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Topic 2 of 99: Vulcanism

Sat, Jul 10, 1999 (18:09) | Marcia (MarciaH)
Volcanoes: Eruption locations and updates
997 responses total.

 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 1 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Jul 10, 1999 (18:19) * 2 lines 
 
The Island of Hawaii has an ongoing eruption from Kilauea Volcano's southeast rift. It began in 1983 and has been active almost continuously since then. It has covered two subdivisions, a church founded by Father Damien, a Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Visitor Center plus a nearby campground.It completely destroyed a landmark black sand beach at Kalapana. At the same time, it has been creating new land mass (highly unstable), more black sand beaches and topographic features such as cinder cones and spa
ter cones. It is visible from the Hawaii Volcanoes National Park and Park Rangers are on duty.


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 2 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Jul 10, 1999 (23:18) * 3 lines 
 
This link will take you directly to Hawaii Volcanoes Observatory for the latest eruption updates, maps and links to other volcanic sites.
http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/kilauea/update/



 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 3 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Jul 10, 1999 (23:30) * 6 lines 
 
The other definitive source of information on Hawaii's volcanoes with many links
http://www.soest.hawaii.edu/GG/HCV/eruption.html


This is daybreak over Pu'u 'O'o



 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 4 of 997: wer  (KitchenManager) * Sun, Jul 11, 1999 (00:24) * 1 lines 
 
now that is a sunrise I could get up for every day!


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 5 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Jul 11, 1999 (00:30) * 1 lines 
 
*smile* It is less than thirty miles from where I am sitting.


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 6 of 997: anne hale  (ommin) * Sun, Jul 11, 1999 (05:52) * 0 lines 
 


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 7 of 997: anne hale  (ommin) * Sun, Jul 11, 1999 (05:53) * 0 lines 
 


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 8 of 997: Wolf  (wolf) * Sun, Jul 11, 1999 (17:26) * 1 lines 
 
wow, it's beautiful though!


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 9 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Jul 11, 1999 (18:17) * 1 lines 
 
When you are there all night and you see the dawn breaking over an active vent it is like seeing the Earth on the very first day of creation. It is an awesome feeling. No one speaks. Very moving and spiritual.


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 10 of 997: anne hale  (ommin) * Sun, Jul 11, 1999 (21:50) * 0 lines 
 


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 11 of 997: anne hale  (ommin) * Sun, Jul 11, 1999 (21:54) * 1 lines 
 
I can understand your experience Marcia must be intensely spiritual. The earth is certainly a wonderful place - a pity those who could help the most rarely do - that is to preserve it.


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 12 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Jul 11, 1999 (22:19) * 2 lines 
 
Thanks for your persistance, Anne. It is a delight to see you posting here. Perhaps you will help me with the Gaia topic and give us some insight from UK and OZ perspective. (I can use all the help I can get. I don't want to be all
alone here necessarily. All are welcome!)


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 13 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Jul 15, 1999 (01:25) * 5 lines 
 
From a former Hilo resident who is trying to clear his username and password to join us comes this comment on my eruption picture above:

Marcia: Great work on your page! Beautiful shot of the vent, but I think I can top sunrise or sunset. If you want to feel connected properly to the universe, try going about a mile offshore of old Kalapana in a boat on a clear night. That far out, one can get the complete sweep of the Milky Way above you. Then, when you look at Pu'u 'O, you can see the glow of the lava as it leaves the caldera, as well as the gas jets of blue and orange shooting skyward. Once you see it as a tapestry all around yo
, it will stay in your heart forever.




 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 14 of 997: Wolf  (wolf) * Thu, Jul 15, 1999 (09:00) * 1 lines 
 
is david a poet too? my goodness! it sounds breathtaking....


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 15 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Jul 15, 1999 (13:54) * 1 lines 
 
No - except for funny things we make up together. I want to get out in that boat and watch from there. Trying to think who owns one that does not smell of fish. Old fish...!


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 16 of 997: Wolf  (wolf) * Thu, Jul 15, 1999 (14:00) * 1 lines 
 
for that view, honey, i'll go instead (smelly fish or not) *smile*


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 17 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Jul 15, 1999 (14:06) * 1 lines 
 
Corundum. Beryls are softer and include Emerald and Aquamarine


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 18 of 997: wer  (KitchenManager) * Thu, Jul 15, 1999 (14:24) * 1 lines 
 
oops...misread...thought you said conundrum...


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 19 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Jul 15, 1999 (14:59) * 1 lines 
 
The ever-vigilant and extraordinarily well-read wer misread?! *grin*


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 20 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Jul 15, 1999 (15:00) * 1 lines 
 
...but that was Topic 8...!


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 21 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Jul 15, 1999 (15:02) * 1 lines 
 
...sigh...Proving I am even more mortal that I thought I was...sorry!


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 22 of 997: Karen  (KarenR) * Mon, Jul 19, 1999 (21:13) * 1 lines 
 
No conundrum, I prefer wearing my corundum (sapphires, rubies, et al). Second hardest on the Mohs scale, after a girl's best friend. I know what's important on Planet Earth...you'll find me in precious to semi-precious. ;-D


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 23 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Jul 19, 1999 (23:16) * 1 lines 
 
...but Moh's scale will be down a few topics. You are right about your hardness scale.


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 24 of 997: wer  (KitchenManager) * Mon, Jul 19, 1999 (23:38) * 3 lines 
 
isn't that what the ladies of Drool are known for?

Hi, Karen!


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 25 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Jul 19, 1999 (23:56) * 1 lines 
 
Karen, William has been lurking at Drool, I think! He is on to us! *lol*


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 26 of 997: Karen  (KarenR) * Tue, Jul 20, 1999 (09:39) * 9 lines 
 
(Marcia) You are right about your hardness scale.
Always.

(wer) isn't that what the ladies of Drool are known for?
Absolutely!! ;-D

Not to mention the family jewels. Oh, but I'm bringing your topic down to our level. Nevermind. ;-o

Hiya wer.


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 27 of 997: wer  (KitchenManager) * Tue, Jul 20, 1999 (15:05) * 1 lines 
 
Just as long as everyone is having fun, I say!


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 28 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Jul 20, 1999 (15:23) * 3 lines 
 
(And I was trying to keep this conference on a higher moral plane...)
Karen, I was just remembering the 2 page bit you did on which side for both Darcy and for Bingley - and whether or not they were...um....*that* way!
Oh, indeed, we have fun!


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 29 of 997: Karen  (KarenR) * Tue, Jul 20, 1999 (17:38) * 1 lines 
 
...oohhh, yeah, am waiting for the *eruption* (now I'm on topic again for vulcanism) ;-D


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 30 of 997: wer  (KitchenManager) * Tue, Jul 20, 1999 (17:52) * 1 lines 
 
*bravo*


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 31 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Jul 20, 1999 (18:31) * 5 lines 
 
*lol* Whenever I start taking myself too seriously, one or the other of you posts something like the above exchange and I dissolve into helpless laughter.
How delightful....*eruption* coming August 1st

BTW when my son was working at the Hawaii Volcanoes National Park at the main desk where tourists ask more incredibly illogical questions than they do in the field, he was asked way too often what time the next eruption started. He finally made a big red button housed in an impressive electrical box with appropriate wires dangling from it. Affixed to it was a sign stating START ERUPTION. He would push it for them and head them out the door in the right direction. One weekend when he was off someone wi
h no sense of humor threw it away. I wanted it!!!


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 32 of 997: Wolf  (wolf) * Tue, Jul 20, 1999 (20:01) * 1 lines 
 
how clever!


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 33 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Jul 20, 1999 (20:06) * 1 lines 
 
I thought so, but apparently the bureaucracy of the National Park Service mandates the abandonment of individualism and sense of humor. I was really ticked when I found out it was missing (perhaps they sent it to the Smithsonian...NOT!)


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 34 of 997: Wolf  (wolf) * Tue, Jul 20, 1999 (20:11) * 1 lines 
 
they're just jealous they didn't think of it first!


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 35 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Jul 20, 1999 (20:24) * 1 lines 
 
I suspect it is sitting on someone's book shelf as a conversation piece. I wish it were mine. I should have him make me another one. He sent me a canned earthquake...why should this be any more difficult?!


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 36 of 997: lidya maccarthy  (livamago) * Wed, Jul 21, 1999 (09:32) * 3 lines 
 
(Karen)oohhh, yeah, am waiting for the *eruption*

What is going on here??? L O L!! I never thought Darcy and volcanoes could be found in the same sentence!


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 37 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Jul 21, 1999 (13:02) * 1 lines 
 
Goodness knows I have tried to keep lofty ideals in here. But, just mentioning the Scale of Hardness brought some other creative juices to the surface and we were off. Is it not amazing how that man fits in everywhere in our discussions?! *bigger than usual sigh*


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 38 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Jul 23, 1999 (19:13) * 12 lines 
 
This is the Island of Hawaii map showing Hilo and the various volcanoes.


This is the Hawaii Volcanoes National Park web site which is full of information, maps and pictures concerning the various points of interest.
http://www.nps.gov/havo/

This is the best and easiest to access information in general for our volcanoes
http://www.soest.hawaii.edu/GG/HCV/kilauea.html


We have a second volcano which has been active twice since I moved to Hawaii. Mauna Loa is the single largest mountain mass in the world. More about it:
http://www.soest.hawaii.edu/mauna_loa/


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 39 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Jul 23, 1999 (19:32) * 9 lines 
 
For those with Adobe programs, this is the neatest map. You can zoom in for more detail and information.
http://www.nps.gov/havo/pdf/map_summit.pdf

Also for Adobe is
http://www.nps.gov/havo/pdf/map_park.pdf

http://www.nps.gov/havo/pdf/map_island.pdf




 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 40 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Jul 24, 1999 (13:15) * 49 lines 
 
latest updates of various volcanoes:

Date: Fri, 23 Jul 1999 14:00:17 +0001
Subject: Colima,Guagua Pichincha,Fuego
Sender: VOLCANO
*************************************************************
Colima, Mexico
*************************************************************
Date: Thu, 15 Jul 1999 12:02:36 -0700
Apparent new explosive eruption from Mexico's Colima volcano at
approximately 1615 GMT on 15 July 1999, with ash cloud to 19,000 feet
(nearly 6km) above sea level.
From: http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/SSD/ML/vaacmsgs.html
-------------------------
Date: Sun, 18 Jul 1999 12:58:48 -0700
The 16 July 1999 Press Release shows the lowered level of seisimicity
persisted at Colima, with an average of ~10 weak degassing events or
explosions/day. However, at 1241 on 17 July a sudden but brief eruption
threw glowing debris onto the flanks of the mountain while the ash plume
rose to at least 12km above sea level, with ash falls to the WSW.
Evacuations were ordered in local communities, although some residents
refused to comply. Following the short termed strong eruption, seismicity
returned to its low levels again.
Loosely translated from: http://www.ucol.mx/volcan/jul16.html,
http://www.ucol.mx/volcan/jul17.html
Minor ash eruptions have continued on 18 July at Colima.
From: http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/SSD/ML/vaacmsgs.html
--------------------------
Date: Tue, 20 Jul 1999 20:12:39 -0700
At 0830 on 19 July 1999, a collapse down the S flank of Colima produced a
block and ash flow some 2km in length. This collapse left a scar down the
track of the 1998-99 lava flows. Heavy rains a few hours later generated a
hot lahar some 4km in length from the deposit of the 0830 block and ash flow.
Loosely translated from: http://www.ucol.mx/volcan/jul19.html
*************************************************************
Guagua Pichincha, Ecuador
*************************************************************
The report for 14 July 1999 for Guagua Pichincha showed a single small
explosion, followed by six hours of tremor of varying amplitude.
Loosely translated from: http://www.cybw.net/volcan/
*************************************************************
Fuego, Guatemala
*************************************************************
Renewed eruption at Guatamala's Fuego volcano on 19 July 199, marked by a
hotspot on satellite imagery and small ash eruptions.
From: http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/SSD/ML/vaacmsgs.html





 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 41 of 997: wer  (KitchenManager) * Sat, Jul 24, 1999 (16:15) * 2 lines 
 
I wonder why they didn't cast Mr. Firth as the lead in
"Joe and the Volcano"...


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 42 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Jul 24, 1999 (16:24) * 1 lines 
 
Mr Firth, heaven forbid, would never consider such a role. But in Femme Fatale he did say he had spent his honeymoon in the Islands where the volcano is erupting...that is THIS island!


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 43 of 997: Karen  (KarenR) * Mon, Jul 26, 1999 (00:23) * 2 lines 
 
I wonder why they didn't cast Mr. Firth as the lead in "Joe and the Volcano"...
Is it keeping you up at night?


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 44 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Jul 26, 1999 (00:34) * 1 lines 
 
Not I, my dear...but I have the feeling the question was not addressed to me.


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 45 of 997: wer  (KitchenManager) * Tue, Jul 27, 1999 (03:51) * 3 lines 
 
that is one of the things, yes...I wish I could get some
sleep, though, as these typos I keep making are dragging
me d-o-w-n...


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 46 of 997: Gi  (patas) * Tue, Jul 27, 1999 (08:13) * 1 lines 
 
This topic is a lot of fun, Marcia... Karen, you bring lofty planes to terrestrial perspective very cleverly... Why do you all think Mr. Darcy "smolders"? It *must* be a volcano inside.


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 47 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Jul 27, 1999 (12:12) * 1 lines 
 
Poor William...I did not know you were having sleep and typo problems. Might I be of any help? Darcy not only smoulders from the volcano inside...he has erupted with amazing frequency, also, if our FanFiction writers are to be believed...


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 48 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Jul 27, 1999 (23:27) * 58 lines 
 
Renewed mild eruptions at New Zealand's White Island began no later than 21
July 1999 from a new vent some 60-100m SW of PeeJay vent, accompanied by
weak volcanic tremor.

--------------------------
From: http://www.gns.cri.nz/earthact/volcanoes/wizv9912.htm

SCIENCE ALERT BULLETIN: WIZ V99/12

July 26 1999 (Monday)
1500 NZST (UT +12)

WHITE ISLAND VOLCANO Update:

Summary

Minor eruptive activity has recommenced at White Island from a new vent to
the south of the vents active earlier this year. Volcanic ash was erupted
from this vent during the later part of last week and the weekend. Ash
emissions decreased significantly on Sunday July 25. A small lake is still
present within Metra Crater. Only weak volcanic tremor has been recorded
during periods of known the ash emission. During an over flight on Saturday
July 24 the steam and gas plume was observed extending over 40km downwind
of the volcano.

The alert level remains at Alert Level 1.

Observations

An overflight was made between 1340 and 1352h on July 24. A weakly ash
charged steam and gas plume was rising to about 600m above the active vent,
before being blown downwind for over 40km. The plume carried very minor
volcanic ash. Viewing conditions within the Main Crater area were poor,
although the local wind was from the SE at 12-15kts.

Views obtained were sufficient to ascertain that neither PeeJay vent nor
the new vent immediately east of it was the source of the volcanic ash
cloud. The ash cloud appeared to originate from an area about 60-100m to
the south west, towards the gully system that drains SE in to Metra Carter.
This active vent was continuously emitting ash. There was no evidence of
ash accumulating on the Main Crater floor or on the outer flanks of the
cone, indicating no significant ash emission has occurred. There was also
no evidence of impact craters.

Tour operators visiting the island on Wednesday July 21, experienced minor
ash emissions. While on Friday July 23 several aircraft operators observed
a plume extending to 3000m above the island. Tour operators also report ash
emission stop after 0830h on Sunday July 25.

In summary, minor eruptive activity has recommenced at White Island. With
the recommencement of activity the possibility of larger scale eruptions is
again present. Hence all visitors to the island should exercise caution.

Brad Scott
Mgr Volcano Surveillance
----------------------------




 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 49 of 997: lidya maccarthy  (livamago) * Wed, Jul 28, 1999 (15:11) * 3 lines 
 
Darcy not only smoulders from the volcano inside...he has erupted with amazing frequency, also, if our FanFiction writers are to be believed...

Indeed! ;~D


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 50 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Jul 30, 1999 (22:03) * 23 lines 
 
Colima, Mexico
Date: Fri, 30 Jul 1999 09:56:00 -0500 (CDT)
From: Juan Carlos Gavilanes
Subject: Explosion at Colima volcano

A strong explosion occurred yesterday (29 July 99) at 14:42 hrs (local time) at Colima volcano's crater. Mr. Jesus Mendez, who is the political
authority of La Yerbabuena village (8 km from the crater, ~195 inhabitants, the nearest community) informed via radio that the explosion
was clearly heard and seen from the village. He also estimated that the pyroclastic flows and rockfalls triggered by the explosion reached
approximately the same distances of those produced by the 17 July 1999 explosion: a maximum runout of 5- 5.5 km along La Lumbre gully (volcano's west flank). On the Cordoban barrancas (SW flank) the distal reachness of the pyroclastic flows was estimated by him in ~3-3.5 km from the crater. Following yerterday's explosion, a relatively intense ashfall occurred on La Yerbabuena, causing irritations on eyes among some villagers and visitors, but fortunatelly few minutes after the ashfall, volunteers of Pro
eccion Civil Colima (Cuauhtemoc County) arrived to the village to provide light surgery masks to the people, so the effects of the ashfall were substancially minimized. Before this explosion, policemen of Policia de Procuracion de Justicia de Colima who were at La Yerbabuena previously and during the explosion reported intense jet sounds at 12:40 and some rockfalls.

A very light ashfall was noticed at the city of Colima (32 km to the South of the crater), which started at 17:05 hrs and stopped at ~ 20:00 hrs. More intense ashfall was registered at some towns located on the S and SE sectors of the volcano (Queseria, 7,700 inhabitants, 14.5 km from the crater; Montitlan, more that 50 inhabitants, 12.2 km from the crater).

At 18:04 hrs a strong exhalation was ejected from the crater. The ash column, rose rapidly, and reached at least 5,500 m.a.s.l., which was
clearly seen from the city of Colima. The observers of Proteccion Civil Jalisco posted at their observatory (4,000 m.a.s.l.) on the W upper slopes of Nevado de Colima (5.7 km to the north of Colima volcano's crater) reported that they did not hear any explosion sound accompanying this exhalation. It looks that this exhalation was responsible of most ashfall registered yesterday at the city of Colima.

Juan Carlos Gavilanes Ruiz.
Observatorio Vulcanologico de la Universidad de Colima.
Coordinador del Grupo de Informacion a la Poblacion en Zonas de Alto y
Medino Riesgo.





 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 51 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Aug  3, 1999 (23:48) * 47 lines 
 
Volcano Updates
Date: Mon, 02 Aug 1999 11:55:47 -0700
Subject: Taal News
Increased geothermal activity at Taal volcano in the Philippines continues
with prolonged geysering and volcanic earthquakes. This activity may be due
to heavy rains interacting with subterranean heat.
Full article at: Philippine Headline News
http://www.newsflash.org (see Hometown & Community News)
According to the news article at the above web site, the was a mud
geysering event
on August 1 at Taal that lasted 9 hours, accompanied by 3 volcanic
earthquakes and some steam eruption. Phivolcs has maintained a Level 1 alert at Taal volcano, and has banned visits to the main crater area.
Other information on Taal activity, as well as some recent explosions at
Pinatubo, can be found at the Manila Bulletin website:
http://www.mb.com.ph/main/9907/29jm01g.asp
___________________________________________________________________

Colima, Mexico
*******************************************
Date: Mon, 02 Aug 1999 11:55:47 -0700
Subject: 30 July 1999 Colima Update
The 30 July Press Release indicates that Colima continues to experience
high seismic levels accompanied by periodic moderate explosions or
degassing events, following the major eruption of 29 July.
Loosely translated from: http://www.ucol.mx/volcan/jul30.html
----------------------
Date: Fri, 30 Jul 1999 15:54:08 -0500 (CDT)
Subject: Impact of 29 July Colima explosion
Due to the ashfall caused by the 29 July 14:42 hrs. explosion and
18:04 hrs. exhalation of Colima volcano, aerial traffic at the national
airport of the City of Colima was interrupted from the afternoon of 29 July
until at least 13:00 hrs. on 30 July. Meanwhile, aerial arrivals were
redirected
to the city of Guadalajara (~180 km to the north of Colima city).
Observatorio Vulcanologico de la Universidad de Colima.
Coordinador del Grupo de Informacion a la Poblacion en Zonas de Alto y
Medino Riesgo.

