfruit) tree, a
landmark to those driving down the new Chain of Craters Road, was caught by
the fire near the base of Holei Pali in 1970. Sad, perhaps, but perfectly
natural. Lava has been starting fires since there was vegetation to light.

Recent investigation into the past 1,500 years of Kilauea's eruptive
history has uncovered evidence for a number of fires in the relatively dry
area between the Hilina Pali Road and the Mauna Ulu lava flows. Some of
these fires were almost certainly caused by lava flows, because charcoal is
found directly under a flow or in a tree mold formed in a flow.
Other old fires, however, have no certain cause, yet circumstantial
evidence suggests a lava origin. For example, lots of charcoal in alluvial
debris has radiocarbon ages from the 13th, 14th, and 15th centuries. This
was a time when lava flows were frequently erupting from the summit and
upper east rift zone of Kilauea. The charcoal is found in deposits on top
of, or beyond the ends of, these flows, so we can't really relate it to a
particular flow or even to any eruption at all. Nonetheless, it is a
logical inference that lava started the fires.

There is even 1,300-year-old charcoal sitting near the ground surface
and indicating an old fire possibly ignited by an explosive eruption of
about that age.

Fire is just one of many indirect consequences of eruptions. There
are others that don't involve fire. For example, many readers will remember
the problems at Kilauea 10-15 years ago with acid rain from vog leaching
lead out of paint and solder. On a similar note, the upper part of the Ka`u
Desert is largely an acid rain desert, caused indirectly by sulfur dioxide
emitted in Halemaumau. At other volcanoes, mudflows are commonly disastrous
indirect results of an eruption, although they can be direct as well.
Volcanic ash can down high-flying jetliners that enter nearly invisible ash
concentrations before they know it. On a larger scale, crop failures and
short-term weather change can be consequences of very large eruptions.
The Kupukupu Fire reminds us again that eruptions may pose
significant problems above and beyond the area actually covered by lava or
ash. The earth is a complex system, and even minor natural perturbations in
that system can have indirect, often unexpected results.

Eruption Update

Eruptive activity of Kilauea Volcano continued unabated at the Pu`u
`O`o vent during the past week. The "Mother's Day" lava flow is slowly
advancing in the flats between Pulama pali and Paliuli with the distal end
of the flow located 1.6 km (1 mi) above the Chain of Craters road. The two
flows emanating from the "rootless" shields continue to be active. The
lower flow along the National Park-Royal Gardens boundary is inflating and
spreading on the coastal flats with only minimal movement toward the ocean.
The higher flow that entered the top of Royal Gardens subdivision last week
has one lobe moving down Prince past Pakalana and another between Prince
and Royal approaching Pikake. At least four houses are in the probable
path of the flow.

There were no earthquakes reported felt during the week ending on June 6.

This article was written by scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey's
Hawaiian Volcano Observatory.

Alaska, Russian and Worldwide Volcanoes

For updates on U.S. and Russian volcanoes see:
http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/update.html
For updates on volcanoes worldwide see:
http://www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/usgs/index.htm


Carolyn Bell
Acting Public Affairs Officer
U.S. Geological Survey


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 18 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Jun  8, 2002 (20:09) * 59 lines 
 
Seafloor studies reveal a huge volcanic blast 2 million years ago

Associated Press

Scientists drilling into the ocean floor say they have
found the first evidence of a giant volcanic eruption 2
million years ago on Oahu.

A similar eruption could occur on the Big Island, according
to one of the project leaders.

The discovery by 15 scientists on the multinational Ocean
Drilling Program expedition was reported this week by the
Joint Oceanographic Institutions of Washington, D.C., which
manages the program.

The expedition known as Leg 200 was drilling a deep hole
into the oceanic crust near Hawaii in December when
evidence emerged of a "cataclysmic volcanic event,"
according to the report.

The drilling penetrated two layers that had been blasted
out to sea at temperatures nearly 400 degrees Fahrenheit,
said Ralph Stephen, co-chief scientist of the project.

"Our drilling results from Leg 200 indicate that this event
was not merely a landslide, but a hot explosion," Stephen
said. "The same process could happen again to the Big
Island."

The hole more than 180 miles northeast of Oahu eventually
will house a deep-sea observatory with seismic and other
geophysical, geochemical and microbiological monitoring
devices.

Volcanoes along the Hawaiian and Canary chains have been so
steep that large segments collapse into huge landslides
onto the ocean floor. Scientists say the Nuuanu landslide
removed half of what was Oahu 2 million years ago.

"The evidence indicates that this large landslide was
associated with an explosive event similar to the Mount
Saint Helens' eruption in Washington State in 1980, but was
an order of magnitude (10 times) larger," Stephen said.

Under normal conditions, volcanic magma is held in place,
but when a landslide removes it, explosions send the hot
magma into surrounding air and sea, he said.

The drilling provided the first evidence that the landslide
was accompanied by such explosions.

Scientists are continuing to study material extracted
during the drilling.

The Ocean Drilling Program is an international partnership
that is studying the evolution and structure of the Earth.
Funding comes primarily from the U.S. National Science
Foundation and its international partners.


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 19 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Jun 15, 2002 (10:56) * 51 lines 
 
*************************************************************
New web-page: Commission on Mitigation of Volcanic Disasters
*************************************************************
From: Giovanni Orsi

A new web-page of the Commission for Mitigation of Volcanic Disasters of IAVCEI
is online !!!!.

The web-page is accessible either trough the IAVCEI web site or at
http://www.ov.ingv.it/cmvd/index.htm.

This site is intended to serve as a vehicle of communication between its
members (professional volcanologists) and individuals or institutions
(including laymen) interested in the reduction and mitigation of volcanic
disasters. The leaders of this commission have decided to focus on hazard maps
as they are the most important tool for designing monitoring systems,
emergency plans as well as socio-economic development strategies for a given
region. Unfortunately, for most active volcanoes in the world such maps do not
exist. For this reason it is important to promote achievements in this
direction with the introduction of the "Volcanic Hazard Information Project".
As part of this project on the site you will find a World-wide Catalogue of
Hazard and Risk Maps which are grouped according to geographic areas.
Eventually, the Commission intends to help facilitate the production of a
Volcanic Hazard Atlas for each area.

The World-wide Catalogue of Hazard and Risk Maps is not just another catalogue
of active volcanoes, rather a more specialised repository of technical
information related to volcanic hazards and mitigation of volcanic disasters.

This database is intended to be constantly updated and, although focussed
mainly on technical information on hazard maps, includes information also on
risk maps, geophysical and geochemical monitoring systems, populations at
risk, volcanic alert systems, and civil defence mitigation programs.

All individuals and members of an institution working on hazard and risk maps
in a volcanic area are invited to contribute to the World-wide Catalogue of
Hazard and Risk Maps and to the Volcanic Hazard Atlas.

Giovanni Orsi

*****************************************
Giovanni ORSI
Osservatorio Vesuviano - I.N.G.V.
Via Diocleziano, 328
80124 NAPOLI (Italia)
Tel. +39 081 6108343
Fax +39 081 6108344
e-mail: orsi@ov.ingv.it
web site: http://www.ov.ingv.it




 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 20 of 192: Paul Terry Walhus (terry) * Mon, Jul 29, 2002 (15:33) * 8 lines 
 

Kilauea's Mother's Day lava flow eats Chain of Craters road:



And falls into the sea:




 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 21 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Jul 29, 2002 (16:35) * 1 lines 
 
Oh Terry, they are lovely! That is exactly what they look like and I can even smell and hear what it is like. Wouldn't you know - when I am 6000 miles away!


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 22 of 192: Curious Wolfie  (wolf) * Mon, Jul 29, 2002 (18:02) * 1 lines 
 
those are great pictures!! and marcia, these things always happen when we're away!! *HUGS*


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 23 of 192: Paul Terry Walhus (terry) * Tue, Jul 30, 2002 (07:50) * 1 lines 
 
Kilauea's mothers day present!


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 24 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Jul 30, 2002 (17:12) * 1 lines 
 
Alas, they closed the viewing road for Mother's Day because the lava was coming down too close to the road and heading for a vast area of what was available space to view. Thus I was not allowed down then, nor my birthday and I have not seen it since May 31, 2001 - a year and 2 months ago! There is little left of the coast road now. I wonder if we willbe able to watch it with such convenience again in the near future.


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 25 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Jul 30, 2002 (17:54) * 38 lines 
 
New Lava From Kilauea Volcano Entering the Sea
USGS Web Site Features Daily Lava Flow Updates and Photographs

Lava flows from the Pu`u `O`o vent on the east rift zone of Kilauea Volcano
in Hawaii are entering the sea and are rapidly adding new land to the
coast, according to the U.S. Geological Survey's Hawaiian Volcano
Observatory. The USGS Web site http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/kilauea/update/
features near real time lava flow updates as well as photographs.

Detailed descriptions of lava flow and videos and photographs of lava
breakouts, lava streams, and lava entering the ocean offer the public as
well as scientists an opportunity to safely observe Kilauea's activity from
their computers. Web site viewers can access the site daily and find out
new information and see current photographs of Kilauea's lava flows.

Kilauea Volcano has been erupting since Jan. 3, 1983. The current lava
flows are arms of the larger lava flow that erupted earlier this year on
Mother's Day (May 12).

Since 1952, there have been 34 eruptions, and since 1983, eruptive activity
has been nearly continuous.
The eruption that began in 1983 continues at the cinder-and-spatter cone of
Pu`u `O`o (high point on skyline).

Kilauea is the youngest and southeastern-most volcano on the Big Island of
Hawaii.

The Hawaiian name "Kilauea" means "spewing" or "much spreading," apparently
in reference to the lava flows it erupts.

The USGS serves the nation by providing reliable scientific information to:
describe and understand the Earth; minimize loss of life and property from
natural disasters; manage water, biological, energy, and mineral resources;
and enhance and protect our quality of life.

***USGS***




 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 26 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Aug  1, 2002 (07:17) * 13 lines 
 
Oldest Volcanoes Discovered
Tuesday 30th July 2002
Geologists in Brazil claim they have found the oldest volcanoes in the world.
The pair are in the Amazon and date back 1.9 billion years.
Professor Caetano Juliani of Sao Paulo University says the oldest previously
known volcano was just 500 million years old.
He told Estado de SP newspaper: "Usually old volcanoes are destroyed very
fast, in a few million years."
The volcanoes were found near the Tapajos and Jamanxin rivers. The larger of
the two is 700 feet high and just over a mile in diameter at the base. The
scientists expect the rocks to give up valuable information about the region's
formation . (Ananova)
http://www.volcanolive.com/volcanolive.html


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 27 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Aug  1, 2002 (07:18) * 64 lines 
 
Yucca Mountain Volcano Dangers
Thursday 1st August 2002
A volcanic eruption at Yucca Mountain could do more damage than previously
thought, possibly forcing radioactive waste from its burial site to the surface,
according to a new study. If long-dormant volcanoes near the prospective
high-level nuclear waste dump sprang back to life, molten rock could fill the
repository deep beneath the Nevada desert within hours, said an article in the
July issue of Geophysical Research Letters, a publication of the American
Geophysical Union. Intense heat and pressure could cause some canisters of
spent nuclear fuel that are to be buried at Yucca to rupture and allow
radioactive material to flow toward the surface.
Seven extinct volcanoes are within 27 miles but the last eruption was 80,000
years ago. Yucca project scientists calculate that the chance of one occurring
within the waste repository over the next 10,000 years is one in 70 million. Last
week Yucca was designated as the USA's lone long-term waste repository. It
is scheduled to open in 2010.
More on Yucca Mountain Volcanoes...
Volcanoes of USA...

Large Earthquake Hits Costa Rica and Panama (Magnitude 6.5)
Thursday 1st August 2002
An earthquake of 6.5 magnitude shook Costa Rica on Tuesday evening,
knocking down three houses and injuring at least two people, Costa Rica's
national seismological service said. The quake, also felt in San Jose, was the
strongest in the nation's south, near the border with Panama, where it also
knocked out electricity in several communities.
The earthquake was also felt in Panama, where communities near to the
border with Costa Rica reported interrupted electricity and telephone service.
There were no injuries reported. (Reuters) More on Costa Rica...
More on Panama...

Lava Enters Ocean at Kilauea Volcano (Hawaii)
19.425 N, 155.292 W, summit elevation 1222 m, Shield volcano
Wednesday 31st July 2002
Lava is entering the sea at two locations as of 30th July. Another arm of the
Mother's Day lava flow (the Highcastle arm) is zeroing in on the remnant of
the Chain of Craters Road in the Highcastle kipuka. At 0647hr, the front of the
flow was in the grassy kipuka, about 150 m from the pavement. Small fires and
methane explosions are taking place. The short stretch of roadway in the
Highcastle kipuka, long cut off from the rest of the Chain of Craters Road, has
been a landmark for years. It now appears in grave danger of being covered
by lava.
Lava entering the ocean entry at the West Highcastle entry, about 500 m
southwest of the Highcastle kipuka, is confined to one place. Lava is dripping
into the water from a height of some 5-7 m.
The Wilipe`a entry is again mainly active on the west side of the new bench,
the very spot the visitors can access most easily. Quite a crowd was on hand
this morning before dawn to witness the numerous entry points, breakouts on
the bench, and the play of rose to orange glow in the steam plume. (HVO)
More on Kilauea volcano...

Oldest Volcanoes Discovered
Tuesday 30th July 2002
Geologists in Brazil claim they have found the oldest volcanoes in the world.
The pair are in the Amazon and date back 1.9 billion years.
Professor Caetano Juliani of Sao Paulo University says the oldest previously
known volcano was just 500 million years old.
He told Estado de SP newspaper: "Usually old volcanoes are destroyed very
fast, in a few million years."
The volcanoes were found near the Tapajos and Jamanxin rivers. The larger of
the two is 700 feet high and just over a mile in diameter at the base. The
scientists expect the rocks to give up valuable information about the region's
formation . (Ananova)
http://www.volcanolive.com/volcanolive.html


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 28 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Aug  1, 2002 (07:39) * 3 lines 
 
Kentucky Lava - July 2002- both sides of same 3 inch rock




 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 29 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Aug  1, 2002 (07:41) * 1 lines 
 
It is most impressive full size which is about twice your monitor area. There are bits of shell and whatever ground rock it rolled over stuck in the matrix of the lava. I am certain it is the top of a VERY old a'a flow.


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 30 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Aug  1, 2002 (21:22) * 89 lines 
 
French Volcanologist Injured
Friday 2nd August 2002
A French volcanologist was badly scalded when he tried to climb up the side
of New Zealand's only mud volcano, on the eastern outskirts of Rotorua. The
Frenchman had ignored a barrier around the volcano at Tikitere in the
incident on Wednesday. He climbed over on to the volcano to take a closer
look and get pictures inside the cone when the side of the vent collapsed
under him. The injured man's wife ran for help, returning about 10 minutes
later with park staff and a trained first-aider, who bathed the man's scorched
legs and feet in a nearby cold-water stream.
He was later taken to Rotorua Hospital.
The man's weight had left a 60-70cm hole in the volcano's side, and boiling
mud and water were still gushing from it yesterday. His wife said he had had
a similar experience in Hawaii.
About three weeks ago an Australian teenager suffered burns at Hell's Gate
when he wandered off marked tracks into an active thermal area. (New
Zealand Herald)
More on volcanoes of New Zealand...
More on Mud Volcanoes...

Update on Kilauea Volcano (Hawaii)
19.425 N, 155.292 W, summit elevation 1222 m, Shield volcano
Friday 2nd August 2002
The Mother's Day flow on Pulama pali is putting one of the most awesome
displays of the flow in some time, according to the Hawaii Volcano
Observatory. West Highcastle has a sparkly breakout covering a large part
of the bench and a couple of lava falls from the front of the bench into the
water.

Yucca Mountain Volcano Dangers
Thursday 1st August 2002
A volcanic eruption at Yucca Mountain could do more damage than
previously thought, possibly forcing radioactive waste from its burial site to
the surface, according to a new study. If long-dormant volcanoes near the
prospective high-level nuclear waste dump sprang back to life, molten rock
could fill the repository deep beneath the Nevada desert within hours, said an
article in the July issue of Geophysical Research Letters, a publication of the
American Geophysical Union. Intense heat and pressure could cause some
canisters of spent nuclear fuel that are to be buried at Yucca to rupture and
allow radioactive material to flow toward the surface.
Seven extinct volcanoes are within 27 miles but the last eruption was 80,000
years ago. Yucca project scientists calculate that the chance of one occurring
within the waste repository over the next 10,000 years is one in 70 million.
Last week Yucca was designated as the USA's lone long-term waste
repository. It is scheduled to open in 2010.

Lava Enters Ocean at Kilauea Volcano (Hawaii)
19.425 N, 155.292 W, summit elevation 1222 m, Shield volcano
Wednesday 31st July 2002
Lava is entering the sea at two locations as of 30th July. Another arm of the
Mother's Day lava flow (the Highcastle arm) is zeroing in on the remnant of
the Chain of Craters Road in the Highcastle kipuka. At 0647hr, the front of
the flow was in the grassy kipuka, about 150 m from the pavement. Small
fires and methane explosions are taking place. The short stretch of roadway
in the Highcastle kipuka, long cut off from the rest of the Chain of Craters
Road, has been a landmark for years. It now appears in grave danger of
being covered by lava.
Lava entering the ocean entry at the West Highcastle entry, about 500 m
southwest of the Highcastle kipuka, is confined to one place. Lava is dripping
into the water from a height of some 5-7 m.
The Wilipe`a entry is again mainly active on the west side of the new bench,
the very spot the visitors can access most easily. Quite a crowd was on hand
this morning before dawn to witness the numerous entry points, breakouts on
the bench, and the play of rose to orange glow in the steam plume. (HVO)

Congo Eruption Threatens Animals
Tuesday 30th July 2002
A large plume of ash over Mount Nyimuragira, which erupted on Thursday,
poses no immediate danger to man, but may hurt animals west of the
volcano, Dario Tedesco, the resident volcanologist of the UN Office for the
Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, said on Sunday.
Reporting on the activity of Nyimuragira and the nearby Mount Nyiragongo,
he said Nyiamuragira’s eruptions were continuing to produce "huge
quantities" of ash, which was being blown in a westerly direction. These
ashes contained "extremely sharp" glassy needles and other particles, often
eaten by cows and other animals, he said, and were responsible for stomach
haemorrhage leading to death.
He also warned that harvests might be in endangered in "all regions" in the
path of ash clouds, and by local acid rain. However, he said there were no
reports of danger to the quality of water in the area. But villagers living
downwind of the direction of the plumb could suffer eye irritations due to
halogens and sulphur, and particularly fluorine. Others might suffer breathing
problems associated with the heavy ash emissions.
Scientists said there were gas discharges and "large amounts" of magma close
to the nearby Mount Nyiragongo, which last erupted on 17 January, causing
extensive damage to the lakeside town of Goma. That eruption caused
thousands of people to flee, some to neighbouring Rwanda. (IRIN)
More on Nyimuragira volcano...
http://www.volcanolive.com/volcanolive.html


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 31 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Aug  5, 2002 (17:12) * 104 lines 
 
How the lava viewing got to be so great - KILAUEA

The past two weeks have been exceptional for viewers of Kilauea's lava
flows. Both colorful and convenient, the flows have drawn visitors to the
island and attracted many residents as well. How did this happen?

Everything started on Mother's Day, May 12, when a new vent opened near
the southwest base of Pu`u `O`o. This area had not been the site of a
previous vent, but nearby areas hosted many small vents during the past
several years.

The Mother's Day flow poured southwest into the nearest forest, turned
south-southeast, and began its long, slow descent through the forest to the
coastal flat below Paliuli. Along the way, the flow started the 3,600-acre
Kupukupu fire, which burned throughout much of June and has had flare-ups
since. By early June, lava had crossed the Kalapana Trail and almost
reached the top of Paliuli. A park trail was readied for the time when the
lava would pour down the pali onto the coastal flat and be easily
accessible to visitors.

Lava cascades started down Paliuli on the night of June 9-10, 1.5 km (1
mile) from the coast. For the next five-and-a-half weeks, the flow fed by
the cascades slowly worked its way across the coastal flat, feinting this
way and that, first to the west, then to the east, then in the middle. By
June 25, an arm had moved along the west side of the 1995 flow to within
450 m (1,500 feet) of the Chain of Craters Road. It looked as if the flow
were going to continue, and several small buildings at the end of the road
were moved.

But the threatening flow stagnated, and all activity became concentrated
in the central and eastern parts of the 1-km-wide (0.6-mile-wide) flow
front. By June 30, the leading edge of the flow was 1 km (3,300 feet) from
water; by July 5, 800 m (2,600 feet); by July 10, 550 m (1,800 feet); and
by July 15, 400 m (1,300 feet).

Then, two fingers of the eastern lobe really took off. The west finger
led on July 16-18, but the east rapidly closed in and was only 10 m (30
feet) shy on the 18th. That evening, a final push sent lava from the east
arm into the ocean, at a place we now call West Highcastle.

Meanwhile, a rapidly developing western arm of the flow was surging
seaward, along the general route of the June threat. By morning of July
19, its front was 700 m (2,300 feet) from the Chain of Craters Road. The
front moved 400 m (1,300 feet) in the next 20 hours and then 300 m (1,000
feet) in the next 12 hours, crossing the road in the early evening.
Fortunately, the park had just enough time to move the building over the
lua before it was destroyed. The lava quickly poured the next 230 m (750
feet) and entered the water in the early morning hours of Sunday, July 21,
at a place known as Wilipe`a.

The Wilipe`a entry quickly built a large bench, which at this writing
reaches about 90 m (300 feet) offshore and is 470 m (1,540 feet) wide along
the shore line. Visitors have outstanding viewing across the west end of
the bench with favorable wind. If stinging acidic steam covers that area,
visitors can take a marked trail across the warm flow to an upwind vantage
point on the east side of the bench.

Talk about a media splash! Amid the many truths, one misconception stands
out. The flow is NOT the most dangerous in years. Lava flows have been
entering the water off and on for the past 16 years, and each had a similar
set of hazards. The current activity is not exceptional, but it is easily
accessible. More people are therefore at risk, but the hazards they face
are no greater than before. The difference between hazard (a natural
process or event) and risk (the impact on society) is often confused. To
the individual, there is no greater danger than before. To society, there
are more people observing the entry, so there is more chance of someone
getting hurt.

How long will the great viewing last? Probably not long, so enjoy it
while you can!

Eruption Update

Eruptive activity of Kilauea Volcano continued unabated at the Pu`u `O`o
vent during the past week. As mentioned above, both the West Highcastle
and Wilipe`a ocean entries of the Mother's Day flow are active and forming
benches. More than seven acres of new land have been mapped in the first
10 days since lava reentered the ocean, and the area is rapidly increasing
and adding to the size of the island. Lava viewing is spectacular, and the
National Park Service is allowing visitors to hike out and get up close to
the active flows.

The eastern Boundary flow emanating from the "rootless" shields remains
prominent. Two incandescent streams are seen on Pulama pali from just
above to one-third of the way down.
Two earthquakes were reported felt during the week ending on August 1. A
resident on Kama`ili Road in Puna felt an earthquake at 6:33 p.m. on July
25. The magnitude-2.4 earthquake was located 5 km (3 mi) north of
`Opihikao at a depth of 5.9 km (3.5 mi). A magnitude-2.0 earthquake
located 2 km (1.2 mi) south of Pa`auilo at a depth of 8.1 km (5 mi) was
felt by a resident of Papa`aloa at 7:52 p.m. on July 30.

This article was written by scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey's
Hawaiian Volcano Observatory.
U.S. Geological Survey
Hawaiian Volcano Observatory
PO Box 51, Hawaii National Park, HI 96718
Phone (808) 967-7328 FAX (808) 967-8890


Carolyn Bell
Public Affairs Specialist
U.S. Geological Survey
Mail Stop 119 National Center


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 32 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Aug  5, 2002 (17:23) * 3 lines 
 
I am delighted to announce this website is ready for the world to see. I was fortunate enough to see it in its infancy.

http://www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 33 of 192: Paul Terry Walhus (terry) * Tue, Aug 13, 2002 (20:31) * 8 lines 
 
A volcano on NBC News tonight.

"It is a lava junkies paradise in Hawaii.

Kilua's most dramatic performance in years. It's drawing 2500 visitors a day.

Don Swanson was interviewed about the dangers of people walking oout on the shelves.



 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 34 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Aug 16, 2002 (21:03) * 7 lines 
 
Stay back of the ranger lines and you will be perfectly safe. They are there for your protection and they are not keeping you from seeing it. They are trying to keep you alive!

Enjoy!

(I'll be back there by the end of the month so it will stop before then!)

I did see a photo and caption in ARCHAEOLOGY magazinel about making corn impressions on fresh lava by laying dried ears in front of the flows. I wonder if it worked.


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 35 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Aug 16, 2002 (21:41) * 2 lines 
 
The eruption continues at Kilauea. For update and wonderful pictures
http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/kilauea/update/main.html


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 36 of 192: Paul Terry Walhus (terry) * Tue, Aug 20, 2002 (07:39) * 15 lines 
 
Some great shots of volcanoes from satellites!

http://asterweb.jpl.nasa.gov/gallery/default.htm



This sequence of ASTER nighttime thermal images shows the Pu'u O'o lava
flows entering the sea at Kamokuna on the southeast side of the Island of
Hawaii. Each image covers an area of 9 x 12 km. The acquisition dates are
April 4 2000, May 13 2000, May 22 2000 (upper row) and June 30 2000,
August 1 2000 and January 1 2001 (lower row). Thermal band 14 has been
color coded from black (coldest) through blue, red, yellow and white
(hottest). The first 5 images show a time sequence of a single eruptive
phase; the last image shows flows from a later eruptive phase.



 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 37 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Aug 20, 2002 (22:11) * 1 lines 
 
Oooh! I had not seen them before. Thanks for posting them. Lovely! Imagine what it must have been like at ground level ! That was my last chance to go and they closed the viewing to the public until the eruption stablized. This is the usual process done for eruptions.


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 38 of 192: Paul Terry Walhus (terry) * Sat, Aug 24, 2002 (08:47) * 18 lines 
 
Truly amazing stuff.


"Spigots are turned on, and lava pours into ocean off front of
Highcastle Stairs bench. Each spigot is mouth of small lava tube within
bench":




Front of bench:




The stairs a few days ago:




 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 39 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Aug 24, 2002 (11:30) * 3 lines 
 
Terry's pictures and more http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/kilauea/update/main.html

Today's activity update sounds like more and vigorous flows are being emitted from around Pu'u 'O'o and will make for even more spectacular photos in the days to come.


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 40 of 192: Paul Terry Walhus (terry) * Thu, Oct 17, 2002 (06:59) * 1 lines 
 
Which Hawaii volcano is coming to life after decades?


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 41 of 192: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Thu, Oct 24, 2002 (15:19) * 1 lines 
 
See what happened when Marcia left Hawaii. Madame Pele is sending a farewell, maybe.


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 42 of 192: Moon Dreams  (Moon) * Thu, Oct 24, 2002 (15:51) * 1 lines 
 
Marcia left Hawaii? I have a lot of catching up to do.


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 43 of 192: Paul Terry Walhus (terry) * Tue, Oct 29, 2002 (09:39) * 5 lines 
 
Etna erupting.

http://www.voanews.com/article.cfm?objectID=651326D8-37F2-4E42-
A29678B740A829CC



 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 44 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Oct 29, 2002 (21:02) * 1 lines 
 
Mauna Loa is reactivating... Yes, wouldn't you know! Two active volcanoes and I am in the oldest stuff on the continent.


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 45 of 192: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Mon, Nov 25, 2002 (19:47) * 37 lines 
 
Hidden island off Sicily may reappear
Monday, November 25, 2002 Posted: 12:20 PM EST (1720 GMT)


ROME, Italy (Reuters) -- A volcanic island submerged off the coast of Sicily for the last 170 years could reappear in the coming weeks if furious seismic rumblings continue, Italy's chief seismologist said Monday.

"We've seen Etna erupting, seismic activity to the north and east of Sicily and gas activity around the Aeolian Islands," Enzo Boschi, head of Italy's Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology, said.

"The island could come back to the surface, but we'll have to wait and see ... It could be a few weeks or months."

Diplomatic spat could resurface

Formed by the tip of a submerged volcano, the island last popped up in 1831, sparking a diplomatic spat among several nations, before it sank beneath the Mediterranean waves six months later.

The volcano's peak now sits just 26 feet under water about 19 miles south of Sicily, near Tunisia.

"We are monitoring things very closely," Boschi said. "The process could begin at any time ... It would be a very beautiful and fascinating event."

Over the centuries, the island has emerged four times, with underwater volcanic eruptions first recorded during the first Punic War of 264-241 BC.

The last emergence on July 2, 1831, caused months of international wrangling with four nations making territorial claims including Britain, Spain and the Bourbon court of Sicily.

Call it what you will

The rock, which rose some 213 feet above the surface and had a circumference of about three miles, emerged for six months, giving the British time to claim it as Graham Island, while Sicily's King Ferdinand II called it Ferdinandea.

Scientists refer to it as Graham Bank, but Italians still call it Ferdinandea.

This time, Sicilian divers have gone down and planted a flag on the rock in the hope of claiming it as Italian the moment it rises above the surface, Boschi said.

While it may not spark the same diplomatic spat as 171 years ago if it emerges, there could well be a new claimant.

"I'm sure the European Union will want it as a member, won't they?" Boschi said.

Here's the link:

http://www.cnn.com/2002/TECH/science/11/25/italy.island.reut/index.html


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 46 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Nov 28, 2002 (12:03) * 1 lines 
 
Ooh Cheryl! Many thanks for finding that article about the hidden volcano. Volcanoes are pretty hard to hide! Even when Mauna Loa decided to erupt just after the invasion of Pearl Harbor. No one would admit it was happening lest the Japanese planes use it as a beacon to do more damage to Hawaii.


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 47 of 192: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Wed, Dec  4, 2002 (18:52) * 1 lines 
 
I didn't know that Mauna Loa erupted shortly after the attack on Pearl Harbor. The story about no one admitting that it was erupting is fascinating. You're right, though. It is really hard to hide an erupting volcano.


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 48 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Dec 10, 2002 (19:08) * 1 lines 
 
Makes you wonder who Mme Pele was rooting for.It is still referred to as the "secret" eruption. Secret from NO ONE!!!


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 49 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Jan  7, 2003 (01:02) * 44 lines 
 
Stromboli Volcano (Italy)


Italian rescue workers set up a satellite-linked early
warning system on Stromboli Sunday amid fears the
volcanic island off the toe of Italy could trigger
another Tsunami. Volcanic activity on Stromboli caused
a tsunami on Monday that crashed into a coastal
village, injuring three people, damaging several homes
and overturning boats. The risk of further landslides
and thus of another anomalous wave cannot be excluded.
Rescue workers have launched a buoy equipped with
sensors a short distance off the coast of Stromboli
that is designed to sound the alarm if a tidal wave
starts to form.


Semeru Volcano (Indonesia)


Semeru volcano is currently showing a high level of
activity. Seismic record on 1 January 2003 are : 88
events of explosion earthquake, 18 events of avalanche
earthquake.


Volcano Tours for 2003


Join us on expedition to the great erupting volcanoes
of the world. In 2003 we are travelling to Italy,
Hawaii, Vanuatu, Solomon Islands, and Indonesia.


You are welcome to join a trip.
See www.volcanolive.com/travel.html
for full details.


John Seach
Volcano Live
www.volcanolive.com
NSW, Australia



 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 50 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Jan 14, 2003 (12:48) * 3 lines 
 
An interesting and amusing discussion of Hollywood "Volcano movies"
plus a whole lot of good links:
http://geology.about.com/library/weekly/aa042797.htm


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 51 of 192: Paul Terry Walhus (terry) * Sat, Jan 18, 2003 (06:03) * 6 lines 
 
There were a lot of them weren't there?


I remember some but can't recall their names right now.

Which ones do you like, Marci?


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 52 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Jan 19, 2003 (18:05) * 4 lines 
 
I am partial to the one for Jack Lockwood was the volcanologist and technical advisor. I think it was "Dante's Peak." One has to suspend science for the sake of the story. My first viewing of the volcano movies were with a small group of young volcanologists. They were more fun to listen to than the movie.

In that vein, when Don and I watched anything archaological, we agreed that we will suspend critical comments on the technical aspects. However, a few are so funny we can't help it. By the way, Indiana Jones does not respresent the usual
archaeologist's pursuits, thank goodness.


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 53 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Jan 19, 2003 (18:06) * 5 lines 
 
Joe vs The Volcano
Dante's Peak
Volcano

...are the three that come to mind.


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 54 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Jan 21, 2003 (22:59) * 59 lines 
 
*****************************
Kilauea 20th Anniversary
*****************************
From: Stephen James O'Meara

Kilauea 20th Anniversary

FYI: The National Geographic Society has a PHOTO GALLERY of images of
Kilauea Volcano up at:

http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2003/01/photogalleries/kilauea/index.ht
ml

and a news story comemmorating the 20th year of eruption at:

http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2003/01/0102_030103_kilauea.html


*****************************
New volcano show at NGC
*****************************
From: Stephen James O'Meara

Please note this new National Geographic Television program will air Monday
January 27, 2003 at 4Pm EST: see Ad Below or click on the web addresses to
read more about the programs:

NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC CHANNEL--TELEVISION
Inside Base Camp
with Steve & Donna O'Meara

For the past 20 years, this married couple has gathered scientific data on
eruptions, a very risky business. Volcanologists are at least three times
more likely to be killed in the line of duty than New York City cops.

Send Yourself a Program Reminder
If you would like to be reminded one day before this particular episode is
going to air, click on the website below--then click on the icon by the
specific tv program.

4 p.m. Monday : January 27, 2003
For more details click on this website;
http://www.nationalgeographic.com/channel/ET/daily/20030127.html

Read about at These National Geographic Society websites:
http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2003/01/0102_030103_kilauea.html
http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2002/02/0215_020215_volcanohunter.ht
ml
http://www.nationalgeographic.com/tv/explorer/exp021702.html

OR View the O'Meara's VOLCANO Photo Gallery at:
http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2003/01/photogalleries/kilauea/index
.html
http://db2.photoresearchers.com/cgi-bin/query.cgi?api=100967797&row=4&col=4&
pg=1
http://www.volcanoworld.org/





 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 55 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Jan 21, 2003 (23:13) * 1 lines 
 
Has anyone heard of a 7.6 earthquake in Mexico City? Sounds very bad. They have not repaired everything from the last one.


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 56 of 192: Rob Glennie  (AotearoaKiwi) * Wed, Jan 22, 2003 (01:38) * 5 lines 
 
Hi all

No, but a magnitude 7.2 earthquake rocked the Solomon Islands last night. No casualties, but some damage.

Rob


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 57 of 192: lance8  (lance8) * Sun, May  4, 2003 (21:54) * 3 lines 
 
I know it was a while since this came into the conversation, but does any one else remember "Krakatoa; East of Java"? Not sure who did the effects, but it was like a combination of Ray Harryhausen and Irwin Allen. Good for its time.

As to the Earthquakes, The South had one recently, if you can believe it. But most people were so dense and dull that it went mostly unnoticed!


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 58 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, May  6, 2003 (23:23) * 1 lines 
 
I remember it. Actually, it is WEST of Java, but the author got it wrong and so is history changed.


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 59 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, May 23, 2003 (15:21) * 13 lines 
 
Eruption

Space Station Science Picture of the Day for May 23, 2003

Tiny Anatahan Island is blanketed in ash. Its only inhabitants--thousands
of feral goats and wild pigs--have perished. A churning plume of brown
smoke reaches 4 miles into the air. International Space Station (ISS)
science officer Ed Lu saw it first.

PICTURE AND INFO at
http://science.nasa.gov/ppod/y2003/23may_eruption.htm?list89800




 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 60 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, May 23, 2003 (16:02) * 7 lines 
 
First historic eruption of Mariana volcano Anatahan.

On 10 May, Mariana Island volcano Anatahan was seen erupting ash on satellite imagery, which would be the first historic eruption of this volcano. Volcanic cloud reached an estimated 44,000 feet a.s.l. (~13.4km a.s.l.). Hot spot on satellite imagery. Source: http://www.bom.gov.au/products/Volc_ash_recent.shtml

Anatahan began erupting around 9 p.m. on 10 May. A large red-brown cloud rose at least 6km, and there was a red pulsating glow over the island as well. Fortunately the winds are blowing the ash away from inhabited islands for now. This report mentions some sort of increased activity in 1990 of which I have no knowledge. Restless? Eruption? Unclear. Current eruption was still ongoing on 11 May. Source: http://www.guampdn.com/news/stories/20030512/localnews/283954.html Photo: http://www.guampdn.com/news/stories/20030512/localnews/283954-photos.html#1




 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 61 of 192: Paul Terry Walhus  (terry) * Sun, Jul  6, 2003 (16:22) * 5 lines 
 
New Spring source of information on volcanoes, with a link to Geo very prominent.

http://stonedom.com/Geology/Volcanoes/

Hopefully, this will drive more traffic to Geo and to Stonedom.


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 62 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Jul 11, 2003 (00:21) * 1 lines 
 
Excellent, Terry. Thanks for telling us about it.


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 63 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Jul 15, 2003 (17:16) * 27 lines 
 
**********************************
MVO activty report, 14 July 2003
**********************************

Soufriere Hills Volcano - Activity Report - 14th July 2003

Activity at the Soufriere Hills Volcano has been high with a major dome collapse and explosive activity.

The hybrid swarm that began on Wednesday 9th July slowly intensified, with events becoming larger and more closely spaced. By 07:00* on the 12th of July, the events had merged into a continuous tremor signal. A period of prolonged and heavy rainfall occurred between 06:00 and 09:00, causing mudflows in the Belham Valley.

Pyroclastic flow activity in the Tar River Valley began with a moderate-sized flow at 06:53. A series of similar-sized pyroclastic flows occurred in the Tar River Valley throughout the morning. Initially the flows were quite pale and weakly convective. The first pyroclastic flow reached the sea at 10:45. Flow activity increased slowly through the afternoon until it became almost continuous. Flows also occurred in Tuitt's Ghaut and White's Ghaut. The activity picked up markedly at 18:27, with more energetic pyroclastic flows. The level of activity fluctuated thereafter, with several smaller pyroclastic flows in the Tar River Valley, before escalating again at 20:05 with a phase of near-continuous pyroclastic flows. The flows increased in size and several surges traveled 2km over the sea at the mouth of the Tar River Valley. Pyroclastic flows also reached the sea in White's Ghaut and the Spanish Point area. These flows resulted in heavy fall out of ash and accretionary lapilli, particularly between Sa
em and Woodlands.

A number of explosive events took place during this collapse, with the largest occurring between 23:00 and midnight. Showers of rock fragments fell over the island, with dense clasts up to 40mm across falling at the MVO and up to 16mm at Lookout Yard. The Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) provided a column height of 48-50,000 feet for this event. The activity persisted at a high level until around 02:00 on the 13th of July before subsiding slowly.

Heavy ash fall and fall of rock fragments was experienced over all the inhabited parts of Montserrat. The ash fall deposit was 115mm thick at Lime Kiln Bay. The ash burden resulted in the collapse of several wooden buildings in the Salem area. Vegetation damage was extensive with downed trees and branches broken from many others. Many birds were killed by the ash or trapped alive in it. Ash fall from this event was reported from Nevis, St Kitts, Anguilla and St Maarten, and resulted in the closure of several airports.

At 09:10 on July 13th an explosive eruption occurred, following two hours of very low seismic activity. The eruption column was largely obscured due to the low cloud cover, but it was been pale in colour and did not collapse. Fallout of lithic clasts and pumice followed a few minutes later with pumice fragments up to 65mm in length falling in Lime Kiln Bay. The Washington VAAC provided a column height of 40,000 feet for this explosion. A second explosion occurred at 01:15 on July 14th.

The dome and deposits were seen during a helicopter flight this morning. A large collapse scar has formed in the dome directed down the Tar River Valley. The western limit of the scar could not be seen, but the northern and southern walls of the scar are around 850m above sea level. The Tar River Valley is extensively modified and eroded with a deep canyon gouged by the pyroclastic flows. The fan has been extended eastwards into the sea and northwards along the coast. North of Tar River Valley to Killyhawk Ghaut has been devastated. Between Killyhawk Ghaut and Whites Ghaut the vegetation has been burnt and there is thick ash accumulation, but it does not appear to have been violently surged. Large pyroclastic flows have filled the lower reaches of Whites Bottom Ghaut with deposits and impacted Spanish Point.

The MVO and our collaborators from Arkansas suffered significant equipment loses in the activity. The continuous GPS stations at Hermitage and White's Yard and the remote digital camera at White's Yard were destroyed in the event. The broadband seismometer at Long Ground survived.

* All time in this report are Montserrat local time (GMT -4:00)

4 pm, 14th July 2003



 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 64 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Jul 28, 2003 (15:09) * 30 lines 
 
Fall 2003 AGU session - "The Growth and Collapse of Hawaiian Volcanoes"

We would like to announce a Fall 2003 AGU session, "The Growth and
Collapse of Hawaiian Volcanoes" (see session summary below). Results
of new research on Hawaiian and other ocean island volcanoes,
especially research that builds upon the pioneering work of Jim Moore,
are welcomed. The electronic abstract submission deadline is 4 September 2003,
1400 UT.

Session summary:
V02 The Growth and Collapse of Hawaiian Volcanoes
The Hawaiian Islands are the most studied hot spot-related ocean island
chain on Earth, and recent work on the submarine flanks of the islands
has revealed much about their internal structure and development. Giant
submarine landslides off island flanks, as well as less catastrophic
volcano spreading and slumping processes, are now recognized as
integral to the life cycles of the islands. Volcaniclastic
sedimentation during island building, interplay between volcano growth
and subsidence, and the formation of rift zones play important roles as
well. James Moore has led the way in pinpointing many of the critical
processes outlined above. In this session we solicit abstracts that
present new results on all aspects of volcano growth, structure, and
deformation that build on his fundamental contributions to our
understanding of the development of the Hawaiian Islands, as well as
other ocean island volcanoes.

Conveners:
Michelle L Coombs, USGS Menlo Park, CA, USA, email: mcoombs@usgs.gov
Barry Eakins, USGS Menlo Park, CA, USA, email: beakins@usgs.gov
Eiichi Takahashi, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 65 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Nov 29, 2003 (17:23) * 92 lines 
 
GOMA VOLCANO OBSERVATORY Volcano Activities :

During all this 3 months period, volcanic activity has been concentrated inside
the Nyiragongo crater : an almost permanently boiling lava lake occupies the
crater at the depth of 700m. If the level of the lake inside the crater seems
to remain constant, its size is slowly growing due to collapses of the active
pit walls. Degassing remains also very important marked by a large gas plume
above the crater. This plume is generally deported to the West by the
prevailing winds and extends on several tens of km. Impact of this permanent
activity on the environment becomes to be quite important : inside the National
Park a 50 km2 area of forest is totally destroyed by volcanic gases and acid
rains, a zone with 50% destruction extends on more than 700 km2 with important
impact on crops (potatoes, corn, beans, bananas). In the same areas important
pollution by Fluoride was also detected and in several localities water tanks
collecting rain water are showing F concentrations up to 23 mg/l (WHO
tolerance = 1.5 mg/l).

GVO, with several partners, has initiated a survey of the impact of the
permanent volcano activity.

Seismology :

In the Nyiragongo area, long period events are commonly detected but at reduced
number, and mainly located at the NW and SW of the volcano. The activity is
largely dominated by permanent tremor generated by the activity of the lava
lake.

In the Nyamulagira area, seismicity is dominated by long period events,
localized along a NNE-SSW direction on the main fracture between Nyamulagira
and Nyiragongo volcano.

Intermittent swarms of longs period seism (60 to 80 events each time) occurred
on Nyamulagira twice or three times a week. A more important swarm was observed
on July 23 (100 long period events). This activity remained fairly stable for
the whole period.

Some fracturation earthquakes are always occurring : they are mainly located in
the South of Nyiragongo volcano (North of Lake Kivu ) and at the North-East of
volcano Nyamulagira

Deformation :

No noticeable change has been recorded along the fracture system.

Temperature Monitoring :

No noticeable change has been measured in the different points under survey.

Goma Volcano Observatory Activities:

This period has been a quite important one for the activities of GVO.

The routine work of surveillance plus the visits on top of Nyiragongo have been
maintained on a regular basis.

At the same time, it has been several important improvements at GVO :

- Mr Kasereka Mahinda Célestin has been elected as Director of the Department
of Geophysics (CRSN) and Chief Scientist of GVO

- Two researchers from GVO team have followed the CSAV session in Hawaii and
later have participated to the congress “Cities on Volcanoes” (Hilo ­ Hawaii)
plus the special “Nyiragongo Workshop” held at this occasion.

- One researcher has made a stay in Italy, on the volcano Etna, to improve his
skills in deformation monitoring.

- Another researcher has made a stay in the University of Florence, for some
geochemical laboratory training, and later participated to a sampling campaign
on the Eolian Islands volcanoes.

- A new deformation surveillance network has been established on the south
flank of the volcano and across the rift, with 9 benchmarks built on the field.
GVO has also been donated with the whole equipment (EDM bases, reflective
prisms targets, etc…) Two complete measurements of the network have been
realized and are showing very good accuracy in the measures. Two tiltmeter
stations have been installed on South and East flanks of the volcano.

- A new telemetered seismic network (7 seismometers 3 components) has also
been deployed through our traditional seismic stations. So far, five of the
seven stations are already radio-connected to GVO and are working in real-time.
Another campaign, planned for February 2004, will complete the network and
install a radio repetitor for a best coverage of the area.

- On June / July 2003, a main expedition has been organized on volcano
Nyiragongo. The inner crater walls being equipped with fixed ropes and a
powered winch, it has been possible to put a small camp on the second platform,
300m below the crater rim. From there, scientists have been able to sample high
temperatures fumaroles (D.Tedesco ­ O.Vaselli) but also fresh lava from the
active lava lake (J.Durieux). Results will be published in separate papers.




 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 66 of 192: Paul Terry Walhus (terry) * Sun, Nov 30, 2003 (20:15) * 2 lines 
 
What's the closest volcano to your new digs, Marci?



 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 67 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Dec  4, 2003 (14:01) * 1 lines 
 
Wow...... active or extinct? I guess The Soufriere Hills on Montserrat are the closest now.


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 68 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Dec  4, 2003 (14:03) * 1 lines 
 
The New Madrid fault is the closest world hazard.


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 69 of 192: Paul Terry Walhus (terry) * Thu, Dec  4, 2003 (18:06) * 2 lines 
 
Are you going to be visiting any Kentucky caves? Or other geological
formations?


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 70 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Dec 22, 2003 (14:34) * 1 lines 
 
We were at Mammoth Cave last month on the way to Bowling Green for a conference, but only did the entrance and I decided to try it on a less tight schedule. The hike down in and back up again is more than a casual stroll. I do want to see it, though. That whole area is full of caves.


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 71 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Dec 22, 2003 (14:37) * 1 lines 
 
Actually, most of our time is devoted to writing and editing the book in progress. It sounds prosaic, but it is a very exciting happening to us, and this book will be very important to the local literature. Hopefully, we publish it with the idea of stimulating further research and publishing. This part of archaeology has not been covered at all till now.


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 72 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Dec 22, 2003 (18:59) * 220 lines 
 
******************************************
GVP/USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report 19-25 November 2003
******************************************

New Activity/Unrest

KAVACHI Solomon Islands 9.02°S, 157.95°E; summit elev. -32 m (submarine)
An observer from The Wilderness Lodge reported that a 15-m-high island formed
at Kavachi during an eruptive cycle 3 months prior to a visit on 16 November.
By 16 November the summit had reduced to ~32 m below sea level. No evidence of
volcanic activity was observed during the 3 previous months, which is the first
time this has occurred in 4 years of observation.
Background. Kavachi, one of the most active submarine volcanoes in the SW
Pacific, occupies an isolated position in the Solomon Islands far from major
aircraft and shipping lanes. Kavachi, sometimes referred to as Rejo te Kvachi
("Kavachi's oven"), is located S of Vangunu Island only 30 km N of the site of
subduction of the Indo-Australian plate beneath the Pacific plate. The shallow
submarine basaltic-to-andesitic volcano has produced ephemeral islands up to
150 m long at least eight times since its first recorded eruption during 1939.
The roughly conical volcano rises from water depths of 1.1-1.2 km on the N and
greater depths to the S.
Source: The Wilderness Lodge http://www.thewildernesslodge.org/news&updates.htm
Kavachi information from the Global Volcanism Program
http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=0505-06=

Ongoing Activity

COLIMA western México 19.514°N,103.62°W; summit elev. ~3,850 m; All times are
local (= UTC - 5 hours)
A subtle ash plume, visible in satellite imagery, was emitted from Colima on 18
November at 1900 and rose to ~5.5 km a.s.l.
Background. The Colima volcanic complex is the most prominent volcanic center
of the western Mexican Volcanic Belt. It consists of two southward-younging
volcanoes, Nevado de Colima (the 4,320 m high point of the complex) on the N
and the historically active Volcán de Colima on the S. Volcán de Colima (also
known as Volcán Fuego) is a youthful stratovolcano constructed within a 5-km-
wide caldera, breached to the S, that has been the source of large debris
avalanches. Major slope failures have occurred repetitively from both the
Nevado and Colima cones, and have produced a thick apron of debris-avalanche
deposits on three sides of the complex. Frequent historical eruptions have
mostly originated from Colima's summit crater. The current eruptive episode
began in November 1998 and has included summit lava-dome growth, block lava
flows, pyroclastic flows, and intermittent explosive activity.
Source: Washington VAAV http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/VAAC/messages.html
Colima information from the Global Volcanism Program
http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=1401-014=

DUKONO Halmahera, Indonesia 1.70°N, 127.87°E; summit elev. 1,185 m; All times
are local (= UTC + 9 hours)
Satellite imagery showed ash plumes emitted from Dukono on 19 November at 1403,
20 November at 0713, and 21 November at 1428, extending ~185 km NE, ~170 km NE,
and ~150 km ESE, respectively. A possible ash plume was observed on 22 November
at 1349. All plumes were below ~3 km a.s.l.
Background. Reports from this remote volcano in northernmost Halmahera are
rare, but Dukono has been one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes. More-or-
less continuous explosive eruptions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows,
occurred since 1933 until at least the mid-1990s, when routine observations
were curtailed. During a major eruption in 1550, a lava flow filled in the
strait between Halmahera and the N-flank cone of Gunung Mamuya. Dukono is a
complex volcano presenting a broad, low profile with multiple summit peaks and
overlapping craters. Malupang Wariang, 1 km SW of Dukono's summit crater
complex, contains a 700 x 570 m crater that has also been active during
historical time.
Source: Darwin VAAC http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/VAAC/OTH/AU/messages.html
Dukono information from the Global Volcanism Program
http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=0608-01=

FUEGO Guatemala 14.47°N, 90.88°W; summit elev. 3,763 m
Small explosive eruptions at Fuego produced gas-and-ash plumes up to 1.2 km
above the crater. During the night of 18-19 November moderate-sized avalanches
were observed in the upper Santa Teresa and Trinidad ravines. Night-time
incandescence at the summit was common during the week. Periods of harmonic
tremor, lasting between 0.5-3 hours, were recorded on 23 November, and almost
continuous harmonic tremor was recorded for a period of 21 hours on 24 November.
Background. Fuego, one of Central America's most active volcanoes, is one of
three large stratovolcanoes overlooking Guatemala's former capital, Antigua.
Collapse of the ancestral Meseta volcano about 8,500 years ago produced a
massive debris avalanche that traveled about 50 km onto the Pacific coastal
plain. Growth of the modern Fuego volcano followed, continuing the southward
migration of volcanism that began at Acatenango, the northern twin volcano of
Fuego. Frequent vigorous historical eruptions have been recorded since 1524 and
have produced major ashfalls, along with occasional pyroclastic flows and lava
flows. The last major explosive eruption from Fuego took place in 1974,
producing spectacular pyroclastic flows visible from Antigua.
Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meterologia, e
Hidrologia http://www.insivumeh.gob.gt/geofisica/boletin%20formato.htm
Fuego information from the Global Volcanism Program
http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=1402-09=

KARYMSKY Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia 54.05°N, 159.43°E; summit elev. 1,536 m
During 15-21 November, intermittent explosive eruptions at Karymsky produced
gas-and-ash plumes that rose to 1.5-2 km above the crater. Karymsky remained
at Concern Color Code Orange
.
Background. Karymsky, the most active volcano of Kamchatka's eastern volcanic
zone, is a symmetrical stratovolcano constructed within a 5-km-wide caldera
that formed about 7,600-7,700 radiocarbon years ago. Construction of the
Karymsky stratovolcano began about 2,000 years later. The latest eruptive
period began about 500 years ago, following a 2,300-year quiescence. Much of
the cone is mantled by lava flows less than 200 years old. Historical eruptions
have been Vulcanian or Vulcanian-Strombolian with moderate explosive activity
and occasional lava flows from the summit crater. Most seismicity preceding
Karymsky eruptions has originated beneath Akademia Nauk caldera, which is
located immediately S of Karymsky volcano and erupted simultaneously with
Karymsky in 1996.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team via the Alaska Volcano
Observatory
Karymsky information from the Global Volcanism Program
http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=1000-13=

KILAUEA Hawaii, USA 19.43°N, 155.29°W; summit elev. 1,222 m
Minor surface lava flows were observed upslope of Kilauea’s coastal plain the
week of 19-25 November. Small amounts of inflation and deflation were recorded
through the week with sharp deflation beginning at both Uwekahuna and Pu`u O`o
early on the morning of 25 November. Moderate, shallow seismicity was recorded
beneath the summit, and moderate-to-high seismicity occurred beneath Pu`u O`o.
Background. Kilauea, one of five coalescing volcanoes that comprise the island
of Hawaii, is one of the world’s most active volcanoes. Eruptions at Kilauea
originate primarily from the summit caldera or along one of the lengthy E and
SW rift zones that extend from the caldera to the sea. About 90% of the surface
of Kilauea is formed by lava flows less than about 1,100 years old; 70% of the
volcano's surface is younger than 600 years. The latest Kilauea eruption began
in January 1983 along the E rift zone. This long-term ongoing eruption from
Pu`u `O`o-Kupaianaha has produced lava flows that have traveled 11-12 km from
the vents to the sea, paving about 104 km2 of land on the S flank of Kilauea
and building more than 200 hectares of new land.
Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory
http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/update.html
Kilauea Information from the Global Volcanism Program
http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=1302-01-

KLIUCHEVSKOI Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia 56.06°N, 160.64°E; summit elev. 4,835
m
Strombolian activity was observed at Kliuchevskoi on 14-15 November. During 14-
15 and 18 November, gas-and-ash plumes rose to ~2.5 km above the crater and
extended more than 10 km W, E, and NE. During 15-20 November, seismic activity
continued to be above background levels with 75 shallow M 1.9-2.5 earthquakes
and many small, shallow earthquakes recorded. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern
Color Code Orange .
Background. Kliuchevskoi is Kamchatka's highest and most active volcano. Since
its origin about 7,000 years ago, the beautifully symmetrical, 4,835-m-high
basaltic stratovolcano has produced frequent moderate-volume explosive and
effusive eruptions without major periods of inactivity. More than 100 flank
eruptions have occurred during the past 3,000 years, mostly on the NE and SE
flanks of the conical volcano between 500 m and 3,600 m elevation. The
morphology of its 700-m-wide summit crater has been frequently modified by
historical eruptions, which have been recorded since the late-17th century.
Historical eruptions have originated primarily from the summit crater, but have
also included major explosive and effusive eruptions from flank craters.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) via the Alaska
Volcano Observatory, http://www.avo.alaska.edu/avo4/updates/kvertweekly.htm
Kliuchevskoi Information from the Global Volcanism Program
http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=1000-26=

POPOCATÉPETL México 19.02°N, 98.62°W; summit elev. 5,426 m
Activity at Popocatépetl remained stable during the week with numerous gas-and-
steam emissions. Based on information from the Mexico City MWO, the Washington
VAAC reported that an ash plume was emitted on 22 November that rose to ~9.5 km
a.s.l. and extended ~19 km NE.
Background. Popocatépetl, whose name is the Aztec word for smoking mountain,
towers to 5,426 m 70 km SE of México City and is North America's second-highest
volcano. Frequent historical eruptions have been recorded since the beginning
of the Spanish colonial era. A small eruption on 21 December 1994 ended five
decades of quiescence. Since 1996 small lava domes have incrementally been
constructed within the summit crater and destroyed by explosive eruptions.
Intermittent small-to-moderate gas-and-ash eruptions have continued,
occasionally producing ashfall in neighboring towns and villages.
Sources: Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres
http://www.cenapred.unam.mx/, Washington VAAC
http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/VAAC/messages.html
Popocatépetl Information from the Global Volcanism Program
http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=1401-09=

SANTA MARÍA Guatemala 14.756°N 91.552°W; summit elev. 3,772 m; All times local
(= UTC - 6 hours)
Small eruptions on 18 and 23 November at Santa María’s Santiaguito lava dome
produced localized tephra fall. Small avalanches from the SW portion of the
dome occurred on 18 November. On 24 November at 0745, five explosions occurred
at 1-minute intervals, producing a gas-and-ash plume that rose to 2 km above
the crater and was dispersed up to 12 km SSW.
Background. Symmetrical, forest-covered Santa María volcano is one of a chain
of large stratovolcanoes that rises dramatically above the Pacific coastal
plain of Guatemala. The stratovolcano has a sharp-topped, conical profile that
is cut on the SW flank by a large, 1-km-wide crater, which formed during a
catastrophic eruption in 1902 and extends from just below the summit to the
lower flank. The renowned plinian eruption of 1902 followed a long repose
period and devastated much of SW Guatemala. The large dacitic Santiaguito lava-
dome complex has been growing at the base of the 1902 crater since 1922.
Compound dome growth at Santiaguito has occurred episodically from four
westward-younging vents, accompanied by almost continuous minor explosions and
periodic lava extrusion, larger explosions, pyroclastic flows, and lahars.
Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meterologia, e
Hidrologia, http://www.insivumeh.gob.gt/geofisica/boletin%20formato.htm,
Washington VAAC http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/VAAC/messages.html
Santa María Information from the Global Volcanism Program
http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=1402-03=

TUNGURAHUA Ecuador 1.47°S, 78.44°W; summit elev. 5,023 m
During 19-25 November, activity at Tungurahua remained high, with numerous
moderate explosions producing plumes that were frequently visible on satellite
imagery and rose up to 2 km above the crater. Ash was dispersed to the SSW and
SW on 19 and 20 November and WNW and NW on 23 and 24 November, respectively.
Throughout the week Strombolian activity was visible at night.
Background. The steep-sided Tungurahua stratovolcano towers more than 3 km
above its northern base. It sits ~140 km S of Quito, Ecuador’s capital city,
and is one of Ecuador's most active volcanoes. Historical eruptions have been
restricted to the summit crater. They have been accompanied by strong
explosions and sometimes by pyroclastic flows and lava flows that reached
populated areas at the volcano's base. The last major eruption took place from
1916 to 1918, although minor activity continued until 1925. The latest eruption
began in October 1999 and prompted temporary evacuation of the town of Baños on
the N side of the volcano.
Sources: Instituto Geofisico-Escuela Poltecnica Nacional
http://www.igepn.edu.ec/vulcanologia/tungurahua/actividad/informet.htm,
Washington VAAC http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/VAAC/messages.html
Tungurahua Information from the Global Volcanism Program
http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=1502-08=





 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 73 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Jan 23, 2004 (19:59) * 363 lines 
 
GVP/USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report - 14-20 January 2004

New Activity/Unrest

ASO Kyushu, Japan 32.88°N, 131.10°E; summit elev. 1,592 m; All times are local
(= UTC + 9 hours)
According to the Japanese Meteorological Agency, a “mud eruption” occurred at
Aso’s Crater 1 on 14 January at 1541. The eruption was accompanied by volcanic
tremor and ash emissions that rose to low levels above the crater. Small
amounts of very fine ash fell in Takamori Town about 10 km ESE of the crater.
The level of thermal activity at Aso had risen during the previous year, with
the last “mud eruption” occurring in July 2003. The Alert Level at Aso was
raised from 2 to 3, and no tourists were permitted entrance within 1 km of the
crater.
Background. The 24-km-wide Aso caldera was formed during four major explosive
eruptions from 300,000 to 80,000 years ago. These produced voluminous
pyroclastic flows that covered much of Kyushu. A group of 17 central cones was
constructed in the middle of the caldera, one of which, Naka-dake, is one of
Japan's most active volcanoes. It was the location of Japan's first documented
historical eruption in 553 AD. The Naka-dake complex has remained active
throughout the Holocene. Several other cones have been active during the
Holocene, including the Kometsuka scoria cone as recently as about 210 AD.
Historical eruptions have largely consisted of basaltic to basaltic-andesite
ash emission with periodic Strombolian and phreatomagmatic activity. The summit
crater of Naka-dake is accessible by toll road and cable car, and is one of
Kyushu's most popular tourist destinations.
Sources: Volcano Research Center (VRC-ERI, Univ. Tokyo) http://hakone.eri.u-
tokyo.ac.jp/vrc/erup/aso.html,
Reuters http://story.news.yahoo.com/news?
tmpl=story&u=/nm/20040114/sc_nm/japan_volcano_dc_1
Aso Information from the Global Volcanism Program
http://www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=0802-11=

BEZYMIANNY Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia 55.98°N, 160.59°E; summit elev. 2,882 m;
All times are local (= UTC + 12 hours)
Video footage showed a strong explosion at Bezymianny on 14 January at 1053
producing an ash plume that rose to 6-8 km a.s.l. and extended ENE. A large
pyroclastic flow probably traveled SSE down the volcano’s flank. This abrupt
increase in activity at Bezymianny led KVERT to raise the Concern Color Code
from Green (the lowest level) to Red (the highest level), but later the same
day they reduced it to Orange
. By 1134 on 14 January
the ash plume extended ~55 km and was at a height around 6 km a.s.l, and by
1421 it extended ~190 km and was at 4-6 km a.s.l. No ash was deposited in the
nearby settlement of Ust’-Kamchatsk. On 16 January the Concern Color Code was
further reduced to Yellow. On that day a lava dome was growing and viscous lava
was probably flowing slowly from it. Precise seismic monitoring at Bezymianny
was hampered due to high-level volcanic tremor at nearby Kliuchevskoi volcano.
Visual observations at Bezymianny revealed that gas-and-steam plumes rose to
100 m above the lava dome.
Prior to the 14 January eruption, a weak thermal anomaly has been registered at
Bezymianny since an eruption on 26 July 2003. On 9 January one shallow M 2.2
earthquake was recorded at the volcano. During 10-13 January, a 1-2 pixel
thermal anomaly was noted at the volcano and during 10-12 January gas-and-steam
plumes rose to low levels above the volcano.
Background. Prior to its noted 1955-56 eruption, Bezymianny volcano had been
considered extinct. Three periods of intensified activity have occurred during
the past 3,000 years. The latest period, which was preceded by a 1,000-year
quiescence, began with the dramatic 1955-56 eruption. That eruption, similar to
the 1980 event at Mount St. Helens, produced a large horseshoe-shaped crater
that was formed by collapse of the summit and an associated lateral blast.
Subsequent episodic but ongoing lava-dome growth, accompanied by intermittent
explosive activity and pyroclastic flows, has largely filled the 1956 crater.
Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team via the Alaska Volcano
Observatory http://www.avo.alaska.edu/avo4/updates/kvertweekly.htm, Tokyo VAAC
http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/VAAC/OTH/JP/messages.html, Anchorage VAAC
http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/VAAC/OTH/AK/messages.html, Pravda News
http://newsfromrussia.com/main/2004/01/15/51940.html
Bezymianny Information from the Global Volcanism Program
http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=1000-25=

CERRO NEGRO Nicaragua 12.506°N, 86.702°W; summit elev. 726 m
According to INETER, an unusually large amount of seismic tremor occurred at
Cerro Negro from December 2003 to at least mid January. The tremor had variable
intensity, but was too small to be felt by the population near the volcano.
During visits to Cerro Negro on 6 and 10 January, scientists did not observe
any surficial changes or measure a temperature increase at fumaroles in
comparison to previous months. INETER reported that the alert level may be
increased from no alert to Green (the lowest alert level) if the amplitude of
the tremor increases, or if there is an increase in other precursory activity.
Background. Central America's youngest volcano, Cerro Negro, was born in April
1850 and has since been one of the most active volcanoes in Nicaragua. Cerro
Negro is the largest, southernmost, and most recent of a group of four youthful
cinder cones constructed along a NNW-SSE-trending line in the central Marrabios
Range 5 km NW of Las Pilas volcano. Strombolian-to-subplinian eruptions at
Cerro Negro at intervals of a few years to several decades have constructed a
roughly 250-m-high basaltic cone and an associated lava field that is
constrained by topography to extend primarily to the NE and SW. Cone and
crater morphology have varied significantly during its eruptive history.
Although the volcano lies in a relatively unpopulated area, heavy ashfalls
during eruptions of Cerro Negro have caused damage to crops and buildings in
populated regions of the Nicaraguan depression.
Sources: Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (INETER)
http://www.ineter.gob.ni/geofisica/vol/comunicados/20040113-cerronegro.html, La
Prensa
http://www.laprensa.com.ni/nacionales/nacionales-20040114-12.html
Cerro Negro Information from the Global Volcanism Program
http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=1404-07=

KIRISHIMA Kyushu, Japan 31.93°N, 130.87°E; summit elev. 1,700 m
Seismicity increased from “normal” levels at Kirishima on 13 December, and the
same day Dr. Kobayashi of Kagoshima University found new fumarole pits at the
volcano’s Ohachi Crater. A video camera at the volcano showed steam rising
above the crater rim. Observers saw two new pits that formed in the middle of
the crater’s southern inner wall and steam rising to ~100 m. Also, pebbles
(that were 2-3 cm across) and mud were scattered within about 10 m of these
pits. JMA issued a volcanic advisory on 16 December, as the possibility of a
small eruption had increased, judging from the high level of seismic and
thermal activity. On 17 December authorities announced that tourists were not
permitted to visit Ohachi Crater. The level of seismicity peaked in mid
December, then declined somewhat, continuing at a relatively high level through
at least mid January.
Background. Kirishima is a large group of more than 20 Quaternary volcanoes
located north of Kagoshima Bay. The late-Pleistocene to Holocene volcano group
consists of stratovolcanoes, pyroclastic cones, maars, and underlying shield
volcanoes located over an area of 20 x 30 km. The larger stratovolcanoes are
scattered throughout the field, with the centrally located, 1,700-m-high
Karakuni-dake being the highest. Onami-ike and Mi-ike, the two largest maars,
are located SW of Karakuni-dake and at its far eastern end, respectively.
Holocene eruptions have been concentrated along an E-W line of vents from Mi-
ike to Ohachi, and at Shinmoe-dake to the NE. Frequent small-to-moderate
explosive eruptions have been recorded since the 8th century.
Source: Volcano Research Center (VRC-ERI, Univ. Tokyo) http://hakone.eri.u-
tokyo.ac.jp/vrc/erup/kiri.html
Kirishima Information form the Global Volcanism Program
http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=0802-09=

SANGAY Ecuador 2.03°S, 78.34°W; summit elev. 5,188 m; All times are local (=
UTC - 5 hours)
According to the Washington VAAC, satellite imagery showed a plume emitted from
Sangay on 14 January around 0500 extending ~45 km E. The plume most likely
contained ash. During this time a hotspot was also visible on satellite
imagery.
Background. The isolated Sangay volcano, located E of the Andean crest, is the
southernmost of Ecuador's volcanoes, and its most active. It has been in
frequent eruption for the past several centuries. The steep-sided, 5,230-m-high
glacier-covered volcano grew within horseshoe-shaped calderas of two previous
edifices, which were destroyed by collapse to the E, producing large debris
avalanches that reached the Amazonian lowlands. The modern edifice dates back
to at least 14,000 years ago. Sangay towers above the tropical jungle on the E
side; on the other sides flat plains of ash from the volcano have been sculpted
by heavy rains into steep-walled canyons up to 600 m deep. The earliest report
of an historical eruption was in 1628. More or less continuous eruptions were
reported from 1728 until 1916, and again from 1934 to the present. The more or
less constant eruptive activity has caused frequent changes to the morphology
of the summit crater complex.
Sources: Washington VAAC http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/VAAC/messages.html, New
Zealand Herald http://www.nzherald.co.nz/storydisplay.cfm?
storyID=3543881&thesection=news&thesubsection=world
Sangay Information from the Global Volcanism Program
http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=1502-09=