*******************************************
Fuego, Guatemala
*******************************************
Date: Mon, 02 Aug 1999 11:55:47 -0700
Subject: Fuego Update
Fuego remains restless seismically. A periodic hot spot shows up on
satellite imagery and there may be some occasional small ash events. This
is from several reports at: http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/SSD/ML/vaacmsgs.html



 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 52 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Aug 27, 1999 (22:02) * 33 lines 
 
************************************
Guagua Pichincha, Ecuador
************************************
Small phreatic eruption at Guagua Pichincha at 2109 on 16 August, followed
by one hour of tremor. The eruptions on 10 & 12 August have left a thin
veneer of ash on vegetation to the W of the dome. The most recent eruptions
have occurred from the W part of the dome itself. The Cristal River has
become muddy from recent ashfalls.

Photo of Guagua Pichincha showing active features at:
http://www.cybw.net/volcan/fotos/990720d.html
--------------------

On 23 August a small phreatic eruption took place at Guagua Pichincha, not
followed by tremor. At 0807 on 24 a large explosion took place, with a
mushroom-shaped eruption cloud rising to 6km a.s.l and ashfalls to the S.
Two smaller events followed, with an eruption plume to 3km. These events
were followed by tremor. Strong fumarolic activity in the 1981 crater and
the July 1999 craters on the W part of the dome was noted afterwards.

From: http://www.cybw.net/volcan/

************************************
Telica, Nicaragua
************************************
New eruption at Nicaragua's Telica volcano on 10 August, with ash clouds
ascending to 300-400 m above the volcano. This event was somewhat larger
than that of June.

From: www.igc.org





 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 53 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Sep 13, 1999 (13:58) * 0 lines 
 


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 54 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Sep 14, 1999 (12:38) * 72 lines 
 
U.S. Geological Survey
Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

2:00 p.m. - September 12, 1999

Earthquake swarm and ground deformation event at Kilauea Volcano

Starting about 1:31 Sunday morning, September 12, a swarm of small
earthquakes and associated volcanic tremor began at Kilauea Volcano. The
swarm was concentrated along the east rift zone between Devil's Throat and
Mauna Ulu, but earthquakes eventually occurred in a broader area involving
the summit and south flank areas. The strongest part of the swarm lasted a
couple of hours, but earthquakes are continuing at the time of writing
(2:00 p.m., September 12), as is tremor from the summit caldera. Many of
the earthquakes were felt by residents of Mauna Loa Estates, Volcano, and
other nearby areas. Most of the earthquakes were shallow, within 2-3 miles
of the ground surface. The largest rift zone earthquake was approximately
magnitude 3.0. At 5:59 a.m. the largest earthquake in this episode
occurred beneath Kilauea's south flank, near Pu`u `O`o. This earthquake
was approximately magnitude 3.7, but final calculations have not yet been
made.
Accompanying the earthquake swarm was deflation of the summit area
and the east rift zone between the summit and Pu`u `O`o. The deflation,
detected by five electronic tiltmeters newly installed in this area, began
at about the same time as the earthquakes and tremor. We anticipate that
GPS data, currently being processed, will show substantial widening of the
rift zone.
The floor of crater in Pu`u `O`o collapsed and is now mostly
overed with rubble. Aerial views at about 11 a.m. showed only a tiny pad
of weakly spattering lava remaining in the crater.
The flow of lava through the tube to the coast was weak and
luggish when observed between 11 a.m. and noon. One small trickle was
entering the ocean at the bench, most of which had collapsed into the sea
since about 8 a.m. this morning. By 1:30 p.m., the steam plume had died,
and the eruption had entered into another pause, which likely will last
from a few days to several weeks.


------From the HVO Eruption Update Web Page today:

700 September 13, 1999.
The swarm of earthquakes reported in yesterday's update
(see below) has ended. Summit tilt is slowly recovering, but
ermanent tilt may have been induced at several other
stations. There is no significant tremor at Pu`u `O`o, and the
pause in the eruption continues.

1500 September 12, 1999.
swarm of small earthquakes and associated volcanic tremor
egan at Kilauea at 0131 September 12. The swarm was
oncentrated in a short segment of the upper east rift zone
between Devil's Throat and Mauna Ulu but eventually spread
across the summit and south flank. The main swarm lasted a
couple of hours, but earthquakes continued until at least
1500. Most of the earthquakes were shallow (1-5 km) and small
(magnitude less than 3); nonetheless, residents of the
Volcano area felt many earthquakes in the early Sunday hours.
One magnitude 3.7 earthquake at 0559 took place near Pu`u
`O`o at about 10 km depth. Sharp deflation of the summit and
east rift zone began at the time of the swarm. The rift zone
between the summit and Pu`u `O`o sagged and presumably spread
as magma intruded into the rift zone from beneath the
summit. The floor of the crater in Pu`u `O`o collapsed
several tens of meters and is now strewn with rubble, with
only a tiny pad of weakly spattering lava remaining. These
events initiated a pause in eruptive activity. By 1330 the
steam plume at the ocean entry had died. The bench began to
collapse between about 0800 and 0915 and was more than 80
percent gone by noon. By analogy to episode 54 in January
1997, today's events may initiate a pause that lasts several
days or more.



 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 55 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Sep 15, 1999 (19:43) * 29 lines 
 
Kilauea Volcano Eruption Update
http://wwwhvo.wr.usgs.gov/


Another pause in episode 55 of the Pu`u `O`o - Kupaianaha eruption began at 0131 HST on the
morning of September 12. The supply of magma to Pu`u `O`o was interrupted in response to an
intrusion into the upper east rift zone in an area between Pauahi Crater and Mauna Ulu, based
on the location of small earthquakes and the pattern of ground tilt from several tiltmeters. About
8 hours after the start of the intrusion, the active lava bench on the south coast of Kilauea began
collapsing into the sea. Several small collapses were observed by scientists on September 12,
and by the evening of September 13, about 2 ha (5 acres) had been removed. The discharge of
lava into the sea stopped completely in the afternoon of September 13.

The intrusion began when three tiltmeters at the summit showed a downward tilt of the ground
(red line) toward the caldera. A swarm of small earthquakes along the upper rift zone
accompanied the ground deformation. The downward tilt indicates that magma was moving out
of the summit reservoir; data from two other tiltmeters on the east rift zone (east of Pauahi
Crater and just uprift from Pu`u `O`o) indicate the magma was moving into the rift zone. The
reversal of summit tilt about 4-6 hours later indicates when the intrusion stopped and magma
once again moved into the summit reservoir. An inspection on September 12 of the ground
above the intrusion did not reveal new ground cracks, which suggests the magma intusion did
not reach to within 1-2 km of the surface.

Much remains to be learned from this event. Leveling across the zone of intrusion on September
14 showed changes in elevations that provide clear evidence for a dike, but the size and depth
of the dike remain to be calculated. The onset of seismicity and tilting on September 12 was
abrupt and simultaneous to within the one-minute resolution of the tilt data, all along the rift zone
and the summit. This intriguing observation will be the source of considerable interpretative
effort by HVO staff and colleagues.



 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 56 of 997: Alexander Schuth  (aschuth) * Fri, Sep 24, 1999 (12:19) * 1 lines 
 
There were heavy quakes in Turkey and Greece, and in Taiwan, also. High casualties in Turkey and Taiwan, several dead in Greece.


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 57 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Sep 24, 1999 (19:34) * 1 lines 
 
Yes, Indeed - check Geo 9 - Seismology


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 58 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Sep 29, 1999 (13:14) * 0 lines 
 


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 59 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Sep 29, 1999 (13:17) * 1 lines 
 
It appears that the mid-atlantic ridge separation and the Pacific Ring of Fire are the only two which are defined by volcanic activity...and the Great Rift Valley in Africa...Each of those little white triangles represents a volcano.


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 60 of 997: Gi  (patas) * Thu, Sep 30, 1999 (04:34) * 1 lines 
 
Wonderful map, Marcia, I think this is what I was looking for or very near it, I'll save and study it.:-)


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 61 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Sep 30, 1999 (12:34) * 1 lines 
 
Great! I found it while looking for something entirely different...and I downloaded it to my space on Spring's hard drive - it is definitely a keeper.


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 62 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Oct  7, 1999 (18:26) * 30 lines 
 
KILAUEA VOLCANO UPDATE
The lava pond in Pu`u `O`o remains active this
afternoon, and lava is oozing from the lava tube
system onto the surface between Pu`u `O`o and the
top of Pulama Pali. Tremor near the vent has increased
since yesterday.


1545 October 5, 1999
Observations yesterday and early this morning found no
active surface flows on Pulama pali or anywhere else in
the flow field. Consequently we are defining the period
from 2200 on October 3 to 0945 on October 5 as a pause.
During this time, tremor virtually ceased near Pu`u `O`o
and Kilauea's summit was showing slight swelling. However,
by 0945 today breakouts of lava were taking place from a
perched lava pond built above the lava tube about halfway
between Pu`u `O`o and the top of Pulama Pali. The pahoehoe
flows from the perched pond were small, but one entered a
kipuka just west of the pond and started fires. The surface
of Pu`u `O`o's lava lake this morning and early afternoon
was about 7 m below the terrace around the lake, which in
turn is about 50 m below the rim of the crater. A thin
crust caps the lake, broken only by three bubbling areas
and by sporadic crustal overturns. Tremor near Pu`u `O`o
is weak but distinctly higher than during the pause. Tilt
at Kilauea's summit is now flat.





 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 63 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Oct  7, 1999 (18:49) * 1 lines 
 
Since this was written (two day ago) there have been more outbreaks reported by the tour pilots - a frequency I monitor with great regularity.


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 64 of 997: Wolf  (wolf) * Fri, Oct  8, 1999 (17:36) * 1 lines 
 
the triangles are volcanoes? didn't know we had so many on the west coast!


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 65 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Oct  8, 1999 (17:52) * 1 lines 
 
All of the Cascades are volcanic from Seattle to Mt Shasta in California...and Lassen!


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 66 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Oct  8, 1999 (17:55) * 1 lines 
 
The Pilots today are reporting that since the old tube system is blocked by cooling lava, the new flows are coming out of a "sky light" hole in the tube system and is forming a new cinder cone around the vent. Mountain building going on as we speak...almost in my back yard, actually!


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 67 of 997: Wolf  (wolf) * Sat, Oct  9, 1999 (15:22) * 1 lines 
 
watching nature recreate herself!


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 68 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Oct  9, 1999 (16:52) * 1 lines 
 
This is not only true at the vent (making the spatter and cinder cone) but also at the ocean where the island increases its size as flows harden and extend beyond the existing shoreline. From time to time that also becomes unstable and acres of the stuff crash back into the sea - and on occasion has taken a visitor, who ignored the warning signs and ropes, with it. I am a great believer in what the ranger tell us is safe and what is not safe - they are not there to spoil our fun!


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 69 of 997: Wolf  (wolf) * Sat, Oct  9, 1999 (20:58) * 1 lines 
 
good for you! cuz we wouldn't want our marcia and volcano lover to be too swept away in the moment!! *hugs*


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 70 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Oct  9, 1999 (21:12) * 11 lines 
 
*hugs* Thanks!...me too...! Gonna post a few pictures to show the different side of the story of lava - it nourishes as well as kills:

Stop sign in a buried street:

New Land and Black Sand Beach being created:

Little Ohia Tree growing in crack of hardened Pahoehoe Flow:






 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 71 of 997: Wolf  (wolf) * Sat, Oct  9, 1999 (21:37) * 1 lines 
 
yes, just like natural occuring forest fires. it's done on purpose by mother nature herself!


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 72 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Oct  9, 1999 (21:44) * 1 lines 
 
Absolutely! Some seeds will not germinate without first having gone through a fire - or through the digestive tract of an animal! Very good point, My Dear!


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 73 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Oct 11, 1999 (16:40) * 4 lines 
 
VOLCANOES OF THE WEST COAST





 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 74 of 997: Wolf  (wolf) * Tue, Oct 12, 1999 (19:30) * 1 lines 
 
i had no idea we had that many over there! and here i thought our only volcano in the conus was mt st. helens!!


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 75 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Oct 12, 1999 (19:51) * 1 lines 
 
...and who says the internet is not educational...?! I hunted for just this sort of map. I think there are many people who think the ones in Hawaii and perhaps Alaska and Mt St Helens are the only volcanoes we have. Not so!!! Ours are just more active at the moment...


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 76 of 997: John Burnett  (mrchips) * Tue, Oct 12, 1999 (22:52) * 23 lines 
 
Rock Becomes a River
--by John Burnett, copyright 1999

Rock becomes a river underground,
superheated, supercharged,
answering only to Madame Pele.

Rock becomes a river underground,
spewing forth as a mighty geyser
leaping, reaching ever higher,
seeking to paint the sky
and cover its blue
with a brilliant hue of red.

Rock becomes a river underground,
trickling to the surface, then meandering
at a nearly apologetic pace
while coursing an interminable, inevitable,
inescapable path,
altering both topographic and human landscapes,
playing no favorites--
and exploding in a toxic haze
where the river meets the sea.


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 77 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Oct 12, 1999 (23:02) * 1 lines 
 
This is magnificent, John. I am honored you chose to put it here! It is wonderful beyond words and Geo is privileged to have been so chosen. Mahalo Nui Loa.


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 78 of 997: John Burnett  (mrchips) * Tue, Oct 12, 1999 (23:06) * 1 lines 
 
It is unpublished, so Geo is first. Thank you.


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 79 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Oct 12, 1999 (23:10) * 1 lines 
 
(bowing with appreciation and humility)...*speechless but glowing* *HUG*


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 80 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Oct 12, 1999 (23:42) * 5 lines 
 
In tribute to your inspired poem, I offer the generation of that creative power

Pu'u O'o in Eruption




 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 81 of 997: John Burnett  (mrchips) * Wed, Oct 13, 1999 (00:26) * 1 lines 
 
Pu`u Oh! Oh!


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 82 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Oct 13, 1999 (00:33) * 1 lines 
 
*laugh* You're delightful...!


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 83 of 997: John Burnett  (mrchips) * Wed, Oct 13, 1999 (02:21) * 1 lines 
 
In the immortal words of my late daddy, E: "Thankya verramuch!"


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 84 of 997: Gi  (patas) * Thu, Oct 14, 1999 (14:00) * 5 lines 
 
Both of you make this a very nice place to be. Thanks :-)
BTW, learned a new Internet symbol
[]
means "hug"
so please consider yourselves hugged :-)


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 85 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Oct 14, 1999 (14:37) * 1 lines 
 
Ah...Thank you! I did not know about that! All the ones I have in Arial are more square than that. Where did you find it? (other than in character map)


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 86 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Oct 14, 1999 (14:40) * 1 lines 
 
trying....


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 87 of 997: Karen  (KarenR) * Mon, Oct 18, 1999 (23:41) * 1 lines 
 
Where are the pictures of Mt. Etna? A whole lotta lava flowing...


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 88 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Oct 18, 1999 (23:51) * 0 lines 
 


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 89 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Oct 18, 1999 (23:53) * 1 lines 
 
Nothing is showing on my life cam on the wx program. If this does not update I will scribble it and post static pictures of that eruption


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 90 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Oct 18, 1999 (23:57) * 1 lines 
 
Will post the photo captures from Mt Etna when I get them - the live cam did not update in here.


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 91 of 997: John Burnett  (mrchips) * Mon, Oct 18, 1999 (23:57) * 1 lines 
 
The new thematic buttons are nice, but the "forget" button forgot to download.


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 92 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Oct 19, 1999 (00:00) * 1 lines 
 
I have searched all over my three identical files Wolfie sent to me with the buttons...it is just not there. Unless one can be tweeked by the master tweeker and installed (I ftp'd extra buttons over to spring) perhaps the tweeker could post some other forget...! Actually, they forgot to send it!


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 93 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Oct 25, 1999 (21:29) * 20 lines 
 

EPISODIC ACTIVITY AND LAVA OVERFLOWS FROM THE BOCCA
NUOVA OF ETNA CONTINUE. Repeated surges of lava have overflowed
the western rim of the Bocca Nuova, one of Etna's four summit craters,
since late 17 October, and spilled up to 4 km down the western flank of
the volcano. The overflows were caused by episodes of violent Strombolian
activity and lava fountaining at the crater which is completely filled; a
sizeable pyroclastic cone is growing in the western part of the Bocca
Nuova. Bombs are thrown over a large part of the summit area, making
visits to the scene of this exceptional activity highly dangerous. A detailed
report will be posted later today on the Etna News Page. - WORLDWIDE
VOLCANISM UPDATE.
http://www.geo.mtu.edu/~boris/gifs/image/Etna181099_1.jpg









 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 94 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Oct 25, 1999 (21:34) * 13 lines 
 
MT ETNA ERUPTION UPDATE http://www.geo.mtu.edu/~boris/ETNA_news.html
21 October 1999 update. After continuing vigorously until the early morning of 20 October, the
activity from the eruptive vents in the W and NW part of the Bocca Nuova ceased, and the
overflow of lava through the notch (formed on 17 October) in the W crater rim stopped. Sometime
around dawn (0700 h local time=GMT+2), forceful expulsions of ash began from the SE vent in
the Bocca Nuova, which had shown little activity in the past week. Later that day weather
conditions deteriorated, and visual observations were rendered impossible. However, it was
stated this morning that the activity was at low levels throughout the day (communication from
Marco Fulle, Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, who presently stays at the Rifugio Sapienza
and received this information from forest guard personnel). This morning at 0300 h, intense
eruptive activity reportedly resumed, with renewed lava overflow from the Bocca Nuova onto the
W flank. As of the early afternoon of 21 October, bad weather is preventing visual observations.



 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 95 of 997: Gi  (patas) * Tue, Oct 26, 1999 (12:59) * 2 lines 
 
Awesome!
I was in Taormina two years ago, and we could see Mt. Etna in the distance. Very quiet at the time. Wonder what it looks like from out there now...


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 96 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Oct 26, 1999 (13:04) * 1 lines 
 
The weather has been particularly bad lately which is why their Volcano Cam is not sending images - it seems like fog and low clouds are obscuring the eruption, but a glow is suffused throughout the entire area surrounding the mountain. It will be nice with the weather clears - though eruptions have been known to make their own weather systems. We'll just have to wait...I promise to post something as soon as it is available.


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 97 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Nov  1, 1999 (20:35) * 13 lines 
 
Interesting Volcano Trivia http://www.dc.peachnet.edu/~pgore/students/f96/students/harris/webpage.htm

The Tambora Volcano, located in Indonesia, killed 92,000 people in 1815- the
most people ever killed by a volcano.
There are, at best guess, 1511 volcanoes that have erupted in the last 10,000 years.
The biggest volcano is the world is Mauna Loa in Hawaii (80,000 cubic kilometers).
The biggest volcano in our solar system is Olympus Mons on Mars (17 miles tall).
Ojos del Salado in Chile is the world's tallest volcano (22,589 ft or 6887m).
The largest eruption ever was Yellowstone 2.2 million years ago. The eruption
produced 2500 cubic kilometers of ash.
The youngest volcano is Paricutin in Mexico. It grew out of a cornfield in 1943 and erupted for 8-9 years.
Diamonds cannot be melted by lava.



 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 98 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Nov  1, 1999 (20:42) * 1 lines 
 
Surtsey in Iceland is younger than Paricutin...And from Base to summit, Mauna Loa is the world's tallest volcano - 28,000' (8534.4 M) below sea level + almost 14,000' (4267 M) above sea level makes it 42,000' (12602 M) total.


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 99 of 997: Gi  (patas) * Wed, Nov  3, 1999 (13:57) * 2 lines 
 
(Marcia)Diamonds cannot be melted by lava.
So they are still a girl's best friend...;-D


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 100 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Nov  3, 1999 (19:07) * 2 lines 
 
...If the girl falls into lava - which is rather cool (a mere 2000°F or 1093°C).
You can evaporate your diamonds - they turn into Carbon Dioxide and burn with a blue flame, but then they are all gone!


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 101 of 997: Gi  (patas) * Thu, Nov  4, 1999 (15:40) * 1 lines 
 
I was thinking more along the lines of girl not falling into lava but home being washed by it... or whatever ;-)


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 102 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Nov  4, 1999 (16:36) * 1 lines 
 
Houses usually spontaneously combust when the lava approaches because of the intense heat...Then the lava paves over the entire place so nothing is left which is recognizable as having once been a home, yard, garden or proptecting wall around the place. It is urban renewal on a scale never imagined until you actually see it!


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 103 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Nov  4, 1999 (22:13) * 31 lines 
 
From Reuters Nwews Service


Send Page
Thursday - 20:57 11/04/99, EST

Mexican Volcano Shoots Smoke High Into The
Sky

MEXICO CITY (Reuters) - Mexico's Popocatepetl volcano sprang to life
Thursday morning after months of dormancy, sending smoke two miles into
the sky, officials said.

``Today, at 11:10 a.m. there was a moderately significant exhalation, lasting
19 minutes, that produced a smoke column of two to three kilometers in
height,'' the Interior Ministry said in a statement.