SHIVELUCH Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia 56.653°N, 161.360°E; summit elev. 3,283
m; All times are local (= UTC + 12 hours)
During 11-12 January, explosions at Shiveluch produced ash plumes to 4 km
a.s.l. that drifted W. The explosions were accompanied by pyroclastic flows
with run-out distances around 1 km. On 16 January at 1125 an eruption produced
an ash plume that rose ~5.5 km a.s.l. and drifted W. The same day KVERT raised
the Concern Color Code to Orange from Yellow <
http://www.avo.alaska.edu/avo4/updates/color_code.html>. During 9-16 January,
seismicity was above background levels at Shiveluch, with the recording of ~70
shallow earthquakes greater than M 1.75 and a large number of weaker
earthquakes beneath the active lava dome. In addition, intermittent spasmodic
tremor was recorded during 11-16 January.
Background. The high, isolated massif of Shiveluch volcano (also spelled
Sheveluch) rises above the lowlands NNE of the Kliuchevskaya volcano group and
forms one of Kamchatka's largest and most active volcanoes. The currently
active Molodoy Shiveluch lava-dome complex was constructed during the Holocene
within a large horseshoe-shaped caldera formed by collapse of the massive late-
Pleistocene Strary Shiveluch volcano. At least 60 large eruptions of Shiveluch
have occurred during the Holocene, making it the most vigorous andesitic
volcano of the Kurile-Kamchatka arc. Frequent collapses of lava-dome complexes,
most recently in 1964, have produced large debris avalanches whose deposits
cover much of the floor of the breached caldera. During the 1990s, intermittent
explosive eruptions took place from a new lava dome that began growing in 1980.
The largest historical eruptions from Shiveluch occurred in 1854 and 1964.
Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team via the Alaska Volcano
Observatory http://www.avo.alaska.edu/avo4/updates/kvertweekly.htm, Itar-Tass
News http://www.itar-tass.com/eng/level2.html?NewsID=317648&PageNum=0
Shiveluch Information from the Global Volcanism Program
http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=1000-27=

Ongoing Activity

GUAGUA PICHINCHA north-central Ecuador 0.17°S, 78.60°W; summit elev. 4,784 mm
During the afternoon of 7 January, strong rains occurred at Guagua Pichincha
and a series of seismic signals attributed to rockfalls and lahars were
recorded. A visit to the area by IG scientists on 13 January confirmed that a
lahar traveled down the NNE wall of the volcano’s crater. In addition, there
were small fractures in the SE sector of the volcano and in the crater. IG
noted that this activity does not indicate a change in volcanic activity at
Guagua Pichincha.
Background. Guagua Pichincha rises immediately west of Quito, Ecuador’s
capital city. The broad volcanic massif is cut by a large horseshoe-shaped
summit caldera, ~6 km in diameter and 600 m deep, that was breached to the W
during a slope failure ~50,000 years ago. Subsequent late-Pleistocene and
Holocene eruptions from the central vent consisted of explosive activity with
pyroclastic flows accompanied by periodic lava dome growth and destruction. A
major eruption in 1660 deposited 30 cm of ash in Quito, but most of the many
eruptions since the Spanish colonial era have been minor. The latest eruptive
period began with phreatic explosions in 1998. Magmatic eruptions first
occurred in October 1999, and intermittent eruptions of varying scale since
then have blanketed Quito and surrounding towns with ash.
Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional
http://www.igepn.edu.ec/vulcanologia/pichincha/actividad/isemana.htm
Guagua Pichincha Information from the Global Volcanism Program
http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=1502-02=

KARYMSKY Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia 54.05°N, 159.43°E; summit elev. 1,536 m
Seismicity was above background levels at Karymsky during 9-16 January, with
150-300 earthquakes recorded. Ash-and-gas plumes may have risen 1.5-3 km above
the volcano. According to the Airport Meteorological Center (AMC) in Yelizovo,
during the report period a pilot saw an ash plume rise ~5.5 km above the
volcano and extend SSW. On 12 January staff of the Kamchatkan Experimental &
Methodical Seismological Department (KEMSD) saw an ash plume rise ~2 km above
the volcano and explosions that occured every 5-7 minutes. On 10 January ash
deposits were seen on the volcano’s snow-covered flanks extending SE. Karymsky
remained at Concern Color Code Orange
.
Background. Karymsky, the most active volcano of Kamchatka's eastern volcanic
zone, is a symmetrical stratovolcano constructed within a 5-km-wide caldera
that formed about 7,600-7,700 radiocarbon years ago. Construction of the
Karymsky stratovolcano began about 2,000 years later. The latest eruptive
period began about 500 years ago, following a 2,300-year quiescence. Much of
the cone is mantled by lava flows less than 200 years old. Historical eruptions
have been Vulcanian or Vulcanian-Strombolian with moderate explosive activity
and occasional lava flows from the summit crater. Most seismicity preceding
Karymsky eruptions has originated beneath Akademia Nauk caldera, which is
located immediately S of Karymsky volcano and erupted simultaneously with
Karymsky in 1996.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team via the Alaska Volcano
Observatory http://www.avo.alaska.edu/avo4/updates/kvertweekly.htm
Karymsky information from the Global Volcanism Program
http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=1000-13=

KILAUEA Hawaii, USA 19.43°N, 155.29°W; summit elev. 1,222 m; All times are
local (= UTC ­ 10 hours)
On 18 January during 0550 to 0830 a large period of deflation occurred at
Kilauea’s Pu`u `O`o cone, amounting in 18.1 microradians of net deflation.
During this period a fissure opened at the SE base of Pu`u `O`o, trending
approximately radial to the cone. Lava was emitted from the fissure and from
three to four vents nearby. The initial flow reached about 1.5 km S of the
cone. The S side of Pu`u `O`o was cut by many new fractures. The longest
fracture constituted the N boundary of a shallow graben (a linear trough
bounded by faults) that was ~75 m long and up to 1 m deep. Surface lava flows
were emitted from the E end of the graben, at the base of Pu`u `O`o. The area S
of Pu`u `O`o cone appeared to be quite unstable, so HVO scientists warned that
no one should venture into the area. Seismicity at Kilauea’s summit during 15-
20 January was at low levels, while tremor at Pu`u `O`o was continuous and at
moderate levels. The tremor picked up during the formation of the graben on 18
January. As of 20 January tilt continued to steadily decline following the 18
January deflation event.
Background. Kilauea, one of five coalescing volcanoes that comprise the island
of Hawaii, is one of the world’s most active volcanoes. Eruptions at Kilauea
originate primarily from the summit caldera or along one of the lengthy E and
SW rift zones that extend from the caldera to the sea. About 90% of the surface
of Kilauea is formed by lava flows less than about 1,100 years old; 70% of the
volcano's surface is younger than 600 years. The latest Kilauea eruption began
in January 1983 along the E rift zone. This long-term ongoing eruption from
Pu`u `O`o-Kupaianaha has produced lava flows that have traveled 11-12 km from
the vents to the sea, paving about 104 km2 of land on the S flank of Kilauea
and building more than 200 hectares of new land.
Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory
http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/update.html
Kilauea Information from the Global Volcanism Program
http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=1302-01-

KLIUCHEVSKOI Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia 56.06°N, 160.64°E; summit elev. 4,835
m
Seismicity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi during 9-16 January,
with ~175 shallow M 1.9-2.5 earthquakes and a large number of weaker events
recorded. Ash explosions rose 0.5-1 km above the volcano during 11-13 January.
Strombolian activity was observed at the central crater during 11-12 January.
Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange
.
Background. Kliuchevskoi is Kamchatka's highest and most active volcano. Since
its origin about 7,000 years ago, the beautifully symmetrical, 4,835-m-high
basaltic stratovolcano has produced frequent moderate-volume explosive and
effusive eruptions without major periods of inactivity. More than 100 flank
eruptions have occurred during the past 3,000 years, mostly on the NE and SE
flanks of the conical volcano between 500 m and 3,600 m elevation. The
morphology of its 700-m-wide summit crater has been frequently modified by
historical eruptions, which have been recorded since the late-17th century.
Historical eruptions have originated primarily from the summit crater, but have
also included major explosive and effusive eruptions from flank craters.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) via the Alaska
Volcano Observatory http://www.avo.alaska.edu/avo4/updates/kvertweekly.htm
Kliuchevskoi Information from the Global Volcanism Program
http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=1000-26=

SANTA MARÍA Guatemala 14.756°N 91.552°W; summit elev. 3,772 m
On the morning of 15 January a moderate explosion at Santa Maria’s Santiguito
lava-dome complex caused a collapse at the edge of the crater. Volcanic
material traveled down the volcano’s SW flank, reaching the base. Ash rose ~900
m above the crater and fell on the observatory and property near the volcano.
Weak avalanches occurred in the SE portion of the lava dome. On 19 January
moderate explosions occurred and avalanches descended the lava dome. The plumes
produced from the explosions traveled E, depositing small amounts of fine ash
around the volcano, including on the ranches of San Jose, Quina, and San Juan
Patzulín.
Background. Symmetrical, forest-covered Santa María volcano is one of a chain
of large stratovolcanoes that rises dramatically above the Pacific coastal
plain of Guatemala. The stratovolcano has a sharp-topped, conical profile that
is cut on the SW flank by a large, 1-km-wide crater, which formed during a
catastrophic eruption in 1902 and extends from just below the summit to the
lower flank. The renowned plinian eruption of 1902 followed a long repose
period and devastated much of SW Guatemala. The large dacitic Santiaguito lava-
dome complex has been growing at the base of the 1902 crater since 1922.
Compound dome growth at Santiaguito has occurred episodically from four
westward-younging vents, accompanied by almost continuous minor explosions and
periodic lava extrusion, larger explosions, pyroclastic flows, and lahars.
Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meterologia, e
Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), http://www.insivumeh.gob.gt/geofisica/boletin%
20formato.htm, Washington VAAC http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/VAAC/messages.html
Santa María Information from the Global Volcanism Program
http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=1402-03=

SOUFRIÈRE HILLS Montserrat, West Indies 16.72°N, 62.18°W; summit elev. 1,030 m
Volcanic activity at Soufrière Hills remained at low levels during 9-16
January. The seismic network recorded 5 rockfalls and 1 long-period and 18
hybrid earthquakes. The sulfur-dioxide flux from the volcano was low at the
beginning of the report period (less than 200 tons per day), increasing to
around 350 tons per day after a minor ash-venting event on 9 January.
Background. The complex andesitic Soufrière Hills volcano occupies the southern
half of the island of Montserrat. The summit area consists primarily of a
series of lava domes emplaced along an ESE-trending zone. Non-eruptive seismic
swarms occurred at 30-year intervals in the 20th century, but the first well-
documented historical eruption on Montserrat did not take place until 1995.
Long-term small-to-moderate ash eruptions were accompanied by lava-dome growth
and pyroclastic flows that forced evacuation of the southern half of the island
and ultimately destroyed the capital city of Plymouth, causing severe social
and economic disruption. The volcano continues to extrude dome lavas, often
accompanied by pyroclastic flows.
Source: Montserrat Volcano Observatory http://www.mvo.ms/
Soufrière Hills Information from the Global Volcanism Program
http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=1600-05=

TUNGURAHUA Ecuador 1.47°S, 78.44°W; summit elev. 5,023 m
During 14-19 January, Tungurahua continued to emit gas, steam, and ash.
Emissions rose to ~1 km above the crater and drifted predominately N and NE,
with variable amounts of ash in the resultant plumes. In addition, low-level
seismicity occurred.
Background. The steep-sided Tungurahua stratovolcano towers more than 3 km
above its northern base. It sits ~140 km S of Quito, Ecuador’s capital city,
and is one of Ecuador's most active volcanoes. Historical eruptions have been
restricted to the summit crater. They have been accompanied by strong
explosions and sometimes by pyroclastic flows and lava flows that reached
populated areas at the volcano's base. The last major eruption took place from
1916 to 1918, although minor activity continued until 1925. The latest eruption
began in October 1999 and prompted temporary evacuation of the town of Baños on
the N side of the volcano.
Sources: Instituto Geofisico-Escuela Politecnica Nacional
http://www.igepn.edu.ec/vulcanologia/tungurahua/actividad/informet.htm,
Washington VAAC http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/VAAC/messages.html
Tungurahua Information from the Global Volcanism Program
http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=1502-08=

*********************************************************
Gari Mayberry
US Geological Survey/Global Volcanism
Program
Smithsonian Institution



 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 74 of 192: Paul Terry Walhus (terry) * Sat, Oct  2, 2004 (21:10) * 1 lines 
 
Mt. St. Helens just went to a Level 3 Alert. That means potential danger to life and property.


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 75 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Oct  2, 2004 (22:22) * 71 lines 
 
I posted by mistake all the info on MSH so I will post it here also:

Mount St. Helens Update |
| September 29, 2004 5:30 P.M., PDT |
| |
| |
| Increased seismicity overnight prompted raising the alert level to |
| Volcano Advisory (Alert Level 2) at 10:40 A.M., PDT, this morning. |
| Throughout the day the seismic energy level has remained at an |
| elevated with a rate of 3-4 events per minute including an increase in |
| the number of events between Magnitude 2 and 3. All earthquake |
| locations are still shallow and in or below the lava dome. In |
| addition, initial data from the GPS instrument on the lava dome that |
| was repaired Monday morning suggest that the site moved a few inches |
| northward Monday and Tuesday, but has since been stable. Such movement |
| is not surprising in light of the high seismicity levels. A USGS field |
| crew continued their deployment of GPS equipment today in order to |
| monitor any ground movement on the lava dome, crater floor, or lower |
| slopes of the volcano. Another gas flight this morning produced a |
| result of no significant volcanic gas detected, as was the case on |
| Monday. Two press conferences were held at CVO to update the media. |
| Tomorrow's field work includes continued GPS deployments. |
| |
| |
| The current hazard outlook is unchanged from that outlined in this |
| morning's Volcano Advisory. Updated wind forecasts from the National |
| Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration coupled with an eruption |
| model indicate that the wind direction will shift from northwesterly |
| to northeasterly tonight. Therefore any ash clouds produced tonight |
| will drift southwestward. |
| |
| |
| Confusion at this morning's press briefing at CVO regarding Alert |
| Levels resulted in numerous calls to emergency management agencies |
| from the public about which is the correct level. We are at Alert |
| Level Two?Volcano Advisory. Explanation of the alert-level scheme can |
| be found on the "News and Current Events" web site below. |
| |
| |
| For past updates and notices see past updates at: |
| http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/Volcanoes/Cascades/CurrentActivity/framework |
| .html |
| |
| |
| A few photographs of recent fieldwork and of the volcano can be |
| obtained from: |
| http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/News/framework.html |
| |
| |
| Daily updates of earthquake data and other information can be found on |
| the WORLD WIDE WEB at URL: |
| |
| |
| http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/Volcanoes/MSH/CurrentActivity |
| (CVO Menu - Monthly Summaries and Updates) |
| |
| |
| and |
| |
| |
| http://www.pnsn.org/HELENS/welcome.html |
| (University of Washington - Earthquake Update) |
| |
| |
| Our "News and Current Events" webpage now contains "Quick Links" to |
| the current update, current photos, and the University of Washington |
| Mount St. Helens seismic page, plus other useful "Background" webpages |
| on Mount St. Helens, including an explanation of the Cascade Range |
| alert-level scheme. |
| http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/News/ |
|


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 76 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Oct  2, 2004 (22:23) * 1 lines 
 
as Terry pointed out, MSH is currently erupting and the volcanologists who know this volcano are predicting a major eruption within the next 24 hours.


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 77 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Oct  2, 2004 (22:25) * 43 lines 
 
Mount St. Helens Update |
| October 1, 2004 8:00 A.M., PDT
|
| |
| |
| The alert remains at a Volcano Advisory. The seismic energy level |
| remains elevated with a rate of 3-4 events per minute and earthquakes |
| as large as magnitude 3.3. All earthquake locations are still shallow |
| and in or below the lava dome. Data from a single GPS instrument on |
| the east side of the lava dome suggest that total movement is ont the |
| order of 7 cm less than 3 inches) since Monday. Such movement is not |
| surprising in light of the high seismicity levels. A USGS field crew |
| collected additional data from GPS equipment deployed to monitor any |
| ground movement on the lava dome, crater floor, or lower slopes of the |
| volcano. A gas flight Thursday again failed to detect any significant |
| volcanic gas, as was the case on Monday and Wednesday. Today, field |
| crews will use a thermal- imaging device (FLIR) to look for any |
| thermal anomalies on the dome, and will install additional |
| seismometers on the flanks of the volcano to enhance our ability to |
| detect earthquakes. We are examining images of cracks on the crater |
| glacier to determine how they are related to the current activity. A |
| press conference will be held Friday at CVO at 9:30 am to update the |
| media. |
| |
| |
| The current hazard outlook is unchanged from that outlined in |
| Wednesday's Volcano Advisory. |
| |
| |
| Confusion regarding Alert Levels resulted in numerous calls to |
| emergency management agencies from the public about which is the |
| correct level. We are at Alert Level Two?Volcano Advisory. Explanation |
| of the alert- level scheme can be found on the "News and Current |
| Events" webpage below. |
| |
| |
| Our "News and Current Events" webpage now contains "Quick Links" to |
| the current update, current photos, and the University of Washington |
| Mount St. Helens seismicity information, plus other useful |
| "Background" webpages on Mount St. Helens, including an explanation of |
| the Cascade Range alert-level scheme. |
| |
|



 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 78 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Oct  2, 2004 (22:26) * 8 lines 
 
The first explosion plume appeard in the web cam at 12:04:01 Pacific Time.
Here is a subsequent shot.
The web cam can be seen here:


http://www.fs.fed.us/gpnf/volcanocams/msh/




 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 79 of 192: Lucie  (alyeska) * Sun, Oct  3, 2004 (22:22) * 3 lines 
 
I'm glad to see you posting. I have checked from my sister in laws pc but found nothing.

We rode out the hurricanes at her house until the power was restored hered.


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 80 of 192: Lucie  (alyeska) * Sun, Oct  3, 2004 (22:24) * 1 lines 
 
They made everyone leave the observatory.


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 81 of 192: Paul Terry Walhus (terry) * Mon, Oct  4, 2004 (12:51) * 1 lines 
 
It's venting right now, Mt. St. Helens. Nothing spectacular yet, just a smoke plume. I'm watching it live on msnbc.


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 82 of 192: Paul Terry Walhus (terry) * Mon, Oct  4, 2004 (12:57) * 10 lines 
 
MOUNT ST. HELENS NATIONAL MONUMENT, Wash. (AP)--Mount St. Helens belched more steam Monday following several days of tremors and low-level earthquakes that have raised fears that the mountain might blow at any moment.

It was not immediately clear how large Monday's emission was, or whether it contained ash, but U.S. Geological Survey geologist Willie Scott said any ash would fall mostly in the crater and not threaten any structures.

The steam burst blanketed the top of the mountain in a white cloud and followed a similar blast and 20-minute tremor late Sunday.

A drumbeat of earthquakes since a plume of steam was released on Friday indicated that pressure was mounting within the mountain. Geological Survey crews also observed a shift in the crater floor and on part of the 1,000-foot lava dome that essentially serves as a plug for magma, he said.


from the AP release


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 83 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Oct  4, 2004 (15:48) * 72 lines 
 
Daily update:

U.S. Geological Survey, Vancouver, Washington |
| University of Washington, Pacific Northwest Seismograph Network, |
| Seattle, Washington |
| |
| |
| Mount St. Helens Update 4 October 2004 7:00 A.M. |
| |
| |
| Current status is Volcano Alert (Alert Level 3); aviation color code |
| RED |
| |
| |
| Overnight seismic activity increased until a steam (and possibly ash) |
| event occurred about 10:40 P.M. Observers at Coldwater Ridge could see |
| the steam plume, which barely made it to the crater rim, in the |
| moonlight. Since then, the seismicity has been significantly lower as |
| after prior steam-and-ash events. Earthquakes are occurring at a rate |
| of about 1 per minute and the largest since the steam event have been |
| in the magnitude 2s. All locations remain shallow. |
| |
| |
| Results from GPS measurements indicate no significant deformation of |
| the outer flanks of the volcano. However, visual observations and |
| photographic analysis show large-scale uplift (10's of meters) of part |
| of the glacier and a nearby segment of the lava dome. Yesterday a |
| field crew installed a new GPS instrument on the dome and also |
| measured the distance from the Johnston Ridge Observatory to the dome. |
| |
| |
| Yesterday's gas flight did not detect significant concentrations of |
| carbon dioxide. |
| |
| |
| Two telemetered microphones are now in operation to detect explosions. |
| |
| |
| Today we will receive a remotely operated video camera that will be |
| installed on the crater rim from the USGS Hawaiian Volcano |
| Observatory. Today field crews will work at installing additional |
| seismometers on the flanks of the volcano and will continue to harden |
| the GPS sites and download data. Time permitting, additional flights |
| to acquire thermal imagery and gas measurements will occur. |
| |
| |
| Wind forecasts from the NOAA, combined with eruption models show winds |
| today will be from the east and southeast and any ash clouds would |
| drift to the west and northwest. |
| |
| |
| We continue to be concerned that additional steam-and-ash eruptions |
| could occur at any time. The principal hazard from these types of |
| events is for ash reaching altitudes that could affect aviation. If |
| the current unrest continues there is also an increased probability of |
| larger magnitude and more ash-rich eruptions. |
| |
| |
| We continue to monitor the situation closely and will issue additional |
| updates and Alert Level changes as warranted. |
| |
| |
| Press conferences will continue to be held at the Headquarters office |
| of the Gifford Pinchot National Forest. Press conferences are held at |
| 9:30 A.M. and 2:30 P.M. |
| |
|--------------------------------------------------------------------------|







 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 84 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Oct  4, 2004 (20:55) * 66 lines 
 
Mount St. Helens lets off steam

Scientists concerned about 'what's following behind it'
Monday, October 4, 2004 Posted: 7:43 PM EDT (2343 GMT)


October 3: Large cracks appear in the glacier around the lava dome.
Image:




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VIDEO
Observatory near Mount St. Helens is evacuated.

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What's in the clouds coming out of Mount St. Helens?

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Gallery: Mount St. Helens' 1980 eruption


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VANCOUVER, Washington (CNN) -- Mount St. Helens released huge, billowing clouds Monday in what geologists called a small eruption of steam and ash that indicated rising temperatures within the volcano.

"It was a burst of steam and ash that came out fairly continuously for about 40 minutes" starting about 9:42 a.m. (12:42 p.m. ET), said Tom Pierson of the U.S. Geological Survey.

The plumes, larger and darker than those of Friday's steam eruption, rose to about 10,000 feet above sea level, about 1,600 feet above the peak, according to geologists and pilots in the area.



more... http://www.cnn.com/2004/TECH/science/10/04/mt.st.helens/index.html


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 85 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Oct  4, 2004 (21:12) * 1 lines 
 
Terry are you watching MSH live on MSNBC on your TV or on the internet? I think there are links here to watch live.


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 86 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Oct  5, 2004 (17:57) * 45 lines 
 
************************
Mount St. Helens update
************************
From: Curtis R Manley

New steam release & images of Mount St. Helens activity

New Steam Release

Another steam release began at 9:40 am PDT today, October 4, 2003,
generating a steam and ash/dust plume that rose above the summit (to about
10,000 to 11,000 feet altitude) and was carried slowly to the NE by very
gentle winds. Steam releases continued at a lower rate after the initial
release, but after 15-20 muntes the activity ceased. More dust/ash was
released than on October 1, and an ashfall advisory is in effect until 1 pm
PDT for the southern Washington Cascades. Seismicity continued without
interruption through the steam release.

A gentle small steam release also occurred at 10:40 pm PDT October 3, but
it was smaller than the October 1 event. As on Friday, the seismicity
decreased and then resumed afterward.

Visual and GPS observations on October 3 indicates that at least part of
the dome and the glacier adjacent to the dome have been uplifted between 50
and 100 feet.

Current Update at:
http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/Volcanoes/Cascades/CurrentActivity/current_updates.html



Online Images

Photographs of the current activity at Mount St. Helens are being posted
online at irregular intervals. These were taken by USGS personnel on the
ground and during helicopter and airplane reconnaissance and sampling
flights. The images clearly show uplift of the dome glacier before the
October 1 steam release. More current images were temporarily available and
may be re-posted.

The images are high quality (1 to 3 megabytes) and so will take
considerable time to download over low-bandwidth connections.

Note that this is an FTP site:
ftp://ftpext.usgs.gov/pub/wr/wa/vancouver/MSH_Images/


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 87 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Oct  5, 2004 (18:00) * 1 lines 
 
I definitely need a new email stripper. I had a great one and it disappeared with the hard drive break. Please bear with me...


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 88 of 192: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Wed, Oct  6, 2004 (09:02) * 1 lines 
 
No problem Marcia, it's great to have you posting again.


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 89 of 192: Curious Wolfie  (wolf) * Wed, Oct  6, 2004 (15:38) * 3 lines 
 
ditto!!!

saw in the local paper that she blew again and threw out rocks and stuff (didn't read the entire article though)...


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 90 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Oct  6, 2004 (21:21) * 38 lines 
 
more fun : (I found my great email stripper program and leave the citation in the body for anyone else to download. It is freeware)

*************************** Erta Ale volcano fieldtrip
*************************** From: Gaudru

ERTA ALE 2005 SVE Volcano FIELDTRIP

Dates : we propose a special expedition from 15th to 27th of January 2005

Here is new opportunity to visit the Danakil depression (Djibouti) and the Erta Ale active lava lake in Ethiopia.

The goal of this expedition is to enable a small group of people to travel several days in the Northern Afar ( rift, Asal lake, Ardoukoba...) and spend two days near the Erta Ale active lava lake for measurements, photography, eruption observation... and of course enjoyment of nature in a unique, unspoiled setting. The best-suited participants would be those with a professional interest in geology/Volcanoloy or avid "volcano chasers"/photographers who are in excellent physical condition, enjoy "adventure travel, because this fieldtrip involves significant exertion and discomfort. The roads in the Danakil depression and North Ethiopia are extremely dusty and the weather at the summit of the Erta Ale is very uncomfortable (winds, sunny and very hot temperature). The ascent of Erta Ale volcano is long but not very steep. On Erta Ale the camp will be established near the active crater (lava lake).

Organization of the fieldtrip : SVE (scientific aspects) in connection with Explor'Action Swiss agency (Geneva) for logistical supports

Accompanied by : Henry Gaudru (European Volcanological Society) and local guide.

For further "volcanic informations" please contact by Email: henry.gaudru@laposte.net

For any further details about tour , conditions, price, inscription.... please contact directly by fax or phone :

Explor'Action
11 rue du Mont Blanc
1201 Geneva - Switzerland tel : 00.41.22.731.70.26 Fax : 00.41.22.731.45.74


******************************** NZAPLUME III expedition updates
******************************** From: Jeff Lyall

THE NZAPLUME III EXPEDITION: Online Nautical Journal

Reports from a freelance journalist who is presently on a GNS-led voyage in the Kermadec Arc are helping to put a human face on our offshore research.

Mike Bodnar has joined 25 scientists on Tangaroa for the next two weeks as they investigate submarine volcanoes northeast of Bay of Plenty. Mike's colourful and informative daily reports can be seen here:

http://data.gns.cri.nz/hazardwatch/kermadec.html

This email was cleaned by emailStripper, available for free from http://www.printcharger.com/emailStripper.htm


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 91 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Oct  6, 2004 (21:24) * 29 lines 
 
October 4, 2004:

************************ Mount St. Helens update
************************ From: Curtis R Manley

New steam release & images of Mount St. Helens activity

New Steam Release

Another steam release began at 9:40 am PDT today, October 4, 2003, generating a steam and ash/dust plume that rose above the summit (to about
10,000 to 11,000 feet altitude) and was carried slowly to the NE by very gentle winds. Steam releases continued at a lower rate after the initial release, but after 15-20 muntes the activity ceased. More dust/ash was released than on October 1, and an ashfall advisory is in effect until 1 pm PDT for the southern Washington Cascades. Seismicity continued without interruption through the steam release.

A gentle small steam release also occurred at 10:40 pm PDT October 3, but it was smaller than the October 1 event. As on Friday, the seismicity decreased and then resumed afterward.

Visual and GPS observations on October 3 indicates that at least part of the dome and the glacier adjacent to the dome have been uplifted between 50 and 100 feet.

Current Update at: http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/Volcanoes/Cascades/CurrentActivity/current_updates.html



Online Images

Photographs of the current activity at Mount St. Helens are being posted online at irregular intervals. These were taken by USGS personnel on the ground and during helicopter and airplane reconnaissance and sampling flights. The images clearly show uplift of the dome glacier before the October 1 steam release. More current images were temporarily available and may be re-posted.

The images are high quality (1 to 3 megabytes) and so will take considerable time to download over low-bandwidth connections.

Note that this is an FTP site: ftp://ftpext.usgs.gov/pub/wr/wa/vancouver/MSH_Images/

This email was cleaned by emailStripper, available for free from http://www.printcharger.com/emailStripper.htm


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 92 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Oct  6, 2004 (21:26) * 1 lines 
 
Julie, our Cascade volcanoes enthusiast hopes this MSH eruption stays low level until spring break when she can hike in to see it. I do, too. It would be nice to have a reporter for Geo in the field again!


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 93 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Oct  6, 2004 (21:35) * 6 lines 
 
U.S. Geological Survey, Vancouver, Washington | | University of Washington, Pacific Northwest Seismograph Network, | | Seattle, Washington | | | | | | Mount St. Helens Alert Level Change | | | | | | Past Alert Level: Volcano Alert (Alert Level 3) | | New Alert Level: Volcano Advisory (Alert Level 2) | | | | | | October 6, 2004 9:15 A.M., PDT | |
| | | | Following yesterday morning's steam-and-ash eruption, seismicity | | dropped to a low level and has remained low. Low-level tremor observed | | following the eruption is also gradually declining. Lack of earthquake | | and rockfall signals suggest that deformation of the uplift area on | | the south side of the 1980-86 lava dome has slowed. Brief visual | | observations this morning from Coldwater Visitor Center showed weak | | steam emissions from the crater. We infer that the vigorous unrest of | | the past few days has lessened and that the probability of an imminent | | eruption that would endanger life and property is significantly less | | than at any time since Saturday, October 2, when the alert level was | | raised to Volcano Alert (Level 3). Therefore, we are lowering the | | alert level to Volcano Advisory (Alert Leve
2). | | | | | | Such decreases in the level of unrest, which may reflect a decrease in | | the rate of magma movement, have been common at Mount St. Helens | | during eruptions in 1980-86 and also at similar volcanoes elsewhere. | | Episodic changes in level of unrest over periods of days to weeks, or | | even months, are possible. We don't think that the current episode of | | unrest is over and we expect fluctuations in the level of unrest to | | continue during coming days and months. Everyone should be aware that | | escalation in unrest and perhaps an eruption could occur suddenly or | | with very little warning. There may be little time to raise the Alert | | Level before a hazardous event occurs. Therefore, we continue to | | monitor the situation closely and will issue additional updates a
d | | changes in Alert Level as warranted. | | |

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 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 94 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Oct  6, 2004 (21:36) * 7 lines 
 
U.S. Geological Survey, Vancouver, Washington | | University of Washington, Pacific Northwest Seismograph Network, | | Seattle, Washington | | | | | | Mount St. Helens Update, October 6, 2004, 7:00 a.m, PDT | | | | | | Current status is Volcano Alert (Alert Level 3); aviation color code | | RED | | | | | | Seismicity overnight has remained at very low levels. After the | | vigourous stea
-and-ash emission of yesterday morning, seismicity | | dropped with individual events becoming smaller. By about 5 p.m. PDT | | yesterday, individual events became rare and as of 11:00 p.m., | | seismicity has been stable at a low level. | | | | | | Yesterday, field crews continued to harden GPS sites for the | | approaching winter and retrieved data. The GPS sites on the dome | | survived the steam-and-ash emission and data are being received and | | processed at the observatory. The station on the northern flank of the | | dome, shows a trend of northward displacement totaling 2 cm in the | | last three days. This is the same sense of movement recorded by the | | nearby station that was destroyed by the first steam-and-ash emission | | on 1 October. Data from the other tw
stations on the dome, which were | | installed on 4 October are currently being analyzed. Data from GPS | | instruments on the outer flanks of the volcano show no movement of the | | outer flanks. | | | | | | No gas measurements were made yesterday. A seismic crew installed an | | additional broadband seismometer on the northwest flank of the volcano | | which will help show a broader range of seismic energy release. With | | the help of the U.S. Forest Service, field crews installed an antenna | | mast for a VSAT uplink which will improve our ability to retrieve data | | from the field. | | | |
| | It began raining t the mountain at about 7:30 p.m. PDT. By about 9:30 | | p.m. about 0.1 inch of rain had fallen. Overnight, the acoustic flow | | monitoror (AFM) in the crater indicated that several small debris | | flows had moved past the site. By midnight, higher flows were recorded | | at a station on the pumice plain, but none were large enough to | | trigger an automatic alert. We expect these types of flowage events to | | recur during intense rainstorms. | | | | | | Wind forecasts from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric | | Administration (NOAA), combined with eruption models, show winds this | | morning are from the west-southwest such that any ash clouds will | | drift to the east-northeast. | |
| | | | We continue to monitor the situation closely and will issue additional | | updates and Alert Level changes as warranted. | | | | | | Press conferences will continue to be held at the Headquarters office | | of the Gifford Pinchot National Forest. The morning press conference | | is at 9:30 AM. If activity remains low, we will do a show-and-tell of | | some of the instruments were are using to monitor the volcano at the | | press conference. | |

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 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 95 of 192: Curious Wolfie  (wolf) * Thu, Oct  7, 2004 (13:25) * 3 lines 
 
how is julie doing anyway, is she still checking in with spring?

(missed seeing you, marcia *HUGS*)


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 96 of 192: Paul Terry Walhus (terry) * Thu, Oct  7, 2004 (16:05) * 1 lines 
 
Haven't heard from that Cascade Climber for a while. Hope she checks in again soon.


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 97 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Oct  8, 2004 (12:38) * 1 lines 
 
Julie is fine and busy with college stuff. I'll ask her to check in when she gets a moment. My family geologist and family are heading off to MSH to encourage the magma to erupt. I'll report any information they send from the field. They have both cellular text messaging and email to work with. And.... a VERY good digital camera. It's time to commence the eruption dances!


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 98 of 192: Paul Terry Walhus (terry) * Fri, Oct  8, 2004 (22:26) * 1 lines 
 
Good luck on that journey, Marci. Looking forward to those pix.


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 99 of 192: Curious Wolfie  (wolf) * Sat, Oct  9, 2004 (11:15) * 1 lines 
 
are you going to MSH too, marcia? hope your family is safe over there!


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 100 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Oct 10, 2004 (21:37) * 8 lines 
 
No such luck, Wolfie. I am stuck in a slightly quaking New Madrid area. However the minor quakes of recent time here plus the world wide strong quakes:

A magnitude 7.1 earthquake NEAR THE COAST OF NICARAGUA has occurred at:
11.41N 86.55W Depth 61km Sat Oct 9 21:26:56 2004 UTC


Plus the eruption of Mount St Helens makes me wonder if the harvest moon (the closest to earth the moon gets in the yearly trek around its orbit) hs a great deal to do with what is happening. I am helping edit a large complex journal both last year's issue and this year's to come out next month so I am more than busy. I am also still working on the Kentucky lava paper.

However, whatever photos are sent on to me I will be more than happy to share here.


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 101 of 192: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Tue, Oct 12, 2004 (08:35) * 1 lines 
 
Looking forward to the photos, Marcia.


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 102 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Oct 13, 2004 (14:45) * 27 lines 
 
at this point I am looking forward to hearing from them in the field. From Julie I got the webcam site since it is steaming again. Then the following report:

Oct 13, 12:31 PM EDT

Lava Breaks Surface at Mount St. Helens

By PEGGY ANDERSEN
Associated Press Writer




SEATTLE (AP) -- After weeks of earthquakes and steam eruptions, Mount St. Helens has a new lava dome that could even eclipse the volcano's old one.

The quakes subsided as the new lava emerged Monday and cooled in the open air, suggesting molten rock from deep inside the Earth had found the path of least resistance by going around the old dome, said Jon Major, a hydrologist with the U.S. Geological Survey.

Unlike the dramatic rivers of red-hot lava from Hawaii's volcano, St. Helens' extrusion of new rock was subtle and difficult to see from outside the crater. A lazy plume of steam rose slowly from the mountain for much of Tuesday.

Infrared instruments recorded a surface temperature of nearly 1,100 degrees Fahrenheit, confirming that the second dome consisted of cooling lava rather than old rock which had been pushed upward, said USGS volcanologist Willie Scott.



"The fact that we see stuff at the surface that hot means it's new rock," Scott said.

The last dome-building activity at St. Helens began in the months after its deadly May 1980 eruption and lasted six years. Layers of emerging rock gradually formed a rocky dome nearly 1,000 feet tall at the center of the crater floor. The top of the new dome is almost level with the old one just to the north.

more... http://hosted.ap.org/dynamic/stories/M/MOUNT_ST_HELENS?SITE=KGW&SECTION=HOME&TEMPLATE=US-WORLD.html


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 103 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Oct 13, 2004 (14:47) * 3 lines 
 
Mount St Helens webcam:

http://www.fs.fed.us/gpnf/volcanocams/msh/


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 104 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Oct 13, 2004 (15:54) * 7 lines 
 
/Mount St Helen's update October 13, 2004

Current status is Volcano Advisory (Alert Level 2); aviation color | | code ORANGE | | | | | | Seismic activity remained at a low, but slightly increasing level | | overnight. Yesterday's visual observations and thermal imaging of the | | 1980-86 lava dome, the intensely deforming and uplifting area on the | | south side of the dome, and the new lava extrusion first seen on | | October 11 were hampered by steam clouds. Conditions appeared similar | | to those of October 11, with high temperatures (up to 600 degrees C) | | around the fin-shaped lava extrusion in the western part of the | | uplift. The area of high temperature appears to have increased in | | size. Abundant steam continued to rise from the fin area to the crater | | rim, from which it wa
dispersed southeastward by strong winds. | | | | | | Today, field crews will take new thermal images of the crater floor | | and dome, make gas-sensing measurements, perform routine maintenance | | of GPS sites, and take hydrological measurements. | | | | | | Wind forecasts from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric | | Administration (NOAA), combined with eruption models, show generally | | northerly winds. Any ash clouds will drift southward to southeastward. | | | | | | As a result of the intense unrest of the pa
t two and one-half weeks | | and recent observations, we infer that magma is at a very shallow | | level and is extruding onto the surface. Incandescence from hot rock | | or gases reflects off steam clouds and is visible from north of the | | volcano. | | | |--------------------------------------------------------------------------|

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 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 105 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Oct 14, 2004 (00:40) * 34 lines 
 
This was from October 11, 2004 and the photos sent with the information show beautiful dusting of snow and a white plume of steam. That plume was visible this afternoon on the webcam.

Viewing conditions were very clear most of October 10, and fresh snow |
| had fallen to the level of the crater floor north of the dome. A USGS |
| field crew noticed a thin ash deposit on the snow in the crater and |
| just beyond the crater rim, trending southeast from the active area. |
| |
| |
| A steam plume rose to crater rim level or slightly above all day on |
| October 10, heading to the southeast. USGS field workers described the |
| plume as "lazy"?no gas thrust or notably vigorous convection was |
| observed. The plume was clean, with no noticeable ash or blue/orange |
| haze. The odor of H2S was noted at the crater breach, but not |
| elsewhere. |
| |
| |
| Helicopter field crews were at work on Sunday October 10. A |
| telemetered webcam was placed at Sugarbowl and GPS data were |
| downloaded. |
| |
| |
| The thermal imaging crew made an excellent video of the uplifted area |
| of the south crater floor. The western portion of the the uplift was |
| steaming over a large diffuse area. Maximum measured surface |
| temperatures were 200-300 deg. C. The thermal imaging crew judged the |
| uplifted area to have grown since it was last seen on the 7th. |
| |
| |
| No gas observations were made on October 10. |
| |
| |
| Rockfall deposits were not seen on or around the uplifted area, |
| perhaps indicating a lull in its growth or deformation. |



 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 106 of 192: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Thu, Oct 14, 2004 (15:25) * 1 lines 
 
Thanks to "them in the field".


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 107 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Oct 27, 2004 (13:11) * 1 lines 
 
They want to return and likely will. Family matters interfere with plans otherwise. I am still hoping they see more than steam or degassing, but please not so close as to be in danger. I know my son...!


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 108 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Oct 27, 2004 (13:19) * 21 lines 
 
Here is today's Mount Saint Helens condensed update:


In the past 24 hours, seismicity has decreased somewhat and remains at a low level compared to that observed early in this unrest. The current seismicity is consistent with a continuing, slow rise of magma driving uplift of the crater floor and feeding a surface extrusion of lava. Last night, glow from this new lava was intermittently visible on the U.S. Forest Service web camera. The overall low rates of seismicity and gas emission suggest that the lava reaching the surface is gas poor.


Yesterday was a busy day in the field. Geological and thermal-imaging observations confirmed that both the area of uplift and the new lava extrusion have increased in size noticeably since last seen on October 14. The area of uplift and intense deformation continues to move southward and is nearing the crater wall. About 1 foot of new snow with a light dusting of ash covers much of the uplift, except for the new lava extrusion, which is steaming heavily. The new lava extrusion, which occupies the western part of the uplift, is now about 900 ft long by 250 ft wide and 230 ft high and has a volume of almost 2 million cubic yards. Its maximum temperature is about 600 degrees C (1100 degrees F). Rock samples from the new lava extrusion were collected from a helicopter by using a bucket slung on a 100-ft line. The samples look like typical Mount St. Helens lava, called dacite. Further detailed analyses of the samples will help to answer questions about the character of the magma driving the eruption and how it r
lates to lava erupted in the 1980s.


A gas-sensing flight detected low levels of the volcanic gases carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and hydrogen sulfide, which is consistent magma continuing to rise from depth.


Test flights of the Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), which will hopefully be used for monitoring the crater area in the future, were conducted yesterday close to the Johnston Ridge Observatory. More tests are scheduled for today if weather conditions permit.


Field crews will attempt to obtain additional geological and thermal-imaging observations today. Other work will continue on maintenance of instrumentation and improving our telemetry systems.

Wind forecasts from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), coupled with eruption models, show that ash clouds that rise above the crater rim today would drift southeastward from the volcano.

This email was cleaned by emailStripper, available for free from http://www.printcharger.com/emailStripper.htm


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 109 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Oct 27, 2004 (13:20) * 1 lines 
 
Sorry about that, the above report was October 21 and a little older than today's. I'll try to post a newer one.


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 110 of 192: Curious Wolfie  (wolf) * Wed, Oct 27, 2004 (17:21) * 1 lines 
 
marica, i'm sooooo glad to see you here (have made the change to cable dsl and now our chats can be soo much faster).....


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 111 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Nov 10, 2004 (13:07) * 67 lines 
 
Wolfie, I am trying to download the MSN IM again on this computer but so far I have hit only snags. I'll try again right after this report. Cheers on your DSL. I am all envy !
**************************
Mount St. Helens updates
**************************

08 Nov 04 MSH Update From: William E Scott

U.S. Geological Survey, Vancouver, Washington University of Washington, Pacific Northwest Seismograph Network, Seattle, Washington November 8, 2004 10:30 am PST (1830 UT)

MOUNT ST. HELENS VOLCANO Current status is Volcano Advisory (Alert Level 2); aviation color code ORANGE

Growth of the new lava dome inside the crater of Mount St. Helens continues, and is accompanied by intermittent emissions of steam and ash. As long as this eruption is in progress, episodic changes in the level of activity can occur over days, weeks, or even months. Increase in the intensity of eruption could occur suddenly or with very little warning and may include explosive events that produce hazardous conditions within several miles of the volcano. Small lahars (volcanic debris flows) could suddenly descend the Toutle River valley if triggered by heavy rain or by interaction of hot rocks with snow or glacier ice. These lahars pose a negligible hazard below the Sediment Retention Structure (SRS) but could pose a hazard to people along the river channel upstream of the SRS. At this time of year, it is not unusual for rivers draining the volcano to contain high concentrations of sediment that turn the water murky. Although considered less likely at this time, the current eruptive activity could evolve int
a more explosive phase that affects areas farther from the volcano and sends significant ash thousands of feet above the crater where it could be a hazard to aircraft and to downwind communities.

Wind forecasts from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), coupled with eruption models, show that ash clouds that rise above the crater rim today would drift northward to northeastward depending on their altitude.

Visibility is excellent and likely will remain so throughout the day. A steam plume is rising passively and drifting northward out of the crater. The plume occasionally contains minor ash, which falls out in the crater and on the flank of the volcano, darkening the snow.

Seismicity remains at a low level compared to that observed early in this unrest. The current seismicity is consistent with a continuing, slow rise of magma driving uplift of the crater floor and feeding a surface extrusion of lava. The overall low rates of seismicity and gas emission suggest that the lava reaching the surface is gas poor, thereby reducing the probability of highly explosive eruptions in the near term.

Aerial observations yesterday showed that the new dome continues to expand and move upward. Small aprons of rockfall debris are accumulating at several sites around the new dome. Some ash emissions may be caused by these rockfalls as collapsing hot dome lava disintegrates into smaller fragments. No field investigations are planned for today.

The U.S. Geological Survey and the University of Washington continue to monitor the situation closely and will issue additional updates and changes in alert level as warranted. For additional information, background, images, and other graphics: http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/News/framework.html For seismic information: http://www.pnsn.org/HELENS/welcome.html For a definition of alert levels: http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/News/framework.html

Telephone recordings with the latest update on Mount St. Helens and phone contacts for additional information can be heard by calling: Media (360) 891-5180 General public (360) 891-5202


******************* see also: http://story.news.yahoo.com/news?tmpl=story&cid=519&e=15&u=/ap/mount_st__helens

"Mount St. Helens Lava Formation Grows" excerpt: "A lava formation inside Mount St. Helens' crater has a new, glowing protrusion the size of a 30-story building. The protrusion, which glows red at night, has risen by 330 feet in the past nine days, pushed up by magma, or molten rock, within the volcano, scientists said Friday."

*******************

05 Nov 04 MSH Update From: David R Sherrod

U.S. Geological Survey, Vancouver, Washington University of Washington, Pacific Northwest Seismograph Network, Seattle, Washington November 5, 2004 10:00 am PST (1800 UT)

MOUNT ST. HELENS VOLCANO Current status is Volcano Advisory (Alert Level 2); aviation color code ORANGE

Growth of the new lava dome inside the crater of Mount St. Helens continues. As long as this eruption is in progress, episodic changes in the level of activity can occur over days, weeks, or even months. Increase in the intensity of eruption could occur suddenly or with very little warning and may include explosive events that produce hazardous conditions within several miles of the volcano. Small lahars (volcanic debris flows) could suddenly descend the Toutle River valley if triggered by heavy rain or by interaction of hot rocks with snow or glacier ice. These lahars pose a negligible hazard below the Sediment Retention Structure (SRS) but could pose a hazard to people along the river channel upstream of the SRS. At this time of year, it is not unusual for rivers draining the volcano to contain high concentrations of sediment that turn the water murky.

Although considered less likely at this time, the current eruptive activity could evolve into a more explosive phase that affects areas farther from the volcano and sends significant ash thousands of feet above the crater where it could be a hazard to aircraft and to downwind communities.

Wind forecasts from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), coupled with eruption models, show that ash clouds that rise above the crater rim today would drift westward to southwestward.

Visibility is excellent and likely will remain so throughout the day. A steam plume is rising passively and drifting south and southwestward over the crater rim. The plume occasionally contains minor ash, which falls out in the crater and on the southern flank of the volcano, darkening the new snow.

Seismicity remains at a low level compared to that observed early in this unrest. The current seismicity is consistent with a continuing, slow rise of magma driving uplift of the crater floor and feeding a surface extrusion of lava. The overall low rates of seismicity and gas emission suggest that the lava reaching the surface is gas poor, thereby reducing the probability of highly explosive eruptions in the near term.

Crews were in the field yesterday, the first opportunity following a spate of inclement weather. Their findings:

Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission rates continue to be low and consistent with previous measurements. No hydrogen sulfide (H2S) was detected. Ash in the steam plume prevented an accurate measurement of carbon dioxide (CO2).

The elongated new dome, which extends southward from the 1980-1986 dome, has undergone substantial vertical growth since October 27. A new mass of dacite has extruded upward by as much as 100 m. Exposed rock faces have temperatures in the range 400-500 degrees Celsius, creating the incandescence that may be seen from the north on clear nights. Field crews conducted geologic observation flights in the crater. To collect samples they landed a helicopter on the new dome for the second time in two weeks. The new dacite lava contains visible crystals of plagioclase, hornblende and hypersthene. These samples are similar to those collected on October
27 and also to lava erupted at Mount St. Helens in the 1980s.

The steep new faces on the dome are generating small hot rockfalls and avalanches within the crater. The finer particulate from these deposits roils upward within the steam plume, rising to about 11,000 ft altitude, or about 2,600 ft above the crater rim. Consequently the south and southwest flank of the volcano have received a notable dusting of ash. This localized ash poses no threat beyond the near slopes of the volcano.

Most dome growth has been vertical, with only about 30 m of outward growth in some directions. The thick glacial ice that forms a buttress on the south and east sides of the dome remains largely intact. All dome growth is contained within the Mount St. Helens crater.

A continuous GPS station north of the volcano at Johnston Ridge Observatory has moved to the south by about 2 cm since late September or early October. This slow shift may reflect a depletion of magma in the subsurface at 5-10 km depth. To confirm this result, five new GPS receivers were positioned around the volcano's flanks 5-10 km from the crater to better track changes in the deeper parts of the magmatic system. Two additional units will be deployed today.

The U.S. Geological Survey and the University of Washington continue to monitor the situation closely and will issue additional updates and changes in alert level as warranted. For additional information, background, images, and other graphics: http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/News/framework.html For seismic information: http://www.pnsn.org/HELENS/welcome.html For a definition of alert levels: http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/News/framework.html

This email was cleaned by emailStripper, available for free from http://www.printcharger.com/emailStripper.htm




 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 112 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Nov 10, 2004 (13:25) * 60 lines 
 
MSH Current status is Volcano Advisory (Alert Level 2); aviation color code
ORANGE


Growth of the new lava dome inside the crater of Mount St. Helens
continues, and is accompanied by intermittent emissions of steam and ash.
As long as this eruption is in progress, episodic changes in the level of
activity can occur over days, weeks, or even months. Increase in the
intensity of eruption could occur suddenly or with very little warning and
may include explosive events that produce hazardous conditions within
several miles of the volcano. Small lahars (volcanic debris flows) could
suddenly descend the Toutle River valley if triggered by heavy rain or by
interaction of hot rocks with snow or glacier ice. These lahars pose a
negligible hazard below the Sediment Retention Structure (SRS) but could
pose a hazard to people along the river channel upstream of the SRS. At
this time of year, it is not unusual for rivers draining the volcano to
contain high concentrations of sediment that turn the water murky.

Although considered less likely at this time, the current eruptive activity
could evolve into a more explosive phase that affects areas farther from
the volcano and sends significant ash thousands of feet above the crater
where it could be a hazard to aircraft and to downwind communities.

Wind forecasts from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
(NOAA), coupled with eruption models, show that ash clouds that rise above
the crater rim today would drift northward to northeastward depending on
their altitude.

This morning's images on the VolcanoCam show that a steam plume is rising
passively and drifting northward out of the crater. The plume occasionally
contains minor ash, which falls out in the crater and on the flank of the
volcano, darkening the snow.

Seismicity remains at a low level compared to that observed early in this
unrest. The current seismicity is consistent with a continuing, slow rise
of magma driving uplift of the crater floor and feeding a surface extrusion
of lava. The overall low rates of seismicity and gas emission suggest that
the lava reaching the surface is gas poor, thereby reducing the probability
of highly explosive eruptions in the near term.

The latest estimate of the volume of the uplifted area and new lava dome
from detailed analysis of aerial photographs taken on 4 November is about
20 million cubic meters (26 million cubic yards). This compares with
volumes of about 5 million cubic meters on 4 October and 12 million cubic
meters on 13 October. The apparent decrease in rate of volume change (7
million cubic meters in the earlier 9-day period versus 8 million cubic
meters in the later 22-day period) doesn't take into account millions of
cubic meters of glacier ice that have been removed from a large part of the
area of uplift. Work is underway to assess this effect. The
20-million-cubic-meter volume of the new uplift and lava dome is now more
than 25% of the volume of the lava dome that grew in the crater between
1980 and 1986.

Today's field work includes retrieval of GPS instruments from drive-to
sites and routine maintenance and measurements at several stream gages.

The U.S. Geological Survey and the University of Washington continue to
monitor the situation closely and will issue additional updates and changes
in alert level as warranted. "

If I knew how to post images under Terry's new system I'd post images of molten red lava in a very yellow-hot vent on MSH


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 113 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Nov 10, 2004 (13:31) * 18 lines 
 

Eruption of Grimsvotn volcano

Release of overburden pressure triggers an eruption of Grimsvotn volcano, Iceland, November 1, 2004

The subglacial Grimsvotn volcano, Iceland, started erupting on November 1,
2004 around 22 GMT. An intense swarm of volcanic earthquakes that started about 3 hours earlier changed at that time to continuous low frequency tremor, indicating onset of an eruption. Weather conditions prohibited direct observations of the beginning of the eruption at this remote volcano situated near the center of Europe's largest ice cap, Vatnajokull.

The eruption was preceded by both long-term and short-term precursors, and finally triggered by release of overburden pressure associated with a glacial outburst flood (jokulhlaup), originating from the Grimsvotn subglacial caldera lake, that preceded the eruption. Accumulation of magma in a shallow magma chamber under the Grimsvotn caldera has been ongoing since its last eruption in 1998 (Sturkell et al., 2003; Sigmundsson et al.,
2004). GPS measurements show uplift of 5-10 cm/year in the caldera center, and horizontal displacements away from the caldera. Earthquake activity increased in middle of 2003, at about the same time uplift exceeded its 1998 maximum. Pressure in the Grimsvotn magma chamber is likely to have exceeded its pre-eruption level from 1998 at this time. Additional uplift and expansion of the volcano since then suggested approaching failure of the vol cano. Earthquake activity increased further in late October, 2004. Geothermal heat sustains a lake in the caldera that intermittently causes glacial outburst floods. On October 26 high frequency seismic tremor indicated increased water flow from the caldera lake and suggested that a glacial outburst flood was about to begin. On October 29 discharge increased in river Skeidara. The outburst flood was caused by high water level in the Grimsvotn caldera lake from ice melting by geothermal activity. The release in overburden pressure associated with the outburst flood
riggered the eruption. The drop in water level in the Grimsvotn caldera at the onset of the eruption is uncertain, but is probably on the order of
10-20 meters, corresponding to a pressure change of 0.1-0.2 MPa on the volcano surface. This modest pressure change triggered the eruption because internal pressure in the Grimsvotn shallow magma chamber was high after continuous inflow of magma to the volcano since 1998.


Background: Grimsvotn volcano (N 64.41°, W 17.33°), situated near the center of the Vatnajokull ice cap in central Iceland, is one of Iceland's most active volcanoes. It has a complex of calderas (Gudmundsson and Milsom, 1997), and a subglacial caldera lake sustained by geothermal heat. Small eruptions have occurred at the volcano in 1983 and 1998 (around 0.1 km3). In 1996, the Gjalp subglacial eruption occurred north of the volcano (Gudmundsson et al., 1997). The most recent eruption triggered by a pressure release as the current eruption occurred in 1934.





 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 114 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Nov 14, 2004 (14:37) * 33 lines 
 
Here is a condenced update for MSH for November 11 (the last one I got)


"Growth of the new lava dome inside the crater of Mount St. Helens
continues, and is accompanied by intermittent emissions of steam and ash.
Wind forecasts from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
(NOAA), coupled with eruption models, show that ash clouds that rise high
above the crater rim today would drift west-northwestward.


Clear views this morning show that a steam plume is rising passively and
drifting westward out of the crater. The plume occasionally contains minor
ash, which falls out in the crater and on the flank of the volcano,
darkening the snow.


Yesterday field crews repaired the DomeCam, the time-lapse camera that is
aimed at the new lava dome from a site near the crater mouth, and conducted
visual and thermal-imaging observations and a gas-sensing flight. Strong
winds made interpretation of gas data difficult. Good viewing conditions
revealed continued growth of the lava dome. Current estimates are that the
welt, the broad area of deformation, is about 600 m (about 1950 feet) in
diameter. The new lava dome, which occupies the central and western parts
of the welt, is about 400 by 180 m (1300 by 600 feet). The highest point on
the new lava dome is about 250 m (820 feet) above the former surface of the
glacier that occupied that point in mid-September. Maximum surface
temperatures on the new dome remain at about 700 degrees C (1300 degrees
F). GPS instruments on the welt show rates of movement of up to several
meters per day, while GPS instruments on the 1980-86 lava dome show
movements of up to 1-2 cm (less than one inch) per day northward, away from
the growing welt and new dome. "




 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 115 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Nov 21, 2004 (19:00) * 4 lines 
 
Check Mt Etna's web camera. There seems to be two 'a'a flows
http://www.ct.ingv.it/UfMoni/

(click on Etna Milo Webcam)


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 116 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Dec 31, 2004 (14:20) * 33 lines 
 
In Memoriam John Shakleford

The volcano listserv is sad to announce the passing of Dan Shackelford earlier this year. As Dan was not a professional volcanologist, the volcano community at large may be unaware of his death, but his contributions to the volcano list, as well as his spirit and enthusiasm for volcanology, have certainly been missed.

Rick Wunderman of the Smithsonian Institution's Global Volcanism Program has contributed an obituary for Dan, below.

Jon Fink Lisa Koenig Volcano Listserv moderators


-------------------------
From: Rick Wunderman

In appreciation of Dan Shackelford

Dan Shackelford, a dedicated amateur scientist and possibly this listserv's most prolific contributor, passed away in his Fullerton, California apartment this past spring. He was single and 53 years old.

Dan adopted volcanoes as a hobby in high school. He started by tallying eruptive data on small index cards, but later advanced through a series of computers to acquire and manage volcano data.

Since his high school days, Dan maintained personal correspondences with many volcanologists about important eruptions or database questions and issues. For a recent example, in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network (vol.
29, no.
4), a correction regarding Pago volcano in Papua New Guinea came to light because of Dan's dogged questioning. This kind of cross checking and analysis helped strengthen the Smithsonian's database.

Since the advent of the internet and this listserve, Dan's postings here have typically announced volcanism, usually copying text from a news report or an observatory announcement. His e-mails nearly always ended with his graphical signature line, a large, smoke-bellowing locomotive (shown at the bottom). He found the source materials and forwarded these announcements on his own accord, on his own time, and usually preserving source authorship. He was, in a sense, a self-appointed (and unpaid) town crier of volcanism. He clearly relished this role of providing rapid-breaking volcano news. With the advent of better search engines and more observatory websites this material has become easier to obtain; however, the service remains vital in a field where active processes are so important.

His zeal to announce the latest events had its risks. In a 22 September 2003 message Dan described how the virus called SVEN passed from other's machines had ultimately caused his own to fail. Besides making announcements, Dan also compiled his own database, drew his own conclusions, and was unafraid to defend them.

Although I spoke with Dan many times, I never asked him to explain why he was so prolific at announcing new activity. What drove him? He was clearly steeped in the lore of famous devastating eruptions. I think he enjoyed the act of getting the news first and then pondering the unstated details missing from news reports. In phone calls to me he frequently spoke about possible progressions of activity and various outcomes. He generally preferred to offer the more extreme and dire outcomes, but such propensities are common. Although he enjoyed the fact that he could beat most others at gathering announced events by skillful use of the web, I suspect that much of his sense of mission grew out of seeing that he could fill an important need in the service of science. So far as I know, he never gained material profit from announcing new activity, nor had he ever held a job as an earth scientist. I much appreciate his service and think the community benefited enormously from his efforts to gather and dissem
nate fast-breaking news. He will be missed.

Dan grew up with well-educated parents. His father served in WWII and went to college on the GI Bill, settling in Southern California and working as an engineer in the space program. His mother had an advanced degree in design. He is survived by his brother Lynn.

Dan's two other passions consisted of sports and science fiction; and his apartment contained 600-700 science fiction paperbacks as well as personal correspondences with many authors. An avid conversationalist, Dan made his living as a telemarketer, most recently representing the mortgage and refinance industry. But, he had not worked in over a year as his health had deteriorated and he fought with both heart problems and thyroid cancer. Still, amazingly, he managed to continue making frequent announcements of eruptions to this listserv. His last message to the listserv came on the morning of 28 April, shortly before his death.



 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 117 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Dec 31, 2004 (14:24) * 3 lines 
 
Dan Shakleford

This wonderful man was not a professional volcanologist but he supplied all of th data I posted on all of the volcanoes on earth. He will be missed !


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 118 of 192: Paul Terry Walhus (terry) * Wed, Mar  9, 2005 (07:17) * 27 lines 
 
Broadcast News


March 9, 2005








MOUNT ST. HELENS, Washington -- Mount St. Helens is blowing some smoke, but seismologists say not to worry.

The volcano in Washington state released a towering plume of ash yesterday, its most significant emission in months.

But experts say the release isn't likely a signal for any major eruption.

The volcano has vented ash and steam since last fall, when thousands of small earthquakes marked a seismic reawakening of the mountain.

Television footage showed the plume billowing thousands of metres into the air, then drifting slowly to the northeast.

The afternoon ash explosion happened about an hour after a 2.0 magnitude quake.

It rumbled on the east side of the mountain.




 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 119 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Mar  9, 2005 (16:50) * 24 lines 
 
Report from USGS March 9, 2005


"A small but significant explosive event occurred yesterday at 5:25 p.m.
PST. Pilot reports indicated that the resulting steam-and-ash plume reached
an altitude of 36,000 feet above sea level within minutes. The main
eruption pulse lasted about 10 minutes, but lower levels of activity
persisted for at least another 15 to 45 minutes. Within minutes of the
onset of this event, we lost communication with 7 monitoring stations in
the crater, but not with any stations outside the crater. The event
followed a few hours of slightly increased seismicity that was noted but
not interpreted as precursory activity. There were no other indications of
an imminent change in activity. Still images from a camera at the northeast
end of the crater mouth show a clear component of explosive vertical
jetting associated with the event and evidence of ballistics extending at
least as far as the north side of the old dome. Aerial photos in of the
waning phases of the activity in conjunction with these still images show
evidence of small ash flows having moved north and onto to old lava dome.
There were reports of fine dustings of ash falling in Ellensberg, Yakima,
and Toppenish, Washington between 7pm and 9pm yesterday. As of 2am today,
the leading edge of the plume had been tracked to western Montana as a
faint and diffuse cloud. Today, field crews will make visual observations
and attempt to retrieve and possibly redeploy some of the crater
instrumentation stations. "


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 120 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Mar  9, 2005 (16:55) * 2 lines 
 
The webcam looks peaceful enough...
http://www.fs.fed.us/gpnf/volcanocams/msh/


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 121 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Mar  9, 2005 (16:59) * 2 lines 
 
Plume from Mount St. Helens, as seen from the Cascade Volcano Observatory Office roof, taken approximately at 5:30 PM, PST. Plume is drifting east-northeast after reaching approximately 36,000 feet above sea level.
http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/Imgs/Jpg/MSH/MSH05/MSH05_plume_from_CVO_office_03-08-05_med.jpg


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 122 of 192: Paul Terry Walhus (terry) * Fri, Mar 11, 2005 (10:34) * 6 lines 
 
http://www.volcano.si.edu/reports/bulletin/contents.cfm?issue=special#bgvn_1605

is the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network

has obits of prominent volcanologists



 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 123 of 192: Paul Terry Walhus (terry) * Fri, Mar 11, 2005 (10:44) * 16 lines 
 
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/4326987.stm

Super Volcanoes

Geologists have called for a taskforce to be set up to consider emergency management in the event of a massive volcanic eruption, or super-eruption.

The recommendation comes in a report timed to coincide with a BBC TV drama that depicts a fictional super-eruption at Yellowstone Park in Wyoming, US.

Experts say such an event would have a colossal impact on a global scale.

A super-eruption is also five to 10 times more likely to happen than an asteroid impact, the report claims.



happens once every 100,000 years.



 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 124 of 192: Paul Terry Walhus (terry) * Fri, Mar 11, 2005 (10:44) * 5 lines 
 
One past super-eruption struck at Toba in Sumatra 74,000 years ago and is thought by some to have driven the human race to the edge of extinction. Signs from DNA suggest human numbers could have dropped to about 10,000, probably as a result of the effects of climate change.


from the above source



 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 125 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Mar 11, 2005 (20:52) * 1 lines 
 
Toba is one, Mazama is another (now Crater Lake in Oregon, USA) and so is Yellowstone, probably the biggest single cataclysm on the North American continent. Yellowstone will erupt again, but whether it will be in our lifetimes is still to be seen. Probably not.


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 126 of 192: Paul Terry Walhus (terry) * Sat, Mar 12, 2005 (07:00) * 7 lines 
 
I can't find the Super Volcano TV show on Tivo.

Guess I'll have to google it.

(googles for super volvano tv show)

Zip.


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 127 of 192: Paul Terry Walhus (terry) * Sat, Mar 12, 2005 (07:10) * 1 lines 
 
Nada.


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 128 of 192: Paul Terry Walhus (terry) * Sat, Mar 12, 2005 (07:11) * 3 lines 
 
Surviving Eruption at Pinatuba
Sat 3/12 9 pm CST
National Geo Channel.


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 129 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Mar 12, 2005 (14:00) * 1 lines 
 
Julie? I am currently on just antenna channels for tv so my access to intelligent thought is limited to two PBS stations currently running entertaining specials while trying to get donations. We really DO need cable !!


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 130 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Mar 12, 2005 (14:03) * 3 lines 
 
If MSNBC counts, http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/7129908/




 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 131 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Mar 12, 2005 (14:04) * 3 lines 
 
do you have BBC available? Check out this programming

http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/horizon/1999/supervolcanoes.shtml


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 132 of 192: Curious Wolfie  (wolf) * Sun, Mar 13, 2005 (18:29) * 2 lines 
 
i saw the surviving Pinatuba...couldn't believe that one family survived in the caves underneath bat dung!!!



 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 133 of 192: Paul Terry Walhus (terry) * Mon, Mar 14, 2005 (12:25) * 5 lines 
 
Well Supervolcanoes turns out not be such hot news after all.

But I found the *transcript* interesting:

http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/horizon/1999/supervolcanoes_script.shtml


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 134 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Mar 14, 2005 (19:57) * 1 lines 
 
Nice, but not the pithy action-packed volcanic eruption of super volcano I expected. Maybe I hope for too much. After all, we are just watching from a distance of a few million years. The last supervolcano in historic times was Krakatoa in 1883.


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 135 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Apr  6, 2005 (11:44) * 3 lines 
 
For those of you who have been wanting a Kilauea Webcam, there is one, finally. Three of the four cameras are not currently working but one still is.

http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/cam/index.htm


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 136 of 192: Paul Terry Walhus (terry) * Wed, Apr  6, 2005 (18:40) * 2 lines 
 
Did they get wiped out by the volcano?



 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 137 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Apr 24, 2005 (19:04) * 1 lines 
 
No, they are back up, actually. The corrosiveness of the air around the vent makes it likely that mechanical malfunctions put them down for a few weeks. They are back so go enjoy them. I'll be treading the sacred precincts in a few days. Wish me luck !!


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 138 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Oct  2, 2005 (01:04) * 221 lines 
 
*************************************************** GVP/USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report
21-27 September 2005
*************************************************** From: Gari Mayberry


http://www.volcano.si.edu/reports/usgs/


New Activity: | Erta Ale, Ethiopia | Shiveluch, Russia

Ongoing Activity: | Bagana, Papua New Guinea | Barren Island, Andaman Islands | Colima, México | Kilauea, USA | Langila, Papua New Guinea | Manam, Papua New Guinea | Rabaul, Papua New Guinea | Reventador, Ecuador | Santa Ana, El Salvador | Soufrière Hills, Montserrat | Spurr, USA | St. Helens, USA | Suwanose-jima, Japan | Tungurahua, Ecuador | Veniaminof, USA


New Activity/Unrest


ERTA ALE Ethiopia 13.60°N, 40.67°E; summit elev. 613 m

According to unconfirmed reports from local authorities, Erta Ale began erupting on 24 September after a series of earthquakes occurred along the Afar western margin on the previous day. The earthquakes, with a maximum magnitude of 5.5, were recorded at the Geophysical Observatory of Addis Ababa University. A group of geologists and geophysicists were planning to travel to the field to make observations.