A series of tremors were also felt Wednesday at the volcano, 40 miles
southeast of Mexico City, from where 18 million residents can sometimes
see the volcano through the smog.

Ash was expected to rain on nearby communities. Mexico City airport was
placed on alert and some flights were delayed, airport officials said.

The government said there had been no significant change in activity at the
volcano, and that a yellow alert remained in place, prohibiting access within a
three-mile radius.

A yellow alert means that Popocatepetl, which last provoked safety warnings
in February, could erupt in weeks or months but probably no sooner.



 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 104 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Nov  4, 1999 (22:31) * 19 lines 
 
On the best kids volcano site this letter and answer (by a Geologist I know personally!!!)http://volcano.und.nodak.edu/vwdocs/frequent_questions/grp13/question2153.html

dear srs: if the Popocatepetl volcano eruption could lava arrive to
Mexico City?

Alessandra


Hi Alessandra,

No, there won't be any lava from Popocatepetl getting to Mexico City. Popocatepetl does not produce very much lava and that
which it does produce is very viscous and slow-moving. Instead of flowing down the slopes it piles up into what is called a
dome. Popocatepetl is much more likely to produce explosive eruptions. These have already managed to spread ash all the
way to Mexico City, but the effects were not particularly serious. The biggest danger is from pyroclastic flows and lahars. These
are an immediate threat to the towns on the slopes of the volcano itself, and in the worst case scenario might affect Puebla, but
not Mexico City.

Sincerely,
Scott Rowland


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 105 of 997: anne hale  (ommin) * Fri, Nov  5, 1999 (20:27) * 0 lines 
 


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 106 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Nov  5, 1999 (20:52) * 1 lines 
 
Well, it worked in Drool - guess I'll have to hunt thru telnet tomorrow te see what went wrong with your post here. Hmmm...thought we had it fixed!


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 107 of 997: Wolf  (wolf) * Mon, Nov  8, 1999 (20:25) * 1 lines 
 
did you guys notice the forgotten forget button has been remembered and is now part of the conference? (just thought i'd throw that in since every topic in this place is concerned about the fogotten forget button *grin*)


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 108 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Nov  8, 1999 (20:51) * 1 lines 
 
Yes, we did indeed see that. It is mentioned somewhere in this conference. Thanks for such lovely eruption buttons - I smile every time I come in here and admire them. I especially love the one without the frame.


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 109 of 997: Wolf  (wolf) * Mon, Nov  8, 1999 (21:02) * 1 lines 
 
so do i! *smile*


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 110 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Nov  8, 1999 (21:23) * 1 lines 
 
*sigh*


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 111 of 997: Gi  (patas) * Tue, Nov  9, 1999 (10:23) * 1 lines 
 
Why aren't the others made frameless as well?


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 112 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Nov  9, 1999 (11:35) * 1 lines 
 
Because Wolfie and I do not know how to do it. Only cfadm does, and he's not telling.


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 113 of 997: Marcia (MarciaH) * Sun, Jan  2, 2000 (14:37) * 2 lines 
 
we have found a program online (nothing to download) which will make your frames transparent or
even different colors and reword your buttons. Very nice, Indeed. That is why they look gettr ( make that better) than before, but I need the font and size of same before I can change the interiors - which I now have to bother Wolfie about now...


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 114 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Jan  5, 2000 (18:54) * 29 lines 
 
The latest update on the Kilauea Eruption which began on January 4, 1983...
0645, January 5, 2000
Eruptive conditions are little changed from those of yester-
day. The ocean entries at the Lae`apuki bench continue to
be active. Lava continues to spread across the surface of
the west flow above and below Paliuli. The east arm of the
east flow remains active above Pulama pali.

This morning at 0550, at least four clusters of entry
points were feeding lava into the ocean from the front of
the Lae`apuki bench. There was, in addition, one sluggish
cascade over the old sea cliff near the west end of the new
bench.

Surface breakouts of pahoehoe toes continue just inland of
the bench. Much of the surface of the flow directly above
the old sea cliff has been renewed in the past several days.

Predawn glow this morning shows continued movement of the
reactivated part of the old easternmost flow. The location
of the glow suggests that the flow is active between about
1600 and 1100 feet elevation, above the top of Pulama
pali.

At least two small vents in the crater of Pu`u `O`o are
glowing this morning, but there is no flow or pond in the
crater. Seismic tremor near Pu`u `O`o is weak, and the tilt
at Kilauea summit is flat.




 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 115 of 997: lidya maccarthy  (livamago) * Fri, Jan 14, 2000 (22:33) * 1 lines 
 
Hello, my dear! I finally made it...Do you know where to find a picture of the Irazu volcano in Costa Rica? My brother was just there, and he says it's beautiful. I've never seen a volcano in real life (my country is mercifully deprived of them), so pictures will have to do. ;-D


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 116 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Jan 15, 2000 (00:59) * 4 lines 
 
I did an altavista image search and this is the place you should start:
http://www.altavista.com/cgi-bin/query?pg=q&sc=on&q=Irazu&kl=en&stype=simage&wt=y

Loads of ggod things there for just pictures. If you wish more, go to web pages on the same search. Good luck! (and welcome back!!!)


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 117 of 997: lidya maccarthy  (livamago) * Sat, Jan 15, 2000 (18:24) * 1 lines 
 
Wow, it is beautiful! Thank you... (I thought the Best Western picture was hilarious...).


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 118 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Jan 16, 2000 (11:59) * 1 lines 
 
(so did I, and it was the first place I accessed.) Did your brother see any signs of activity at Irazu?


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 119 of 997: lidya maccarthy  (livamago) * Sun, Jan 16, 2000 (20:20) * 1 lines 
 
No, no activity, I think. I heard today that a volcano in Guatemala has started to erupt. Do you know the details? I must correct my previous statement, because I have indeed seen a volcano in real life; the Amatitlan peak in Guatemala, with its beautiful lake. I was just a child when I visited, though and we did not go to the top, but we could see the smoke. It has a baby volcano on one side, and that one was smoking too. Quite a site.


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 120 of 997: lidya maccarthy  (livamago) * Sun, Jan 16, 2000 (20:21) * 1 lines 
 
That is, quite a sight.


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 121 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Jan 17, 2000 (00:22) * 2 lines 
 
I heard an eye-witness on CNN radio telling of tall plumes of dark reddish hue rising high into the sky. The One URL I have for the Volcano no longer works. I shall hunt it down as soon as I can get some sleep and type more carefully.
(My New Year's Resolution!)


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 122 of 997: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Sun, Feb 27, 2000 (14:05) * 10 lines 
 
Saturday, 26 February, 2000, 21:51 GMT
Spectacular eruption of Icelandic volcano

A volcano in Iceland has erupted, sending clouds of ash and smoke up to ten kilometres into the air.

The Hekla volcano -- one of the highest in Europe -- is in the remote south-west of the island and the authorities say there's no danger to local people but aircraft have been warned not to fly over the area.

Witnesses say the eruption is a magnificent spectacle with red-hot lava flowing down the snow-covered slopes of the volcano. In Icelandic mythology, Hekla was believed to be one of the gates to hell and a haunt of witches.




 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 123 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Feb 27, 2000 (14:33) * 1 lines 
 
Thanks, Maggie. I have hunted through all of the Icelandic volcanic-events links and they are not yet reporting anything. I will keep watch and post a picture and update as soon as I find one.


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 124 of 997: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Sun, Feb 27, 2000 (14:46) * 1 lines 
 
I went to the Icelandic news sources to see if I could find anything, but it is only on the BBC and few details. I think the last big ones for Hekla were 1991 and 1996.


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 125 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Feb 27, 2000 (15:19) * 6 lines 
 
There is a link I check when Vatnajokul happened
http://norvol.hi.is/bard3.html
- The Icelandic Volcano Observatory

http://xanadu.centrum.is/icerev/daily1.html#vat
- Daily updates (last was on Friday) of Iclandic news.


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 126 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Feb 27, 2000 (17:24) * 17 lines 
 
http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/world/europe/newsid_659000/659187.stm

Iceland's volcanic spectacular
The volcano is an an uninhabited area Iceland's most active volcano, Mount Hekla, has erupted for the first time in almost 10 years, spewing columns of ash several kilometres into the sky.

Experts say the volcano poses no danger as it is situated in an uninhabited area about 120 km (75 miles) east of Reykjavik. The volcano, one of the highest in Europe, has erupted more than 20 times since the 11th century. In Icelandic folklore, it was believed to be one of the gates to purgatory.

Icelandic television said a lava flow from a fissure was estimated to be seven km (4.5 miles) long. Tousands of Icelanders have gone to witness the magnificent spectacle of red-hot lava and white snow. But the authorities warned drivers to beware of clouds of ash clogging up their engines. The 1,490-metre ( 4900-foot) volcano spewed ash all over Europe when it erupted last century. Seismologists say this latest incident resembles a 1991 eruption that lasted seven weeks.
No flights to or from Iceland had been cancelled. But despite the civil aviation authorities warning aircraft not to fly over the zone, a flying club announced that it was charging just over $100 for aerial tours of the volcano.










 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 127 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Feb 27, 2000 (17:28) * 1 lines 
 
Next time I'm gonna remember to put "" around the left, center and right align command and they will not end up in a string on the left...*sigh*


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 128 of 997: Mike Griggs  (mikeg) * Mon, Feb 28, 2000 (07:33) * 1 lines 
 
that top picture looks like my wife-to-be when she's in a mood...


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 129 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Feb 28, 2000 (10:45) * 2 lines 
 
The top picture is the sort in which people here see Madame Pele looking benign/kind/sad/whatever and then the locals predict good or dire things. Your wife-to-be has a temper, does she? And, you are going into this with eyes open.
I think I'll worry some more about you - Poor Mike! He's got himself a Godess!


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 130 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Feb 28, 2000 (14:32) * 28 lines 
 
http://www.geo.mtu.edu/~boris/Latestnews.html
28 February 2000
POWERFUL EXPLOSIONS AT MAYON; HEKLA ACTIVITY DIMINISHES
Over the past two days, Mayon unleashed its strongest explosions so far, terrifying tens of
thousands of people living in the surrounding areas, and sending glowing pyroclastics hundreds of
meters into the sky. Press photos show spectacular incandescent fountains illuminating the summit
area, and the upper flanks covered by glowing projectiles. According to news reports, the latest
activity was purely explosive, following several days of predominantly effusive activity. Philippine
volcanologists noted that each explosion appeared to be stronger than its predecessor, and that the
climax might yet come. So far, more than 50,000 people have been evacuated. Many left the areas
around the volcano voluntarily, being impressed by the latest series of strong explosions. Local
authorities asked thousands of residents, who had left areas not under threat, to return home. The
refugees have been accomodated in evacuation centers, and news reports lament the lack of food
and the threat of diseases. Warnings have also voiced about the danger of lahars, which might be
caused by rainfalls washing the new pyroclastics from the slopes of the volcano.
LINKS TO OTHER MAYON INFORMATION
Mayon updates from the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)
ABS-CBN News (Philippine television news)
Links to on-line Philippine newspapers from Yahoo

Mayon Volcano Pictures:









 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 131 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Feb 28, 2000 (14:40) * 0 lines 
 


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 132 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Feb 28, 2000 (14:43) * 6 lines 
 
The top image above is a dublicate - sorry. Here is the intended one:


And, from Hekla:




 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 133 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Feb 28, 2000 (14:59) * 10 lines 
 
Activity continues at Mayon Volcano, with several eruptions over the past
two days, and two powerful eruptions today (Mon. Feb. 28). There are
several news reports available online.
(for example, http://news.lycos.com/headlines/Science/)

Updates and general information on Mayon may be found at the Philippine
Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS) website:
http://www.phivolcs.dost.gov.ph/Volcanoes/Mayon/MayonIndex.html




 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 134 of 997: Ginny  (vibrown) * Mon, Feb 28, 2000 (22:59) * 1 lines 
 
Amazing pictures and links! "Mother earth" is certainly restless these days...


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 135 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Feb 28, 2000 (23:15) * 1 lines 
 
either that or we are more aware of it because I am poking at her all day to find out what is happening. It is amazing to have people posting local weather from all over the world. What a luxury and a joy! How's Boston this evening?


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 136 of 997: Ginny  (vibrown) * Mon, Feb 28, 2000 (23:43) * 3 lines 
 
It's been rather warm (in the 40's F) and rainy for the past few days. It's been nice to get rid of all that dirty snow and ice. Looks like it might get up to the 50's this week...that's balmy for this time of year!

How are things in Hawaii? Is Pele still rumbling, or have the tremors calmed down for now?


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 137 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Feb 29, 2000 (10:18) * 1 lines 
 
Kilauea appears to have quieted down but the eruption continues on at its usual steady rate. It is still dark out as I write this, but it should be warm and sunny again...just another same old - same old day in Paradise *grin*


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 138 of 997: Ginny  (vibrown) * Tue, Feb 29, 2000 (10:49) * 1 lines 
 
Must you rub it in??? ;-)


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 139 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Feb 29, 2000 (11:09) * 1 lines 
 
...You asked...*smile* At least you are not mowing your lawn yet. Ours is deep enough to hide tigers and nasty things like that. We need a yard service!


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 140 of 997: Ginny  (vibrown) * Tue, Feb 29, 2000 (11:28) * 3 lines 
 
I also realize that you have your share of storms, earthquakes, etc.

It's only in the middle of winter that I start to dream of warmer climates. When the summer hits, I head for the air-conditioning and wonder why anyone would want to live in warmer places. (I can't deal with giant bugs, either.)


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 141 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Feb 29, 2000 (12:10) * 1 lines 
 
...and free-range lizards all over your house... Inside?!


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 142 of 997: Ginny  (vibrown) * Tue, Feb 29, 2000 (12:19) * 1 lines 
 
I forgot about the geckos...that would take some getting used to, but better them than the bugs, I guess.


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 143 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Feb 29, 2000 (12:25) * 1 lines 
 
Yup! They eat the bugs - and each other - then *bleep* on your picture frames, window sills, curtains, etc. The cat usually gets the lizards so we have far fewer of them than before the cat adopted us.


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 144 of 997: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Thu, Mar  2, 2000 (17:21) * 1 lines 
 
I like geckos and I'm not too keen usually on lizards. We always hoped to have them in our African houses - they actually like mosquitoes and can put away a surprising amount. I think they're sweet!


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 145 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Mar  2, 2000 (18:03) * 1 lines 
 
I think they're sweet, too. I take the babies outside so the big ones don't eat them. One night I heard crunching noises in the walkway. I turned on the front light to see what was happening, and there was a large Gekko (7" end to end) eating a large cockroach. Yup! Druther have gekkos any day of the week! Ours chirp, too!


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 146 of 997: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Fri, Mar  3, 2000 (14:15) * 1 lines 
 
Oh how nice, I don't remember any of ours making any noises.


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 147 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Mar  3, 2000 (14:24) * 1 lines 
 
I think ours are the only ones in the world which do...though there may be some other Polynesian ones which do also. It is very cute! And, no, for those wondering, they do not fall on you!


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 148 of 997: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Fri, Mar  3, 2000 (15:12) * 1 lines 
 
I can confirm that, I've never had a gecko fall on me yet, unlike cockraoches, millipedes, ear wigs ............


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 149 of 997: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Fri, Mar  3, 2000 (15:43) * 1 lines 
 
Are geckos the ones that lick their eyes with their tongues? Still if they're eating their fill of insect life, it's a small habit to get used to. Much better than an exterminator, works for free and best of all, is environmentally friendly.


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 150 of 997: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Fri, Mar  3, 2000 (15:56) * 1 lines 
 
African geckos are pink, sort of albino-ish, with bulging eyes, but I don't remeber them licking their eyes with their tongues, cone to that I don't remember ever seeing thier tongues! Marcia???


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 151 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Mar  3, 2000 (16:16) * 1 lines 
 
No, but they are pretty small. And I am sure they are very quick with that tongue unlike the pretend one on the Telly ads. We have two kinds. The ones which are supposedly are from Japan are larger, pink and almost albino (you can see the eggs in them when they are on your windows.) The Hawaiian are darker and change colors a bit more than the big pink ones and they are smaller and are prey for the bigger pink ones. Much rather have them than bugs - and we have earwigs, too!!!


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 152 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Mar  3, 2000 (22:32) * 23 lines 
 
Babies Born As Volcano Erupts
TABACO, Philippines (Reuters) - Nine babies have been born in cramped
evacuation centers in the central Philippines where refugees from the wrath of
Mayon volcano have been sheltering for over a week, relief officials said on
Friday.
One of the new mothers, 35-year-old Asuncion Broncate, gave birth to her
seventh child early on Thursday in a room at a school in Tabaco town, which
was serving as a temporary shelter for 10 families.
``Despite our miserable condition it is hot, there is no electricity everything
went smoothly with the grace of God,'' Broncate told Reuters as she
breastfed her one-day-old baby boy at the Panal Bangkilingan Elementary
School.
Broncate said she gave birth without the help of a midwife or any trained help
at dawn on Thursday.
Other evacuees in the school, mostly farmers living on the slopes of the 2,460
meter (8,000 foot) volcano, later took the baby to a nearby hospital for an
examination, she said.
Veronica Madulid, a provincial disaster official, said eight other babies were
born earlier in the week at other centers around Mayon.
More than 65,000 people are currently housed in various evacuation centers
in Albay province since Mayon first began erupting on February 24.
The volcano killed 77 people in its last major eruption in 1993.



 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 153 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Mar 11, 2000 (23:27) * 4 lines 
 
Ginny's Photrograph published on http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/hornak/
I enlarged it but do not recognize where it was taken and I was with her when she took it!




 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 154 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Mar 11, 2000 (23:30) * 3 lines 
 
This is the slightly enlarged version - a beautiful and dramatic shot:




 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 155 of 997: Ginny  (vibrown) * Sun, Mar 12, 2000 (01:10) * 9 lines 
 
Thanks, Marcia!

Actually, I took that picture (along with *many* more) the day that David, Polly and I hiked out to the lava shield near Pu'u O'o. I think it was called "Kupaianaha" (not sure about the spelling). Marcia was with us the day before, when we hiked out to where the lava was flowing into the ocean.

That was quite a hike...it took most of the day! We scratched the paint on the sides of the rental car just getting to our starting point for the hike! I enjoyed the jiffy pop, popped on a hot vent!

The picture was just published in the "Dictionary of Volcanology and Seismology". It's a Spanish-to-English/English-to-Spanish translation dictionary of volcanology and seismology terms. The author, Ken Hornak, found
my web site last year, and asked permission to use the photo on the title page of the book. My sample copy of the book, signed by the author, came in the mail yesterday. It's a first for me!



 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 156 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Mar 12, 2000 (15:59) * 2 lines 
 
Congratulations to a puvblished photographer! I remember that hike but I did it with the graduation bunch in the day time and did the Jiffy-pop thing, too.
I recall being told (and I did not doubt it for a second) that it was gonna be a tough hike at night and that I should probably not go with you-all. I'm sure, from my hike of the same route that it was no easy thing to negotiate.


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 157 of 997: Ginny  (vibrown) * Mon, Mar 13, 2000 (23:35) * 1 lines 
 
If I remember correctly, the hike to where the lava flowed into the ocean was at night, and you joined us. The hike to the sea shield was a much longer hike, and we did that the next day. It took the whole day, and I was pretty tired by the end of it...and I was in better shape than I am now! :-)


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 158 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Mar 14, 2000 (12:09) * 5 lines 
 
I remember hiking to the sea with you and have photos to prove it - some from you and some from David.

Ginny's latest and now I recognize the surroundings:




 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 159 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Mar 14, 2000 (20:21) * 27 lines 
 
Mayon Volcano Bulletin
12 March 2000
An ash puff with height of about one kilometer was observed at 0903H
yesterday. The ash column was drifted to the northwest direction. The ash
ejection was caused by water that comes in contact with the still hot lava
deposits at the summit. And at 1242H, another minor billowing ash was seen
descending the Bonga Gully due to the detachment of the new lava deposit at
the upper slope. The elutriated ash cloud drifted to the west-southwest by
the prevailing winds.

During the rest of the past observation period the volcano was relatively
quiet. This was manifested by faint crater glow at the tip of the cone and
weak to moderate emission of steam. Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) emission rate
decreased from the previous reading of 4,300 tonnes per day (t/d) to 4,000
t/d.
Seismic activity consisted of 5 low-frequency volcanic quakes and 7
episodes of short-duration tremors. Slight deflation of the volcano edifice
continued to be recorded by ground deformation measurements via precise
leveling.
PHIVOLCS considers the moderate seismic levels, deflation of the volcanic
cone, moderate steam ad SO2 outputs including crater glow to be part of the
volcanic processes involving the gradual return to quiet conditions. At
this stage, however, these parameters are still above normal repose levels
such that Alert Level 4 remains hoisted over the volcano.
http://www.phivolcs.dost.gov.ph/Volcanoes/Mayon/MayonIndex.html




 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 160 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Mar 20, 2000 (11:51) * 36 lines 
 
VOLCANOES - updates

Mayon (Philippines) Summitcrater dome growth and escalating eruptions
herald evacuations

Barren Island (India) Naval aircraft flight crew sights unconfirmed
"volcanic emission of smoke"

Piton de la Fournaise (Reunion Island) A new eruption in February 2000
begins venting lava flows

Nyamuragira (Zaire) As 27 January eruption began, witnesses assumed they
heard artillery fire

Stromboli (Italy) 1999 seismic summary and some strongerthanusual eruptions

Kilauea (Hawaii) Ground deformation continues through June; earthquake
swarms begin in December

Tungurahua (Ecuador) More than twofold increase in longperiod earthquakes
during December

Pacaya (Guatemala) Map of new lava flows, satellite data, and perspective
on the 16 January eruption

Fuego (Guatemala) Satellite data reveals hot spot; field observers see
JanuaryFebruary ash puffs

Popocatepetl (Mexico) Increased number of exhalations and new dome growth
in late February

Soufriere Hills (Montserrat) Stillvigorous, potentially destructive
eruptions during JulyNovember 1999

http://www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/



 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 161 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Mar 26, 2000 (14:43) * 3 lines 
 
This photo was taken some years ago when he and another geologist would spend several days in the field. They slept and stored all things under that rusty-roofed structure. It got covered by cinders regularly and had to be dug out. As I recall this place ( just in front of that vent - Pu'u O'o) was called Camp 7 and was covered entirely and permanently just as the 6 camps before them had been. The items on the tripods are lasers and reflectors with which they measure the deformation of the entire mountain of Kilauea.




 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 162 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Mar 26, 2000 (17:39) * 40 lines 
 
STROMBOLI ON-LINE and ITALY'S VOLCANOES: THE CRADLE OF VOLCANOLOGY
proudly present:

Video clips of a paroxysmal eruptive episode at the Southeast Crater of
Mount Etna(Sicily), 15 February 2000, filmed by British film maker David
Bryant

A series of video clips in Quicktime format (.mov) showing the spectacular
eruptive episode at the Southeast Crater on Etna of 15 February 2000 has
been posted simultaneously at "Stromboli On-line" and "Italy's Volcanoes:
The Cradle of Volcanology". The videos, which range from 1.5 to 3.5 MB in
size, show all main stages of the spectacular event from the initial
Strombolian activity over the escalation and the rise of huge lava fountains
to the decline and end. We believe that this is extraordinary footage of a
volcanic eruption and are grateful to David Bryant for his availability to
share his material with volcano enthusiasts and volcanologists worldwide.
His full video will appear in a film about Mount Etna and Catania, which
will be broadcast later this year; information about this will be provided
timely to visitors of our web sites.

We have decided to post the video clips on both sites simultaneously,
because this will allow both U.S. and European visitors fast downloading. If
the connection to one of the sites is slow, you may thus switch to the other
site and see if this works faster. We also give tips about how to download
faster and without annoying ruptures of transmission, if you have a slow
line.

And this is where you will find the movie clips:

Stromboli On-line: http://stromboli.net/perm/etna/etna00av/index-en.html

Italy's Volcanoes: http://www.geo.mtu.edu/~boris/ETNA_15022000movie.html

Enjoy!








 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 163 of 997: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Mon, Mar 27, 2000 (04:32) * 1 lines 
 
Got it - was in wrong topic earlier!


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 164 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Mar 27, 2000 (15:01) * 1 lines 
 
Got a cute one of him as a full-grown man....have I inflicted it on you, yet? It used to be visible in Spring Gallery on Porch conference.


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 165 of 997: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Mon, Mar 27, 2000 (15:25) * 1 lines 
 
I've got one - don't know if it's the same one though. You said it was your favourite.


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 166 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Mar 27, 2000 (15:29) * 1 lines 
 
You have the fav one, so far, that is...*smile*


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 167 of 997: anne hale  (ommin) * Tue, Mar 28, 2000 (23:36) * 1 lines 
 
wonderful pic. Marcia, now we have converted to netscape - didn,t realise how much better it is.


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 168 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Mar 29, 2000 (14:06) * 1 lines 
 
Finally! I told you (as they say)...it is true !


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 169 of 997: Ginny  (vibrown) * Thu, Mar 30, 2000 (00:03) * 3 lines 
 
That's a great picture of David! Was that close to where we went hiking (when I took the picture that just got published)? I remember seeing Pu'u 0'o when we were out there.

Wow, 7 camps buried by lava? I hope no one was *at* any of the camps when they got buried!!


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 170 of 997: anne hale  (ommin) * Thu, Mar 30, 2000 (04:38) * 1 lines 
 
Has the volcanic eruption due to come at any moment in Japan been reported. Also large earthquake in New Zealand today.


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 171 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Mar 30, 2000 (10:33) * 37 lines 
 
Nothing in here reported about the eruption, but my email is full of items from Dacid (Yes, Ginny, that is where you were! No one was endangered by the eruptions which buried any of the camps, thank goodness.) Did not know about the earthquake in NZ, but will post as soon as I get through here and wake up a little.

***************************
Usu Volcano, Japan crisis
***************************


Volcanic Advisory reports (nos. 1-7) on Usu Volcano, Hokkaido, Japan, were
issued from Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) since 28 March. Number of
volcanic earthquakes around this volcano has increased since 8 a.m. (JST),
27 March; 16 times in 27 Mar. and 599 in 28 Mar. (including 68
felt-earthquakes) at the JMA site about 2 km south of the summit. At 07:08,
29 March, the quake of M3.4 occurred on this volcano. According to the Usu
Volcano Observatory, the hypocenter of the earthquakes locates on the
northern slope of the volcano. Neither volcanic tremor nor visible change
in fumarolic gas had not been observed by the 28 March night.

National Coordination Committee of Volcanic Eruption Prediction (Chaired by
Prof. Yoshiaki Ida, Univ. of Tokyo) commented a high possibility of
imminent eruption in this volcano in the 28 March evening. JMA is also
calling the local people's attention to mud flows triggered due to snow
melting by eruption. Hot spring resort locates on the northern foot of the
volcano, and about 1,600 guests stayed this night. However, more than 400
persons living around the volcano actively took refuge to safety places
like distant schools by the 28 March night, according to the attentions by
local governments.

Historical eruptions occurred in 1663, 1769, 1822, 1853, 1910, 1943-45
(Showa-shinzan lava dome eruption), and 1977-78. According to Akihiko
Tomiya, Geological Survey of Japan, precorsory phenomena of these
eruptions, mainly volcanic earthquake events, before eruptions lasted from
32 hours (1977-78) to 6 months (1943-45 eruption). Most of them began with
the Plinian phase, followed by pyroclastic flows and, then, dome growth.
The volume of tephra is 0.05 c.km for the 1943-45 eruption to 2.5 c.km for
the 1663 eruption. Information on Usu Volcano is in the site,
http://uvo.sci.hokudai.ac.jp/.




 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 172 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Mar 31, 2000 (17:07) * 74 lines 
 
Japanese Volcano Eruption Forces 15,000 to Flee
DATE (Reuters) - Japan's snow-capped Mount Usu volcano erupted on
Friday, belching forth vast clouds of smoke and ash and forcing 15,000
people to flee their homes.
The 2,402-foot volcano, among Japan's most active, sent rocks hurtling into
the air as plumes of dark gray smoke streaked with blue lightning billowed
from the conical mountain.
Residents ran for cover, holding towels over their mouths as the smell of
sulfur pervaded the air.
Onlookers said they could taste grit from the eruption that hurled ash as high
as 8,850 feet into the sky. A carpet of ash coated cars and houses.
Tremors were jolting the hot spring resort area on the northern island of
Hokkaido as the eruption continued, Meteorological Agency official Manabu
Komiya told reporters.
Ash, volcanic rocks and mudslides had flowed toward the small town of Abuta
and the navy and the Coast Guard were deployed to evacuate the entire
population of some 2,000 from homes perched precariously between the
mountain and the sea.
Officials said four naval ships, five Coast Guard vessels and two military
helicopters had plucked residents to safety.
``Depending on developments, the eruption could cause even bigger damage,''
Prime Minister Keizo Obuchi said. ``The government will do whatever it can to
deal with the situation.''
Sailors on the naval vessels reported mudslides slipping down the
cone-shaped mountain toward Abuta, but navy officials said later these were
small.
Officials said there were no reports of casualties.
Mount Usu last erupted in 1978 after a series of earthquakes that gave birth
to a new and smaller volcano by its side. Mudslides triggered by that eruption
killed three people.
Troops had already helped to evacuate more than 15,000 people from towns
around the foot of the volcano and they were being housed in schools and
public halls.
Officials said they were establishing emergency post offices and banks to
allow residents easy access to their money.
FURTHER ERUPTIONS POSSIBLE
Government experts said another big explosion appeared unlikely but it could
take some time until the volcano settled down and more eruptions were
possible from new craters.
``The fact that the ash cloud rose so high suggests the force of the eruption
was strong. We can't dismiss the chance of other developments, like magma
moves,'' said Yoshiaki Ida, chairman of the government's volcano experts
panel.
Snow was falling heavily, further coating the slopes of the volcano still
shrouded by billowing smoke from explosions of gases from five craters on
the mountain's western slope.
Officials said initial assessments showed the eruption had not been as large
as first expected, but further blasts could not be ruled out. Thousands of
earthquakes had rumbled through the region since Sunday as the mountain
prepared to blow its top.
``Mount Usu has had seven significant eruptions that we know of, and at no
time has it ended quickly with only a small scale eruption, said Yoshio
Katsui, a professor at Hokkaido University.
The plume of smoke was not as large as the one spewed out by Mount Usu's
last eruption in 1978.
``It looks smaller than before,'' said one middle-aged woman watching the
smoke pillar from the shore of nearby Lake Toya.
Train services in the area had been disrupted, some flights had been diverted
and roads blocked off, officials said.
Officials warned residents to beware of mudslides amid predictions of heavy
rain later on Friday night because snow on the mountain, believed to be 11 to
31 inches thick, could melt rapidly.
Some 3,300 troops were providing food, water and blankets for evacuees.
Others were on reconnaissance missions around the mountain, including
some in helicopters.
A Hokkaido government official said 55,000 people living in five towns around
the foot of the mountain, including the hot spring resort town of Toya, could
be affected by an eruption.
Cabinet ministers, keen to appear on top of the situation after past criticism
for slow response to disasters, huddled at a crisis center at the prime
minister's residence to monitor events.
Officials warned there was a chance that an eruption at Mount Usu could
mimic the deadly flow of superheated gas and ash from Mount Fugen in
southern Japan in 1991, which killed 43 people.


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 173 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Apr 12, 2000 (21:11) * 25 lines 
 
From David:

************************************************
Stromboli On Line: Etna Video and smoke rings
************************************************

May we bring to your attention the fact that now
STROMBOLI ON-LINE's 1999-Etna videocassette is available,
featuring South East Crater lava flows and hornito activity, and
Bocca Nuova paroxysm with the "small scale pyroclastic flow".
All footage was digitally recorded and processed (58min; VHS-PAL,
VHS-NTSC upon request); original sound only, no commentary.
Written explanations in German, English and Italian are added.
For further details please consult our website:
http://stromboli.net/shop/index-en.html

We would also like to ask if any of you are aware of publications
regarding «smoke rings». We were able, in February 2000, to document
exceptionally beautiful and long-lasting rings on Etna, and this arose
an incredible interest about their nature. We would be therefore glad
to be able to present a rather complete list of scientific references
regarding their origin. Etna's «ring world» can be seen at
http://stromboli.net/perm/etna/etna00b/index-en.html




 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 174 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Apr 12, 2000 (21:40) * 4 lines 
 
Go to this remarkable page of pictures - below is one of them:
http://educeth.ethz.ch/stromboli//perm/etna/etna00b/index-en.html




 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 175 of 997: Ginny  (vibrown) * Wed, Apr 12, 2000 (22:54) * 1 lines 
 
Amazing pictures! I love the smoke rings.


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 176 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Apr 12, 2000 (22:59) * 1 lines 
 
There are incredible pictures on that web page, but I love the one I posted here. Never saw anything like it! Well, I did see Pu'u O'o do that during one episode way back in its infancy...and if someone else had not mentioned it, I would have thought I was seeing things.


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 177 of 997: Ginny  (vibrown) * Wed, Apr 12, 2000 (23:08) * 1 lines 
 
I would have thought I was seeing things, too! Pu'u O'o didn't do that while I was there (but I can't complain about what I *did* see).


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 178 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Apr 13, 2000 (00:08) * 1 lines 
 
Yup! You got close enought to get your feet "wet", as I recall.


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 179 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, May  1, 2000 (16:52) * 47 lines 
 
***************************************
Submarine eruption: Madagascar Plateau
***************************************
A probable submarine eruption was observed during the April 24-25 night by
the solitary navigator Philippe MONNET, who is doing the world tour in
inverse order, near 30°S-45°E where there is a seamount, on the Madagascar
Plateau, the top of which is around 300-400 m. below sealevel.
He observed very big dark and white plumes up to 10 000 m. high, may be
more, glowing gleams in the base of the plumes issued of the sea, and many
flash of lightning. The sea was especialy rough in the zone.
He observed this phenomena during more than 14 hours, and April 25 in the
evening, many milles in the West, he could always see the glowing plume.
April 23 (4:16 UT) the Piton de la Fournaise Observatory recorded an
earthquake around 1 000 km in the West sector of Reunion Island. Relationship?
P. Lanier (Monnet's routeur) followed plumes on satellite images during
this period.

***************************************
Submarine eruption: Azores
***************************************
From: Hugh McNichol

Photos of the ocean surface during an eruption of an underwater
volcano near the Azores can be found at:
http://www.acores.net/fotos/foto_iris/
According to a marine historian living on the Azores, this underwater
volcano is only about 5 km offshore and the summit was 400 meters
below the surface in the summer, and it is only 200 meters below the
surface now.


According to the web sites below, the submarine eruption near Terceira,
Azores Islands, which began late in 1998 is still continuing as of
Feberuary 2000, albeit at a low and flucuating level. Pictures are
available at the first URL below.
http://www.virtualazores.com/crise99/index.html

Following from:
http://www.geo.aau.dk/palstrat/tom/santorini_homepage/ongoing_eruptions.htm#
terceira
26 February 2000
Ash and gas emission from the submarine eruptive fissure that started
erupting in late 1998 is still continuing at Terceira, Acores. For over one
year, the eruption is continuing at low, fluctuating levels.





 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 180 of 997: Ginny  (vibrown) * Tue, May  9, 2000 (00:25) * 72 lines 
 
Sorry if this is a duplicate...haven't had a chance to catch up on all the Geo topics yet. From http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/releases/2000/jovianduststream.html

MEDIA RELATIONS OFFICE
JET PROPULSION LABORATORY
CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION
PASADENA, CALIF. 91109 TELEPHONE (818) 354-5011
http://www.jpl.nasa.gov

Contact: Jane Platt, (818) 354-0880

FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE May 3, 2000

IO'S VOLCANOES SPLATTER DUST INTO THE SOLAR SYSTEM

Fiery volcanoes on Jupiter's moon Io are the main source of dust streams that flow from the Jupiter system into the rest of the solar
system, according to new findings from NASA's Galileo spacecraft analyzed by an international team of scientists.

The scientists, led by Amara Graps of the Max Planck Institute of Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg, Germany, analyzed the frequency of
dust impacts on Galileo's dust detector subsystem. They found peaks that coincided with the periods of Io's orbit (approximately 42 hours)
and of Jupiter's rotation (approximately 10 hours).

Although dust scientists had suspected Io as the source of the dust streams, it was difficult to prove. They ruled out several possible
sources, including Jupiter's main ring and Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9, but Jupiter's gossamer ring and Io remained as candidates. The dust
scientists studied several years of Galileo data to show that the motion of the dust stream particles is strongly influenced by Jupiter's
magnetic field, with a unique signature that could exist only if Io were the main contributor to the dust streams.

"Now, for the first time we have direct evidence that Io is the dominant source of the Jovian dust streams," said Graps, lead author of
a paper on the findings that appears in the May 4 issue of the journal Nature.

The Jovian dust streams are intense bursts of submicron- sized particles (as small as particles of smoke) that originate in Jupiter's
system and flow out about 290 million kilometers (180 million miles), or twice the distance between Earth and the Sun. They were first
discovered in 1992 by the dust detector onboard the Ulysses spacecraft during its Jupiter flyby.

"The escape of dust from the Jovian system in 1992 was a total surprise," said Dr. Mihaly Horanyi, a dust plasma physicist at the
Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, Boulder, CO, and co-author of the paper. Since 1995, the Galileo dust detector, a twin
to the Ulysses instrument, has observed the streams, both while the spacecraft was en route to Jupiter and within the Jupiter system.

Very, very early in the history of our solar system, before and during the formation of the planets, small dust grains were much more
abundant. These charged grains were influenced by magnetic fields from the early Sun, much as the dust on Io is affected by Jupiter's
magnetic field today. Thus, studies of the behavior of these dust grains may provide insight into processes that led to the formation of the
moons and planets in our solar system.

"The dust from the Jovian dust streams is clearly magnetically-controlled dust," said Dr. Eberhard Gruen of the Max Planck Institute.
"Dust particles carry information about charging processes in regions of the Jovian magnetosphere, where information is otherwise sparse
or unknown." Gruen built the dust detectors for several spacecraft, including Galileo, Ulysses and Cassini.

These new results provide a useful window on Io. In-situ dust measurements can monitor Io's volcanic plume activity, complementing
observations made by Galileo and from Earth-based telescopes.

The Jovian dust streams, with their Io source, are minor when compared to the huge amounts of dust created in the solar system by
comet activity and asteroid collisions. Nonetheless, they add to the variety of dust sources in the solar system. In fact, the Jovian dust
streams travel so fast that some particles can actually leave the solar system to join the local interstellar medium -- the gas and dust that fill
the space between stars.

In December 2000, during a joint observation of Jupiter by Galileo and Cassini, scientists will have a unique opportunity to study the
Jovian dust streams using dust instruments on both spacecraft.

In addition to Graps, Gruen and Horanyi, authors on this paper are Dr. Harald Krueger, Andreas Heck and Sven Lammers of Max
Planck, and Dr. Hakan Svedhem of the European Space Research and Technology Centre in Noordwijk, the Netherlands. This work was
supported by the German space agency, Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft-und Raumfahrt E.V. (DLR).

More information on the Galileo mission is available at http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov .

The Max Planck, Heidelberg Dust Group web site is at http://galileo.mpi-hd.mpg.de/ .

The Galileo, Cassini and Ulysses missions are managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of
Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is managed by the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

#####
5/3/00 JP
#2000-042


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 181 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, May  9, 2000 (00:27) * 1 lines 
 
I posted similar stuff before the beginning of the year in Geo 24 - which is why it was created - for Volcanoes other than on Earth. Thanks!


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 182 of 997: Ginny  (vibrown) * Tue, May  9, 2000 (00:29) * 1 lines 
 
Ah...wasn't sure which topic it belonged in...a little bit of "overlap"


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 183 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, May  9, 2000 (00:31) * 1 lines 
 
That's really fascinating. I wonder how it will effect the magnetosphere over which Mike has now taken control on Geo 35 ( check out the cool diagram I found)


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 184 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, May  9, 2000 (00:36) * 1 lines 
 
Not to worry - we'll catch 'em one way or the other. I often link it by saying look on topic whatever post who... I hope it is being read. I think I shall alert mike to your post so we can decide what is gonna happen to us. Btw, I now post all space news in topic 34 just for that purpose. I imagine they will come out with headlines about this, too...


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 185 of 997: Ginny  (vibrown) * Tue, May  9, 2000 (01:03) * 3 lines 
 
You certainly have been busy around here...gonna take me a while to catch up on all the postings! :-)

Well, it's 2am here, so good night all!


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 186 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, May  9, 2000 (12:10) * 1 lines 
 
Oh, Ginny, they're worth it. Lots of good stuff in here lately (as usual, actually...) Welcome home!


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 187 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, May 26, 2000 (21:42) * 89 lines 
 
Observations in late May 2000 by NZ geologists showed that the famous
Kavachi submarine volcano in the Solomon Islands is once again erupting,
with spectacular bomb ejections and possible island formation.