Background. Erta Ale is an isolated basaltic shield volcano that is the most active volcano in Ethiopia. The broad, 50-km-wide volcano rises more than 600 m from below sea level in the barren Danakil depression. Erta Ale is the namesake and most prominent feature of the Erta Ale Range. The 613-m-high volcano contains a 0.7 x 1.6 km, elliptical summit crater housing steep- sided pit craters. Another larger 1.8 x 3.1 km wide depression elongated parallel to the trend of the Erta Ale range is located to the SE of the summit and is bounded by curvilinear fault scarps on the SE side. Fresh-looking basaltic lava flows from these fissures have poured into the caldera and locally overflowed its rim. The summit caldera is renowned for one, or sometimes two long-term lava lakes that have been active since at least 1967, or possibly since 1906.

Source: Gezahegn Yirgu, Department of Earth Sciences, Addis Ababa University

Erta Ale Information from the Global Volcanism Program http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/ volcano.cfm?vnum=0201-08=


SHIVELUCH Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia 56.653°N, 161.360°E; summit elev.
3,283 m; All times are local (= UTC + 12 hours)

KVERT raised the Concern Color Code at Shiveluch from Orange to Red (the highest level) on 22 September . According to interpretations of seismic data, on the 22nd at 1715 a strong eruption began, with ash plumes reaching ~7.5 km (24,600 ft) a.s.l. and hot avalanches and pyroclastic flows descending the volcano's flanks. The pyroclastic flows extended 10-15 km. The strongest seismic signal of the eruption occurred on 22 September at 2259. Shallower signals recorded between 22 September at
2330 and 23 September at 1200 were possibly associated with ash emissions that rose to 3.5 km (11,500 ft) a.s.l. An ash plume was visible on satellite imagery at a height of ~3 km (9,850 ft) a.s.l. extending ~20 km SSW. The Concern Color Code was reduced to Orange on 23 September.

Background. The high, isolated massif of Shiveluch volcano (also spelled Sheveluch) rises above the lowlands NNE of the Kliuchevskaya volcano group and forms one of Kamchatka's largest and most active volcanoes. The currently active Molodoy Shiveluch lava-dome complex was constructed during the Holocene within a large horseshoe-shaped caldera formed by collapse of the massive late-Pleistocene Strary Shiveluch volcano. At least 60 large eruptions of Shiveluch have occurred during the Holocene, making it the most vigorous andesitic volcano of the Kuril- Kamchatka arc. Frequent collapses of lava-dome complexes, most recently in
1964, have produced large debris avalanches whose deposits cover much of the floor of the breached caldera. During the 1990s, intermittent explosive eruptions took place from a new lava dome that began growing in 1980. The largest historical eruptions from Shiveluch occurred in 1854 and 1964.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team http://www.avo.alaska.edu/activity/ avoreport.php?view=kaminfo

Shiveluch Information from the Global Volcanism Program http://www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/world/ volcano.cfm?vnum=1000-27=


Ongoing Activity


BAGANA Bougainville Island, Papua New Guinea 6.14°S, 155.19°E; summit elev. 1,750 m

Ash was emitted from Bagana during 17-18 September and drifted W and NW. During 14-18 September, incandescence from the volcano was visible at night. On the
18th, observers described what could have been cascading volcanic material detached from a possible active lava flow.

Background. Bagana volcano, occupying a remote portion of central Bougainville Island, is one of Melanesia's youngest and most active volcanoes. Bagana is a massive symmetrical lava cone largely constructed by an accumulation of viscous andesitic lava flows. The entire lava cone could have been constructed in about 300 years at its present rate of lava production. Eruptive activity at Bagana is characterized by non-explosive effusion of viscous lava that maintains a small lava dome in the summit crater, although explosive activity occasionally producing pyroclastic flows also occurs. Lava flows form dramatic, freshly preserved tongue-shaped lobes up to 50-m-thick with prominent levees that descend the volcano's flanks on all sides.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory

Bagana Information from the Global Volcanism Program http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/ volcano.cfm?vnum=0505-02=


BARREN ISLAND Andaman Islands, Indian Ocean, India 12.29°N, 93.88°E; summit elev. 354 m; All times are local (= UTC + 5.5 hours)

A pilot observed a plume emitted from Barren Island on 23 September around
1230 at a height of
~3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l., extending ~90 km E. On 27 September, a low-level plume was visible on satellite imagery drifting NE. The current eruption of Barren Island began on 28 May 2005.

Background. Barren Island, a possession of India in the Andaman Sea about
135 km NE of Port Blair in the Andaman Islands, is the only historically active volcano along the N-S-trending volcanic arc extending between Sumatra and Burma (Myanmar). The 354-m-high island is the emergent summit of a volcano that rises from a depth of about 2,250 m. The small, uninhabited 3-km-wide island contains a roughly 2-km-wide caldera with walls 250-350 m high. The caldera, which is open to the sea on the W, was created during a major explosive eruption in the late Pleistocene that produced pyroclastic-flow and -surge deposits. The morphology of a fresh pyroclastic cone that was constructed in the center of the caldera has varied during the course of historical eruptions. Lava flows fill much of the caldera floor and have reached the sea along the western coast during eruptions in the 19th century and more recently in 1991 and 1995.

Source: Darwin VAAC http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/advisories.shtml

Barren Island Information from the Global Volcanism Program http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=0600-01=


COLIMA Western México 19.514°N, 103.62°W; summit elev. ~3,850 m; All times are local (= UTC -
5 hours)

During 22-27 September, several small explosions occurred at Colima. The largest explosion took place on 27 September at 0507 and produced a plume to a height of ~3.8 km above the volcano (or 25,100 ft a.s.l.). The plume drifted WSW, depositing small amounts of ash in the cities of Colima, Villa de Álvarez, and Comala more than 30 km from the volcano. Due to the threat of lahars forming on the volcano's flanks, Universidad de Colima advised avoiding the ravines of La Lumbre, San Antonio, Monte Grande (in Colima state), and La Arena (in Jalisco state).

Background. The Colima volcanic complex is the most prominent volcanic center of the western Mexican Volcanic Belt. It consists of two southward-younging volcanoes, Nevado de Colima (the
4,320 m high point of the complex) on the N and the historically active Volcán de Colima on the S. Volcán de Colima (also known as Volcán Fuego) is a youthful stratovolcano constructed within a 5- km-wide caldera, breached to the S, that has been the source of large debris avalanches. Major slope failures have occurred repeatedly from both the Nevado and Colima cones, and have produced a thick apron of debris-avalanche deposits on three sides of the complex. Frequent historical eruptions date back to the 16th century. Occasional major explosive eruptions (most recently in 1913) have destroyed the summit and left a deep, steep-sided crater that was slowly refilled and then overtopped by lava dome growth.

Source: Universidad de Colima http://www.ucol.mx/volcan/

Colima Information from the Global Volcanism Program http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/ volcano.cfm?vnum=1401-04=


KILAUEA Hawaii, USA 19.43°N, 155.29°W; summit elev. 1,222 m

During 22-27 September, lava from Kilauea continued to enter the sea at the East Lae`apuki area, and surface lava flows were visible on the Pulama Pali fault scarp. During the report period, background volcanic tremor was near normal levels at Kilauea's summit. Volcanic tremor reached moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o. Small amounts of inflation and deflation occurred at the volcano during the report period.

Background. Kilauea, one of five coalescing volcanoes that comprise the island of Hawaii, is one of the world's most active volcanoes. Eruptions at Kilauea originate primarily from the summit caldera or along one of the lengthy E and SW rift zones that extend from the caldera to the sea. About 90% of the surface of Kilauea is formed by lava flows less than about 1,100 years old; 70% of the volcano's surface is younger than 600 years. The latest Kilauea eruption began in January 1983 along the E rift zone. This long-term ongoing eruption from Pu`u `O`o-Kupaianaha has produced lava flows that have traveled 11-12 km from the vents to the sea, paving about 104 km2 of land on the S flank of Kilauea and building more than 200 hectares of new land.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/ update.html


Kilauea information from the Global Volcanism Program http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=1302-01-


LANGILA New Britain Island, Papua New Guinea 5.53°S, 148.42°E; summit elev. 1,330 m During 12-18 September, Langila's Crater 2 continued to forcefully erupt ash at irregular intervals. The resultant ash plumes drifted NW and W. Incandescence and weak projections of volcanic material were visible on the evening of 13 September. There was no activity at Crater 3. Seismicity was at low levels at the volcano, consisting mainly of low-frequency earthquakes.

Background. Langila, one of the most active volcanoes of New Britain, consists of a group of four small overlapping composite cones on the lower eastern flank of the extinct Talawe volcano. Talawe is the highest volcano in the Cape Gloucester area of NW New Britain. A rectangular, 2.5- km-long crater is breached widely to the SE; Langila volcano was constructed NE of the breached crater of Talawe. An extensive lava field reaches the coast on the N and NE sides of Langila. Frequent mild-to-moderate explosive eruptions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, have been recorded since the 19th century from three active craters at the summit of Langila. The youngest and smallest crater (no. 3 crater) was formed in 1960 and has a diameter of 150 m.

Sources Rabaul Volcano Observatory

Langila Information from the Global Volcanism Program


MANAM offshore New Guinea, Papua New Guinea 4.10°S, 145.06°E; summit elev.
1,807 m

During 12-18 September, Manam's Main Crater continued to release weak emissions of ash. For a brief period on the 17th, a moderate amount of ash was emitted. Ash plumes drifted to the NW part of the island. Manam remained at Alert Level "Stage 1."

Background. The 10-km-wide island of Manam is one of Papua New Guinea's most active volcanoes. Four large radial valleys extend from the unvegetated summit of the conical 1,807-m- high stratovolcano to its lower flanks. These "avalanche valleys," regularly spaced 90 degrees apart, channel lava flows and pyroclastic avalanches that have sometimes reached the coast. Five satellitic centers are located near the island's shoreline. Two summit craters are present; both are active, although most historical eruptions have originated from the southern crater, concentrating eruptive products during the past century into the SE avalanche valley. Frequent historical eruptions have been recorded since 1616.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/advisories.shtml

Manam Information from the Global Volcanism Program http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/ volcano.cfm?vnum=0501-02=


RABAUL New Britain Island, Papua New Guinea 4.271°S, 152.203°E; summit elev. 688 m

During 12-18 September, ash emissions continued at Rabaul caldera's active Tavurvur cone. Ash plumes rose 800-1,500 m above the volcano (or 4,900-7,200 ft a.s.l.) and drifted N and NW, depositing ash in most parts of Rabaul Town and beyond. Projections of incandescent volcanic material were visible at night during strong explosions. Seismicity was at moderate-to-high levels, with most earthquakes associated with ash emissions and explosions. The deformation trend generally reflected uplift. People were discouraged from venturing within
1 km of the erupting vent.

Background. The low-lying Rabaul caldera on the tip of the Gazelle Peninsula at the NE end of New Britain forms a broad sheltered harbor. The outer flanks of the
688-m-high asymmetrical pyroclastic shield volcano are formed by thick pyroclastic-flow deposits. The 8 x 14 km caldera is widely breached on the E, where its floor is flooded by Blanche Bay. Two major Holocene caldera- forming eruptions at Rabaul took place as recently as 3,500 and 1,400 years ago. Three small stratovolcanoes lie outside the northern and NE caldera rims. Post-caldera eruptions built basaltic-to-dacitic pyroclastic cones on the caldera floor near the NE and western caldera walls. Several of these, including Vulcan cone, which was formed during a large eruption in 1878, have produced major explosive activity during historical time. A powerful explosive eruption in 1994 occurred simultaneously from Vulcan and Tavurvur volcanoes and forced the temporary abandonment of Rabaul city.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory

Rabaul Information from the Global Volcanism Program http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=0502-14=


REVENTADOR Ecuador 0.078°S, 77.656°W, summit elev. 3,562 m

During 21-27 September, there were intermittent emissions of ash from Reventador, with the highest rising plumes reaching ~8.5 km (28,000 ft) a.s.l. on 24 September. Hot spots were occasionally visible on satellite imagery during the report week.

Background. Reventador is the most frequently active of a chain of Ecuadorian volcanoes in the Cordillera Real, well E of the principal volcanic axis. It is a forested stratovolcano that rises above the remote jungles of the western Amazon basin. A 3-km-wide caldera breached to the E was formed by edifice collapse and is partially filled by a young, unvegetated stratovolcano that rises about 1,300 m above the caldera floor. Reventador has been the source of numerous lava flows as well as explosive eruptions that were visible from Quito in historical time. Frequent lahars in this region of heavy rainfall have constructed a debris plain on the eastern floor of the caldera.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/VAAC/messages.html

Reventador Information from the Global Volcanism Program http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=1502-01=


SANTA ANA El Salvador 13.853°N, 89.630°W; summit elev. 2,365 m

During 21-26 September, seismicity and gas emissions were above normal levels at Santa Ana as they had been since 27 July. Microseismicity remained at relatively high levels. During the report period, gas plumes rose to a maximum height of ~1 km above the volcano (or
11,000 ft a.s.l.) on
26 September. During a visit to the crater on 21 September, observers noted that the summit crater lagoon had become greener and small rock slides occurred in a fumarolic area. Santa Ana remained at Alert Level Yellow Phase 1.

Background. Santa Ana, El Salvador's highest volcano, is a massive stratovolcano immediately W of Coatepeque caldera. Collapse of the volcano during the late Pleistocene or early Holocene produced a massive debris avalanche that swept into the Pacific, forming the Acajutla Peninsula. Reconstruction of the volcano rapidly filled the collapse scarp. The broad summit of the volcano is cut by several crescentic craters, and a series of parasitic vents and cones have formed along a 20- km-long fissure system that extends from near the town of Chalchuapa NNW of the volcano to the San Marcelino and Cerro Chino cinder cones on the SE flank. Historical activity, largely consisting of small-to-moderate explosive eruptions from both summit and flank vents, has been documented since the 16th century. The San Marcelino cinder cone on the SE flank produced a lava flow in 1722 that traveled 11 km to the E.

Source: Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales http://www.snet.gob.sv/

Santa Ana Information from the Global Volcanism Program http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=1403-02=


SOUFRIÈRE HILLS Montserrat, West Indies 16.72°N, 62.18°W; summit elev. 1,052 m

Volcanic and seismic activity at Soufrière Hills remained at elevated levels during 16-23 September. Observations on 20 September suggested that slow lava-dome growth continued. The daily sulfur-dioxide flux averaged 680 metric tons per day (t/d), above the long-term eruption average of 500 t/d.

Background. The complex andesitic Soufrière Hills volcano occupies the southern half of the island of Montserrat. The summit area consists primarily of a series of lava domes emplaced along an ESE-trending zone. Non-eruptive seismic swarms occurred at 30-year intervals in the 20th century, but the first well-documented historical eruption on Montserrat did not take place until
1995. Long-term small-to-moderate ash eruptions were accompanied by lava dome growth and pyroclastic flows that forced evacuation of the southern half of the island and ultimately destroyed the capital city of Plymouth, causing severe social and economic disruption.

Source: Montserrat Volcano Observatory http://www.mvo.ms/

Soufrière Hills Information from the Global Volcanism Program http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/ volcano.cfm?vnum=1600-05=


SPURR southwestern Alaska, USA 61.299°N, 152.251°W; summit elev. 3,374 m

Seismicity at Spurr during 16-23 September remained above background levels, but the overall rate continued to gradually decline. Preliminary data from a gas-sensing flight earlier in the week showed a substantial reduction in gas emissions compared to previous measurements taken in May 2005. The declining seismicity, reduced gas emission, and the changing summit-lake color (thought to reflect lower levels of acidity), all suggested a reduced level of volcanic activity. Minor steaming continued from the summit "melt pit" and occasionally from Crater Peak. Spurr remained at Concern Color Code Yellow .

Background. The 3,374-m-high summit of Mount Spurr, the highest volcano of the Aleutain arc, is a large lava dome constructed at the center of a roughly 5-km-wide horseshoe-shaped caldera that is open to the S. The volcano lies 130 km W of Anchorage, NE of Chakachamna Lake. The caldera was formed by a late-Pleistocene or early Holocene debris avalanche and associated pyroclastic flows that destroyed an ancestral Spurr volcano. The debris avalanche traveled more than 25 km to the SE, and the resulting deposit contains blocks as large as 100 m in diameter. Several ice-carved post-caldera cones or lava domes lie in the center of the caldera. The youngest vent, 2,309-m-high Crater Peak, formed at the southern breached end of the caldera and has been the source of about 40 identified Holocene tephra layers. Spurr's two historical eruptions, from Crater Peak in 1953 and 1992, deposited ash on the city of Anchorage.

Source: Alaska Volcano Observatory http://www.avo.alaska.edu/avo4/updates/updates.htm

Spurr Information from the Global Volcanism Program http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/ volcano.cfm?vnum=1103-04-


ST. HELENS Washington, USA 46.20°N, 122.18°W; summit elev. 2,549 m

Growth of the new lava dome inside the crater of Mount St. Helens continued during 21-26 September, accompanied by low rates of seismicity, low emissions of steam and volcanic gases, and minor production of ash. There were no significant changes in seismicity or deformation during the report period. Time-series images showed that the active northwestern portion of the new lava dome continued to move westward into the W arm of a glacier, spawning rockfalls. St Helens remained at Volcano Advisory (Alert Level 2); aviation color code Orange.

Background. Prior to 1980, Mount St. Helens formed a conical, youthful volcano sometimes known as the Fuji-san of America. During the 1980 eruption the upper 400 m of the summit was removed by slope failure, leaving a 2 x 3.5 km horseshoe-shaped crater now partially filled by a lava dome. Mount St. Helens was formed during nine eruptive periods beginning about 40-50,000 years ago, and has been the most active volcano in the Cascade Range during the Holocene. The modern edifice was constructed during the last 2,200 years, when the volcano produced basaltic as well as andesitic and dacitic products from summit and flank vents. Historical eruptions in the
19th century originated from the Goat Rocks area on the N flank, and were witnessed by early settlers.

Source: USGS Cascades Volcano Observatory http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/Volcanoes/MSH/ CurrentActivity/framework.html

St. Helens Information from the Global Volcanism Program http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=1201-05-


SUWANOSE-JIMA Ryukyu Islands, Japan 29.53°N, 129.72°E; summit elev. 799 m

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that an emission from Suwanose-jima on 22 September reached a height of ~1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. Ash was not visible on satellite imagery.

Background. The 8-km-long, spindle-shaped island of Suwanose-jima in the northern Ryukyu Islands consists of an andesitic stratovolcano with two historically active summit craters. Only about 50 persons live on the sparsely populated island. The summit of the volcano is truncated by a large breached crater extending to the sea on the E flank that was formed by edifice collapse. Suwanose-jima, one of Japan's most frequently active volcanoes, was in a state of intermittent strombolian activity from On-take, the NE summit crater, that began in
1949 and lasted nearly a half century. The largest historical eruption took place in 1813-14, when thick scoria deposits blanketed residential areas, after which the island was uninhabited for around 70 years. The SW crater produced lava flows that reached the western coast in 1813, and lava flows reached the eastern coast of the island in 1884.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/VAAC/OTH/JP/ messages.html

Suwanose-jima Information from the Global Volcanism Program http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=0802-03=


TUNGURAHUA Ecuador 1.47°S, 78.44°W; summit elev. 5,023 m

During 21-26 September, volcanic activity at Tungurahua remained at low levels with small emissions of steam, gas, and variable ash content. A small amount of ash fell in the towns of Cusúa (NW) and Bilbao (8 km W of the volcano) during the morning of 21 September. Fumaroles on the outer edge of the crater were visible from Runtún after not being seen for 6 months. Steam- and-gas plumes rose ~ 1 km above the volcano (or 19,800 ft a.s.l.) and drifted W.

Background. The steep-sided Tungurahua stratovolcano towers more than 3 km above its northern base. It sits ~140 km S of Quito, Ecuador's capital city, and is one of Ecuador's most active volcanoes. Historical eruptions have been restricted to the summit crater. They have been accompanied by strong explosions and sometimes by pyroclastic flows and lava flows that reached populated areas at the volcano's base. The last major eruption took place from 1916 to 1918, although minor activity continued until 1925. The latest eruption began in October 1999 and prompted temporary evacuation of the town of Baños on the N side of the volcano.

Source: Instituto Geofisico-Escuela Poltecnica Nacional http://www.igepn.edu.ec/vulcanologia/ tungurahua/actividad/informet.htm

Tungurahua Information from the Global Volcanism Program http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=1502-08=


VENIAMINOF Alaska Peninsula, USA 56.17°N, 159.38°W; summit elev. 2,507 m

Cloudy weather during 16-23 September prohibited web camera and satellite observations of Veniaminof, but seismic data indicated diminishing activity. Some minor ash emissions may have occurred, with diffuse ash plumes rising less than ~3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. Veniaminof remained at Concern Color Code Yellow .

Background. Massive Veniaminof volcano, one of the highest and largest volcanoes on the Alaska Peninsula, is truncated by a steep-walled, 8 x 11 km, glacier-filled caldera that formed around
3,700 years ago. The caldera rim is up to 520 m high on the N, is deeply notched on the W by Cone Glacier, and is covered by an ice sheet on the S. Post-caldera vents are located along a NW- SE zone bisecting the caldera that extends 55 km from near the Bering Sea coast, across the caldera, and down the Pacific flank. Historical eruptions probably all originated from the westernmost and most prominent of two intra-caldera cones, which reaches an elevation of 2,156 m and rises about 300 m above the surrounding icefield. The other cone is larger, and has a summit crater or caldera that may reach 2.5 km in diameter, but is more subdued and barely rises above the glacier surface.

Source: Alaska Volcano Observatory http://www.avo.alaska.edu/avo4/updates/updates.htm

Veniaminof Information from the Global Volcanism Program http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=1102-07-


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 139 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Oct  3, 2005 (18:27) * 41 lines 
 
Thousands evacuated as El Salvador volcano erupts; two dead (Update)

El Salvador's largest volcano, dormant for more than a century, shook the ground as it woke up, hurling out hot rocks, killing at least two and forcing more than 2,000 to flee.

The Santa Ana or Ilamatepec volcano, located 66 kilometers (41 miles) west of the capital, rumbled and belched thick plumes of ash that reached more than 15 kilometers (nine miles) into the sky Saturday morning.

Military emergency sirens blasted, calling for an immediate area evacuation of the hamlets in the coffee growing area, and soon after the volcano began hurling glowing rocks and ash from its crater.

The volcano "has begun to expel magma on the side of the town of San Blas, while the ash is being carried by a south-southwesterly wind," the University of El Salvador vulcanologist Francisco Barahona said.

Officials with the National Emergency Committee said that by 1 p.m. (1900 GMT), 2,250 people had been evacuated from the danger zone.

Hot rocks belched out by the volcano ranged from the size of a football to the size of a car, an AFP journalist on the scene reported.

At least seven people were injured by red hot rocks spewed into the air by the eruption, the national police said.

Two people were killed when 200 residents fled the hamlet of Palo Campana, located just two kilometers (1.2 miles) from the crater, said Interior Minister Rene Figueroa.

The eruption triggered a landslide of boiling mud and water from a crater lake that rushed down onto Palo Campana from three directions, authorities said.

Interior Ministry officials declared a red alert in a four kilometer (2.5 mile) radius around the volcano. A lesser "yellow alert" was issued for adjacent areas.

Some 20,000 people live in the area surrounding the volcano.

President Antonio Saca called on El Salvadorans to remain calm, describing the eruption as one of "moderate magnitude."

The country's civil protection forces have been deployed and are operational, he said.

Saca said he understood many people had never seen a volcano erupting and would like to get close to observe the phenomenon.

"This is not a game," he warned. "This could represent danger since we are not discounting another eruption."

At 2,381 meters (7,812 feet) above sea level, the Santa Ana volcano is the highest point in El Salvador. It last erupted in 1904.

The volcano has been rumbling since mid-August, but had been quiet since Thursday, said Elda Godoy with the government office that monitors seismic and volcanic activity. She described Saturday's eruption as "abrupt."

Similar eruptions could occur in the next days or weeks, Godoy said, warning of possible landslides due to the weak rain-soaked ground.

Santa Ana, the country's second largest city with a population 100,000 and located 40 kilometers (25 miles) from the volcano, was not affected, officials said.

© 2005 AFP


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 140 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Oct  3, 2005 (18:44) * 11 lines 
 
SALVADOR - Santa Ana volcano

October 3rd, 2005

As of 3rd of October SNET reports that following Saturday explosive activity the volcano was quiet during Sunday. As of 1st of October SNET reported that following past days of important seismicity an eruption started on Saturday morning. Explosive activity occured with lava incandescent materiel ejection and (unconfirmed lava flow on South flank ? ). The volcano plume reached about 15 km elevation. Important ashfalls occured around the volcano and the poplation living near the volcano was rapidly evacuated. The eruption triggered a hot mudflow from the summital crater lake that rushed onto the hamlet of Palo Campana located about 2 km from the crater. Rocks and ash rained down on the village in the coffee growing area. Preliminary information report that two people died and seven people were injured by incandecent rocks spewed into the air during explosive activity. The color alert code is red. A radius danger zone of 4 km was established by the local autority. (further details as soon as possible). As of
he 28th of September, the Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (SNET), was reported that the micro-seismicity was maintained in high ranks, with the tendency al increment observed in the last days. The daily average of RSAM (Measurement of the Seismic Amplitude in Real Time) of the day of yesterday, finally was of 93.1 units and even the first hours of this day, they had values between 75 and 115 units, being registered an average of 93.9. The vibration (tremor) has intensified moderate and he is presented in intermittent periods of an hour or hour and a half of duration, spaced for periods without vibration from 1 to 2 hours. The volcano has not registered earthquakes senses by the population. According to information facilitated by park ranger of Salvanatura, in hours in the afternoon of yesterday a column of vertical, thick gases and of height over the 1000 meters could be observed. Also notification of settlers of the Palo Campana sector and of the same park ranger on the observation of incandesc
nce on the edge of the crater was received. First thing in the morning of this morning a weaker column of gases was observed, of some 200 meters of height, directed toward the south-southwestern one. Subsequently the conditions of cloudiness have not permitted to carry out more observations.technical of the SNET they carry out the day of today visits al crater of the volcano. In the Sulfur Dioxide flow measurements (SO2) carried out the day of yesterday, Monday the 26th, by the research team of the University of El Salvador a data of 2 thousand 708 tons was obtained for day. The measurements were carried out again in the traveled through (transecting) habitual that goes from Sonsonate to the Los Naranjos, in the Western sector of the volcano. Today technicians of the SNET will take a new sample in Cerro Pach. Satellite images were not possible, to obtain information, due to the conditions of cloudiness. The activity of the volcano continues above its normal behaviour base line. The seismicity registered in
he last 48 hours does not present significant variations, but the tendency is confirmed al raises that has come itself declaring gradually in the last week and especially since on the 24. The vibration (tremor) has intensified moderate for periods intermittent of an hour or hour and a half. The sulfur dioxide flow data (SO2) measured in the day of yesterday present also a tendency al raises. SNET reported a significant increase in seismic activity at Santa Ana (also called Ilamatepec) on the night of 27 August. A cluster of 17 volcano-tectonic earthquakes were recorded, with four located S of the volcano. Afterwards, continuous high-frequency tremor was recorded until at least 30 August. Observations made on 29 August revealed incandescent rocks in the fumarole field. The incandescence was due to the hot gases emitted from the fumaroles heating the rocks. A significant increase in sulfur-dioxide emission was recorded, and gas-and-steam plumes rose 500-1,000 m above the volcano's crater (or 9,400-11,000 ft a
s.l.). As a safety measure, access to the volcano's crater was restricted to visitors. Prior to the current increase in activity, strong degassing had been measured at the volcano since June 2004. An ash emission occurred on 16 June 2005, and a slight increase in seismicity and a significant increase in gas emission was measured from 27 July until at least 30 August. Santa Ana, El Salvador's highest volcano, is a massive stratovolcano (2365 m) immediately W of Coatepeque caldera about 65 km of San Salvador. Collapse of the volcano during the late Pleistocene or early Holocene produced a massive debris avalanche that swept into the Pacific, forming the Acajutla Peninsula.Previous historic activity occured in 1904.

http://www.sveurop.org/gb/news/news.htm


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 141 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Oct  3, 2005 (19:08) * 1 lines 
 
I see Mount St Helens also erupted - not dangerously but definitely erupted.


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 142 of 192: Curious Wolfie  (wolf) * Mon, Oct  3, 2005 (21:01) * 1 lines 
 
the cam is still up and running? i haven't been there for awhile....marcia, do you miss having the volcano so near? (aside from the danger) i HATED L.A. but there are certain things that i miss, tidepools, the weather, seeing whales migrate, new cars on the freeways (new car models, had to clarify so others don't think i live under a rock where all we have are old cars *grin*)


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 143 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Oct  3, 2005 (22:14) * 3 lines 
 
I miss Hawaii not even slightly. It is as DB saw it, a third world country with scenery. If you live there, the aloha spirit is reserved for visitors with money. NO, there is not much I miss other than spam musubi on occasion. I really like it here. The people are real Americans and are as charming as southern hospitality allows.

But I do miss a volcano. However, my first love was archaeology and not geology. If I can only go a little trip I do not miss the volcano at all. Besides, it is a five mile hike - each way - to see any lava that is moving. But, thanks for asking. We're glad to have you back. I miss the ocean a bit, but it too is dangerous and I am happy not to be on disaster relief call 24/7 anymore.


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 144 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Oct  4, 2005 (23:05) * 113 lines 
 
*********************************************
GVP/USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report
28 September- 4 October 2005
*********************************************

From: Gari Mayberry

http://www.volcano.si.edu/reports/usgs/

New Activity: | Erta Ale, Ethiopia | Santa Ana, El Salvador

Ongoing Activity: | Barren Island, Andaman Islands | Cayambe, Ecuador | Colima, México | Dukono, Indonesia | Kilauea, USA | Manam, Papua New Guinea | Reventador, Ecuador | Shiveluch, Russia | Soufrière Hills, Montserrat | St. Helens, USA | Tungurahua, Ecuador | Veniaminof, USA


New Activity/Unrest

ERTA ALE Ethiopia 13.60°N, 40.67°E; summit elev. 613 m
A group of scientists assessed the visible changes at Erta Ale on 26 September after activity began around 24 September. In comparison to observations made in November 2004, they found that the southern main crater/pit had widened significantly, with portions of the previous crater walls having collapsed into the lava lake. A new cone-shaped construct had grown within the southern main crater where there had been a platform. A lava lake occupied the entire width of the inner crater/pit. In the northern crater/pit, there was a solidified lava bulge and abundant “smoking” along the crater walls. No incandescent lava was visible in the pit.
Based on descriptions by local residents of seeing “red and glowing light shooting and rising into the air above the volcano,” the scientists believe that a Strombolian eruption probably occurred, emitting a significant volume of fresh magma within, and possibly out of, the pit. According to news reports, about 50,000 nomads in Ethiopia’s Afar region were displaced after the eruption.
Background. Erta Ale is an isolated basaltic shield volcano that is the most active volcano in Ethiopia. The broad, 50-km-wide volcano rises more than 600 m from below sea level in the barren Danakil depression. Erta Ale is the namesake and most prominent feature of the Erta Ale Range. The 613-m-high volcano contains a 0.7 x 1.6 km, elliptical summit crater housing steep-sided pit craters. Another larger 1.8 x 3.1 km wide depression elongated parallel to the trend of the Erta Ale range is located to the SE of the summit and is bounded by curvilinear fault scarps on the SE side. Fresh-looking basaltic lava flows from these fissures have poured into the caldera and locally overflowed its rim. The summit caldera is renowned for one, or sometimes two long-term lava lakes that have been active since at least 1967, or possibly since 1906.
Source: Gezahegn Yirgu, Department of Earth Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Agence France-Presse http://news.yahoo.com/news? tmpl=story&u=/afp/20051003/sc_afp/ethiopiaquakevolcano_051003190655
Erta Ale Information from the Global Volcanism Program http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=0201-08=

SANTA ANA El Salvador 13.853°N, 89.630°W; summit elev. 2,365 m; All times are local (= UTC ­ 6 hours)
SNET reported that a sudden eruption at Santa Ana (also called Ilamatepec) on
1 October around 0820 produced an ash-and-gas plume to a height of ~10 km above the volcano (or 40,600 ft a.s.l.). According to the Washington VAAC, ash was visible on satellite imagery at a height of ~14 km (46,000 ft) a.s.l. Ash fell in towns W of the volcano, including in Naranjos, Nahuizalco, Juayúa, Ahuachapán, and La Hachadura. Volcanic blocks up to a meter in diameter fell as far as 2 km S of the volcano’s crater. Lahar deposits were seen SE of the volcano. The Alert Level within a 4-km radius around the volcano’s central crater was raised to Red, the highest level. According to news reports, two people were killed by landslides (possibly caused by heavy rain in the area) in the town of Palo Campana, and thousands of residents near the volcano were evacuated. As many as 1,400 hectares of crops were damaged by ash.
Prior to the eruption, significant changes in seismicity were not noted. On 3 October, after the eruption, seismicity fluctuated and small explosions occasionally occurred. Earthquakes associated with explosions were recorded. In addition, there was a decrease in the amount of sulfur dioxide emitted from the volcano. SNET noted that eruptive activity could continue at the volcano.
Background. Santa Ana, El Salvador's highest volcano, is a massive stratovolcano immediately W of Coatepeque caldera. Collapse of the volcano during the late Pleistocene or early Holocene produced a massive debris avalanche that swept into the Pacific, forming the Acajutla Peninsula. Reconstruction of the volcano rapidly filled the collapse scarp. The broad summit of the volcano is cut by several crescentic craters, and a series of parasitic vents and cones have formed along a 20-km-long fissure system that extends from near the town of Chalchuapa NNW of the volcano to the San Marcelino and Cerro Chino cinder cones on the SE flank. Historical activity, largely consisting of small-to-moderate explosive eruptions from both summit and flank vents, has been documented since the 16th century. The San Marcelino cinder cone on the SE flank produced a lava flow in 1722 that traveled 11 km to the E.
Source: Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales http://www.snet.gob.sv/, Reuters http://in.today.reuters.com/news/newsArticle.aspx? type=worldNews&storyID=2005-10-03T071921Z_01_NOOTR_RTRJONC_0_India-218031-
1.xml&archived=False, Associated Press http://news.yahoo.com/news? tmpl=story&u=/ap/20051002/ap_on_re_la_am_ca/salvador_volcano_4, ReliefWeb http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/RWB.NSF/db900SID/EVOD-6GUERZ?OpenDocument
Santa Ana Information from the Global Volcanism Program http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=1403-02=