From: http://www.gns.cri.nz/news/release/volcisland.htm

NEWS RELEASE, 25 MAY 2000
NZ SCIENTISTS WATCH FIERY BIRTH OF NEW PACIFIC ISLAND
Two New Zealand scientists were part of an international team who this week
witnessed the dramatic birth of a new volcanic island near the Solomon
Islands. The rare observation was made during an investigation of seafloor
volcanic activity and associated mineral formation in the Bismark and
Solomon seas north of Australia.

Marine geochemist Gary Massoth and mineral geologist Cornel de Ronde, both
of the Institute of Geological & Nuclear Sciences Limited (GNS), were part
of an international team on the CSIRO research ship Franklin who made a
comprehensive study of the island-building eruptive activity.

The scientists found the shallow Kavachi seamount, which had been dormant
for nine years, had started a new phase of eruptive activity. Kavachi, in
the Solomon Island chain of volcanoes, is only 30km from the boundary of
the Indian and Australian tectonic plates.

A roughly conical feature rising from a seafloor depth of 1100m, Kavachi is
about eight kilometres in diameter at its base and has produced ephemeral
islands at least twice in the past century.

" When we arrived at Kavachi, we found violent eruptions taking place every
five minutes,’’ Mr Massoth said from Darwin today. " The eruptions were
ejecting molten lava up to 70 metres above sea level, and sulphurous steam
plumes rose to about 500 metres. At night we were treated to a spectacular
fireworks display with the red glow of eruptions continuing."

The peak of the volcano was forming a sandy ashen beach two metres below
sea level with regular violent bomb-like eruptions.

The ship approached to within 750 metres of the eruption centre and found
that the volcano had grown substantially since it was last surveyed in
1984. The scientists were able to sample freshly formed volcanic rocks from
the flanks of the erupting volcano.

" This was an unprecedented opportunity and has given us valuable
geological information. We also systematically sampled gases and seawater
at various depths around the perimeter of the volcano ­ something that has
not been achieved before with an erupting submarine volcano.

" We detected particle and chemical plumes from the eruption at least 5
kilometres from the centre of the volcano. This has provided valuable
information about the impact of active volcanoes on ocean chemistry."

Mr Massoth said Kavachi differed from Brothers volcano, the largest and
most active submarine volcano north east of White Island, in that Brothers
was deeper and hydrothermally active while Kavachi was shallow and
volcanically active.

" Hot rock, or lava, predominates at Kavachi while hot water predominates
at Brothers." Hydrothermal fluids were venting from Brothers volcano at
about 300oC against 100oC at Kavachi. Hotter fluids react with the volcano
host rocks more efficiently and are more heavily laden with dissolved
minerals."

Observations at Kavachi showed that lava being quickly quenched in seawater
did not produce a strong chemical plume in the ocean, unlike the active
volcanoes northeast of White Island which vent large volumes of
hydrothermal fluids and heat into the ocean.

" Kavachi has confirmed our observations that forearc volcano chains, such
as the Kermadec chain north east of White Island, contribute significantly
to the global inventory of heat and chemical emissions entering the oceans.

" The work we have been doing in New Zealand waters is effectively
re-writing the textbook on submarine volcanism."

About 80 percent of the world’s volcanism occurred in the ocean and only a
small proportion of all submarine volcanoes had been systematically
surveyed with scientific equipment, Mr Massoth said.

At another location, the scientists dredged up what they believe is a
world-record size "black smoker" ­ a 2.7m-high chimney prised from an
active volcanic vent at a depth of 1700m. Black smoker chimneys are packed
with minerals ­ typically 1000 to 10,000 more concentrated than background
levels in seawater. The chimney was expected to be rich in silver, zinc and
gold, Mr Massoth said.

John Callan
Communications Co-ordinator
Institute of Geological & Nuclear Sciences Limited



 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 188 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, May 26, 2000 (22:31) * 4 lines 
 


Kavachi submarine volcano in the Solomon Islands is once again erupting,
with spectacular bomb ejections and possible island formation.



 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 189 of 997: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Sat, May 27, 2000 (04:29) * 1 lines 
 
I'm glad i came and looked - that's a great photo


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 190 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, May 27, 2000 (12:08) * 1 lines 
 
Thanks! There is nothing quite like watching an island emerge from the sea or watching what used to be a huge pit crater fill, then build a small mountain which becomes a named hill on maps. It is like peeking while God was creating the world...He has not stopped and for that I am eternally grateful. This island has grown by 400 sq acres since the current eruption began!


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 191 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, May 27, 2000 (17:04) * 7 lines 
 
A few eye-witness accounts from a Honolulu guy who has had rather negative volcano experiences compared with mine:

I was in a 747 about 15 years ago flying somewhere over india..there had been a volcano erruption hundreds of miles away but the cloud at risen something like 60 thousand feet...the plane flew thru the cloud and all engines quit..pilot got them started back...

speaking of which..about 8-9 years ago I was on vacation in the Philippines and a volcano blew..I was about 10 miles away..I couldn't belive how quickly the ash traveled..in a matter of minutes all the trees where gone and the sky dark..it was a nightemare. If I hadn't of been in a pretty secure building at the time, I dont think I would of made it...everything around us was pretty much history..




 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 192 of 997: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Sun, May 28, 2000 (06:00) * 1 lines 
 
Mmm some story.


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 193 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, May 28, 2000 (15:07) * 1 lines 
 
Indeed. I am trying to encourage him to login and post his experiences. He is a most fascinating individual, and I would like to get to know him better.


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 194 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, May 28, 2000 (18:14) * 15 lines 
 
He sent this url, and lest it be thought that Hawaii has the only beautiful volcanoes, this one is the archetypal shape and displays why composite cones of mostly ash are so beautiful and so deadly:


Mayon Volcano: Cagsawa Church Ruins



Photograph by C.G. Newhall on September 23, 1984
Pyroclastic flows descend the south-eastern flank of Mayon Volcano, Philippines.
Maximum height of the eruption column was 15 km above sea level, and volcanic ash
fell within about 50 km toward the west. There were no casualties from the 1984
eruption because more than 73,000 people evacuated the danger zones as
recommended by scientists of the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology.




 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 195 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, May 28, 2000 (18:47) * 5 lines 
 
Thanks, Donn, for the urls and the great pictures.
If you'd like to see where I did my disaster relief work, please check
http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/kilauea/history/1990Kalapana/

It was heart-breaking because all I could do was to hug them as they sobbed and watched their homes disappear - one after the other.


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 196 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, May 28, 2000 (18:49) * 1 lines 
 
correcting my html problem...


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 197 of 997: Gi  (patas) * Wed, May 31, 2000 (13:53) * 1 lines 
 
Fantastic pics. Love the one with the smoke ring particularly.


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 198 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, May 31, 2000 (16:42) * 1 lines 
 
Oh, You had not seen that? Incredible, no?!


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 199 of 997: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Fri, Jun  2, 2000 (15:34) * 11 lines 
 
CAMEROON: Mount Cameroon oozing lava

Lava has started to flow again from Mount Cameroon but government officials said on state radio there was no immediate cause for alarm, news organisations reported on Wednesday.

It is unclear exactly when the volcano started to erupt, although
residents of Buea, the town closest to the volcano, said there were
light earth tremors on Monday and thick smoke and fire at the top of the
mountain, Reuters reported state radio as saying.

When Mount Cameroon last erupted, in March and April 1999, the authorities evacuated residents of villages around the volcano. It lies along a geological fault that includes Lakes Nyos, from which carbon dioxide emissions on 21 August 1986 killed 1,700 people.



 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 200 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Jun  2, 2000 (18:41) * 54 lines 
 
frica's Mt. Cameroon has begun erupting again. Felt earthquakes were
noted on 29 May, and by 30 May the summit was erupting "fire". It is unclear as to the precise onset of the eruption, one report said eruptions began 20 May. Reports on 31 May indicate a 3 mi. long lava flow has formed while eruptions of incandescent material continue at the summit.

From: http://www.cnn.com/2000/WORLD/africa/05/30/bc.cameroon.volcano.reut/index.html

Mount Cameroon shows signs of fresh volcanic activity
May 30, 2000
Web posted at: 9:47 AM EDT (1347 GMT)

YAOUNDE, Cameroon (Reuters) -- Mount Cameroon has shown signs of fresh
activity and people living near the volcano have been put on a state of
maximum alert, state radio reported on Tuesday.

The radio said residents of Buea in south-western Cameroon reported
light earth tremors on Monday and a cloud of thick smoke and fire at the top of the 4,095-meter high (13,435 feet) mountain.

Mount Cameroon sits on a seismic fault line that crosses the country.

The volcano was last active in March and April, 1999, when lava cut a
key highway before stopping a few meters (yards) from the Atlantic Ocean.

A government monitoring station is due to go into service in June at
Ekona, north of Buea, to provide early warning of any volcanic activity or
eruption

From:
http://www.cameroonnews.com/?action=display&article=2187152&template=dou
ala/stories.txt&index=recent

Lava Gushes Out of Mount Cameroon
The Associated Press, Wed 31 May 2000

YAOUNDE, Cameroon (AP) - Lava is gushing out of the Mount Cameroon
volcano in this central African nation, state-run radio reported Wednesday.

The hot, molten stream had extended up to three miles, the radio said.
The volcano, 195 miles southwest of the capital, Yaounde, began erupting on
May 20.

Government officials, however, said there was no immediate cause for
alarm.

``There is intense volcanic activity at the top of the mountain, which is essentially characterized by flames and a small flow of lava, which is still not very important,'' said Henri Hogbe Nlend, minister for

scientific and technical research, who surveyed the volcano from a helicopter.

The flames and lava flow are also primarily on the less populated side
of the slope, he added.

It is the second time in just over a year that the volcano has erupted.
In March and April 1999, flowing lava displaced thousands of people and
destroyed farmland.




 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 201 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Jun  6, 2000 (20:40) * 25 lines 
 
http://www.lineone.net/cgi-bin/loadcontent.pl?page=/cgi-bin/drecgi/express/00/06/06/news/n0320-d.html
Maggie, You did it again! Sounds very exciting...!

Flash, bang, wallop, what a picture, what a photograph
BY LOUISE JONES
ALL they wanted was a quiet stroll up Mount Etna to gaze at one of the wonders of the world.
What they got was a sudden eruption, a half-mile run for their lives - and some great pictures to stick in the family album.
The 16 British holidaymakers were within 300 yards of the main crater of Europe's most-active volcano when lumps of molten rock started pouring down the mountainside.
The eruption began at 10.15am and it seemed such fun that geography teacher Lucy Newstead felt confident enough to pose smiling for a photograph.
But at 10.16am all hell broke loose. The party's Italian tour guides screamed at them to "run, run" as the volcano threatened to engulf them in a flow of boiling lava.
Lucy, 31, who teaches at Diss High School, Norfolk, said: "Suddenly there was an explosion of ash. Straight away we could see this lava fountain of red hot rock.
"It just got bigger and bigger and then lava bombs started flying through the air. It was an incredibly awesome sight and it all seemed to happen in slow motion.
"We started running over the ash and ice until we reached a path. Every time I stopped because I was out of breath they made me carry on.
"Some people were terrified, but I don't remember being scared. I did not even think about what danger we were in until we had reached safety."
She was on the adventure holiday with Explore Worldwide when she took pictures of the group's escape.
"I am just delighted to be here. It could have been a very different story if we had been closer to the crater when it erupted," she said.
The eruption was the volcano's most violent this year and could be seen for miles.
Fellow hiker Pat Holding, 52, of Sutton Coldfield, West Midlands, said: "It blew with no warning whatsoever. We saw a big white puff to begin with and then it darkened immediately and got higher and higher.
"Every time I looked behind me the mushroom cloud was getting bigger and bigger."
Mrs Holding, also a geography teacher, added: "There was no time to be scared. We just had to run for our lives. We went on the holiday in the first place to look at volcanos, but we ended up with a bit more than we bargained for."
The group had driven up the mountainside in a four-wheel drive vehicle before climbing to the 11,000 ft high summit.
They had earlier visited the Sicilian volcanoes Stromboli and Vulcano on their £600-a-head holiday.
Travers Cox, managing director of Explore Worldwide, said: "We have been running trips to Etna for six years without any problems. A lot of our groups are disappointed if they do not see an active volcano so these people are lucky in a way."Our tour guides are very experienced and we try not to put people in any danger."
© Express Newspapers, 2000



 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 202 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Jun 13, 2000 (13:29) * 22 lines 
 
Subject: Rise in underground temperature

Dear Sir/Madame,

I am writting on behalf of a geologist here in Tashkent (Capital City of)
Uzbekistan.

They have a new puzzle which they are trying to find some answers for,
through anyone & everyone who is a specialist, in geological & ecological
problems.

Here in various locations around Tashkent city, at a depth of around 10
meters, the ground temperature has risen from around the normal readings of
aprox. 15 Celsius, up to as high as 30 & 50 Celsius!
The questions are, what is causing such an increase in heat of the
underground temperature around Tashkent, & have other major cities of the
world has such cases of such readings?
Thanks for any help, & correspondance in this matter.
Joe Ruuskanen
(Humanitarian aid worker for Central Asian Free Exchange, Tashkent
Uzbekistan)



 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 203 of 997: anne hale  (ommin) * Wed, Jun 14, 2000 (06:15) * 1 lines 
 
HOW STRANGE WHAT ON EARTH DOES IT MEAN? It sounds rather worrying to me. Can anyone confirm the meaning.


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 204 of 997: Curious Wolfie  (wolf) * Wed, Jun 14, 2000 (08:27) * 1 lines 
 
do they sit on a fault-line or volcanic area? wouldn't magma rising slowly to the surface cause the heat to increase? (oh, we're supposed to give answers not more questions!!)


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 205 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Jun 14, 2000 (11:55) * 1 lines 
 
I post questions as well as answers. If we had all the answers, there would be no purpose for Geo other than playing. hmmmm..that's what we do anyway. Get back to you on that question - gotta consult my experts!


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 206 of 997: Curious Wolfie  (wolf) * Wed, Jun 14, 2000 (12:26) * 2 lines 
 
oh, look, marcia has her own experts! *giggle* please let us know, this is most curious.



 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 207 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Jun 14, 2000 (23:38) * 1 lines 
 
How about Funk and Wagnals?? Now you haave made me forget the question Yup, the family geologist/volcanologist... Wolfie, behave.....I thought you were my friend....*sigh* Google.com is my expert if all else fails...


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 208 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Jun 14, 2000 (23:54) * 1 lines 
 
Back from reading that post about the rise in temperatures of the ground in and around Tashkent...That was forwarded to me by son David who got it from a bulletin sent out to professional geologists and volcanologists. Apparently no one knows and they are asking for help. Will let you know further when I know.


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 209 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Jun 20, 2000 (23:19) * 37 lines 
 
Montserrat Volcano Observatory - Montserrat, W.I.

Report for the period midday, 9 June 2000 to midday, 16 June 2000

Rockfalls and small pyroclastic flows have occurred from the growing lava
dome throughout the week, with a dilute ash plume maintained to the west of
the island.

The broadband seismic network recorded a total of 326 rockfall signals, 49
hybrid earthquakes, 1 volcano-tectonic and 76 long period earthquakes for
the reporting period. There has been a marked increase in rockfall activity
this week and a sustained high level of long-period earthquakes. This
information suggests that the dome is still growing at a moderate rate.

Visual observations of the Soufrière Hills Volcano have again been hampered
throughout the week by low cloud. The upper parts of the dome were glimpsed
briefly early in the week. The high point on the dome is now close to 3,000
ft, and the size of the dome is approaching the same as it was immediately
prior to the large collapse event of 20 March 2000. Rockfall and
pyroclastic flow activity has been in the Tar River valley and within the
summit crater. There has been steady production of volcanic ash which has
blown westwards over Plymouth and out to sea; ash has not affected inhabited
areas.
The GPS network is fully operational, and the pattern of ground deformation
remains similar to that which has been seen since late last year.
Maintenance of field stations is still being hampered by the dry, ashy
conditions on the volcano.
Residents of and visitors to Montserrat are advised to tune in to ZJB Radio
for up-to-date information on the status of the volcano. Rockfall and
pyroclastic flow activity is likely to remain at a high level for several
weeks, producing more ash clouds which may blow over inhabited areas if
winds are from the south or southeast. Elevated levels of pyroclastic flow
activity may develop very rapidly. Ash masks should be worn in ashy
conditions or when you disturb ash. The Belham valley should be avoided
during and after periods of heavy rain and everyone is reminded that access
to Plymouth, Bramble airport and beyond is prohibited.



 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 210 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Jun 20, 2000 (23:20) * 20 lines 
 
Mount Cameroon volcano lava threat recedes
June 14, 2000
Web posted at: 11:20 AM EDT (1520 GMT)

YAOUNDE, Cameroon (Reuters) -- Lava flowing down the flanks of Mount
Cameroon has slowed and the threat to people in the nearby town and
villages has receded, officials said on Wednesday.

"There is no more reason to panic. All is calm and the people are going
about their jobs normally," an aide to the governor of South West Province
in the town of Buea told Reuters by telephone on Wednesday.

Scientists monitoring the volcano, which showed fresh signs of activity on
May 29 and later began spewing lava, said last week that Buea was a high
risk zone and the authorities were on standby to evacuate people living in
the area.
The 4,095 meter (13,435 foot) volcano is on a geological fault line running
through Cameroon. It was last active in March and April, 1999, when lava
cut a key highway before stopping a few meters from the Atlantic Ocean.



 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 211 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Jun 25, 2000 (16:14) * 32 lines 
 
For the European contingent, You have volcanoes too:

**************************************
Piton de la Fournaise - new eruption
**************************************
From: Dan Shackelford

Increased seismicity on 22 June and at ~1800 on 23 June a new eruption
began at Piton de la Fournaise, on the SE flank of Dolomieu. Bad weather
has precluded visual observations to date.

Following from Henry Gaudru

SVE INFORMATION release - June 24, 2000

PITON DE LA FOURNAISE - Reunion Island - (France)
Following an increasing of the seismic activity during Thursday 22nd a new
eruptive activity has began on the Piton de la Fournaise. From a local
source the new eruption occured on Friday 23 at 6 PM (local time).
Preliminary information shows that the eruption started from the Southeast
flanc of the Dolomieu crater (Summit of the Piton de la Fournaise) near the
site of the previous eruption of July 1999. Because poor meteorological
condition no direct observation was possible yesterday. (Further details next )
----------------------------------
European Volcanological Society
C.P.1 - 1211 Geneva 17
Switzerland
Fax : 41.22.759.21.05
Email : info@sveurop.org
http://www.sveurop.org




 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 212 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Jul  2, 2000 (20:26) * 33 lines 
 
Montserrat Volcano Observatory
Montserrat, W.I.

Report for the period midday, 23 June 2000 to midday, 30 June 2000
Activity has increased at the Soufrière Hills Volcano this week, with almost
continuous rockfall activity and small pyroclastic flows being produced.
The broadband seismic network recorded a total of 315 rockfall signals, 4
hybrid earthquakes, 4 volcano-tectonic and 157 long period earthquakes for
the reporting period. The number and size of rockfall events increased
throughout the week. Long-period earthquake activity remains at a high
level, indicating relatively high pressures inside the dome.
Dome growth is occurring high on the eastern face of the dome at the top of
the Tar River Valley, forming a rough spiny area. Much of this material is
cascading down the steep eastern face of the dome producing many small
rockfalls and small pyroclastic flows. Rockfall talus is accumulating more
slowly around the southern edge of the dome, where it encroaches on a low
point which would lead into White River Valley. Good views of the notches
onto the north flanks of the volcano and into Gages Valley were not
obtained. Although the volcano appears to be quiet, the level of activity
can change extremely quickly and portions of the dome can collapse with no
warning and generate much larger pyroclastic flows than have been seen for
many months.
Residents of and visitors to Montserrat are advised to tune in to ZJB Radio
for up-to-date information on the status of the volcano. Rockfall and
pyroclastic flow activity is likely to remain at a high level for several
weeks, producing more ash clouds which may blow over inhabited areas if
winds are from the south or southeast. Elevated levels of pyroclastic flow
activity may develop very rapidly and could affect any valleys around the
volcano. Ash masks should be worn in ashy conditions or when you disturb
ash. The Belham valley should be avoided during and after periods of heavy
rain and everyone is reminded that access to Plymouth, Bramble airport and
beyond is prohibited. The daytime entry zone remains closed.
12 noon, Friday, 30 June 2000


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 213 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Jul 10, 2000 (22:06) * 5 lines 
 
Kilauea is not doing this right now, but in honor of Geo's Birthday....






 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 214 of 997: Ginny  (vibrown) * Mon, Jul 10, 2000 (23:45) * 1 lines 
 
Love that last photo! When was that one taken? Kilauea did not do that when I was there...which is probably a good thing, considering where we were hiking... :-)


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 215 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Jul 11, 2000 (00:05) * 2 lines 
 
My thoughts exactly... we would have had to have the old asbestos umbrella handy. It was during this episode that the fountain reached 2000' (610M) and made a roar heard 10 miles away. I did not get up there to see it, and that phase did not last very long, but it WAS spectacular! I'll have to check with David and see if he can remember when it occurred. I can't seem to remember.
The lable on the image was just "gyser"(sic)


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 216 of 997: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Fri, Jul 14, 2000 (05:16) * 35 lines 
 
Friday July 14, 9:32 AM

Japan volcano erupts again on island off Tokyo
TOKYO (Reuters) - A Japanese volcano erupted for a second time on Friday, spewing ash and rocks high into the air and prompting officials to recommend the evacuation of residents, officials said.

A local government official said the eruptions were expected to be short-lived and were unlikely to pose threat to the nearly 4,000 inhabitants of the island.

However, they recommended the evacuation of residents of about 30 homes near the foot of Mount Oyama on the island of Miyakejima, some 200 km (125 miles) south of Tokyo, as large amounts of ash cascaded from the sky after the eruption.

"It's a pretty impressive cloud of ash, so we decided to issue the evacuation warning," a Miyakejima official said. "We will monitor the situation closely."

A Meteorological Agency official said Friday's second eruption from the summit of Mount Oyama took place at 3:50 p.m. (7.50 a.m.).

"The eruptions are within our expectations and unless there are other signs, we don't think there will be a major eruption," the official said.

There were no immediate reports of injuries or damage.

BILLOWING GRAY ASH

Like the first eruption earlier in the day, pale gray ash was seen being billowing about 1,000 metres into the air after a thunderous explosion from the volcano's summit.

Last Saturday, a similar eruption occurred at Mount Oyama, hurling ash and rocks into the air.

The volcano started to rumble at the end of June, but residents who had been evacuated from homes near the mountain were given the green light to return home after a few nights in local schools and other designated evacuation centres.

The island chain south of Tokyo has experienced tens of thousands of earthquakes over the past few weeks triggered by the increasingly active volcano.

This month, a powerful earthquake rocked the neighbouring island of Kozushima, triggering landslides that killed one man, the first earthquake fatality in the earthquake-prone nation for five years.

Miyakejima is one of a chain of seven islands south of Tokyo.

The island has a population of about 3,800 and its perimeter measures about 38 km (22 miles).

Mount Oyama's last major eruption was in 1983 when it destroyed 400 houses and left a moonscape of rock, burning out nearby forests and destroying a lake. A lava flow from an eruption in 1940 killed 11 people and it erupted again in 1962.



 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 217 of 997: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Fri, Jul 14, 2000 (05:16) * 1 lines 
 
(loved the picture Marcia)


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 218 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Jul 14, 2000 (12:41) * 1 lines 
 
(Thanks, Maggie!) The photos and video on the morning news were truly horrifying. Thanks for posting the article!


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 219 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Jul 14, 2000 (20:25) * 36 lines 
 
Friday July 14 4:38 AM ET
Japan Volcano Erupts Again on Island Off Tokyo

TOKYO (Reuters) - A Japanese volcano erupted for a second time
on Friday, spewing ash and rocks high into the air and prompting
officials to recommend the evacuation of residents, officials said.
A local government official said the eruptions were expected to be
short-lived and were unlikely to pose threat to the nearly 4,000 inhabitants of the island.
However, they recommended the evacuation of residents of about 30 homes near the foot of
Mount Oyama on the island of Miyakejima, some 125 miles south of Tokyo, as large amounts of
ash cascaded from the sky after the eruption.
``It's a pretty impressive cloud of ash, so we decided to issue the evacuation warning,'' a
Miyakejima official said. ``We will monitor the situation closely.''
A Meteorological Agency official said Friday's second eruption from the summit of Mount Oyama
took place at 3:50 p.m.
``The eruptions are within our expectations and unless there are other signs, we don't think there
will be a major eruption,'' the official said.
There were no immediate reports of injuries or damage.

Billowing Gray Ash
Like the first eruption earlier in the day, pale gray ash was seen being billowing about 1,000
meters into the air after a thunderous explosion from the volcano's summit.
Last Saturday, a similar eruption occurred at Mount Oyama, hurling ash and rocks into the air.
The volcano started to rumble at the end of June, but residents who had been evacuated from
homes near the mountain were given the green light to return home after a few nights in local
schools and other designated evacuation centers.
The island chain south of Tokyo has experienced tens of thousands of earthquakes over the past
few weeks triggered by the increasingly active volcano.
This month, a powerful earthquake rocked the neighboring island of Kozushima, triggering
landslides that killed one man, the first earthquake fatality in the earthquake-prone nation for five
years.
Miyakejima is one of a chain of seven islands south of Tokyo.
The island has a population of about 3,800 and its perimeter measures about 22 miles.
Mount Oyama's last major eruption was in 1983 when it destroyed 400 houses and left a
moonscape of rock, burning out nearby forests and destroying a lake. A lava flow from an eruption
in 1940 killed 11 people and it erupted again in 1962.


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 220 of 997: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Sat, Jul 15, 2000 (03:52) * 1 lines 
 
(Hey, I just posted that - see 216!!! Great minds or somthing....)


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 221 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Jul 20, 2000 (22:46) * 34 lines 
 





Date: Thu, 20 Jul 2000 12:24:23 -0700
From: Barry Cameron
Subject: Eruption at Lascar, Chile
Sender: VOLCANO
Approved-by: Barry Cameron
To: VOLCANO@asu.edu
Reply-to: VOLCANO
X-Mailer: Internet Mail Service (5.5.2650.21)

*******************
Eruption at Lascar, Chile
July 20, 2000
*******************

The Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center has been notified of a major
eruption of Lascar in eastern Chile. GOES-8 satellite imagery confirmed the
eruption at approximately 14:10 UTC. The cloud, estimated at 35 to 40
thousand feet, is presently moving east into northern Argentina. Official
advisories will be issued by the Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center.

Satellite imagery including still images and loops can be viewed at the
NOAA Satellite Services Division website, at:

http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/SAB/cases.html

Brian Hughes
Meteorologist
NOAA/NESDIS Satellite Analysis Branch
Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 222 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Aug  2, 2000 (16:14) * 25 lines 
 
Can't wait to read the papers coming out of this conference since I also live on an active volcano!

**************************************

Cities on Volcanoes-2
Auckland, New Zealand
February 12-16, 2001

Auckland is a modern vibrant city, with an international status in trade,
investment and business, superbly located on a green isthmus between two
magnificent harbours. However the metropolitan centre of Auckland has
developed across a potentially active basaltic volcanic field. It also faces
a hazard from several large central North Island volcanic centres. Auckland,
like many other cities, is preparing for a volcanic crisis through
collaborative work of specialists in a variety of fields, such as
volcanology, sociology, psychology, emergency management, economics and
city planning.

This meeting will provide a forum for specialists from several disciplines
and countries to collaborate to re-evaluate volcanic crises preparedness and
management in cities and densely populated areas. By drawing upon
multidisciplinary perspectives the workshop affords an opportunity to develop
strategies and consider the means for their implementation.




 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 223 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Aug  2, 2000 (16:38) * 33 lines 
 
***********************
Eruption at Semeru, Indonesia
July 27, 2000
***********************
We sadly post this report:
At approximately 0621 on the morning of 27 July an eruption from the summit
crater of Semeru resulted in two deaths and injuries to six other
volcanologists near the crater. Both fatalities, Wildan and Mukti, were
Indonesian scientists from the Volcanological Survey of Indonesia (VSI).
Other members of the group sustained injuries caused by ejected material.
These included Kris from VSI, Amit Mushkin from the Hebrew University in
Israel, Mike Ramsey from the University of Pittsburgh, and Lee Siebert and
Paul Kimberly from the Smithsonian Institution. Kimberly's injuries were
more serious, including a broken hand, broken arm, and 3rd-degree burns. He
is now recovering in a Singapore hospital.

The members of the group had attended a meeting of the International
Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior (IAVCEI)
in Bali during the previous week.
Background. Semeru, the highest volcano on Java, and one of its most
active, lies at the southern end of a volcanic massif extending north to
the Tengger caldera. The steepsided volcano, also referred to as Mahameru
(Great Mountain), rises abruptly to 3676 m elevation, towering above
coastal plains to the south. Gunung Semeru was constructed south of the
overlapping Ajekajek and Jambangan calderas. A line of lake-filled maars was
constructed along a NS trend cutting through the summit, and cinder cones
and lava domes occupy the eastern and NE flanks. Summit topography is
complicated by the shifting of craters from NW to SE. Frequent 19th and
20th century eruptions were dominated by small to moderate explosions from
the summit crater, with occasional lava flows and larger explosive
eruptions accompanied by pyroclastic flows that have reached the lower
flanks of the volcano. Semeru has been in almost continuous eruption since 1967.



 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 224 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Aug  2, 2000 (16:38) * 9 lines 
 
************************
Lascar Eruption Images - July 20, 2000
************************
This kindly submitted by Dr. Jose Viramonte:
GOES 8 and NOAA 14 images of the Lascar eruption on
07/20/00 can be found at:
http://www.unsa.edu.ar/varias/lascar/




 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 225 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Aug 10, 2000 (20:43) * 35 lines 
 
**************************************
Mount Oyama, Miyakejima, Japan
**************************************
http://dailynews.yahoo.com/h/nm/20000810/sc/japan_volcano_dc_3.html

Thursday August 10 2:37 AM ET
Japan Volcano Erupts Again on Island Off Tokyo

TOKYO (Reuters) - A volcano on a small Japanese island south of Tokyo
erupted again early Thursday, spewing steam, smoke and ash into the air,
and prompting local officials to urge nearby residents to evacuate.
The eruption from the summit of Mount Oyama on the island of Miyakejima,
some 113 miles south of Tokyo, took place at 6:59 a.m. (5:59 p.m. EDT
Wednesday), the Meteorological Agency said.
There were no reports of injuries or damage from the eruption. Some 4,000
people live on the small resort island.
The volcano has erupted several times since the end of June. It last
erupted on July 15.
Although the eruptions seemed to have subsided slightly, local officials
recommended the evacuation of some 630 residents from 315 homes near the
foot of the volcano.
"There has been no panic among the residents and the eruption is apparently
subsiding. But as a precaution, we have urged residents to evacuate," one
official said.
The eruption forced the airport on the island to close and commercial
flights between Tokyo and the island were canceled, an airport spokesman said.
The island chain south of Tokyo has experienced tens of thousands of
earthquakes in the past two months triggered by the increasingly active
volcano.
Mount Oyama's last major eruption was in 1983 when it destroyed 400 houses
and left a moonscape of rock, burning out nearby forests and destroying a
lake. A lava flow from an eruption in 1940 killed 11 people and it erupted
again in 1962.




 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 226 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Aug 20, 2000 (13:10) * 14 lines 
 
**************************
Miyakejima eruption
**************************

Mount Oyama experienced its largest eruption in 17 years, forcing the
evacuation of residents. There were no reports of injuries, but some reports
said the ash had formed into a small rock-like objects that had fallen on to
car roofs. The volcano last erupted on August 10.

For full stories and links, see:

http://dailynews.yahoo.com/h/nm/20000818/sc/japan_volcano_dc_7.html
http://www.cnn.com/2000/ASIANOW/east/08/18/japan.volcano.reut/index.html



 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 227 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Aug 21, 2000 (00:52) * 40 lines 
 
****************************************
Elevated seismicity at Bandaisan, Japan
****************************************

In 1888 a sector collapse at Japan's Bandaisan created a horseshoe-shaped
caldera open to the N and killing 461 people in the process. [There were
several explosions that may have triggered this event]. Some 1½ km3 of
debris deposits from the catastrophic slope failure.

Since Aug 14 there has been much elevated seismicity at this volcano,
including felt events and tremor. JMA began monitoring this volcano in 1965.

This information courtesy of:
http://hakone.eri.u-tokyo.ac.jp/vrc/erup/bandai.html
(maintained by S. Nakada of the University of Tokyo)


****************************************
White Island and Ruapehu, New Zealand
****************************************
For the week ending 18 August, White Island continued its mild gas and ash
venting unchanged, with plumes to ~1,000m. Ruapehu had an episode of moderate
to strong volcanic tremor without any visible change in its activity.

From:
http://www.gns.cri.nz/hazardwatch/latest/gweekvo.htm

White Island
Minor eruptive activity continued during the week. No notable changes in
activity occurred. Ash and gas plumes rose to a height of about 1000m and
drifted about 50 km downwind of the volcano. The Alert level remains at
2.

Ruapehu
A short period of moderate-strong volcanic tremor was recorded during the
week, but no volcanic activity was observed associated with this
tremor. Ruapehu remains at Alert Level 1 (signs of volcano unrest).





 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 228 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Aug 22, 2000 (23:22) * 26 lines 
 
More info on Miyakejima, Japan
********************************
Following information from:
http://hakone.eri.u-tokyo.ac.jp/vrc/erup/miyake.html (maintained by S. Nakada)

Since the 8 July summit collapse opened a pit crater atop Miyakejima's
Oyama cone, collapse has continued, marked by ongoing deflation and
earthquakes. This now likely is a small caldera, currently 1.4km diam by
450m deep. Intermittent phreatic eruptions continue, especially since 10
August. Photos of the 10 and 14 August eruptions appear on the URL above.
Prior to 10 August, an est. 2 million cubic meters of ejecta while the
caldera vol. is about 0.35 cubic km. The eruption cloud on 10 Aug.
eventually achieved 10km in ht. A rather large eruption from ~1700 - ~1900
on 15 Aug. with the eruption cloud rising to at least 8km. "Abundant ash
fell mainly in the northwestern part of the volcano island; as thick as 15
cm about 3 km away from the crater. Cinders as large as 5 cm fell over the
airport which locates in the southeastern part of the island, breaking
windows of automobiles". All eruptions to date appear to solely phreatic in
nature, although the 18 Aug. tephra is still being analyzed.

**************************
Miyakejima, Japan photos
**************************
From: Claude Desgroseilliers
http://www3.50megs.com/claude/volcano/miyakejimavolcano.html --



 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 229 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Aug 24, 2000 (23:16) * 78 lines 
 
I wish I could attend this:

*********************************
Penrose Conference Announcement
*********************************
Penrose Conference to address Longevity and Dynamics of Rhyolitic Magma
Systems
A Geological Society of America Penrose Conference, "Longevity and Dynamics
of Rhyolitic Magma Systems" will be held June 7-12, 2001, in Mammoth,
California. Mammoth Mountain forms the southwest rim of the Long Valley
caldera, one of three large Quaternary rhyolitic caldera centers in the
United States. Long Valley, a site of recent volcanic unrest, lies at the
heart of current debate over the mechanisms and time scales for the
production, storage, and differentiation of rhyolite magma. Such
information is critical to our understanding of fundamental geologic
problems such as the formation and growth of Earth's continents and
predicting volcanic hazards.

The purpose of the conference is to bring together petrologists,
geochemists, volcanologists and geophysicists actively studying the
generation and evolution of silicic magmas. We hope to try and resolve, or
at least constrain, a number of very important and currently highly topical
issues pertaining to the shallow-crustal evolution of large, typically
caldera-forming, silicic magma bodies. These include:

… What is a magma chamber-a large, long-lived fractionating liquid body or
a "sleepy" crystal mush that gets kicked to life every so often,
re-mobilizing existing material? A related issue is to what degree do
plutons carry-forward, in some integrated way, the expression of this?

… What do crystals really represent-phenocrysts vs. xenocrysts-and what
'memory' do they retain? Related to this issue are questions such as does
crystal growth- and dissolution-zoning reflect protracted fractionation of
a single magma body or remobilization and dispersal of crystal mush during
injection of fresh magma into the subvolcanic system and how do crystals
move in the magma system - or are the crystals effectively static in a
moving magma system?

… What is the efficacy of, and driving forces for, convection/mixing in
silicic magmas? Can crystal disequilibrium features, such as
chemical/isotopic zoning and dissolution surfaces, serve to discriminate
between thermal convection and magma mixing?

… What are the time scales needed to produce large, rhyolitic magma bodies?
Recent work using 40Ar/39Ar, Rb/Sr or U-series isotope data has led to the
suggestion that rhyolite magmas in the Long Valley system are stored,
following differentiation, for long (105-106) time scales. This contention
has been disputed principally on the basis that it would be difficult to
keep a body of magma thermally viable for such long periods, even if
grater than 500km3 volume. Alternative physical models have been proposed, such as
remobilization of juvenile plutons or cumulate materials and ion microprobe
work on zircons has variously upheld or contested the claims for long magma
residence times. A key focus of the meeting will be to evaluate the
different types of data available that bear on ages of magmatic events, and
discuss their interpretations.

A limited number of keynote talks will serve to outline the current state
of knowledge concerning the generation and evolution of large rhyolitic
magma systems, and will set the foundation for evaluation of existing
paradigms, development of new models, and discussion of future research
directions. Most of the meeting will focus on poster sessions and group
discussions. Mid-meeting field trips to selected Bishop Tuff and Sierran
plutonic locations will serve to raise questions concerning limits and
constraints on sampling and interpreting geochemical data from pyroclastic
deposits based on our knowledge of how large silicic systems erupt, links
between plutonic and volcanic environments, and the importance of recharge
and mixing in magma evolution.

The conference is limited to approximately 50 participants to ensure a
'workshop-type' atmosphere focussed on manageable discussions. We
encourage participation of graduate students working on silicic magma
systems; partial student subsidies will be available. The registration
fee, which will include lodging, some meals, field trips, and all other
conference costs except personal incidentals, is not expected to exceed
$750. Information on travel to the conference will be provided in the
letter of invitation.




 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 230 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Aug 24, 2000 (23:17) * 10 lines 
 
Arenal, Costa Rica

Arenal Volcano erupted yesterday, Wednesday, Aug. 23, injuring two American
tourists and a Costan Rican tour guide hiking near the volcano. The tour
guide, Ignacio Protti, later died from second and third degree burns.

From:
http://www.nacion.co.cr/ln_ee/2000/agosto/24/pais1.html (in Spanish)
http://dailynews.yahoo.com/h/p/ap/20000824/wl/costa_rica_volcano_cof.html



 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 231 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Aug 25, 2000 (16:07) * 28 lines 
 
From Maggie and Reuters: Friday August 25 12:54 AM ET
Japan Volcano-Hit Island Set to Evacuate Children

TOKYO (Reuters) - Japanese authorities plan to evacuate nearly 200 school children from an island near Tokyo after a volcanic eruption last week left the island covered in ash and fearful of more eruptions.
Officials on Miyakejima island, struck by its biggest eruption in 17 years on August 18, said the evacuation may occur within a week to have the children settled by September 1, the start of the new school term.
This would involve taking around 190 primary and junior high school children off the island, by ship, to an evacuation site somewhere in the Tokyo metropolitan area, they added.

``Authorities are saying there could be another eruption like the one last week, or even larger,'' said Chihoko Kaechi, an official at the Miyakejima Board of Education. ``We can't guarantee the children's safety.''
The total population of primary and junior high students is 327, but the rest have already left voluntarily.
A week ago, the island was plunged into darkness when a massive pall of smoke and ash from Mount Oyama was thrown as high as 26,400 feet into the air, burying the island in centimeters of gray ash.
The volcano has erupted repeatedly since late June. It spat out more ash Friday morning.

``This place is like a desert now,'' said Kaechi. ``It's very hot and the ash gets in your eyes. People with conditions like asthma are really suffering.''
Workers have been clearing the ash from roads and buildings, using shovels and brooms and scooping it into bags.
The Meteorological Agency has warned that, while they believe it unlikely, they cannot entirely rule out an eruption of magma at some point. Eruptions on the scale of the August 18 eruption, or larger, are also possible, with the chance of small rocks being thrown out with the ash.

Decision To Be Made Soon
Tokyo government officials said that while no final decision on the evacuation had yet been made, they expected one soon.
``The biggest difficulty is deciding whether to keep each school together or break them into smaller units and evacuate them separately,'' an official with the Tokyo Board of Education said. ``And of course it is quite hard to find a good site.''
About 4,000 people live on Miyakejima, 113 miles south of Tokyo, part of the Izu island chain, which has been jolted by tens of thousands of earthquakes in addition to volcanic eruptions over the past two months.
Some 800 have already left the island voluntarily. Those who remained have suffered through periodic orders for short-term evacuations to gymnasiums and public halls.
Mount Oyama's last major eruption in 1983 destroyed 400 houses and left a moonscape of rock, burning out nearby forests and destroying a lake. A lava flow from an eruption in 1940 killed eleven people.
Japanese media reported that Miyakejima's mayor had asked that all remaining residents be evacuated from the island, but a Tokyo city official said there had been no formal request.
The entire population of Oshima, another island in the chain, was evacuated when a volcano there erupted in 1986.