Ongoing Activity

BARREN ISLAND Andaman Islands, Indian Ocean, India 12.29°N, 93.88°E; summit elev. 354 m
Low-level plumes from Barren Island were visible on satellite imagery on 28 September and 2 October. The current eruption of Barren Island began on 28 May
2005.
Background. Barren Island, a possession of India in the Andaman Sea about 135 km NE of Port Blair in the Andaman Islands, is the only historically active volcano along the N-S-trending volcanic arc extending between Sumatra and Burma (Myanmar). The 354-m-high island is the emergent summit of a volcano that rises from a depth of about 2,250 m. The small, uninhabited 3-km-wide island contains a roughly 2-km-wide caldera with walls 250-350 m high. The caldera, which is open to the sea on the W, was created during a major explosive eruption in the late Pleistocene that produced pyroclastic-flow and - surge deposits. The morphology of a fresh pyroclastic cone that was constructed in the center of the caldera has varied during the course of historical eruptions. Lava flows fill much of the caldera floor and have reached the sea along the western coast during eruptions in the 19th century and more recently in 1991 and 1995.
Source: Darwin VAAC http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/advisories.shtml
Barren Island Information from the Global Volcanism Program http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=0600-01=

CAYAMBE Ecuador 0.029°N, 77.986°W; summit elev. 5790 m
A cluster of earthquakes that had been recorded at Cayambe since 16 September, with about 300 small earthquakes occurring during 16-18 September, decreased in number significantly after 19 September. During 19-25 September, an average of 5.3 earthquakes occurred daily.
Background. The massive compound Cayambe stratovolcano is located on the isolated western edge of the Cordillera Real. The 5,790-m-high volcano, whose southern flank lies astride the equator, is capped by glaciers, which descend down to 4,200 m on the eastern Amazonian side. The modern Nevado Cayambe volcano, constructed to the E of an older volcanic complex, contains two summit lava domes located about 1.5 km apart, the western of which is the highest. Several other lava domes on the upper flanks have been the source of pyroclastic flows that reached the lower flanks of the volcano. A prominent Holocene pyroclastic cone on the lower eastern flank fed thick lava flows that traveled about 10 km to the E. Nevado Cayambe was recently discovered to have produced frequent explosive eruptions during the Holocene, and to have had a single historical eruption, during 1785-86.
Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional http://www.igepn.edu.ec/vulcanologia/cayambe/actividad/informec.htm
Cayambe Information from the Global Volcanism Program http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=1502-004

COLIMA Western México 19.514°N, 103.62°W; summit elev. ~3,850 m
During 28 September to 3 October, several small explosions occurred at Colima. Based on information from the Mexico City MWO, the Washington VAAC reported that a plume was emitted on 28 September that rose to a height of ~6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NNW.
Background. The Colima volcanic complex is the most prominent volcanic center of the western Mexican Volcanic Belt. It consists of two southward-younging volcanoes, Nevado de Colima (the 4,320 m high point of the complex) on the N and the historically active Volcán de Colima on the S. Volcán de Colima (also known as Volcán Fuego) is a youthful stratovolcano constructed within a 5-km- wide caldera, breached to the S, that has been the source of large debris avalanches. Major slope failures have occurred repeatedly from both the Nevado and Colima cones, and have produced a thick apron of debris-avalanche deposits on three sides of the complex. Frequent historical eruptions date back to the
16th century. Occasional major explosive eruptions (most recently in 1913) have destroyed the summit and left a deep, steep-sided crater that was slowly refilled and then overtopped by lava dome growth.
Sources: Universidad de Colima http://www.ucol.mx/volcan/, Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/VAAC/messages.html
Colima Information from the Global Volcanism Program http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=1401-04=

DUKONO Halmahera, Indonesia 1.70°N, 127.87°E; summit elev. 1,185 m
A thin low-level plume from Dukono was visible on satellite imagery on 28 September extending NE.
Background. Reports from this remote volcano in northernmost Halmahera are rare, but Dukono has been one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes. More-or- less continuous explosive eruptions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, occurred since 1933 until at least the mid-1990s, when routine observations were curtailed. During a major eruption in 1550, a lava flow filled in the strait between Halmahera and the N-flank cone of Gunung Mamuya. Dukono is a complex volcano presenting a broad, low profile with multiple summit peaks and overlapping craters. Malupang Wariang, 1 km SW of Dukono's summit crater complex, contains a 700 x 570 m crater that has also been active during historical time.
Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Center http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/advisories.shtml
Dukono Information from the Global Volcanism Program http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=0608-01=

KILAUEA Hawaii, USA 19.43°N, 155.29°W; summit elev. 1,222 m
During 28 September- 2 October, lava from Kilauea continued to enter the sea at the East Lae`apuki area, and surface lava flows were visible on the Pulama Pali fault scarp. During the report period, background volcanic tremor was near normal levels at Kilauea's summit. Volcanic tremor reached moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o. Small amounts of inflation and deflation occurred at the volcano during the report period.
Background. Kilauea, one of five coalescing volcanoes that comprise the island of Hawaii, is one of the world’s most active volcanoes. Eruptions at Kilauea originate primarily from the summit caldera or along one of the lengthy E and SW rift zones that extend from the caldera to the sea. About 90% of the surface of Kilauea is formed by lava flows less than about 1,100 years old;
70% of the volcano's surface is younger than 600 years. The latest Kilauea eruption began in January 1983 along the E rift zone. This long-term ongoing eruption from Pu`u `O`o-Kupaianaha has produced lava flows that have traveled
11-12 km from the vents to the sea, paving about 104 km2 of land on the S flank of Kilauea and building more than 200 hectares of new land.
Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/update.html
Kilauea information from the Global Volcanism Program http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=1302-01-

MANAM offshore New Guinea, Papua New Guinea 4.10°S, 145.06°E; summit elev.
1,807 m
On 1 October, a pilot observed ash from Manam below a height of ~3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. extending NW. Ash was not visible on satellite imagery.
Background. The 10-km-wide island of Manam is one of Papua New Guinea's most active volcanoes. Four large radial valleys extend from the unvegetated summit of the conical 1,807-m-high stratovolcano to its lower flanks. These "avalanche valleys," regularly spaced 90 degrees apart, channel lava flows and pyroclastic avalanches that have sometimes reached the coast. Five satellitic centers are located near the island's shoreline. Two summit craters are present; both are active, although most historical eruptions have originated from the southern crater, concentrating eruptive products during the past century into the SE avalanche valley. Frequent historical eruptions have been recorded since 1616.
Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Center http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/advisories.shtml
Manam Information from the Global Volcanism Program http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=0501-02=

REVENTADOR Ecuador 0.078°S, 77.656°W, summit elev. 3,562 m
During 19-25 September, several small explosions occurred at Reventador. An explosion on 20 September produced an ash plume to a height of ~5.8 m (19,000 ft) a.s.l. Small amounts of ash fell in the towns of El Chaco, San Francisco de Borja, and Baeza. During the report week, there was a reduction in the number of earthquakes at the volcano.
Background. Reventador is the most frequently active of a chain of Ecuadorian volcanoes in the Cordillera Real, well E of the principal volcanic axis. It is a forested stratovolcano that rises above the remote jungles of the western Amazon basin. A 3-km-wide caldera breached to the E was formed by edifice collapse and is partially filled by a young, unvegetated stratovolcano that rises about 1,300 m above the caldera floor. Reventador has been the source of numerous lava flows as well as explosive eruptions that were visible from Quito in historical time. Frequent lahars in this region of heavy rainfall have constructed a debris plain on the eastern floor of the caldera.
Source: Instituto Geofisico-Escuela Poltecnica Nacional http://www.igepn.edu.ec/
Reventador Information from the Global Volcanism Program http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=1502-01=

SHIVELUCH Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia 56.653°N, 161.360°E; summit elev.
3,283 m
Growth of Shiveluch’s lava dome and heightened seismicity continued at the volcano during 23-30 September. Weak gas-and-steam plumes, thermal anomalies at the lava dome, and new pyroclastic-flow deposits, were noted during the report week. Shiveluch remained at Concern Color Code Orange .
Background. The high, isolated massif of Shiveluch volcano (also spelled Sheveluch) rises above the lowlands NNE of the Kliuchevskaya volcano group and forms one of Kamchatka's largest and most active volcanoes. The currently active Molodoy Shiveluch lava-dome complex was constructed during the Holocene within a large horseshoe-shaped caldera formed by collapse of the massive late- Pleistocene Strary Shiveluch volcano. At least 60 large eruptions of Shiveluch have occurred during the Holocene, making it the most vigorous andesitic volcano of the Kuril-Kamchatka arc. Frequent collapses of lava-dome complexes, most recently in 1964, have produced large debris avalanches whose deposits cover much of the floor of the breached caldera. During the 1990s, intermittent explosive eruptions took place from a new lava dome that began growing in 1980. The largest historical eruptions from Shiveluch occurred in
1854 and 1964.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team http://www.avo.alaska.edu/activity/avoreport.php?view=kaminfo
Shiveluch Information from the Global Volcanism Program http://www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=1000-27=

SOUFRIÈRE HILLS Montserrat, West Indies 16.72°N, 62.18°W; summit elev. 1,052 m
Volcanic and seismic activity at Soufrière Hills remained at elevated levels during 23-30 September. Slow lava-dome growth continued at the volcano. The daily sulfur-dioxide flux averaged 950 metric tons per day (t/d), above the long-term eruption average of 500 t/d.
Background. The complex dominantly andesitic Soufrière Hills volcano occupies the southern half of the island of Montserrat. The summit area consists primarily of a series of lava domes emplaced along an ESE-trending zone. English's Crater, a 1-km-wide crater breached widely to the east, was formed during an eruption about 4000 years ago in which the summit collapsed, producing a large submarine debris avalanche. Block-and-ash flow and surge deposits associated with dome growth predominate in flank deposits at Soufrière Hills. Non-eruptive seismic swarms occurred at 30-year intervals in the 20th century, but with the exception of a 17th-century eruption that produced the Castle Peak lava dome, no historical eruptions were recorded on Montserrat until 1995. Long-term small-to-moderate ash eruptions beginning in that year were later accompanied by lava-dome growth and pyroclastic flows that forced evacuation of the southern half of the island and ultimately destroyed the capital city of Plymouth, causing
ajor social and economic disruption.
Source: Montserrat Volcano Observatory http://www.mvo.ms/
Soufrière Hills Information from the Global Volcanism Program http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=1600-05=

ST. HELENS Washington, USA 46.20°N, 122.18°W; summit elev. 2,549 m
Growth of the new lava dome inside the crater of Mount St. Helens continued during 28 September to 4 October, accompanied by low rates of seismicity, low emissions of steam and volcanic gases, and minor production of ash. There were no significant changes in seismicity or deformation during the report period and the level of eruptive activity remained similar to previous weeks. Reanalysis of late September time-series photographs of the active part of the new lava dome indicated that points on the dome moved northwestward and upward at about 5.5 meters per day as extrusion continued. St Helens remained at Volcano Advisory (Alert Level 2); aviation color code Orange.
Background. Prior to 1980, Mount St. Helens formed a conical, youthful volcano sometimes known as the Fuji-san of America. During the 1980 eruption the upper 400 m of the summit was removed by slope failure, leaving a 2 x 3.5 km horseshoe-shaped crater now partially filled by a lava dome. Mount St. Helens was formed during nine eruptive periods beginning about 40-50,000 years ago, and has been the most active volcano in the Cascade Range during the Holocene. The modern edifice was constructed during the last 2,200 years, when the volcano produced basaltic as well as andesitic and dacitic products from summit and flank vents. Historical eruptions in the 19th century originated from the Goat Rocks area on the N flank, and were witnessed by early settlers.
Source: USGS Cascades Volcano Observatory http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/Volcanoes/MSH/CurrentActivity/framework.html
St. Helens Information from the Global Volcanism Program http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=1201-05-

TUNGURAHUA Ecuador 1.47°S, 78.44°W; summit elev. 5,023 m
During 28 September to 3 October, volcanic activity at Tungurahua remained at low levels with small emissions of steam, gas, and variable ash content. A pilot reported an ash plume on 29 September at a height of ~6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l.
Background. The steep-sided Tungurahua stratovolcano towers more than 3 km above its northern base. It sits ~140 km S of Quito, Ecuador’s capital city, and is one of Ecuador's most active volcanoes. Historical eruptions have been restricted to the summit crater. They have been accompanied by strong explosions and sometimes by pyroclastic flows and lava flows that reached populated areas at the volcano's base. The last major eruption took place from
1916 to 1918, although minor activity continued until 1925. The latest eruption began in October 1999 and prompted temporary evacuation of the town of Baños on the N side of the volcano.
Source: Instituto Geofisico-Escuela Poltecnica Nacional http://www.igepn.edu.ec/
Tungurahua Information from the Global Volcanism Program http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=1502-08=

VENIAMINOF Alaska Peninsula, USA 56.17°N, 159.38°W; summit elev. 2,507 m
AVO decreased the Concern Color Code at Veniaminof from Yellow to Green (the lowest level) on 28 September after seismicity at the volcano had been at background levels for over a week and there was no evidence to suggest that minor ash explosions were continuing .
Background. Massive Veniaminof volcano, one of the highest and largest volcanoes on the Alaska Peninsula, is truncated by a steep-walled, 8 x 11 km, glacier-filled caldera that formed around 3,700 years ago. The caldera rim is up to 520 m high on the N, is deeply notched on the W by Cone Glacier, and is covered by an ice sheet on the S. Post-caldera vents are located along a NW-SE zone bisecting the caldera that extends 55 km from near the Bering Sea coast, across the caldera, and down the Pacific flank. Historical eruptions probably all originated from the westernmost and most prominent of two intra-caldera cones, which reaches an elevation of 2,156 m and rises about 300 m above the surrounding icefield. The other cone is larger, and has a summit crater or caldera that may reach 2.5 km in diameter, but is more subdued and barely rises above the glacier surface.
Source: Alaska Volcano Observatory http://www.avo.alaska.edu/avo4/updates/updates.htm
Veniaminof Information from the Global Volcanism Program http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=1102-07-


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 145 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Oct  7, 2005 (21:33) * 9 lines 
 
Eruption - Piton de la Fournaise October 5th, 2005

After four months of almost continuous inflation and increased seismicity, Piton de la Fournaise started a new eruption on oct 4th at
14h26 local time. It was preceded by a 56 minutes long seismic crisis and strong summit inflation, the latter recorded by our tiltmeter and extensometer network. The eruption occured inside of Dolomieu crater at the same site as the December 2002 pit crater and the Mai-June 2003 eruption. Intensity of eruption is quite small and pahoehoe lava flow covers a small surface in the western part of Dolomieu crater.

Thomas Staudacher
Observatoire volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise




 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 146 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Oct 20, 2005 (21:49) * 128 lines 
 
*******************************************
GVP/USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report
12-18 October 2005
*******************************************

http://www.volcano.si.edu/reports/usgs/

New Activity: | Dabbahu, Ethiopia | Garbuna Group, Papua New Guinea

Ongoing Activity: | Cleveland, USA | Dukono, Indonesia | Erebus, Antarctica | Karangetang, Indonesia | Kilauea, USA | Michael, Antarctica | Montagu Island, South Sandwich Islands | Sangay, Ecuador | San Miguel, El Salvador | Santa Ana, El Salvador | Soufrière Hills, Montserrat | St. Helens, USA | Stromboli, Italy | Tanaga, USA

New Activity/Unrest

DABBAHU Ethiopia 12.60°N, 40.48°E; summit elev. 1,442 m; All times are local (= UTC + 3 hours)
Volcanic activity at Erta Ale discussed in the 5-11 October 2005 Weekly Volcanic Activity Report actually occurred at Dabbahu. The correct report is below.
A team of scientists visited the Da'Ure locality immediately adjacent to the NE flank of the Quaternary Dabbahu (or Boina) felsic complex on 4 and 5 October after receiving reports of volcanic activity there on 26 September. People in the area noted that on 26 September at about 1300 a very strong earthquake shook the area, and was followed by a dark column of "smoke" that rose high into the atmosphere and spread out to form a cloud, which darkened the area for 3 days and 3 nights. The scientists determined that a minor explosive eruption occurred from two semi-circular vents, producing ashfall that was ~5 cm thick near the vent. Ash deposits extended more than 500 m from the vent. Boulders emitted during the eruption were as large as 3 m and were deposited as far as 20 meters away. The scientists noted intense degassing from the vents, the scent of sulfur dioxide, and the sound of boiling water in the vents. As of about 10 October, the Addis Ababa University Geophysical Observatory reported that seismic a
tivity in the area was continuing.
Background. Dabbahu, also known as Boina or Moina, is a Holocene volcanic massif forming an axial range of the Afar depression SSW of the Alayta massif. Pantelleritic obsidian flows, lava domes, and pumice cones form the summit and upper flanks of the volcano, which rises above the Teru Plain and was built over a base of basaltic-to-trachytic lava flows of a shield volcano. Late- stage basaltic fissure eruptions occurred at the NW base of the volcano. Abundant fumaroles are located along the crest of the volcano and extend NE towards Alayta.
Source: Gezahegn Yirgu, Department of Earth Sciences, Addis Ababa University
Dabbahu Information from the Global Volcanism Program http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=0201-113

GARBUNA GROUP New Britain, Papua New Guinea 5.45°S, 150.03°E; summit elev.
564 m; All times are local (= UTC + 10 hours)
RVO reported that an eruption began at Garbuna on the afternoon of 16 October when "white vapor" rose above the volcano and a couple of felt earthquakes occurred. On 17 October, an eruption column rose 3-4 km above the volcano's summit (or 11,700-15,000 ft a.s.l.). At 1100 fine ash fell on the W and NW sides of the volcano, covering two plantations. Water sources originating from Garbuna were affected by the eruption. According to RVO, the volcano last erupted about 1,700 years ago.
Background. The basaltic-to-dacitic Garbuna volcano group consists of three volcanic peaks, Krummel, Garbuna, and Welcker. They are located along a
7-km N- S line above a shield-like foundation at the southern end of the Willaumez Peninsula. The central and lower peaks of the centrally located Garbuna volcano contain a large vegetation-free area that is probably the most extensive thermal field in Papua New Guinea. A prominent lava dome and blocky lava flow in the center of thermal area have resisted destruction by thermal activity, and may be of Holocene age. Krummel volcano at the S end of the group contains a summit crater, breached to the NW. The highest peak of the Garbuna group is 1,110-m-high Welcker volcano, which has fed blocky lava flows that extend to the eastern coast of the peninsula.
Sources: Rabaul Volcano Observatory, Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Center http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/advisories.shtml, The National http://www.thenational.com.pg/1018/nation2.htm
Garbuna Group Information from the Global Volcanism Program http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=0502-07=

Ongoing Activity

CLEVELAND Aleutian Islands, USA 52.82°N, 169.95°W; summit elev. 1,730 m
After a brief ash burst at Cleveland on 7 October, no further eruptive activity was recorded at the volcano. On 10 October, AVO reduced the Concern Color Code from Orange to Yellow . AVO warned that although there were no additional ash bursts noted, they consider the volcano restless. Explosive ash-producing events could occur at any time and without warning (owing to the lack of local seismic monitoring). AVO continued to monitor the volcano using satellite imagery.
Background. The symmetrical Mount Cleveland stratovolcano is situated at the western end of the uninhabited dumbbell-shaped Chuginadak Island in the east- central Aleutians. The 1,730-m-high stratovolcano is the highest of the Islands of Four Mountains group and is one of the most active in the Aleutians. Numerous large lava flows descend its flanks. It is possible that some 18th to 19th century eruptions attributed to Carlisle (a volcano located across the Carlisle Pass Strait to the NW) should be ascribed to Cleveland. In
1944 Cleveland produced the only known fatality from an Aleutian eruption. Recent eruptions from Mt. Cleveland have been characterized by short-lived explosive ash emissions, at times accompanied by lava fountaining and lava flows down the flanks.
Source: Alaska Volcano Observatory http://www.avo.alaska.edu/activity/avoreport.php?view=update
Cleveland Information from the Global Volcanism Program http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=1101-24-

DUKONO Halmahera, Indonesia 1.70°N, 127.87°E; summit elev. 1,185 m
Explosions and pyroclastic ejections continued at Dukono during 10-16 October. Ash columns rose 100-950 m above the summit (or 4,200-7,000 ft a.s.l.) and mainly drifted SE. Seismicity was dominated by explosion earthquakes. Dukono remained at Alert Level 2.
Background. Reports from this remote volcano in northernmost Halmahera are rare, but Dukono has been one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes. More-or- less continuous explosive eruptions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, occurred since 1933 until at least the mid-1990s, when routine observations were curtailed. During a major eruption in 1550, a lava flow filled in the strait between Halmahera and the N-flank cone of Gunung Mamuya. Dukono is a complex volcano presenting a broad, low profile with multiple summit peaks and overlapping craters. Malupang Wariang, 1 km SW of Dukono's summit crater complex, contains a 700 x 570 m crater that has also been active during historical time.
Source: Directorate of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/portal/html/index.php
Dukono Information from the Global Volcanism Program http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=0608-01=

EREBUS Ross Island, Antarctica 77.53°S, 167.17°E; summit elev. 3,794 m
According to the Mt. Erebus activity log, several "small- to medium-sized" eruptions occurred during 12-18 October, with a "very large" eruption occurring on 14 October. The eruption sizes were based on comparisons of seismic data for known Erebus eruptions.
Background. Mount Erebus, the world's southernmost historically active volcano, overlooks the McMurdo research station on Ross Island. The 3,794-m- high Erebus is the largest of three major volcanoes forming the crudely triangular Ross Island. The summit of Mount Erebus has been modified by several generations of caldera formation. A summit plateau at about 3,200 m altitude marks the rim of the youngest caldera, within which the modern cone was constructed. An elliptical 500 x 600 m wide, 110-m-deep crater truncates the summit and contains an active lava lake within a 250-m-wide, 100-m-deep inner crater. The glacier-covered volcano was erupting when first sighted by Captain James Ross in 1841. Continuous lava-lake activity has been documented since 1972, punctuated by occasional Strombolian explosions that eject bombs onto the crater rim.
Source: Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory http://www.ees.nmt.edu/Geop/Erebus/erebus.html
Mount Erebus Information from the Global Volcanism Program http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=1900-02=

KARANGETANG [Api Siau] Siau Island, Indonesia 2.47°N, 125.29°E; summit elev.
1,784 m
Gas was emitted from Karangetang's North and Batukole craters during 10-16 October. Seismicity was dominated by multiphase events, which decreased in number in comparison to the previous week. The number of deep volcanic earthquakes increased. Karangetang remained at Alert Level 3 (on a scale of 1-
4).
Background. Karangetang (also known as Api Siau) lies at the northern end of the island of Siau, N of Sulawesi. The 1,784-m-high stratovolcano contains five summit craters along a N-S line. One of Indonesia's most active volcanoes, Karangetang has had more than 40 recorded eruptions since 1675. Twentieth-century eruptions have included frequent explosions, sometimes accompanied by pyroclastic flows and lahars.
Source: Directorate of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/portal/html/index.php
Karangetang Information from the Global Volcanism Program http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=0607-02=

KILAUEA Hawaii, USA 19.43°N, 155.29°W; summit elev. 1,222 m
On 18 October, weak surface lava flows were visible at Kilauea and one cascade of lava flowed off of the western front of the East Lae`apuki delta. Background volcanic tremor was near normal levels at Kilauea's summit. Volcanic tremor was at moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o. During 11-18 October, small amounts of inflation and deflation occurred at the volcano.
Background. Kilauea, one of five coalescing volcanoes that comprise the island of Hawaii, is one of the world's most active volcanoes. Eruptions at Kilauea originate primarily from the summit caldera or along one of the lengthy E and SW rift zones that extend from the caldera to the sea. About 90% of the surface of Kilauea is formed by lava flows less than about 1,100 years old;
70% of the volcano's surface is younger than 600 years. The latest Kilauea eruption began in January 1983 along the E rift zone. This long-term ongoing eruption from Pu`u `O`o-Kupaianaha has produced lava flows that have traveled
11-12 km from the vents to the sea, paving about 104 km2 of land on the S flank of Kilauea and building more than 200 hectares of new land.
Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/update.html
Kilauea information from the Global Volcanism Program http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=1302-01-

MICHAEL Antarctica United Kingdom 57.78°S, 26.45°W; summit elev. 990 m
The first MODVOLC alerts at Mount Michael since May 2003 recently began, indicating an increased level of activity in the island's summit crater (and presumed lava lake). The alerts occurred on 3, 5, and 6 October.
Background. The young constructional Mount Michael stratovolcano dominates glacier-covered Saunders Island. Symmetrical 990-m-high Mount Michael has a
700-m-wide summit crater and a remnant of a somma rim to the SE. Tephra layers visible in ice cliffs surrounding the island are evidence of recent eruptions. Ash clouds were reported from the summit crater in 1819, and an effusive eruption was inferred to have occurred from a north-flank fissure around the end of the 19th century and beginning of the 20th century. A low ice-free lava platform, Blackstone Plain, is located on the N coast, surrounding a group of former sea stacks. A cluster of parasitic cones on the SE flank, the Ashen Hills, appear to have been modified since 1820. Vapor emission is frequently reported from the summit crater. Recent AVHRR and MODIS satellite imagery has revealed evidence for lava lake activity in the summit crater of Mount Michael.
Sources: Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) Thermal Alerts Team http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/ and John Smellie of the British Antarctic Survey
Michael Information from the Global Volcanism Program http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=1900-09=

MONTAGU ISLAND South Sandwich Islands 58.42°S, 26.33°W; summit elev. 1,370 m
An ASTER satellite image from 23 September showed a 3.5-km-long lava flow extending from the summit of Montagu Island (Mt. Belinda) into the sea. This was the largest effusive event observed during the 4-year-old eruption. Based on MODVOLC alerts, the flow appeared to have started sometime between 10 and
14 September. A conspicuous 90-m-wide channel was visible ~1 km from the vent. The image also showed a steam plume at the location of the ocean entry, and an ash-rich plume extending NE from the volcano's summit.
Background. The largest of the Sandwich Islands, Montagu consists of one or more stratovolcanoes with parasitic cones and or domes. The roughly rectangular-shaped island rises about 3,000 m from the sea floor and is roughly 10 x 12 km wide with a prominent peninsula at its SE tip. Around 90% of the island is ice-covered; glaciers extend to the sea over much of the island, forming vertical ice cliffs. Mount Belinda, rising to 1,370 m, is the high point of the island and lies at the southern end of a 6-km-wide ice- filled summit caldera. Mount Oceanite, an isolated 900-m-high peak, lies at the SE tip of the island and was the source of lava flows exposed at Mathias Point and Allen Point. There was no record of Holocene or historical eruptive activity at Montagu until MODIS satellite data, beginning in late 2001, revealed thermal anomalies consistent with lava lake activity that has been persistent since then. Apparent plumes and single anomalous pixels were observed intermittently on AVHRR images during the p
riod April 1995 to February 1998, possibly indicating earlier unconfirmed and more sporadic volcanic activity.
Source: Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) Thermal Alerts Team http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/ and John Smellie of the British Antarctic Survey
Montagu Information from the Global Volcanism Program http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=1900-081

SANGAY Ecuador 2.03°S, 78.34°W; summit elev. 5,188 m; All times are local (= UTC - 5 hours)
An ash plume emitted from Sangay was visible on satellite imagery on 16 October around 0645. The plume moved SSW very slowly, corresponding to a possible height of ~6.7 km (22,000 ft) a.s.l. By 0900 the plume was too thin to be visible on satellite imagery and thunderstorms developed in the area, further obscuring the ash cloud.
Background. The isolated Sangay volcano, located E of the Andean crest, is the southernmost of Ecuador's volcanoes, and its most active. It has been in frequent eruption for the past several centuries. The steep-sided, 5,230-m- high glacier-covered volcano grew within horseshoe-shaped calderas of two previous edifices, which were destroyed by collapse to the E, producing large debris avalanches that reached the Amazonian lowlands. The modern edifice dates back to at least 14,000 years ago. Sangay towers above the tropical jungle on the E side; on the other sides flat plains of ash from the volcano have been sculpted by heavy rains into steep-walled canyons up to 600 m deep. The earliest report of an historical eruption was in 1628. More or less continuous eruptions were reported from 1728 until 1916, and again from 1934 to the present. The more or less constant eruptive activity has caused frequent changes to the morphology of the summit crater complex.
Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/VAAC/messages.html
Sangay Information from the Global Volcanism Program http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=1502-09=

SAN MIGUEL El Salvador 13.431°N, 88.272°W; summit elev. 2,130 m
SNET reported that activity had not changed at San Miguel after small clusters of earthquakes occurred at the volcano during 27 September to about 14 October. During a visit to the volcano on 13 October small rockfalls were seen, but there were no significant changes in the crater and sulfur-dioxide emissions were very weak.
Background. The symmetrical cone of San Miguel volcano, one of the most active in El Salvador, rises from near sea level to form one of the country's most prominent landmarks. A broad, deep crater that has been frequently modified by historical eruptions (recorded since the early 16th century) caps the truncated summit of the towering volcano, which is also known locally as Chaparrastique. Radial fissures on the flanks of the basaltic volcano have fed a series of fresh lava flows, including several erupted during the 17th-19th centuries that reached beyond the base of the volcano on the N, W, and SE sides. The SE-flank lava flows are the largest and form broad sparsely vegetated lava fields.
Source: Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (SNET) http://www.snet.gob.sv/Geologia/Vulcanologia/evento022005.htm
San Miguel Reports from the monthly Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network http://www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/world/region14/elsalv/sanmigue/var.htm

SANTA ANA El Salvador 13.853°N, 89.630°W; summit elev. 2,365 m
During 12-17 October, seismicity was relatively stable and there were low- level gas emissions at Santa Ana. Storms on 12 October caused the generation of lahars that traveled towards Coatepeque.
Background. Santa Ana, El Salvador's highest volcano, is a massive stratovolcano immediately W of Coatepeque caldera. Collapse of the volcano during the late Pleistocene or early Holocene produced a massive debris avalanche that swept into the Pacific, forming the Acajutla Peninsula. Reconstruction of the volcano rapidly filled the collapse scarp. The broad summit of the volcano is cut by several crescentic craters, and a series of parasitic vents and cones have formed along a 20-km-long fissure system that extends from near the town of Chalchuapa NNW of the volcano to the San Marcelino and Cerro Chino cinder cones on the SE flank. Historical activity, largely consisting of small-to-moderate explosive eruptions from both summit and flank vents, has been documented since the 16th century. The San Marcelino cinder cone on the SE flank produced a lava flow in 1722 that traveled 11 km to the E.
Source: Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales http://www.snet.gob.sv/
Santa Ana Information from the Global Volcanism Program http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=1403-02=

SOUFRIÈRE HILLS Montserrat, West Indies 16.72°N, 62.18°W; summit elev. 1,052 m
Volcanic and seismic activity at Soufrière Hills remained at elevated levels during 7-14 October. Lava-dome growth mostly occurred on the W side of the dome, which was largely obscured by clouds and steam. Observations suggested that the lava-dome growth rate increased, with preliminary calculations suggesting a rate of at least 2 cubic meters per second. Incandescence was visible at the lava dome on a video camera at night. The sulfur-dioxide flux averaged 580 metric tons per day (t/d), above the long-term eruption average of 500 t/d. The hydrogen-chloride versus sulfur-dioxide ratio increased to about 1.
Background. The complex dominantly andesitic Soufrière Hills volcano occupies the southern half of the island of Montserrat. The summit area consists primarily of a series of lava domes emplaced along an ESE-trending zone. English's Crater, a 1-km-wide crater breached widely to the east, was formed during an eruption about 4000 years ago in which the summit collapsed, producing a large submarine debris avalanche. Block-and-ash flow and surge deposits associated with dome growth predominate in flank deposits at Soufrière Hills. Non-eruptive seismic swarms occurred at 30-year intervals in the 20th century, but with the exception of a 17th-century eruption that produced the Castle Peak lava dome, no historical eruptions were recorded on Montserrat until 1995. Long-term small-to-moderate ash eruptions beginning in that year were later accompanied by lava-dome growth and pyroclastic flows that forced evacuation of the southern half of the island and ultimately destroyed the capital city of Plymouth, causing
ajor social and economic disruption.
Source: Montserrat Volcano Observatory http://www.mvo.ms/
Soufrière Hills Information from the Global Volcanism Program http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=1600-05=

ST. HELENS Washington, USA 46.20°N, 122.18°W; summit elev. 2,549 m
Growth of the new lava dome inside the crater of Mount St. Helens continued during 12-18 October, accompanied by low rates of seismicity, low emissions of steam and volcanic gases, and minor production of ash. There were no significant changes in seismicity or deformation during the report period. During the previous few weeks, a prominent linear feature developed on the disintegrating "whaleback" that grew during the previous spring and summer and was currently located E of the actively growing part of the new lava dome. A digital elevation model of the active lava dome, which was created from aerial photographs taken on 10 August, showed that the volume had grown to 62 million cubic meters. The average rate of growth during late July and early August was about 2 cubic meters per second, a rate that typified most of 2005. St Helens remained at Volcano Advisory (Alert Level 2); aviation color code Orange.
Background. Prior to 1980, Mount St. Helens formed a conical, youthful volcano sometimes known as the Fuji-san of America. During the 1980 eruption the upper 400 m of the summit was removed by slope failure, leaving a 2 x 3.5 km horseshoe-shaped crater now partially filled by a lava dome. Mount St. Helens was formed during nine eruptive periods beginning about 40-50,000 years ago, and has been the most active volcano in the Cascade Range during the Holocene. The modern edifice was constructed during the last 2,200 years, when the volcano produced basaltic as well as andesitic and dacitic products from summit and flank vents. Historical eruptions in the 19th century originated from the Goat Rocks area on the N flank, and were witnessed by early settlers.
Source: USGS Cascades Volcano Observatory http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/Volcanoes/MSH/CurrentActivity/framework.html
St. Helens Information from the Global Volcanism Program http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=1201-05-

STROMBOLI Aeolian Islands, Italy 38.79°N, 15.21°E; summit elev. 926 m
A plume emitted from Stromboli that may have contained ash was visible on satellite imagery on 14 October at a height around 1.8-2.4 km (6,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. The plume extended ~10 km NW of the volcano.
Background. Spectacular incandescent nighttime explosions at Stromboli volcano have long attracted visitors to the "Lighthouse of the Mediterranean." Stromboli, the NE-most of the Aeolian Islands, has lent its name to the frequent mild explosive activity that has characterized its eruptions throughout historical time. The small, 926-m-high island of Stromboli is the emergent summit of a volcano that grew in two main eruptive cycles, the last of which formed the western portion of the island. The active summit vents are located at the head of the Sciara del Fuoco, a horseshoe-shaped scarp formed as a result of slope failure that extends to below sea level and funnels pyroclastic ejecta and lava flows to the NW. Essentially continuous mild Strombolian explosions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, have been recorded at Stromboli since Roman times.
Source: Toulouse Volcanic Ash Advisory Center http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/VAAC/OTH/FR/messages.html
Stromboli Information from the Global Volcanism Program http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=0101-04=