The Tokyo official said that the city was not considering such an evacuation at this point, adding that it was not yet dangerous enough to warrant the logistical difficulties and the trauma involved in uprooting people from their homes.
``Besides, the activity of this volcano is proving extremely difficult to predict. Who will take responsibility for evacuating people -- and then nothing happens for months or years?''



 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 232 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Aug 25, 2000 (20:16) * 13 lines 
 
This web site contains the updating Etna, Vesuvius and Stromboli Volcanoes. Watch them erupt!

*******************************************
Earthquakes & Volcanoes in Sicily website
*******************************************
From: Villari Letterio

I should like to inform the Volcano List Server follower that since the
beginning of the current year weekly news on Earthquakes and Volcanoes in
Sicily (Italy) are available, on-line, by consulting the Poseidon web page,
at http://www.poseidon.nti.it address.

L. Villari, Director


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 233 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Aug 27, 2000 (14:25) * 3 lines 
 
Mt Etna is erupting and may get a lot bigger. Watch in real time:

http://www-personal.usyd.edu.au/~gerhard/cam_etna.html


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 234 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Aug 28, 2000 (23:46) * 19 lines 
 
"Today In Volcanic History"

This is for all of August-

August 4 1905- Savai'i, Samoa Erupts
August 8 1991- Hudson, Chile Erupts
August 16 1663- Usu, Japan Erupts
August 17 915- Towada, Japan Erupts
August 24 79- Vesuvius, Italy Erupts

I snitched this from
Yahoo! Clubs: WARNING Volcanology Activated









 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 235 of 997: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Tue, Aug 29, 2000 (03:09) * 21 lines 
 
Update on the Japanese volcano:
Tuesday August 29 2:39 AM ET
Japan Island Volcano Erupts; Evacuation Speeded Up
By Elaine Lies

TOKYO (Reuters) - A volcano on a Japanese island 113 miles south of Tokyo spewed a huge column of steam, smoke and ash Tuesday, forcing authorities to speed up a planned evacuation of school children from the island. Officials on Miyakejima said they were taking the last remaining school children off the island Tuesday afternoon rather than Thursday, as previously scheduled.``This new eruption made us decide to speed up the evacuation as it's no longer safe,'' a Board of Education official said. Some 139 children, from primary to high school, were scheduled to leave by boat later Tuesday. There are normally close to 500 students on the island, but the rest had already left voluntarily.
Authorities were hurrying to take enough food and bedding to a boarding school in western Tokyo where the students will be housed, NHK public television said.
The evacuation will last at least until the end of September.

Television pictures showed Miyakejima island shadowed by a massive pall of smoke and ash that shot as high as 26,400 feet into the air from Mount Oyama.
Officials said the eruption -- the ninth in a series that began in late June -- emitted no volcanic cinders, unlike an eruption on August 18 that was the largest in 17 years, but warned that the situation remained extremely fluid.
``There is a strong smell of sulphur in the air, but this eruption is much smaller than the one two weeks ago,'' an official at the Miyakejima town office said.There was no outflow of lava but up to six inches of ash had accumulated on some parts of the island.

Emergency Task Force

Residents were told to stay indoors while officials prepared evacuation centers for residents who wanted to leave their homes.No formal evacuation order had been issued, however, and there were no reports of injuries.Chief cabinet secretary Hidenao Nakagawa told a regular news conference Tuesday the government was establishing an emergency task force to aid evacuation efforts and address safety issues.About 4,000 residents live on Miyakejima, part of the Izu island chain that has been jolted by tens of thousands of earthquakes in addition to volcanic eruptions over the past two months.The nearby islands of Niijima and Kozushima were jolted by a moderately strong earthquake that measured 5.0 on the Richter scale Tuesday morning, but there were no reports of damage or tidal waves.Around 1,159 people had left Miyakejima as of late Monday, Japanese media said -- more than one-third of the population.The Meteorological Agency has warned it cannot entirely rule out the possibility of an eruption of magma, althoug
this is considered unlikely. Eruptions on the scale of the August 18 eruption or larger are also possible, with the chance of small rocks spewing out with the ash.

Mount Oyama's last major eruption in 1983 destroyed 400 houses and left a moonscape of rock, burning out nearby forests and destroying a lake. A lava flow from an eruption in 1940 killed 11 people.The latest eruption also briefly appeared to boost sulphur dioxide levels to several times acceptable amounts in the air over areas west and south of Tokyo, where residents complained of a sulphurous smell Monday. No illnesses were reported.Prevailing winds apparently blew smoke from Miyakejima toward the area, Japanese media reported.




 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 236 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Aug 29, 2000 (13:08) * 1 lines 
 
Thank, Maggie. David has not sent me the official update yet!


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 237 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Aug 29, 2000 (23:59) * 38 lines 
 
***********************
Arenal, Costa Rica
***********************

Last Wednesday 23 of August, Arenal Volcano, Costa Rica, erupted a sequence
of pyroclastic flows originated by a crater collapse in the north flank of
the volcano.
The first activity began at 15:45 hours GMT, with a vigorous emission that
began at 16:01 and had a duration of 23 minutes. Two tourists and their
guide were burnt by the front part of the flow, about 2.3 km. from the
crater. The guide Ignacio Protti took the two tourists, walking about 500m.
and driving about 2 km to a safer place. Mr. Protti died around midnight
(6:00 GMT of Aug. 24).

A second and more intense sequence of flows began at 19:23 GMT with a
duration of 1 hour and 14 min.

The deposits reached a maximum distance of 2.7 km. from the active crater
and expanded more than 300 m in the distal part.

The following activity has returned to the normal emission of gases
(carried to the west by the predominant winds) and lava through the same
direction of the pyroclastic flows.

The National Park was closed and most of the nearest hotels were evacuated.
On Saturday 26 an airplane with 10 passengers crashed against the
northeastern flank of Arenal Volcano, about 200 m. lower than the summit
and a distance of about 600 m from the collapse. All the occupants died.
The Red Cross are attempting to rescue the bodies today, Aug. 28.

More information could be found at the web pages
http://www.una.ac.cr/ovsi
http://www.nacion.co.cr/ln_ee/2000/agosto/24/pais1.html
http://dailynews.yahoo.com/h/p/ap/20000824/wl/costa_rica_volcano_cof.html






 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 238 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Aug 30, 2000 (15:00) * 18 lines 
 
Thanks American_Patriot

VOLCANOES-
August 29 2000- Mt. Etna Explodes-
Italy's Mt. Etna Volcano erupted Monday afternoon, raining ash on the
Sicilian city of Catania to the south. No one was threatened by the lava
flows of Etna. The lava flowed from one of Etna's youngest craters
located on the southwestern flank.

August 29 2000- Mt. Oyama Erupts Twice-
Mt. Oyama is on Miyake island 120 miles south of Tokyo erupted twice on
Tuesday. Mt. Oyama's activity began in June but first erupted on
Tuesday at 4:35 AM and sent a plume of ash 5 miles into the sky. Then erupted
again at 2:53 PM (14:53). There were no immediate reports of damage or
injuries. These eruptions have so far been the largest since her last
eruption 17 years ago.




 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 239 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Aug 30, 2000 (15:11) * 16 lines 
 

SHEVELUCH VOLCANO 56o38' N, 161o19' E; Elevation 2,447 m
CURRENT LEVEL OF CONCERN COLOR CODE IS ORANGE.
PREVIOUS LEVEL OF CONCERN WAS YELLOW.

A short-lived explosive eruption was observed at 11:35 AM KDT (2235 OTC)
sending an ash-rich plume to an estimated altitude of 33,000 ft (10 km)
ASL; the ash cloud was reported as moving to the southeast. Increased
seismicity was noted at 2231-2237 followed by volcanic tremor. Seismicity
has decreased significantly and the eruption appears to be over at this
time. However, Sheveluch has had several short-lived explosive eruptions
recently as partial dome collapse has occurred and more eruptive activity
could occur.

PLEASE CONTACT AVO IF YOU HAVE QUESTIONS OR COMMENTS.



 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 240 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Aug 30, 2000 (21:58) * 109 lines 
 
******************************
Indonesian volcano updates
******************************
Below is a summary of Indonesian volcanic activity reported for the week
ending 21 August. Interesting to note the Kaba appears to "active" and that
famed Merapi, after an unusually long quescence, appears to be increasing
in activity.
From: http://www.vsi.dpe.go.id/hotnews.html

VSI Weekly Report, 23 August 2000
Report for the period 15-21 August 2000

G. Kaba
During the week the weather around the volcano was cloudy, so the visual
observation can not be done clearly. But from seismicity of Kaba volcano
was still in active. That was represents from the number earthquakes.
Although the number of seismicity was decreased over last week, seismograph
was still recorded the main of volcanic earthquake, deep volcanic (A)
earthquake but the number lesser than previous. In contrast, tectonic
earthquake was increased over last week, 37 events during the week. On 17
August seismograph was recorded tremor harmonic earthquake with the maximum
amplitude of 14 mm.
The complete data were deep volcanic (A) earthquake 256 events, 1 event of
shallow volcanic (B) earthquake, and 12 events of tremor volcanic earthquake.
Kaba activity was stated in level 2 (out of four alert level).


Anak Krakatau
Anak Krakatau activity was still continuing. Although the haze obscured the
visual observation, observer was heard booming sound from the volcano.
Seismograph was still recorded many quakes, especially for explosion/small
explosion earthquakes which the number were increased over the
previous week, and infrasonic was also recorded 12 events of explosion
earthquakes but decreased for the number of deep volcanic (A) earthquakes.
The
complete seismicity were 1 event of deep volcanic (A) earthquake,
explosion/small explosion earthquake 326 events, infrasonic 12 events.
Anak Krakatau volcano is stated in level 2, alert.


G. Slamet
Central Java
109º13’20"N, 7º16’2"E, summit elevation 3676 m
Ash smoke was ejected from the summit with the height was about 50-100 m.
Seismicity was dominated by small explosion earthquake (1018 events during
the week) and tremor earthquakes, with the amplitude of about 0.5-15 mm.
Slamet activity is stated in level 2 (out of four alert level).


G. Semeru
East Java
112.92ºN, 8.11ºE, summit elevation 3676 m
Semeru activity was still high but lower than the week before. It was
represents from both visual and instrumental observations. From the volcano
was appears ash plume in white thin-brown color hit about 600 m height. The
number of seismicity were lesser than last week. Seismograph was still
recorded volcanic earthquake, but the dominant seismicity were explosion
earthquakes. The complete data were listed as follow deep volcanic (A)
earthquake 2 events, explosion earthquake 420 events, avalanche earthquake
17 events, and 5 events of tectonic earthquake.
Semeru activity is now stated in level 2, alert (out of four alert level).


G. Lokon
North Sulawesi
1º21.5’N, 124º47.5’E, summit elevation 1579 m
Based on visual observations, there is no major changes around the volcano
compare to the week before, but ash plume was still appears and reached about
100-300 m height above the rim of the crater. Night observations was notice
that the red flame was appears from the crater. The radiation was about 25
m height above the crater rim. It was observed from the Kakaskasen post
observatory. Seismicity was increased over the week before, mostly in deep
volcanic earthquake. Seismograph was recorded 3 events of shallow volcanic
(B) earthquake, 4 events of deep volcanic (A) earthquake, 40 events of
tectonic earthquake, and a continuous of tremor with the amplitude of 0.5 mm.
Lokon activity is now stated in level 3 (out of four alert level).


G. Soputan
North Sulawesi
124º41’12"N, 1º6’20"E, summit elevation 1783,7 m
On 14 August 21.05 (local time, WIB) was occurred again an explosion from
the main crater of Soputan volcano. Ash explosion was in dark grey rises to
2500 m. This activity was continued by strombolian explosion which hit 150
m height above the rim of the crater. The ash explosion was went to the
southwest. This activity was continuing until 6.00 am (local time) in the
morning and accompanied by a continuum of thundering sound which made
tremble the windows of people houses around the Maliku village (about 7 km
away from the summit). This explosion also accompanied by lava avalanche,
flowed down to the southwest 200 m away from the source. Seismicity was
still dominated by avalanche and tremor harmonic earthquakes. Tectonic
earthquake 18 events, explosion earthquake 3 events, avalanche earthquake
795 events, and a continuous of tremor earthquakes.
Soputan activity is now stated in level 4 (the highest level).


G. Merapi
Yogyakarta
110.45ºN, 7.54ºE, summit elevation 2911 m
Merapi activity continued to increase and now in level 2 (out of four alert
level). That was represents from both visual and instrumental monitoring.
By visual observations, solfatara was commonly in white thin-color with the
maximum height was about 460 m and low in pressure.
Based on instrumental monitoring, Merapi seismicity was higher, that was
marked by an increasing of both of deep volcanic (A) and shallow volcanic
(B) earthquakes which recorded in seismograph. But generally, seismicity
was still dominated by avalanche and multiphase earthquakes.




 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 241 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Aug 30, 2000 (22:01) * 11 lines 
 
The AGU 2000 Fall Meeting will take place in San Francisco, Dec. 15-19 2000.
For your convenience, here is a summary list of special sessions
offered by the Volcanology, Geochemistry, Petrology (VGP) Section,
including cross-listed sessions. Convener contact information is included.

Full descriptions of each session can be found at:
http://www.agu.org/meetings/fm00_spss.html

Abstracts are due Sept. 1, 2000 by postal submission, and Sept. 7, 2000 by
electronic submission.



 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 242 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Aug 30, 2000 (23:28) * 13 lines 
 
VOLCANO-
August 30 2000- Tokyo Prepares For Evacuations-
An earthquake and small eruption hit a volcanic island south of Tokyo
today, prompting naval forces to station a destroyer off the coast for a
speedy evacuation. The Tokyo city government offered shelter for the
remaining 1,600 residents of the island. Massive underground reservoirs
of magma are responsible for the recent volcanic and seismic activity on
Miyake, one of the Izu islands about 118 miles from Tokyo. Mt. Oyama
which experienced its last big eruption in 1983, shot a 1.6 mile-high
column of ash and smoke at 4:24 AM today. Hours later a magnitude 4.8
quake struck. No reports of injuries or damage were made.

Mahalo to A_P1


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 243 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Sep  3, 2000 (19:36) * 3 lines 
 
http://volcano.und.edu/vwdocs/current_volcs/arenal/arenal.html

Check out the above URL for information and a pic ture of the perfect composite cinder-cone Volcano. Hawaiian volcanoes are all shield volcanoes, as are those in Iceland.


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 244 of 997: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Wed, Sep  6, 2000 (02:28) * 5 lines 
 
You may have seen these before, but they were new to me. Here are some fantastic Hawaiian volcano pix by G. Brad Lewis - all copyright, but well worth a look see

https://secure.hialoha.net/kw/lavart/1999_catalog.html.




 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 245 of 997: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Wed, Sep  6, 2000 (02:30) * 3 lines 
 
If that link doesn't work (it doesn't show up linked on here) try http://www.lavart.com/
and click on image catalog



 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 246 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Sep  6, 2000 (21:18) * 27 lines 
 
****************************************
Volcanoes, Aerosols and Climate meeting
****************************************

VOLCANOES, AEROSOLS AND CLIMATE

Royal Meteorological Society
Volcanic and Magmatic Studies Group of the Geological Society of London
Aerosol Society

Royal Geographical Society, 1 Kensington Gore, London SW7 2AR, UK
Wednesday 18 October 2000, 1-5pm

The meeting will cover several aspects of the relationship between
volcanism and climate, from measurements of gases as they emanate
from active volcanoes, through the processes of aerosol formation,
growth and transport in the troposphere and stratosphere, and the
impacts of volcanic aerosol upon the chemical composition, radiation
budget, and climate of Earth's atmosphere.

The meeting is free and open to all who are interested.

For further details see:
http://www.royal-met-soc.org.uk/wedmeet.html
http://www.royal-met-soc.org.uk/wedabs001018.html




 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 247 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Sep  6, 2000 (21:22) * 58 lines 
 
Ash eruptions - Komagatake,Popocatepetl,Tavurvur(Rabual)

The full report from the Japan Times (09/06/00) is available at:
http://www.japantimes.co.jp/news.htm

excerpt:
SAPPORO (Kyodo) A volcano in Hokkaido erupted Monday night for the first
time in nearly two years, the Meteorological Agency said early Tuesday.
Mount Komagatake in southwestern Hokkaido erupted at 10:14 p.m. ...There have
been no reports of casualties or damage. At around 5 a.m. Tuesday, the
Sapporo District Meteorological Observatory reported seeing smoke from the
volcano
reaching as high as 500 meters above the volcano...The observatory also
reported
that a seismic tremor was observed on the 1,133-meter mountain, which is
about
120 km southwest of Sapporo.

*************************
Popocatepetl, Mexico
*************************
from the CENAPRED September 5 Bulletin
http://www.cenapred.unam.mx/boletines.html

September 4. At 03:47 a moderate large plume of ash was produce. The
doppler radar detected the plume, that occurred at night. There were
reports ash fall in many towns in the North-west flank: Amecameca, Ozumba,
Tepetlixpa, San Juan Tehuxtitlan, Zoyatzingo and Valle de Chalco. Some ash
also fell on the South limit of Mexico City. The intense phase of this
event lasted 3 minutes, and was followed by 25 minutes of high frequency
tremor. A tectonovolcanic event, below the crater and of magnitude 1.8 also
ocurred. It is recommended not to approach the volcano to less than 7 km
from the crater.
The traffic light of volcanic alert is maintained yellow.
(Recent images of the volcano can be viewed in this web page.)

**************************
Tavurvur (Rabual), PNG
**************************
full Reuters report at:
http://dailynews.yahoo.com/h/nm/20000906/wl/papua_volcano_dc_1.html

excerpt:
BRISBANE (Reuters) - Thick clouds of volcanic ash have blown over the Papua
New Guinea town of Rabaul and authorities said on Wednesday they were
watching a nearby volcano closely for signs of increased activity. The
Tavurvur volcano in PNG's remote northeast province began blowing smoke and
debris last week but vulcanologists said the activity was still considered
normal and no alert had been issued to warn townspeople in the New Britain
island trading port. "In the past several days we have had strong
southeasterly winds which have blown the ash directly into Rabaul," Ima
Itikarai, director of the Rabaul Vulcanological Observatory, told Reuters
by telephone. "It is not at the stage where we would declare it critical,
but we will keep a close watch on it."...Itikarai said the current activity
is similar to events in 1995 and 1996, when Tavurvur spewed debris for
several hours at a time over a period of days before calming down.




 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 248 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Sep 10, 2000 (23:23) * 17 lines 
 



VOLCANO-
Sept 7 2000- Volcano In Papua New Guinea Explodes-
Tavurvur Volcano, located in a remote NE province of Papua New Guinea,
exploded Wednesday. The volcano began showing signs of increased
activity last week, spewing smoke and volcanic debris. The activity was
within the mountain's normal range, and no alerts were issued. Rabaul,
located 500 miles NE of the capital Port Moresby, is built on the caldera of
the volcano. The city suffered extensive destruction in 1994 when
Tavurvur erupted simultaneously with a neighboring volcano, Vulcan, killing
five people. Both of the volcanoes erupted in 1937 triggering tsunamis
that flooded the city. Rabaul is surrounded by 6 volcanoes, and is
located on the Pacific's Ring of Fire.

Thanks to A_P again!


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 249 of 997: Carys  (Carys) * Mon, Sep 11, 2000 (17:43) * 1 lines 
 
Hello Marcia. I thought it best to make my maiden post at Geo on this conference. Since you mentioned living on an island with a large volcano -- Hawaii, the big island of course. You live in the shadow of the great goddess Pele. There used to be a beautiful black sand beach on Hawaii. It's gone now, under lava fields. The process of island building goes on!


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 250 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Sep 11, 2000 (20:24) * 15 lines 
 
Kalapana black sand beach is no more and I have it documented inch by painful inch in photographs as it was paved over by 20 feet of faceless lava. However, as the leading edge of molten lava hit the sea it fractured into minute particles and remade a balck sand beach several hundred feet from the former shoreline. Locals whose houses escaped collected coconuts which had sprouted in the kipukas (kipuka = island of original land which the new lava left untouched) and planted them in an arc around the new beach. It is getting pretty out there and they hold surfing contests again. Pele giveth and Pele taketh away. The current eruption just down the coast from Kalapana is still ongoing and has added over 5000 square acres to our island. The cartographers have a constant updating job here. I have watched two mini mountains form which are now on maps and have names. It is fascinating!