TANAGA Aleutian Islands, USA 51.885°N, 178.146°W; summit elev.1806 m
Elevated seismic activity below young volcanic vents on Tanaga Island continued during 7-14 October, although the rate of small earthquakes reduced slightly in comparison to the previous week. The activity that began at Tanaga on 1 October was at the highest level recorded since the seismic network was installed in 2003, so the Concern Color Code remained at Yellow .
Background. Tanaga volcano, the second largest volcanic center of the central Aleutians, is the central and highest of three youthful stratovolcanoes oriented along a roughly E-W line at the NW tip of Tanaga Island. Arcuate ridges to the east and south may represent the rim of an older caldera that cuts an older shield-like volcano. Most Holocene eruptions originated from Tanaga volcano itself, which consists of two large cones, the western of which is the highest, constructed within a caldera whose 400-m-high rim is prominent to the SE. At the westernmost end of the Tanaga complex is conical Sakaja, a
1304-m-high double cone that may be the youngest of the three volcanoes. A thick blanket of fine ash that may have accumulated over the past several thousand years covers much of Tanaga Island.
Source: Alaska Volcano Observatory http://www.avo.alaska.edu/activity/avoreport.php?view=update
Tanaga Information from the Global Volcanism Program http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=1101-08-

********************************************************* Gari Mayberry US Geological Survey/Global Volcanism Program Smithsonian Institution National Museum of Natural History MRC-119 Dept. of Mineral Sciences Washington, DC 20560-0119

http://www.volcano.si.edu/reports/usgs/
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 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 147 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Dec  2, 2005 (14:20) * 133 lines 
 
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GVP/USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report
23-29 November 2005
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New Activity: | Augustine, USA | Galeras, Colombia | Karthala, Comoros Islands | Piton de la Fournaise, Reunion Island

Ongoing Activity: | Cleveland, USA | Colima, Mexico | Garbuna Group, Papua New Guinea | Kilauea, USA | Langila, Papua New Guinea | Rabaul, Papua New Guinea | Santa Ana, El Salvador | Soufrière Hills, Montserrat | St. Helens, USA | Tanaga, USA | Tungurahua, Ecuador | Ulawun, Papua New Guinea

New Activity/Unrest

AUGUSTINE SW Alaska, USA 59.363°N, 153.43°W; summit elev. 1,252 m
On 29 November AVO raised the Concern Color Code at Augustine from Green to Yellow after recording long-term important changes in seismicity and ground deformation consistent with renewed volcanic unrest . There were no indications that an eruption was imminent or certain.
Beginning in May 2005, there was a slow increase in the number of earthquakes under Augustine. The earthquakes were generally small (less than M 1) and concentrated roughly 1 km below the volcano's summit. These earthquakes slowly increased from 4-8 earthquakes per day to 20-35 earthquakes per day. Additionally, data from a Global Positioning System (GPS) network on Augustine indicated that a slow, steady inflation of the volcano started in mid-summer
2005, continuing until the present. The GPS benchmark located nearest the summit moved a total of 2.5 cm. This motion is consistent with a source of inflation or pressure change centered under the volcano. This is the first such deformation detected at Augustine since measurements began just prior to the 1986 eruption. No reports of increased steaming were received by AVO, nor have satellite data shown increased thermal activity.
Background. Augustine volcano, rising above Kamishak Bay in the southern Cook Inlet about 290 km SW of Anchorage, is the most active volcano of the eastern Aleutian arc. It consists of a complex of overlapping summit lava domes surrounded by an apron of volcaniclastic debris that descends to the sea on all sides. Few lava flows are exposed; the flanks consist mainly of debris- avalanche and pyroclastic-flow deposits formed by repeated collapse and regrowth of the volcano's summit. The latest episode of edifice collapse occurred during Augustine's largest historical eruption in 1883; subsequent dome growth has restored the volcano to a height comparable to that prior to 1883. The oldest dated volcanic rocks on Augustine are more than 40,000 years old. At least 11 large debris avalanches have reached the sea during the past 1800-2000 years, and five major pumiceous tephras have been erupted during this interval. Historical eruptions have typically consisted of explosive activity with emplacement of pumiceous
yroclastic-flow deposits followed by lava dome extrusion with associated block-and-ash flows.
Source: Alaska Volcano Observatory http://www.avo.alaska.edu/activity/avoreport.php?view=update
Augustine Information from the Global Volcanism Program http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=1103-01-

GALERAS Colombia 1.22°N, 77.37°W; summit elev. 4,276 m; All times are local (= UTC - 5 hours)
On 24 November at 0246 seismicity was recorded at Galeras that was associated with the beginning of an eruption. Ash from the eruption fell in the towns of Fontibon, San Cayetano, Postobon, and in north Pasto (E of the volcano). INGEOMINAS raised the Alert Level from 2 (probable eruption in days to weeks) to
1 (eruption imminent or occurring). The Washington VAAC observed a small puff of ash NE of the volcano at a height around ~4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. Activity decreased by the next day, so the Alert Level was reduced to 2. Thousands of people had been evacuated from the vicinity of the volcano during the week prior to the eruption.
Background. Galeras, a stratovolcano with a large breached caldera located immediately W of the city of Pasto, is one of Colombia's most frequently active volcanoes. The dominantly andesitic Galeras volcanic complex has been active for more than 1 million years, and two major caldera collapse eruptions took place during the late Pleistocene. Long-term extensive hydrothermal alteration has affected the volcano. This has contributed to large-scale edifice collapse that has occurred on at least three occasions, producing debris avalanches that swept to the W and left a large horseshoe-shaped caldera inside which the modern cone has been constructed. Major explosive eruptions since the mid Holocene have produced widespread tephra deposits and pyroclastic flows that swept all but the southern flanks. A central cone slightly lower than the caldera rim has been the site of numerous small-to-moderate historical eruptions since the time of the Spanish conquistadors.
Sources: Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (INGEOMINAS) http://www.ingeominas.gov.co/tmsingeominas/ModuloPublicacionPortal/PublicacionP ortal.asp, Associated Press http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20051126/ap_on_re_la_am_ca/colombia_volcano_5, Reuters http://www.cnn.com/2005/TECH/science/11/24/colombia.volcano.reut/index.html? section=cnn_latest
Galeras Information from the Global Volcanism Program http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=1501-08=

KARTHALA Comoros Islands, Indian Ocean 11.75°N, 43.38°E; summit elev.
2,361 m
According to news reports, a phreatomagmatic eruption occurred at Karthala during the evening of 24 November. Ash fell in several towns, including in the capital city Morini along the Grand Comore island's SW coast and on the volcano's W flank. According to a UN OCHA report, local authorities estimated that about 2,000 people temporarily fled their villages in the region of Bamboa in the central part of Grand Comore Island, and sought refuge in less exposed areas, such as Mitsamiouli, Mboudé, and Oichili. During the evacuation, an infant died due to respiratory distress. Ashfall caused the closure of shops and schools in Moroni and security forces cleaned the streets using water tankers. Residents were warned to avoid inhaling ash. Preliminary assessments revealed that about 118,000 people living in 75 villages may have been affected by the contamination of domestic water tanks. This is of particular concern because it is the height of the dry season. A UN worker reported that 245,000 people live in the are
exposed to ash and estimated that 175,000 could face water shortages. There were also concerns about the impact of ash on agriculture and livestock.
The Toulouse VAAC reported that ash from the early phase of the eruption was not immediately seen on satellite imagery, but that ash fell at the local airport. AFWA reported that the ash cloud was visible on satellite imagery on 25 November at a height of ~11.6 km (~38,000 ft) a.s.l. According to the Karthala Volcano Observatory, a lava lake formed in the volcano's crater. As of 29 November, seismic activity continued at the volcano.
Background. The southernmost and largest of the two shield volcanoes forming Grand Comore Island (also known as Ngazidja), Karthala contains a 3 x 4 km summit caldera generated by repeated collapse. Elongated rift zones extend to the NNW and SE from the summit of the Hawaiian-style shield, which has an asymmetrical profile that is steeper to the S. Historical eruptions have modified the morphology of the compound, irregular summit caldera. More than twenty eruptions have been recorded since the 19th century from both summit and flank vents. Many lava flows have reached the sea on both sides of the island, including during many 19th-century eruptions from the summit caldera and vents on the northern and southern flanks.
Sources: Toulouse VAAC http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/VAAC/OTH/FR/messages.html, United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UN OCHA) http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/RWB.NSF/db900SID/EGUA-6JKM4V?OpenDocument, Integrated Regional Information Network http://www.irinnews.org/report.asp? ReportID=50399&SelectRegion=Southern_Africa&SelectCountry=COMOROS, Air Force Weather Agency, Agence France Presse http://www.allheadlinenews.com/articles/7001187689, News 24 http://www.news24.com/News24/Africa/News/0,,2-11-1447_1842069,00.html, Angola Press http://www.angolapress-angop.ao/noticia-e.asp?ID=394675
Karthala Information from the Global Volcanism Program http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=0303-01=

PITON DE LA FOURNAISE Réunion Island, Indian Ocean 21.23°S, 55.71°E; summit elev. 2,631 m; All times are local (= UTC + 4 hours)
OVPDLF reported that immediately after the end of the last eruption at the Dolomieu crater of Piton de la Fournaise that began on 5 October 2005, the permanent GPS network and extensometer network at the volcano continued to show strong surface deformation, which was a precursor for a new eruptive event. On
29 November at 0559 a seismic crisis began at the volcano and at 0625 tremor indicated the beginning of an eruption. A vent opened in the western part of Dolomieu crater and another vent opened on the volcano's N flank. Very little projected volcanic material was visible. A rapid and large lava flow traveled down the N flank in the direction of Piton Kapor. Inclement weather prohibited further observations. The Toulouse VAAC reported that ash from the eruption was not visible on satellite imagery.
Background. The massive Piton de la Fournaise shield volcano on the island of Réunion is one of the world's most active volcanoes. Most historical eruptions have originated from the summit and flanks of Dolomieu, a 400-m-high lava shield that has grown within the youngest of three large calderas. This latter caldera is 8 km wide and is breached to below sea level on the eastern side. More than
150 eruptions, most of which have produced fluid basaltic lava flows within the caldera, have been documented since the 17th century.
Sources: Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise http://volcano.ipgp.jussieu.fr:8080/reunion/stationreu2.html, Toulouse VAAC http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/VAAC/OTH/FR/messages.html
Piton de la Fournaise Information from the Global Volcanism Program http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=0303-02=

Ongoing Activity

CLEVELAND Aleutian Islands, USA 52.82°N, 169.95°W; summit elev. 1,730 m
Activity at Cleveland further decreased during 18-25 November. Following a brief ash burst on 7 October, no further ash emissions were noted. AVO did not detect a temperature anomaly in the vicinity of the volcano after 6 November. Based on this information, AVO concluded that the likelihood of significant ash- producing events decreased, so they terminated Concern Color Code Yellow . Cleveland is not monitored with seismic equipment, therefore AVO did not assign Color Concern Code Green.
Background. The symmetrical Mount Cleveland stratovolcano is situated at the western end of the uninhabited dumbbell-shaped Chuginadak Island in the east-central Aleutians. The 1,730-m-high stratovolcano is the highest of the Islands of Four Mountains group and is one of the most active in the Aleutians. Numerous large lava flows descend its flanks. It is possible that some 18th to
19th century eruptions attributed to Carlisle (a volcano located across the Carlisle Pass Strait to the NW) should be ascribed to Cleveland. In 1944 Cleveland produced the only known fatality from an Aleutian eruption. Recent eruptions from Mt. Cleveland have been characterized by short-lived explosive ash emissions, at times accompanied by lava fountaining and lava flows down the flanks.
Source: Alaska Volcano Observatory http://www.avo.alaska.edu/activity/avoreport.php?view=update
Cleveland Information from the Global Volcanism Program http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=1101-24-

COLIMA Western México 19.514°N, 103.62°W; summit elev. ~3,850 m
Several small explosions occurred at Colima during 23-28 November, producing plumes that reached a maximum height of ~8.5 km (28,000 ft) a.s.l. on 24 November.
Background. The Colima volcanic complex is the most prominent volcanic center of the western Mexican Volcanic Belt. It consists of two southward-younging volcanoes, Nevado de Colima (the 4,320 m high point of the complex) on the N and the historically active Volcán de Colima on the S. Volcán de Colima (also known as Volcán Fuego) is a youthful stratovolcano constructed within a 5-km-wide caldera, breached to the S, that has been the source of large debris avalanches. Major slope failures have occurred repeatedly from both the Nevado and Colima cones, and have produced a thick apron of debris-avalanche deposits on three sides of the complex. Frequent historical eruptions date back to the 16th century. Occasional major explosive eruptions (most recently in 1913) have destroyed the summit and left a deep, steep-sided crater that was slowly refilled and then overtopped by lava dome growth.
Sources: Universidad de Colima http://www.ucol.mx/volcan/, Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/VAAC/messages.html
Colima Information from the Global Volcanism Program http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=1401-04=

GARBUNA GROUP New Britain Island, Papua New Guinea 5.45°S, 150.03°E; summit elev. 564 m
During 21-27 November, two vents at the summit of Garbuna continued to release weak-to-moderate volumes of steam that rose a few hundred meters above the summit and drifted in various directions. No incandescence was seen at the volcano and no noises were heard. Seismicity was at very low levels.
Background. The basaltic-to-dacitic Garbuna volcano group consists of three volcanic peaks, Krummel, Garbuna, and Welcker. They are located along a
7-km N- S line above a shield-like foundation at the southern end of the Willaumez Peninsula. The central and lower peaks of the centrally located 654-m-high Garbuna volcano contain a large vegetation-free area that is probably the most extensive thermal field in Papua New Guinea. A prominent lava dome and blocky lava flow in the center of the thermal area have resisted destruction by thermal activity, and may be of Holocene age. Krummel volcano at the S end of the group contains a summit crater, breached to the NW. The highest peak of the Garbuna group is 1,005-m-high Welcker volcano, which has fed blocky lava flows that extend to the eastern coast of the peninsula.
Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory via the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Center http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/advisories.shtml
Garbuna Group Information from the Global Volcanism Program http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=0502-07=

KILAUEA Hawaii, USA 19.43°N, 155.29°W; summit elev. 1,222 m
During 23-29 November, lava from Kilauea continued to enter the sea at the East Lae`apuki area and surface lava flows were visible on the Pulama pali fault scarp. Background volcanic tremor was near normal levels at Kilauea's summit. Volcanic tremor reached moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o. Small amounts of deformation occurred at the volcano.
Background. Kilauea, one of five coalescing volcanoes that comprise the island of Hawaii, is one of the world's most active volcanoes. Eruptions at Kilauea originate primarily from the summit caldera or along one of the lengthy E and SW rift zones that extend from the caldera to the sea. About 90% of the surface of Kilauea is formed by lava flows less than about 1,100 years old; 70% of the volcano's surface is younger than 600 years. The latest Kilauea eruption began in January 1983 along the E rift zone. This long-term ongoing eruption from Pu`u `O`o-Kupaianaha has produced lava flows that have traveled 11-12 km from the vents to the sea, paving about 104 km2 of land on the S flank of Kilauea and building more than 200 hectares of new land.
Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/update.html
Kilauea information from the Global Volcanism Program http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=1302-01-

LANGILA New Britain Island, Papua New Guinea 5.53°S, 148.42°E; summit elev.
1,330 m
Vulcanian eruptions continued at Langila's Crater 2 during 21-27 November, with a slight increase in the level of activity compared to the previous week. The activity increase was marked by ash emissions that rose to heights between 1 and
2 km above the summit crater (or 7,650 and 10,900 ft a.s.l.). The ash clouds drifted W, SW, SE, and NW, depositing ash in those areas. Incandescence and projections of volcanic material were visible at the volcano during many nights. Crater 3 was quiet during the report period. Seismicity was at low-to-moderate levels, consisting of low-frequency earthquakes associated with the Vulcanian activity and periodic volcanic tremor.
Background. Langila, one of the most active volcanoes of New Britain, consists of a group of four small overlapping composite cones on the lower eastern flank of the extinct Talawe volcano. Talawe is the highest volcano in the Cape Gloucester area of NW New Britain. A rectangular, 2.5-km-long crater is breached widely to the SE; Langila volcano was constructed NE of the breached crater of Talawe. An extensive lava field reaches the coast on the N and NE sides of Langila. Frequent mild-to-moderate explosive eruptions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, have been recorded since the 19th century from three active craters at the summit of Langila. The youngest and smallest crater (no. 3 crater) was formed in 1960 and has a diameter of 150 m.
Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory via the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Center http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/advisories.shtml
Langila Information from the Global Volcanism Program http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=0502-01=

RABAUL New Britain Island, Papua New Guinea 4.271°S, 152.203°E; summit elev.
688 m
Rabaul caldera's active Tavurvur cone was quiet after ash emissions ceased on
20 November. During 21-27 November, only very small traces of gas were released from the eruption vent and from other spots on the summit area. Seismicity was at very low levels and a small amount of ground inflation was recorded.
Background. The low-lying Rabaul caldera on the tip of the Gazelle Peninsula at the NE end of New Britain forms a broad sheltered harbor. The outer flanks of the 688-m-high asymmetrical pyroclastic shield volcano are formed by thick pyroclastic-flow deposits. The 8 x 14 km caldera is widely breached on the E, where its floor is flooded by Blanche Bay. Two major Holocene caldera-forming eruptions at Rabaul took place as recently as 3,500 and 1,400 years ago. Three small stratovolcanoes lie outside the northern and NE caldera rims. Post-caldera eruptions built basaltic-to-dacitic pyroclastic cones on the caldera floor near the NE and western caldera walls. Several of these, including Vulcan cone, which was formed during a large eruption in 1878, have produced major explosive activity during historical time. A powerful explosive eruption in 1994 occurred simultaneously from Vulcan and Tavurvur volcanoes and forced the temporary abandonment of Rabaul city.
Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory via the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Center http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/advisories.shtml
Rabaul Information from the Global Volcanism Program http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=0502-14=

SANTA ANA El Salvador 13.853°N, 89.630°W; summit elev. 2,365 m
During 23-28 November, seismicity at Santa Ana was above background levels. Small earthquakes occurred that were interpreted as being associated with gas pulses. The amount of gas emitted was low. The Alert Level remained at Red, the highest level, within a 5-km radius around the volcano's central crater.
Background. Santa Ana, El Salvador's highest volcano, is a massive stratovolcano immediately W of Coatepeque caldera. Collapse of the volcano during the late Pleistocene or early Holocene produced a massive debris avalanche that swept into the Pacific, forming the Acajutla Peninsula. Reconstruction of the volcano rapidly filled the collapse scarp. The broad summit of the volcano is cut by several crescentic craters, and a series of parasitic vents and cones have formed along a 20-km-long fissure system that extends from near the town of Chalchuapa NNW of the volcano to the San Marcelino and Cerro Chino cinder cones on the SE flank. Historical activity, largely consisting of small-to-moderate explosive eruptions from both summit and flank vents, has been documented since the 16th century. The San Marcelino cinder cone on the SE flank produced a lava flow in 1722 that traveled 11 km to the E.
Source: Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales http://www.snet.gob.sv/
Santa Ana Information from the Global Volcanism Program http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=1403-02=

SOUFRIÈRE HILLS Montserrat, West Indies 16.72°N, 62.18°W; summit elev. 1,052 m
Activity at Soufrière Hills increased during 18-25 November in comparison to the previous week. Growth of the volcano's lava dome was focused towards the E and S, with minor activity to the S and W. Continuous incandescence was observed at night on the SE and E sides of the lava dome. A pyroclastic flow was seen in the upper reaches of the Tar River Valley on 22 November. Minor ash emissions occurred from the volcano, including one on the afternoon of 24 November that sent an ash cloud several hundred meters above the volcano's summit. Measurements of sulfur-dioxide emissions were only possible on 2 days due to the wind direction. An average of 1,055 metric tons of sulfur dioxide was measured daily.
Background. The complex dominantly andesitic Soufrière Hills volcano occupies the southern half of the island of Montserrat. The summit area consists primarily of a series of lava domes emplaced along an ESE-trending zone. English's Crater, a 1-km-wide crater breached widely to the east, was formed during an eruption about 4000 years ago in which the summit collapsed, producing a large submarine debris avalanche. Block-and-ash flow and surge deposits associated with dome growth predominate in flank deposits at Soufrière Hills. Non-eruptive seismic swarms occurred at 30-year intervals in the 20th century, but with the exception of a 17th-century eruption that produced the Castle Peak lava dome, no historical eruptions were recorded on Montserrat until 1995. Long-term small-to-moderate ash eruptions beginning in that year were later accompanied by lava-dome growth and pyroclastic flows that forced evacuation of the southern half of the island and ultimately destroyed the capital city of Plymouth, causing ma
or social and economic disruption.
Source: Montserrat Volcano Observatory http://www.mvo.ms/
Soufrière Hills Information from the Global Volcanism Program http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=1600-05=

ST. HELENS Washington, USA 46.20°N, 122.18°W; summit elev. 2,549 m
Growth of the new lava dome inside the crater of Mount St. Helens continued during 23-28 November, accompanied by low rates of seismicity, low emissions of steam and volcanic gases, and minor production of ash. There were no significant changes in seismicity or deformation during the report period. St Helens remained at Volcano Advisory (Alert Level 2); aviation color code Orange.
Background. Prior to 1980, Mount St. Helens formed a conical, youthful volcano sometimes known as the Fuji-san of America. During the 1980 eruption the upper
400 m of the summit was removed by slope failure, leaving a 2 x 3.5 km horseshoe-shaped crater now partially filled by a lava dome. Mount St. Helens was formed during nine eruptive periods beginning about 40-50,000 years ago, and has been the most active volcano in the Cascade Range during the Holocene. The modern edifice was constructed during the last 2,200 years, when the volcano produced basaltic as well as andesitic and dacitic products from summit and flank vents. Historical eruptions in the 19th century originated from the Goat Rocks area on the N flank, and were witnessed by early settlers.
Source: USGS Cascades Volcano Observatory http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/Volcanoes/MSH/CurrentActivity/framework.html
St. Helens Information from the Global Volcanism Program http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=1201-05-

TANAGA Aleutian Islands, USA 51.885°N, 178.146°W; summit elev.1806 m
AVO reported on 25 November that for several weeks seismicity beneath young volcanic vents on Tanaga Island decreased significantly from levels recorded in early October. Satellite images of the island showed no anomalous temperatures or evidence of ash emissions. AVO reported that based on the decrease in earthquake counts and frequency of tremor episodes, the likelihood of an eruption had diminished. Therefore, AVO downgraded the Concern Color Code from Yellow to Green .
Background. Tanaga volcano, the second largest volcanic center of the central Aleutians, is the central and highest of three youthful stratovolcanoes oriented along a roughly E-W line at the NW tip of Tanaga Island. Arcuate ridges to the E and S may represent the rim of an older caldera that cuts an older shield-like volcano. Most Holocene eruptions originated from Tanaga volcano itself, which consists of two large cones, the western of which is the highest, constructed within a caldera whose 400-m-high rim is prominent to the SE. At the westernmost end of the Tanaga complex is conical Sakaja, a 1,304-m-high double cone that may be the youngest of the three volcanoes. A thick blanket of fine ash that may have accumulated over the past several thousand years covers much of Tanaga Island.
Source: Alaska Volcano Observatory http://www.avo.alaska.edu/activity/avoreport.php?view=update
Tanaga Information from the Global Volcanism Program http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=1101-08-

TUNGURAHUA Ecuador 1.47°S, 78.44°W; summit elev. 5,023 m
During 23-28 November, volcanic activity at Tungurahua remained at low levels with small emissions of steam and gas, with low ash content. Plumes rose to a maximum height of ~6.7 km (22,000 ft) a.s.l. on 23 November.
Background. The steep-sided Tungurahua stratovolcano towers more than 3 km above its northern base. It sits ~140 km S of Quito, Ecuador's capital city, and is one of Ecuador's most active volcanoes. Historical eruptions have been restricted to the summit crater. They have been accompanied by strong explosions and sometimes by pyroclastic flows and lava flows that reached populated areas at the volcano's base. The last major eruption took place from 1916 to 1918, although minor activity continued until 1925. The latest eruption began in October 1999 and prompted temporary evacuation of the town of Baños on the N side of the volcano.
Source: Instituto Geofisico-Escuela Poltecnica Nacional http://www.igepn.edu.ec/vulcanologia/tungurahua/actividad/informet.htm
Tungurahua Information from the Global Volcanism Program http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=1502-08=

ULAWUN New Britain Island, Papua New Guinea 5.04°S, 151.34°E; summit elev.
2,334 m
A thin plume emitted from Ulawun was visible extending N on satellite imagery on
23 November.
Background. The symmetrical basaltic to andesitic Ulawun stratovolcano is the highest volcano of the Bismarck arc, and one of Papua New Guinea's most frequently active. Ulawun rises above the N coast of New Britain opposite Bamus volcano. The upper 1,000 m of the 2,334-m-high volcano is unvegetated. A steep-walled valley cuts the NW side of the volcano, and a flank lava-flow complex lies to the S of this valley. Historical eruptions date back to the beginning of the 18th century. Twentieth-century eruptions were mildly explosive until 1967, but after 1970 several larger eruptions produced lava flows and basaltic pyroclastic flows, greatly modifying the summit crater.
Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Center http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/VAAC/OTH/AU/messages.html
Ulawun Information from the Global Volcanism Program http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=0502-12=

********************************************************* Gari Mayberry US Geological Survey/Global Volcanism Program

Smithsonian Institution National Museum of Natural History MRC-119 Dept. of Mineral Sciences Washington, DC 20560-0119




 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 148 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Dec 16, 2005 (18:24) * 74 lines 
 
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Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network Volume 30, Number 10, October 2005
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Sierra Negra (Ecuador) Eruption ends 30 October; some lava on NE flank, more on E caldera floor East Pacific Rise at 10 L
44'N (Pacific Ocean) November 2003 visit finds evidence of very recent eruption Arenal (Costa Rica) Frequent pyroclastic flows from crater C since August 2004 Pacaya (Guatemala) Steam clouds and tremor in 2004; incandescence and lava flows in 2005 Santa Maria (Guatemala) Partial dome collapses in 2004; explosions and ash columns in 2005 Endeavour Segment (Juan de Fuca Ridge) Intense earthquake swarm in February-March 2005 Ol Doinyo Lengai (Tanzania) Lava continues to spill over crater rim through much of 2005
Editors: Rick Wunderman, Catherine Galley, Edward Venzke, and Gari Mayberry Volunteer Staff: Robert Andrews, Jacquelyn Gluck, Jerome Hudis, William Henoch, and Stephen Bentley

Sierra Negra Gallapagos Islands, Ecuador
0.83 L S, 91.17 L W; summit elev. 1,490 m All time are local (= UTC - 6 hours)
Our last report (BGVN 30:09) described the first five days of this eruption, and was taken largely from a valuable joint report of Ecuadorbreport information from several sources on these topics: (a) initial observations of the eruption, (b) caldera-floor deformation prior to the eruption, (c) observations of the eruptionbOctober (when it ended), and (d) satellite infrared observations of thermal fluxes associated with the eruption. Eruptionb30:09), the eruption began around 1730 on 22 October 2005, when an explosion was heard by many residents of the volcanobSatellite images showed no activity at 1715, but revealed a large eruption at 1745 local time (2345 UTC). The eruption cloud reached an estimated altitude of at least 15 km (50,000 ft) and was moving SW. At about this time, passengers and crew on Lindblad Expeditionsbpassenger vessel M/N Polaris had an excellent view of the eruptive plume (figure 1). Lucho Verdesoto, the expedition leader, reported that the ship was then at Cerro Dragon, Santa Cruz isl
nd. Sunset was at 1753. As night fell they sailed to a position ~ 18 km NE of the volcano, where they had clear views of flows descending the volcanob(figure 2).
Figure 1. Early photo of the Sierra Negra plume from the cruise ship Polaris, anchored off NW Santa Cruz island around sunset on 22 October
2005. Courtesy of Lucho Verdesoto.
Figure 2. Lava spews skyward from circumferential fissure vents near the N rim of Sierra Negra caldera as flows descend the upper N flank. The photos were taken on 22 October, during the first few hours of the eruption, from the Polaris. Courtesy of Lucho Verdesoto.
Naturalist Carman Guzman wrote, bso we decided to move the Polaris to a much closer location. After dinner, we were only eleven miles from the eruption itself. What a thrill! The darkness of the night enhanced the beauty of the fiery reds and oranges that were seen at the top of the caldera. We spent several hours enjoying this rare and fantastic event. Rivers of lava were running down the slopes of the volcano and enormous flames were lighting up the sky.b According to NASA MODIS imagery and VAAC/NOAA reports, on 25 October
2005 a large plume of gases and steam was observed in GOES 12 imagery for 1545 local time (2145 UTC). The plume extended ~ 460 km W and SW of the summit at an altitude of ~ 4.6 km. Figure 3 shows the average concentration of SO2 over the Sierra Negra plume as imaged by NASAbAura satellite for the period 23 October-1 November.
Figure 3. The average concentration of sulfur dioxide (SO2) over Sierra Negra from 23 October-1 November measured by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on NASAbfrom the ground, OMI stopped seeing measurable sulfur dioxide coming from the volcano on 31 October. The column abundances of SO2 appear on the associated key (in Dobson Units, DU, a product of concentration and pathlength that reflects the number of SO2 molecules in a unit area of the atmospheric column). Courtesy of NASA Earth Observatory/Natural Hazards website.
Deformation monitoring. In the early stages of this eruption, Bill Chadwick (NOAA) submitted a report on pre-eruption deformation (figure
4). The plot shows both Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) and GPS data on vertical deformation of the caldera floor. Chadwick wrote that he, Dennis Geist (University of Idaho), and Dan Johnson (University of Puget Sound, recently deceased) installed a 27 station GPS network at Sierra Negra in 2000, that was reoccupied in 2001 and 2002 (Geist and others, in press). With help from UNAVCO (a consortium supporting high-precision deformation measurements), the group then added a 6-station, continuous GPS network in 2002. Since then, there occurred a change from caldera subsidence to caldera uplift in March 2003. During this uplift, an M 4.6 earthquake on 16 April 2005 marked trapdoor faulting. The continuous GPS network measured a surface displacement of 85 cm within 10 seconds. Both this event and the previous case of trapdoor faulting in
1997-8-documented by satellite measurements using Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) (Amelung and others, 2000)-were preceded by over a meter of inflation (JC3nsson and others, 2005). Both the 1997-98 and 2005 trapdoor movements occurred along the caldera floorb Figure 4. Recent history of uplift at the center of Sierra Negrabcaldera. The data plotted are only through April 2005 when the trapdoor faulting event occurred. Although not plotted, GPS data since April has continued to indicate robust deformation. Courtesy Bill Chadwick, NOAA.
Aside from its immediate affects, the April 2005 earthquake left the later inflation rate unchanged. Caldera-centered uplift has continued since then without pause at about the same high rate. During the interval from March 2002 to April 2005 there was about ~ 1.2 m of uplift. Rates after the April 2005 earthquake are not plotted but were roughly the same as those during the interval March 2002-April 2005. The only other large earthquakes at Sierra Negra in the last year were an M
4.0 on 23 February 2005, which was associated with a small (2 cm) displacement near the trapdoor fault, an M 4.6 on 19 September 2005 that caused no obvious displacements, and an M 5.5, just 3 hours before the
22 October eruption started. The GPS data has not yet been processed. Field descriptions of the eruption. The eruption began on 22 October with venting along a 2-km fissure near the calderabThe fissure descended the calderabfed both northward down the outer N flank and southward onto the NE caldera floor. Although flows reached 5 km down the outer flank, flow into the caldera soon dominated, with strong channels descending inner caldera slopes before combining to form a wide a'a flow banked against the calderabdiscussion, BGVN 30:09). Figure 5 is a photo taken by Greg Estes on 24 October. It highlights the vigorous venting and intracaldera flows at that point in the eruption. Figure 6, a post-eruption satellite photo, illustrates the broad pattern of still-cooling, erupted lavas (which appear as light colored areas on this 2 November thermal-infrared image). Although this may represent the best overview of the new lavas at this time, some of the thinnest flows or chilled flow features may not appear on this
image.
Figure 5. The Sierra Negra eruption setting as viewed from the E caldera rim. The fissure vent was vigorously emitting fountains, and there were several anastomosing lava flows pouring into the caldera. Photo was taken at night on 24 October 2005, day 3 of the eruption. The scattered glow in the foreground was due to ponded lava covering the calderabfloor. Courtesy of Greg Estes (GalC!pagos resident and Park Guide).
Figure 6. The Sierra Negra eruption setting as viewed from space in a false color ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) infrared image taken at night on 2 November, ~ 3 days after the eruption ended. N is towards the top. Caldera is 7 x 10.5 km across. Note the extra-caldera, N-flank lava flows, the lunate zone of ponded lavas along the E caldera. NASA image created by Jesse Allen, Earth Observatory, using data provided courtesy of courtesy of Eric Fielding (NASA/JPL), the NASA/GSFC/METI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team.
By 26 October, fissure activity had narrowed to one major vent very near the N rim, but at 0830 on the 27th, eyewitness Godfrey Merlin reported that a second vent opened downslope and SE of the first. This new vent did not diminish the activity of the first, meaning that the total flux of erupting lava nearly doubled. by about 1400 on the 27th, a team including Dennis Geist (University of Idaho), Terry Naumann (University of Alaska), and Karen Harpp (Colgate University) had arrived at the E caldera rim and began sending back a series of valuable reports. Their first report noted a major vent immediately below GPS station SN12 on the rim NE of the caldera's center. This vent emitted a large intracaldera a'a flow. Some active N-flank vents stood about 300-400 m NW of a station (GV01) on the calderab50 m high. Most lava being erupted was flowing into the caldera,
although some of the scoria from the fountains was falling outside the caldera and then forming a short, sluggish flow. Lava inside the caldera was cascading from the vents down the slope on the N edge of the caldera in 3 main channels, each 30-40 m across, with lava flowing at ~10 m/s (36 km/h) and in some cases over 10 m/s, and coalescing into a major a'a flow to the S. On the caldera floor these channels merged into one big a'a channel about 100 m wide that flowed more slowly both to the S, clockwise along the base of the E caldera wall, and into the moat along the S edge of the caldera floor. Pahoehoe outbreaks occurred along the margins of the major a'a flow. New a'a lava covered an estimated one-third of the caldera floor. The report for 28 October noted that the eruption was still going strong. There were no significant new events on this day, but it appeared that the lava flux had increased because the vents looked wider wider and there seemed to be a lot more gas emitted. The lava continued to feed
from the vents to the caldera floor in two large streams, each ~
20 m across with lava traveling at 5-10 m/s, adding up to probably hundreds of millions of cubic meters of lava per day. The a'a field continued to grow. The group reached the caldera floor and were able to sample both lava and tephra. By 0700 on the 29th some of the vents had shut down and the two lava channels to the W (previously fed by the upper vent) stopped moving. The lower vent still emitted lava and fed one channel E of the others. The team estimated the channel to be ~ 10 m wide and moving ~5 m/s. Assuming a 2-m depth, the lava flux was 5 to 10 million cubic meters per day, about half that seen the morning of the 29th The emission rate continued to diminish throughout the 29th and by the evening it was only 10-20% of that seen on the 28th. In addition, the amount of gases emitted decreased such that the gas plume only rose ~ 1 km, whereas earlier plumes had risen to several kilometers. The lower vent was no longer fountaining continuously as it had on the 28th; instead the fountaining came in bur
ts at intervals of about 1-30 seconds. A lava lake sloshed around in the lower ventblava escaped this crater along a breach in the crater rim. The upper vent (the one that shut off) was still incandescent with a lot of gas coming out, so it was possible that there was a lava lake there too. The eruption appeared to end on the 30th. Glow was observed at 0200, but had ceased by 0400. The vents still emitted gas, but not fresh lava. However, it was possible that there was still N-flank activity. There were reports of lava flows there, and while it was certain that at least some of these flows were clastogenic (composed of spatter from fire fountains that accumulated and then began to flow), it was uncertain whether there were also actively erupting flank vents. The team remained separated from this area by hot lava, thwarting reconnaissance. Initial estimates of the coverage of the caldera floor were an area of ~ 14 km2. Assuming a 3-4 m average flow thickness, this was ~ 0.05 km3 (50,000,000 m3) of lava. Ther
were obviously high error bars on this estimate, but it was clearly much less than the ~ 1 km3 extruded in the 1979 eruption. MODVOLC Thermal Alerts. A large set of thermal hotspots in multispectral imagery was observed beginning late 22 October (local time and date) and continuing through 16 November 2005 (figure 7). Although MODVOLC data were missing for some days and reduced for others (presumably due to cloud cover screening the radiation from the satellite) these hot-spot pixels dramatically document the course of the eruption. Data on figure 7 appear consistent with in-situ observations, in that by the second day, lava was at least 5 km down the outer N slope and covering much of the E caldera floor. By the 8th day (30 October), the outer slope flows had cooled significantly, but flows inside the caldera had continued their clockwise advance, filling all low points to the extreme SW corner of the caldera. Ten days later (9 November), the eruption had ended and only flows from the vents to the SE cald
ra floor were still emitting detectable heat. The last pixels observed, two above the original vent area on the N rim, were on 16 November.
Figure 7. Selected images of MODVOLC thermal anomalies for Sierra Negra measured from satellite (MODIS) data at three days during and after the
2005 eruption. Part A presents an overview of the region (smaller scale than the other images) on 24 October. Parts B-D give a zoom-in on the 7 x 10.5 km caldera. Part B represents 24 October; Part C, 30 October; and part D, 9 November 2005. Since the eruption ended 30 October, the latter two images must thus portray the post-eruptive thermal inertial of the cooling lavas. Courtesy of Hawai`i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, University of Hawai`i.
References: Amelung, F., JC3nsson, S., Zebker, H., and Segall, P.,
2000, Widespread uplift and bobserved with radar interferometry: Nature, v. 407, p.
993-996. Geist, D.J., Chadwick, W.W., Jr., and Johnson, D.J., in press, Results from new GPS monitoring networks at Fernandina and Sierra Negra volcanoes, GalC!pagos, 2000-2002: Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research (in press). JC3nsson, S., H. Zebker, and F. Amelung, 2005, On trapdoor faulting at Sierra Negra volcano, GalC!pagos; Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, v. 144, p. 59-71. Background. The broad shield volcano of Sierra Negra at the southern end of Isabela Island contains a shallow 7 x 10.5 km caldera that is the largest in the GalC!pagos Islands. The 1,490-m-high volcano is elongated in a NNE direction. Although Sierra Negra is the largest of the five major Isabela volcanoes, it has the flattest slopes, averaging less than
5 degrees and diminishing to 2 degrees near the coast. A sinuous, N-S-trending ridge occupies the W part of the caldera floor, which lies only 100 m below its rim. VolcC!n de Azufre, the largest fumarolic area in the GalC!pagos Islands, lies within a graben between this ridge and the W caldera wall. The 1979 lava flows from Sierra Negra extend all the way to the N coast from circumferential fissure vents on the upper northern flank, an area dotted with cinder and spatter cones. Sierra Negra, along with Cerro Azul and VolcC!n Wolf, is one of the most active of Isabela Islandb Information Contacts: Lucho Verdesoto and Carman Guzman, M/N Polaris, GalC!pagos Islands, Ecuador (Email: explead.polaris@expeditions.amosconnect.com); Francisco Dousdebes, GalC!pagos Expedition Manager, Metropolitan Touring, Ecuador (Email: fdousbedes@metropolitan-touring.com); Lindblad Expeditions (URL: http://www.expeditions.com/); U.S. National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA), (URL: http://earthobservatory.nasa.go
/; http://www.nasa.gov/vision/earth/); Bill Chadwick, Cooperative Institute for Marine Resources Studies (CIMRS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Agency (NOAA) Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL), Oregon State University, 2115 SE OSU Drive, Newport, OR 97365, USA (Email: William.W.Chadwick@noaa.gov); Dennis Geist, Department of Geological Sciences, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844-3022 USA (Email: dgeist@uidaho.edu); Terry Naumann, Department of Geology, University of Alaska at Anchorage, Anchorage, AK 99598, USA (Email: aftrn@uaa.alaska.edu; URL: http://geology.uaa.alaska.edu/); Karen Harpp, Department of Geology, Colgate University, 408 Lathrop Hall, Hamilton, NY 13346, USA (Email: kharpp@mail.colgate.edu; URL: http://classes.colgate.edu/kharpp/khwebpage/); MODVOLC Alerts Team, Hawaii Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP), University of Hawaii at Manoa, 1680 East-West Road, Post 602, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/).

East Pacific Rise at 10 L
44bPacific Ocean
10.73 L N, ~ 105 L W
In a recent publication, Rubin and van der Zander (2005) discuss radiometric methods for dating lavas as one means to establish eruption chronologies. Some of their techniques were applied to samples of fresh lava (erupted September-October 2003) found on the East Pacific Rise (EPR) at 10 L
44bkm WNW of the GalC!pagos Islands. During a November 2003 biological sampling visit to the EPR at 10 L
44bexpected to be revisiting an established hydrothermal vent field. Instead, they found indicia all of which were consistent with a recent eruption, notably fresh lava, bacterial mats, and diffuse snow- blower vents issuing from lava collapses. The team acted immediately after the cruise by sending the lava samples to the University of Hawai`i for dating. Researchers there determined that an eruption had occurred within 1 to 2 months prior to the site visit. A hydrophone array (designated N-EPR) nominally monitored this part of the EPR since 1996, but not in real time. Unfortunately, the system failed to record data during the 2002-2004 interval due to a hardware problem. Ages for lavas erupted within the past 1.5-2 years were determined with the 210Po-210Pb dating method (Rubin and others, 1994). To use this method, analyses should begin as soon as possible after samples are collected from suspected eruption locales. Radioactive disequilibrium is largest, and temporal resolution of the method is highest,
immediately following eruption. According to Rubin and van der Zander (2005, p. 28) bwhen they erupt. This creates an initial 210Po (half-life = 138.4 day) deficit relative to grand parental 210Pb in freshly erupted magmas. This deficit is subsequently erased with time via radioactive ingrowth toward secular equilibrium.b References: Rubin, K.H., Macdougall, J.D., and Perfit, M.R., 1994,
210Po-210Pb dating of recent volcanic eruptions on the seafloor: Nature, v. 368, p. 841-844. Rubin, K., and van der Zander, I., 2005, Obtaining high-resolution chronologies of submarine lava eruptions: Better dating through radiochemistry: Ridge 2000 Events, v. 3 (Spring 2005), p. 28-30. Voight, J. R., Zierenberg, R.A., McClain, J., and the Science Party: Batson, P., Beers, K., Daly, M., Dushman, B., Gollner, S., Govenar, B., Haney, T.A., Hourdez, S., Liow, L.H., Parker, C., Von Damm, K., Zekley, J., and Zelnio, K.A., 2004, FIELD cruise to the northern EPR: Discoveries made during biological investigations from 8 L
37bL
48b Information Contact: Ken Rubin, Department of Geology and Geophysics, SOEST, University of Hawai`i, 1680 East West Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (Email: krubin@hawaii.edu).

Arenal Costa Rica
10.463 L N, 84.703 L W; summit elev. 1,657 m All times are local (= UTC - 6 hours)
As described in the previous Arenal report (BGVN 29:08), on 6 July
2004 a series of pyroclastic flows descended the NE flank. These flows resulted from the collapse of the upper portions of a lava flow, and affected areas beyond those affected by pyroclastic flows during
1999-2003. Similar events have been common in recent years on the volcanobflows, and sporadic strombolian eruptions through 2004 and at least as late as November 2005. Throughout the period of this report (August
2004-September 2005) the lava flow that began to be emitted towards the NE flank in June 2004 remained active. Occasional blocks spalled off the N edge of the crater towards the NE. The NE and SE flanks continued to be affected by pyroclastic flows and acid rain. Crater D displayed fumarole activity from July 2004 through September 2005. The seismograph station VACR (2.9 km NE of the active Crater C) was out of service from
24 June 2004 until 20 August 2004. Table 1 summarizes the seismicity registered at VACR from August 2004 to September 2005.
Table 1. Seismic activity registered at Arenalb2004 - September 2005. From 24 June to 20 August 2004 VACR was not operating. No data were reported for ecember 2004. Courtesy of OVSICORI-UNA.
During July 2004-January 2005, pyroclastic flows were produced by the collapse of the active lava flow front. In August 2004 some eruptions generated ash columns higher than 500 m above Crater C. Through most of February 2005 Arenal was hidden by storm clouds, but late in the month it could be observed that the lava flow formerly active on the NE flank had stopped, and no other active flow was seen. The number of eruptions and the amount of ejected pyroclastic material were both reduced in February, and few eruptions produced plumes as high as 500 m. The dome in Crater C continued to grow. At the beginning of March a SW-trending lava flow was observed, and blocks were ejected to the W. During April 2005 this flow continued, and ejected blocks caused small fires in the surrounding vegetation. A new lava flow began on the SE flank, and blocks ejected to the S and SE again caused fires. In May and June 2005 the SW flow continued. In July the SW lava flow deposited blocks towards the SW, the W and the NW. The S
lava flow released small avalanches off its front and sides. Occasional eruptions produced ash columns higher than 500 m above Crater C. In August 2005 the SE lava flow stopped. Few eruptions produced ash columns higher than 500 m above Crater C. During September 2005 the SW lava flow was active and deposited blocks to the SW, the W and the NW. The NE and SE flanks continued to be affected by the fall of pyroclastic material and acid rain. Observatorio VulcanolC3gico y SismolC3gico de Costa Rica -Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA) reported that around 1500 on 2 November a pyroclastic flow was observed on the SE flank of Arenal. On 3 November researchers from OVSICORI-UNA visited the affected area and, contrary to what witnesses had reported, determined that the 2 November event took place on the W flank of the volcano. The mid-size pyroclastic flow produced gas, dust, and ash that were carried by strong winds towards the SE. Despite the rainy and hazy conditions during the fieldwork it was possible to con
irm the affected area and deposits. The movement of lava flows on the SW flank had been observed for the last several months. Materials descending from the summit bifurcate, covering a wide fan that ranges from the W to the SW flank. The main pyroclastic flow affected an area from the summit down to ~ 1000 m altitude. A smooth alley was carved in the steep walls of upper W flank by the transport of incandescent material. Most of the material was deposited in a distal zone 75 m wide, at the break in the steep upper cone slope. Samples were taken from hot loose blocks spalled from the lava flow; one block was still at 154 B:C, and was accompanied by several other massive blocks that were fractured by rapid cooling and rough transport. There is evidence that the fine fall material was only deposited in the upper and middle part of the edifice towards the SE. Given the sustained deposition of material in the area, visitors were advised to follow instructions and safety measures and adhere to the advice of the P
rk Rangers and tour guides. Background. Conical VolcC!n Arenal is the youngest stratovolcano in Costa Rica and one of its most active. The 1,657-m-high andesitic volcano towers above the E shores of Lake Arenal, which has been enlarged by a hydroelectric project. Arenal lies along a volcanic chain that has migrated to the NW from the late-Pleistocene Los Perdidos lava domes through the Pleistocene-to-Holocene Chato volcano, which contains a 500-m-wide, lake-filled summit crater. The earliest known eruptions of Arenal took place about 7,000 years ago, and it was active concurrently with Cerro Chato until the activity of Chato ended about 3,500 years ago. Growth of Arenal has been characterized by periodic major explosive eruptions at several-hundred-year intervals and periods of lava effusion that armor the cone. Arenalbmajor explosive eruption in 1968. Continuous explosive activity accompanied by slow lava effusion and the occasional emission of pyroclastic flows has occurred since then from vents at the su
mit and on the upper W flank. Information Contacts: Eliecer Duarte, Observatorio VulcanolC3gico y SismolC3gico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA), Apartado
86-3000, Heredia, Costa Rica. (URL: http://www.ovsicori.una.ac.cr/).

Pacaya Guatemala
14.381 L N, 90.601 L W; summit elev. 2,552 m All times are local (= UTC - 6 hours)
Frequent steam plumes through 2002 and 2003 indicated that Pacaya was active, although incandescence from the long-term lava lake ended after June 2001. During the latter half of October 2003 constant steam and abundant emissions of water and gas were being blown to the NNW and W of the volcano (BGVN 28:10). All of the following information is derived from the reports of Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hydrologia (INSIVUMEH). Throughout November and December 2003 and the first half of 2004, abundant clouds and columns of white and off-white gases and steam were expelled from Pacaya, generally reaching less than 400 m above the volcano and dispersing mostly to the W and SW; these were occasionally visible from Guatemala City, 30 km to the NNE. During June, July, and August 2004, near-continuous tremor and frequent long-period earthquakes were recorded at seismograph station PCG (~ 1.4 km to the W of Pacaya). On 14 June, weak incandescence was observed in the central crater of M
cKenney Cone for the first time since August
2000. Pacaya continued to expel off-white smoke and/or steam which usually drifted to the S and SW and rose to 150-300 m above the volcano. On 19 July, ejection of small lava fragments began to form a cone in the bottom of the central crater of MacKenney Cone. During September-November 2004, tremor increased somewhat (from ~
2mm in June, July, and September to 4-7 mm in December), and white steam and/or gas plumes rose 300-500 m above MacKenney Cone. Incandescence was observed throughout this time and lava clasts were expelled from the MacKenney Cone on 7-9 December. On 3 January 2005, small expulsions of incandescent lava clasts rose from the central crater, and a narrow lava flow from the S rim of the crater reached 75-100 m down the flank. Station PCG continued to register tremor, and incandescence and white plumes persisted. On 10 January, lava flowed ~ 30 m from the SW rim of the central crater of MacKenney Cone. On 12 January, two lava flows, one to the S ( ~ 125 m) and one to the SW (~ 50 m) left the central crater.



 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 149 of 192: Paul Terry Walhus (terry) * Fri, Mar 31, 2006 (13:56) * 1 lines 
 
Marci were around for the Kileua eruption in '83?


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 150 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Apr  1, 2006 (12:49) * 1 lines 
 
OH YES!!! That is why I am Kilauea83 on a lot of places.


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 151 of 192: Paul Terry Walhus (terry) * Sat, Apr  1, 2006 (21:24) * 1 lines 
 
What was it like?


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 152 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Apr  4, 2006 (19:49) * 3 lines 
 
Great question. Let me collect my thoughta and write what it is like to know a volcano near you is erupting and what it is like to drive up then walk in to see it. What it looks like. What it sounds like; how it smells, tastes, feels.

I have been contemplating doing this anyway. Let me work on it now. Thank you for asking.


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 153 of 192: Paul Terry Walhus (terry) * Wed, Apr  5, 2006 (22:37) * 1 lines 
 
Thanks for doing this. The feeling and visuals must have been awesome.


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 154 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Apr  6, 2006 (18:22) * 3 lines 
 
My vocabulary is pretty good but this will tax it to the utmost.

In The Beginning...



 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 155 of 192: Paul Terry Walhus (terry) * Thu, Apr  6, 2006 (22:45) * 2 lines 
 
Good start.
Go on.


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 156 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Apr  9, 2006 (14:01) * 5 lines 
 
When you live on an active volcano with historic eruptions, you hope and expect to see it erupt. With that in mind, there are several ways to find out if it is happening. Early on, we wandered around at night looking up our dark street through the windows. Later we had radio broadcasts and television news to tell us that Kilauea was erupting. The best came later when we had scanner capabilities and had them tuned to the Hawaii Volcanoes Observatory and the National Park Service Rangers.

Kilauea's current eruption began at night on January 3, 1983. The glow up the usually dark street told us either the whole world was on fire up there or we were having another eruption. That glow has since been obliterated by the use of low pressure orange-colored street lights which match and cancel out any eruption glow that might be there.

As soon as it was ascertained that there WAS a new eruption occuring, Some of us ran for heavy jackets, others for water, cheese and apples, and yet another for the binoculars and cameras and flashlights. We were ready to recored the new earth forming.


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 157 of 192: Paul Terry Walhus (terry) * Sun, Apr  9, 2006 (21:16) * 1 lines 
 
Wow, this is getting exciting. I can't wait for the next episode.


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 158 of 192: Tsiktsik  (tsiktsik) * Sun, Apr  9, 2006 (21:44) * 9 lines 
 
Came across this site doing research for Sangay, Tungurahua, and Reventador. Some recent pictures of Tung are available here ...

http://www.geocities.com/tsiktsikco/picsvolcano.html








 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 159 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Apr 10, 2006 (12:49) * 5 lines 
 
Tsiktsik, many thanks for posting that link. Your exeriences outrank mine by quite a bit. I will ad Mauna Loa after I get finished with Kilauea. Did you know the Kraffts?

I have so many questions for you I hardly know where to begin, but for starters I see you have Paracutin volcano included. It was my first volcano eruption and I'd really like to have a DVD or some form of video of the eruption (not in real life... in books.) I know the footage exists. I just can't find it for sale anywhere. Suggestions?

Welcome to Geo!


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 160 of 192: Curious Wolfie  (wolf) * Mon, Apr 10, 2006 (18:04) * 1 lines 
 
marcia, kilauea started to erupt in 1983? is it still in business?


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 161 of 192: Curious Wolfie  (wolf) * Mon, Apr 10, 2006 (18:05) * 1 lines 
 
*woops* forgot to close my tag *grin*


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 162 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Apr 10, 2006 (18:55) * 1 lines 
 
Yes, as of this post Kilauea is erupting in a phase (last time I noted the phase it was 55) and has her own web camera http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/cam/index.htm


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 163 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Apr 10, 2006 (18:56) * 4 lines 
 


0540 April 10
The main three vents, East Pond Vent, January Vent, and Drainhole, joined by South Wall Complex, are barely visible this morning owing to thick fume.


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 164 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Apr 10, 2006 (19:05) * 7 lines 
 
Now, as we drive the 30 or so miles to the eruption (uphill all the way) which takes about 45 minutes or so, let me tell you what we are wearing. We know we might get rained on so we each have light-weight ponchos stashed in our back packs. We wear several layers of hooded sweatshirts and wind proof jackets. The heaviest jeans are best for hiking, and mandatory is leather hiking boots covering the ankles as well as the foot. New lava is very sharp and broken. It is very easy to twist ankles and to get cuts. Flashlights with new fresh batteries are also mandatory and water bottles. Each one has his own stashed in back packs, too. Spam musubi and apples are my favorite hiking food but you can use apples and cheese and rice balls or cookies just as well. We are stuffed into the car with many layers on. In winter I would add thermal leggings to the lot under the jeans I am wearing. You need the hooded jackets to keep the lapilli from getting down your neck. New eruptions have high fountaining which
pins out volcanic glass and it gets into everything. Wearing some sort of eye protection is also a good idea.

Check which way the wind is going and plan to hike accordingly. Listen to the car scanner to see where they are opening the space to park near the activity.
Join the rest of the car parade snaking its way up the mountain. You should be ahead of most of the people who actually sleep at night.




 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 165 of 192: Curious Wolfie  (wolf) * Tue, Apr 11, 2006 (17:52) * 1 lines 
 
oh goodie, i lost the webcam, thanks for reposting!


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 166 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Apr 12, 2006 (17:13) * 1 lines 
 
By this time you are begining to notice that the inky blackness of the outdoors is gaining a decidedly orange hue which is brighter near the horizon. As you ascend the mountain the glow brightens until it appears to be the world's largest forest fire happening right in front of you a few miles up the road. Anticipation mounts as you pass over the National Park Boundary and head for the Hawaii Volcanoes Observatory on the rim of the summit caldera of Kilauea Volcano. You are not the first to arrive by any means but you are one who is properly attired for the duration and you notice the others are all dressed much as you are complete with hiking boots covering the ankles. You park and walk and walk toward the buildings to gain more information. Then you see it.


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 167 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Apr 16, 2006 (16:46) * 3 lines 
 
Around the side of the building where all the seismographs are house you note that the glow up here in an intense orange bordering on becoming yeallow. You stretch to see more but you need to be clear of the building to do that. Rather than go inside to get the update, you walk as quickly as you can to the overlook into a dark summit caldera anc across to the source of the immense roar you hear. A great lava fountain is dancing before you. Higher and Higher it goes with several smaller fountains joining it. You speak to no one in particular that this is the famous "Curtain of Fire" with which such volcano eruptions begin. A crack opens when the magma has built up enough stress and fractures the rock above it seeking release. They will eventually seal themselves off saving the main fountain to contiue the eruption.

Thank you Æ for your encouragement. I am never sure if anyone reads what I post.


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 168 of 192: Curious Wolfie  (wolf) * Mon, Apr 17, 2006 (20:00) * 1 lines 
 
silly goose, of course we read what you post *HUGS*


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 169 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Apr 18, 2006 (16:01) * 3 lines 
 
I could divert my comments from the burgeoning eruption and tell you how to cut apples so they leave no trace behind while you hike, or how to wrap cheese without destroying it while in your backpack, but I think, like me, you are captivated by the scene in front of me, and want more information. People start walking up beside you, and like you they talk quietly to the inky blackness of the night broken by wildly gyrating fountains of molten rock. Your neck folds back on itself trying to see the very top. Gauging by the 45° angle straight out in front of you, it seems to cover at least 70° of your view. You wonder how high they are and how far away. In this surreal night vision nothing is as it seems. You finally wander back to the Observatory and go inside to find out anything they know about what is going on outside.

(Thank you, readers, for bearing with my terrible but excited typing. I am really enjoying reliving this great adventure.)


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 170 of 192: Rob Glennie  (southernalps) * Thu, Apr 20, 2006 (04:46) * 9 lines 
 
Kia Ora

I am waiting here for a report that says a debris dam plugging the outlet of Mount Ruapehu's crater lake, has finally failed. One formed after the 1995-96 eruption sequence, which emptied the lake. The lake level is now 1.2 metres or about 4ft above the hard rock rim, but the dam will most likely fail when the level is 5-7 metres (17-23ft above the rim).

It WILL fail. The last time this happened in 1953, it knocked out the railway bridge at Tangiwai minutes before a fully loaded passenger train crossed - 151 people were killed. This time we know it is going to happen eventually, as there is a warning system embedded in the river upstream, and the Ministry of Civil Defence has put together a response plan for dealing with the aftermath.

You will probably recall a few weeks ago NZ volcano Raoul Island erupted killing a Department of Conservation worker on the island. I just want to confirm no body has been found.

Rob


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 171 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Apr 20, 2006 (21:00) * 1 lines 
 
Thanks for that update, Rob. Yes, I noticed that fatality. Volcanoes have killed a good number of people I know. Was there no warning?


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 172 of 192: Paul Terry Walhus (terry) * Fri, Apr 21, 2006 (12:18) * 10 lines 
 
I got Rob's pictures up at

http://spring.net/geo/rob/

Funny thing. I created that page for Rob and went to save it. And I forgot what directory I was in and saved it right over the top of the geo main page. Oh boy. At first, I rushed off to the Wayback Machine and grabbed an old copy of the geo main page and installed it.

Then I realized that just last Sunday I got a new server up and running and copied every single file from the Spring on to it. So I just went over there and found last Sunday's geo main page and used that.

http://spring.net/geo/index.wayback.html is the page I dug out of the history archives. But it would have been out of date.



 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 173 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Apr 22, 2006 (21:20) * 1 lines 
 
That is the link on Geo's front page that John of Greece created for his earthquake research data and other things not Geo conference. We'd never have gotten back here if you had done that. Please be careful. I love goback but it needs to go back to http://www.spring.net/yapp-bin/restricted/browse/geo/all or http://www.spring.net/yapp-bin/restricted/browse/geo/all/new. How big is this file? I may need to make a copy of it for myself. I can'r bear to think of it just disappearing because someone went "oops"


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 174 of 192: Paul Terry Walhus (terry) * Mon, Apr 24, 2006 (17:52) * 2 lines 
 
Well, with the new server I have everyhing backed up daily. And I'll be adding another backup server as well.



 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 175 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Apr 27, 2006 (18:01) * 6 lines 
 
As you walk back, you feel the earth moving beneath your feet. It is a kind of constant background rumble like an approaching train might make. You know from past experience that it is the multitude of earthquakes that accompany any volcanic eruption. The earth has been wrenched apart and liquid magma has forced itself to the surface. Gases trapped in the magma now burst free creating noxious fumes and an impressive cloud over the main vents.
Still the movement continue. At the rate magma is leaving the vent, you think it will stop soon since there just can't be that much molten rock down there. Time for an aside. If you can see molten rock, it is lava. If it is still underground but molten, it is magma.

The sound behind you is nothing like you expected. I'm not sure what I expected, but it sounded like hundreds of jet engine tethered just out of sight at full blast. The taste is strangely like dried celery leaves and so is the smell of the night rain on the hot rocks.

Inside the observatory, little knots of people are discussing what they know and what they have just seen, Coffee is unnecessary. There is nothing quite like a rawness of a new eruption to keep your senses alert, especially when you have just gotten to where you could see it. The seismographs are busy hitting the pins on either side of each drum. We are too close to the source of the motion to get anything like reliable measurements from these seismographs, but it is fun to watch them batting around making wild arcs on the paper. A ranger nearby is watching one of the staff geologists making a map. Now we will all know exactly where that fountain activity is happening and how close to it we will be allowed to go.


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 176 of 192: Curious Wolfie  (wolf) * Thu, Apr 27, 2006 (20:21) * 1 lines 
 
how do you remember this with such detail? amazing, i can almost smell everything!


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 177 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Apr 30, 2006 (07:07) * 3 lines 
 
Many years of attending eruptions and enthusiastic curiosity has made the whole experience a permanent part of my memory. As this progresses, more and more different eruptions will be brought into play. They are never the same, twice. When you see rock - that really hard stuff that mountains are made of and that lasts "forever" - in molten form spraying high into the night sky as incandescent fountains, or see the rivers of lava oblitering everything in its path, it is not like any other experience. This taffy-like substance will surely never build great mountains or even be inhabitable. Everything your mind knows about Earth rebels at such a suggestion. So you watch... fascinated. If you ever thought a fireplace hypnotic, you can imagine the fascination of a Hawaiian volcano eruption.

Only one person we have taken to see such events has ever just stayed in the car and not wanted to see or experience it at all. My mother.


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 178 of 192: Paul Terry Walhus (terry) * Sat, May 13, 2006 (06:56) * 1 lines 
 
Mount Merapi, which has been smouldering for three weeks, is threatening to erupt on the Indonesian island of Java. The volcano has been spewing gasses, ash and lava, prompting officials to raise the threat status to the highest level. ...


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 179 of 192: Rob Glennie  (southernalps) * Tue, May 16, 2006 (22:43) * 5 lines 
 
Kia Ora

Gunung Merapi (local name)is on a roll. The gas flows referred to in some reports were pyroclastic surges. There is a lava dome in the summit crater and it is still expanding. Yahoo News has been good at covering it, and the regular media are doing okay too.

Rob


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 180 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Jun 14, 2006 (11:31) * 1 lines 
 
Interesting tv coverage plus fantastic internet images. Indonesia is a very volcanically unstable place. Keep watching!


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 181 of 192: geomancer (cfadm) * Sun, Jul  8, 2007 (18:58) * 46 lines 
 
http://www.geonet.org.nz/volcano/volcams.html

Remote cameras are an important aid to our volcanologists. They allow them to quickly assess the status of the volcanoes, especially if they have recently recorded unusual seismic events or there have been reports of eruptions. A set of images from the last twenty-four hours may be displayed for each camera site by clicking on the volcano links at the right-hand side of this page. Larger versions of the latest seismograph recordings may be displayed by clicking on the thumbnail seismic drums.
White Island from Whakatane.

White Island from Whakatane. White Island Crater (floor).

White Island Crater (floor). White Island Crater (rim).

White Island Crater (rim). White Island Seismic Drum.

White Island Seismic Drum.
Ngauruhoe Volcano.

Ngauruhoe Volcano. Ngauruhoe Seismic Drum.

Ngauruhoe Seismic Drum.
Ruapehu Volcano.

Ruapehu Volcano. Ruapehu Seismic Drum.

Ruapehu Seismic Drum.
Taranaki (Egmont Volcano).

Taranaki (Egmont Volcano). Taranaki Seismic Drum.

Taranaki Seismic Drum.

The images from the cameras are made possible with the support of the following organisations:

* Environment Bay of Plenty
* Heli Pro (New Zealand)
* Mountain Air
* PeeJay Charters
* Taranaki Regional Council
* Volcanic Air Safaris
* Vulcan Helicopters
* White Island Trust

GNS Science EQC (Earthquake Commission)




from the above web page.



 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 182 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Jul 28, 2007 (11:32) * 2 lines 
 
Fathers Day this year (June) began a new episode in the Kilauea eruption of 1983 cycle.
You can watch it happen http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/cam3/ Photos are best a night since the glowing lava is more apparent. I will write more on this. It has been very exciting. But, mostly, I do not miss being there.


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 183 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Jul 28, 2007 (11:45) * 1 lines 
 
Thank you William for finding my way into here. I thought it was here where my visit-the-volcano appeared but I could not find it. But, I continue...


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 184 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Jul 28, 2007 (16:55) * 1 lines 
 
It is finally our lucky day. The most violent stages of the eruption have died down a bit and the earth under your feet have taken to gentle movements in less frantic fashion. Now, with your pockets stuffed with snacks, a flashlight attached to your belt and a water bottle on your hip you are ready to file in orderly fashion after the lead Park Ranger who is opening the trail for you. You hae a small group of dedicated people who waited with you and discussed other eruptions they had seen while the wait went on... and on. You leave the Volcano Observatory in a train of cars behind the Ranger car. It is on a roadway where we are going but there is little room there for parking so we are taken in small groups of 20 or so and the rest wait their turn at the observatory like we did.


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 185 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Jul 28, 2007 (17:44) * 2 lines 
 
Not even Christmas morning can bring on the excitment of being one of the first cars down the road to a new eruption. The road is often wiggly where it once was straight, and there are ominous cracks of measurable width across them and you have to negotiate as lightly as possible your way down the fractured paving.
The fragrance of burning asphalt comes to you strongly as you get close, and finally you are allowed to turn around and park. All cars must be facing out of the danger ares for quick retreat should the situation change. It is night but the sky is a dark blood red and suddenly over the shoulders of the people in front of you you see incadescent globs of lava being lofted high into the air. We are there !


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 186 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Jul 28, 2007 (17:47) * 1 lines 
 
(As far as I know, no one but the Hawaii Volcanoes Observatory scientists have been allowed into the field to see the current new eruptive phase, but this is a little like what they are going through. There are excellent pictures on the website of HVO and if you look at night you will see similar scenes to the ones I am describing.)


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 187 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Jul 28, 2007 (17:56) * 1 lines 
 
YOu forget about the grit between your back teeth and the itchy grit falling down the back of your neck and you walk too rapidly for the Ranger. He calls you back and you walk as patiently as possibly behind him trying to see where you are going. If it is in a pit crater you will be looking far across a gigantic hole in the ground to see anything (like my first eruption was. If it is down an incline out on the older lava flows, you are fortunate and will be able to get as close to it as you can. They allow you to do this since 2000 degree (F) rock is so hot it makes its own force field of heat and you can't get too close. You might try to pick up a piece of new lava nearby to look at it more closely but it will burn your fingers (It really does !) You can be there for long enough to listen to what it sounds like, to be aware of how it tastes, how the various colors of black thru red to yellow and white hot merge and blend into the velvet of the night.


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 188 of 192: Lucie  (alyeska) * Sat, Jul 28, 2007 (18:41) * 1 lines 
 
I t sounds interesting. Are you still in Hawaii?


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 189 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Jul 29, 2007 (16:01) * 1 lines 
 
NO, I am in the midwest permanently or as permanently away from Hawaii as I can get. Hawaii is a strange place. One should never try to live in Paradise lest all you find, finally, are the snakes.


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 190 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Jul 29, 2007 (16:02) * 1 lines 
 
I do miss the night hikes to see eruptions, though.


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 191 of 192: geomancer (cfadm) * Thu, Aug 30, 2007 (16:00) * 1 lines 
 
Well, at least you got a taste of Hawaii, and learned from it.


 Topic 77 of 99 [Geo]: Living with Volcanoes
 Response 192 of 192: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Jun 30, 2008 (19:34) * 5 lines 
 
Oh indeed and now folks you can watch the summit glow of a crater that appeared when the summit had a minor explosive event. The pit is several hundred feet deep and has been quite bright at night. It makes a great night light to leave it on as your desktop.

http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/cam3/



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