I was wondering when you would post in my conference...Aloha! E komo mai!


Original Kalapana Black Sand Beach\


New Black Sand Beach at Kalapana








 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 251 of 997: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Thu, Sep 14, 2000 (02:05) * 39 lines 
 
Large rocks in strange places
http://www.islenews.com/
By Staff | 2000.9.7 - 17:19:53 HST


Sometimes in science you find something that theory says you shouldn't. Then your pulse starts racing. Are your observations or calculations wrong? Is the theory wrong? Or is there a middle ground, in which observations can be fit to theory if both are tweaked a little?


In late August two volcanologists from the USGS (one from HVO) and one from the Smithsonian Institution were faced with this dilemma. We don't yet know what the final outcome will be, but we're pretty excited.


As this column has previously noted, Kilauea has exploded more often than many people think. Ongoing research at HVO is trying to learn as much as possible about these explosions, for flying rocks are clearly hazardous events that will impact the public.


We went looking for rocks that were thrown out of the volcano about 1,000 years ago. Work in past months had shown that a wide variety of material was exploded from Kilauea then, mostly cherry-sized scoria and other fine-grained material. However, several times explosions were apparently more violent or powerful. They ejected large, heavy rocks, much like those from the 1924 explosions that litter the surface around Halema`uma`u today. The question we asked was how far out were such rocks thrown?


Using a hand-held GPS unit, we established a grid between the Hilina Pali Road and the `Ainahou Ranch Road. The grid is about 700 m (2,300 feet) on a side. At each node of the grid, we spent a total of 18 minutes looking for rocks on the surface-6 minutes per person with a full crew, and 9 minutes with only two of us. We selected the largest 10 rocks we could find during the search. It was like an Easter egg hunt, except the rocks can't be eaten and Nature put them there.


We were searching for the largest rocks we could find. We were not interested in those that broke off the surface of the lava flow beneath our feet, but in those that were clearly foreign-that reached their resting place by flying through the air ballistically. After a little practice, recognizing the ballistics became a simple matter. Some of the rocks are even coarse-grained gabbro, which cooled and crystallized underground before being blasted out.


What we found surprised, even shocked, us. Rather than seeing few, if any, large rocks so far from the caldera, we found lots. And some were very large.


At a distance of 10 km (6 miles) from the summit, we found one rock (a gabbro) weighing 1292 g (2 lbs 13 oz.). At 7.9 km (4.7 miles) from the summit, we found another weighing 1998 g (4 lbs 5 oz.). Many others weigh 100 g (3.5 oz.) or more.


When we compared our findings with theoretical models of how far such large rocks could have been thrown from a volcanic vent, we found that we were observing the impossible. The models simply say no dice, it can't be done. Even if we assume that the source for the rocks was on the east rift zone, say near Pauahi Crater or Mauna Ulu, the distance of more than 5.25 km (3.2 miles) is still too great for the models to accept. But, models or no models, the rocks traveled through the air to get where we found them-and that has to be explained.


We think we are on to something. Kilauea has likely had explosions that were either more powerful, or of a different type, than existing theoretical models can explain.


Before you toss out theory, all steps in the observation and interpretation process must be checked and double checked. We are doing that now. Explosions of such unusual power or type are significant; we can leave no stone unturned (pun intended) in trying to determine their nature and cause.





 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 252 of 997: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Thu, Sep 14, 2000 (02:17) * 28 lines 
 
Waiting for the pause that refreshes

http://www.islenews.com/
By Staff | 2000.8.31 - 18:17:49 HST


What do Kilauea Volcano's eruption and Hilo's 7:30 a.m. traffic have in common? For one thing, lots of stops and starts. The stops and starts in the eruption at Kilauea are the by now familiar pauses; the stops and starts in busy Hilo traffic might be referred to in more colorful terms.


The latest pause in Kilauea's ongoing eruption occurred just over a week ago and was brief. The pause started late on Wednesday, August 23, and ended Saturday, August 26. This was the first Y2K pause but the 30th of the current eruptive episode, which began in February 1997. Eruptive pauses can be short--lasting only a few hours--or long--lasting days or even tens of days. For avid local volcano viewers and once-in-a-lifetime visitors, a pause can be a frustrating experience, since lava stops flowing completely, and there is little, if anything, to see that is red and molten. However, for residents and visitors who are acutely aware of air quality, a pause can be a refreshing experience.


Since the current eruption began in 1983, Kilauea has released a total of around 8 million tons of toxic sulfur dioxide gas (SO2)--enough to fill 400,000 Goodyear blimps or 350 billion party balloons. This gas, which reacts in the atmosphere to form sulfuric acid and other aerosols, is the principle gas responsible for the formation of volcanic smog (vog). At Kilauea, the amount of sulfur dioxide gas released is directly proportional to the amount of lava erupted. Therefore, when the lava eruption rate declines, there is generally a decrease in the amount of SO2 discharged.


During a long pause, the amount of SO2 released from the eruption site is usually drastically reduced. For example, during a 25-day break in the eruption in early 1997, so little SO2 was being emitted that it could not be detected downwind of the eruption site using our standard measurement techniques. This abrupt decrease in gas confirmed that, in addition to the absence of lava at the surface, magma had also withdrawn from beneath Pu`u `O`o.


Several months later, SO2 emissions were still only around half their typical value, reflecting the sluggish start-up of the eruption. During this delightful three-month period of very low SO2 emissions, Kona residents reported the return of the clear air that was the norm before 1986, when the eruption became continuous. Residents who had moved off-island to escape the hazy Kona air quality inquired whether the improved conditions were likely to continue and it might be time to move back. The respite was brief however, and as the lava production came up to full volume, so did the SO2 emissions, and thereby the air pollution problem.


During brief pauses, SO2 emissions may decline somewhat but not stop altogether. During the most recent event, measurements showed that the amount of SO2 released during the pause was still around two-thirds of what we had measured prior to the pause. Although no active lava was flowing, residual degassing of cooling lava, tubes, the vent areas, and shallow magma beneath Pu`u 'O`o continued. It can take many days for all of the gas to escape from the material remaining in the system, so a brief pause may give little chance for chronic volcanic air pollution, such as that in Kona, to clear.


Close to the emission sources, it may also be difficult to detect that a decrease in SO2 has occurred. Under steady trade wind conditions, a compact plume of the residual SO2 from the inactive eruption site can cross the Chain of Craters Road in Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park, 9 km (5.5 miles) from the emission source. This plume is concentrated enough so that a person would still experience the pungent smell, taste and ensuing watery eyes associated with SO2 exposure. Although the latest pause in Kilauea's ongoing eruption was brief, an extended "pause that refreshes" may lie in the future.





 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 253 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Sep 14, 2000 (17:18) * 2 lines 
 
Maggie!!! This is hilarious stuff!!! Whoooooo...I did not know it was even out there let alone for God and everyone to read. Thanks for putting it here!!!
Kilauea continues to erupt on the southwest flank and continues to add acreage to the island as it does so....and more black sand for the beaches. The House Male assured me that the new Kalapana black sand has all washed away and thatr this other beach is a poor replacement for the old one. But, it is one of the few remaining beaches in the area. He said there are 200-foot (61 M) cliffs now where the "new" black sand beach used to be.


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 254 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Sep 14, 2000 (19:52) * 17 lines 
 
*******************************
Aoba Volcano, Vanuatu website
*******************************
From: Roberto Carniel
A short note to inform you that, in collaboration with Charlie Douglas and
Sandrine Wallez, Geohazard Mitigation section of the Department of Geology,
Mines and Water
resources of Vanuatu, and Michel Halbwachs and Michel Lardy, of French IRD,
we prepared a page regarding the current situation at Aoba volcano, in the
island of Ambae, Vanuatu.

STROMBOLI ON LINE, by J. Alean & R. Carniel, http://stromboli.net
From homepage follow link: *Eruptions worldwide", then "Aoba, Ambae, Vanuatu".
Best regards.
Roberto Carniel.
University of Udine, Italy



 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 255 of 997: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Fri, Sep 15, 2000 (04:06) * 1 lines 
 
(did you see 251 as well?)


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 256 of 997: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Fri, Sep 15, 2000 (05:42) * 39 lines 
 
You probably know all this but it was new to me ...The following near-real-time Earthquake Bulletin is provided by the National
Earthquake Information Service (NEIS) of the U. S. Geological Survey as part of
a cooperative project of the Council of the National Seismic System. For
a description of the earthquake parameters listed below, the availability of
additional information, and our publication criteria, please finger
qk_info@gldfs.cr.usgs.gov.

This Bulletin is updated every 5 minutes, if necessary. The same Bulletin
is also available via the Internet at:
http://wwwneic.cr.usgs.gov/neis/bulletin/bulletin.html and that is the
preferred means of obtaining it.
Updated as of Thu Sep 14 22:22:40 GMT 2000.

DATE-(UTC)-TIME LAT LON DEP MAG Q COMMENTS
yy/mm/dd hh:mm:ss deg. deg. km
00/09/12 06:43:13 35.35N 99.32E 33.0 4.7Mb A QINGHAI, CHINA
00/09/12 09:50:50 22.65S 179.92W 544.7 4.6Mb B SOUTH OF FIJI ISLANDS
00/09/12 09:54:38 36.42N 120.99W 9.7 2.8Md CENTRAL CALIFORNIA
00/09/12 10:54:12 6.66N 73.05W 163.9 5.0Mb A NORTHERN COLOMBIA
00/09/12 15:54:33 27.41S 177.16W 33.0 4.8Mb B KERMADEC ISLANDS REGION
00/09/12 16:27:24 5.42S 101.76E 33.0 6.1Ms A SW OF SUMATERA, INDONESIA
00/09/13 00:11:26 51.00N 179.28E 33.0 4.3Mb B RAT ISLANDS, ALEUTIAN ISLANDS
00/09/13 00:13:33 23.86S 66.71W 33.0 4.9Mb B JUJUY PROVINCE, ARGENTINA
00/09/13 03:55:10 27.76N 51.74E 33.0 4.7Mb B PERSIAN GULF
00/09/13 04:17:04 27.77N 51.72E 33.0 4.8Mb A PERSIAN GULF
00/09/13 08:47:50 7.91S 74.41W 147.1 4.3Mb A PERU-BRAZIL BORDER REGION
00/09/13 09:04:22 27.48N 51.85E 33.0 4.7Mb B PERSIAN GULF
00/09/13 10:08:01 42.73N 145.09E 33.0 4.4Mb A HOKKAIDO, JAPAN REGION
00/09/13 10:34:53 58.38S 25.05W 33.0 4.8Mb B SOUTH SANDWICH ISLANDS REGION
00/09/13 13:09:46 27.82N 51.70E 33.0 5.1Mb A PERSIAN GULF
00/09/13 15:11:20 34.18N 95.08E 33.0 4.7Mb B QINGHAI, CHINA
00/09/13 20:39:03 9.12N 126.10E 132.0 4.7Mb B MINDANAO, PHILIPPINES
00/09/13 22:15:09 44.51N 140.56E 248.4 4.2Mb B EASTERN SEA OF JAPAN
00/09/13 22:29:10 54.31S 136.80W 10.0 5.3Mb C PACIFIC-ANTARCTIC RIDGE
00/09/14 14:59:57 15.65S 179.80E 33.0 6.2Ms A FIJI ISLANDS
00/09/14 17:33:27 22.43S 176.35W 104.5 5.2Mb A SOUTH OF FIJI ISLANDS





 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 257 of 997: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Fri, Sep 15, 2000 (05:48) * 18 lines 
 
Also
http://www.drudgereport.com/quake.htm

The areas covered are:
LIVE REPORTS
WORLD LIST
LOS ANGELES LIST
LOS ANGELES MAP
SAN FRANCISCO LIST
SAN FRANCISCO MAP
INSTA CALI MAP
EMERGENCY INFO
SEISMO/H'WOOD
ENTIRE US MAP
AP QUAKE NEWS
UPI/REUTER QUAKE NEWS
MAMMOTH VOLCANO WATCH



 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 258 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Sep 15, 2000 (17:11) * 1 lines 
 
Yup...post them daily in Geo 26, but I appreciat your posting them anyway. I am desperately trying to retrieve my foot from my mouth in which it has been firmly wedged all week! Appreciate your diligence. Btw, falcon came here in July and apparently was soooo bored that he has not been back since...!


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 259 of 997: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Sat, Sep 16, 2000 (11:49) * 16 lines 
 
Friday September 15 2:35 PM ET
Mexico's Popocatepetl Volcano Spouts Steam And Gas


MEXICO CITY (Reuters) - Mexico's Popocatepetl volcano spewed a column of steam and gas nearly a mile into the air on Friday but authorities said there was no threat to people living nearby.

The Center for the Prevention of Disasters (CENAPRED) said the volcano, 40 miles east of the nation's capital, remained on yellow alert, meaning it could erupt in weeks or months but probably no sooner.

The center advised people to stay at least 4.3 miles away from Popocatepetl, which means ``smoking mountain'' in the indigenous Nahuatl language.

Ramon Pena, director of Plan Popocatepetl at the center, told local radio the exhalation was normal for an active volcano. He attributed the emission to the presence of snow on the crater that evaporates rapidly on contact with the magma.

Recently, the 17,887-foot volcano has shown increased activity. ``Popo,'' as it is known locally, was inactive from 1927 to 1994, when there was a moderate eruption.

Since then it has been active, regularly sending up smoke and ash columns. In November 1998, the volcano spewed fragments of lava rock.



 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 260 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Sep 17, 2000 (15:01) * 8 lines 
 
VOLCANO-
Sept 10 2000- Tavurvur, Rabual Caldera, New Britian Island, Papua New
Guinea Erupts-
On Sept 6, the stratovolcano Tavurvur erupted sending thick clouds of
ash over the town of Rabual. Tarvurvur began showing signs of increased
activity the week before, but not alerts were issued.

*Mahalo, A_P*


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 261 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Sep 17, 2000 (15:15) * 55 lines 
 
Asama-Yama Volcano Japan................

Asama-Yama, Japan
Location: 36.4N, 138.53E
Elevation: 8364 Ft. (2550 m)

Asama-yama is a stratovolcano. Three overlapping bodies make up this
volcano. It consists of a young stratovolcano with two craters lying on a
shield volcano. The shield volcano rests on an older stratovolcano.
Kurohu-yama is the name of the western crater rim of the older
stratovolcano. It stands 7888 ft (2405 m) high. Erosion has enlarged this crater
to 1.25 miles (2 km) around. Water rests in the crater and is drained to
the SW. The eastern part of this stratovolcano has been down-faulted
and buried under a shield volcano. A younger stratovolcano also lies on
top of this shield. This younger stratovolcano has two craters. The SW
rim of the outer crater is Maekake-yama. It stands 8177 ft. (2493 m)
high. The outer crater is ~3900 ft. (1200 m) across from east to west and
~3000 ft. (900 m) across from north to south. This crater is about 1.25
miles (2 km) east of Kurohu-yama. Kama-yama is a cone at the center of
the outer crater. It stands 8364 ft (2550 m) high. This cone rises 558
ft. (170 m) above the bottom of the crater. Its crater pit is ~1150 ft.
(350 m) across and very active. The depth of this crater changes with
time. It was 820 ft. (250 m) deep in 1893, but it was completely filled
with lava in 1912. All recorded eruptions have taken place from this
crater pit. Asama-yama sits on a flat plateau. This plateau is about 3300
ft. (1000 m) high. It is made of rocks erupted from other volcanoes,
lake deposits and rocks make up the older volcanoes. Hotoke-iwa exists as
a bulge to the SW of the outer crater of the younger stratovolcano.
Hotoke-iwa is a shield volcano with a steep slope. The first stage of
activity of Asama was the eruption of Kurohu-yama. This cone shaped
stratovolcano grew 6560 ft. (2000 m) from its base at the time. Its crater
began to grow by erosion once the cone itself stopped growing. The eastern
part of Kurohu-yama was destroyed by down-faulting and large scale
steam explosions. The second stage of activity involved the eruption of
Hotokeiwa. Several lava flows occurred during this stage. These are now
exposed at Hotokeiwa SSE of the present active crater. Ko-asama-yama is a
parasitic lava dome on the eastern side of Asama. It stands 5428 ft
(1655 m) high and is made of a rock similar to dacite erupted during the
formation of the shield volcano. The western side of the shield was
destroyed by down-faulting. The third state of activity consisted of the
eruptions of two pumice flows. These flows had great volume that spread
over wide areas to the north and south of the shield volcano. Andesite
stratovolcanoes grew during the fourth stage of activity. The recent
eruptions produced thick lava flows and pyroclastic ejecta together with
pyroclastic flows (nuees ardentes). On the southern side of this cone
there is a parasitic lava dome made of andesite. Its name is Sekison-zan.
It rises 656 ft. (200 m) from the surrounding cone. This cone is
younger than the cone of Kurohu-yama but older than the recent cone. Its age
relation with the shield volcano is unknown. Asama has erupted 121
times. Most of these eruptions have been Vulcanian. A weak solfatara is
active at the SW crater rim of the volcano. The last eruption was in 1990.

American_Patriot
[Yahoo! Clubs: WARNING Volcanology Activated]



 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 262 of 997: Maggie  (sociolingo) * Mon, Sep 18, 2000 (07:48) * 6 lines 
 
This was a new site to me ...and I have been surprised at the sheer number of African volcanoes ...several I knew about but many here are new to me ...I think everyrone has pix...often from space, great detail and documented. Too much to explore right now, but I'll be coming back to this site for sure .......

http://volcano.und.nodak.edu/vwdocs/volc_images/africa/africa.html

I found this site through http://www.viexpo.com/dmstest/volcano.html
which is also well worth looking at ....


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 263 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Sep 18, 2000 (23:01) * 1 lines 
 
Been there and done that. Thanks for reminding me...!


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 264 of 997: Carys  (Carys) * Sat, Sep 23, 2000 (10:36) * 1 lines 
 
Marica, I'm sorry it took me ages to get back. I can't get here as often as I'd like having all those "Mom" things to do. Thank you so much for the lovely greeting and the information and beautiful photos of the two Kalapana black sand beaches. It must have been very painful to have seen it disappear. I admire and am amazed at the the people who had the forsight to collect the coconut sprouts and plant them on the new beach.


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 265 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Sep 23, 2000 (22:41) * 3 lines 
 
There are sacred-to-Hawaiian-Ohana (extended family) places all over the place down around Kalapana. There was little grieving by the Hawaiians who have lived with Madame Pele forever. Rather, the celebrate the new land and consecrate it with offerings of food, flowers, carefully made into haku leis, and chants.

One hike I took was with a class of geology students. My hiking buddy a local girl. She prayerfully collected flowers for her offering and prayers to Pele for safe passage over the just-barely-hardened flows. I still have the photo of her offerning and will try to scan it. There were about 20 students, one professor and one mom (guess who) who went on the night hike, and none intruded into her quiet departure from us when we reached the new lava on foot. She was just about 5 minutes away from us, out of sight, and no one doubted that her offering and chants helped us escape unscathed. One place we crossed made my hiking boots' soles smoke! It also poured on us at one point - so heavily that our feet made squelching sounds as we walked. But, in Hawaii, rain is a blessing. No one complained and we were all toasty-warm and dry by the time the hike was over!


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 266 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Sep 23, 2000 (22:43) * 1 lines 
 
A long story and no mention of the coconuts. Part of the Hawaiian respect for the 'Aina (the land) is their replanting where the lava has taken away.


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 267 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Sep 28, 2000 (21:25) * 109 lines 
 
***************************
Indonesian updates
***************************
Below is a summary of some of the Indonesian volcanic activities for the
week ending 18 September. Kerinci, Anak Krakatau, Slamet, Semeru
(pyroclastic flows too), Batur, Api Siau (nightime glares and continuous
tremor), Lokon-Empung (nighttime glow), Soputan, Ijen (minor ash plume) and
Merapi (rockfalls and ash falls) all continued to be active.

Following from: http://www.vsi.dpe.go.id/news/index.html

Weekly Report No. 581
12 - 18 September 2000

Kerinci
Jambi, Sumatera; 1°41.5' S, 101°16' E, summit elev. 3,800 m
During this week, the activity of Kerinci volcano was still ongoing.
Visually, a white thin-thick as plume was observed with a maximum height
reached about 300 m above the crater. Seismic record was still dominated by
emission earthquakes, but the seismicity decreased compare to the last
week. Recorded activities were emission earthquake 129 events and tectonic
15 events.
The alert level of Kerinci volcano is in level 2.

Anak Krakatau
Sunda strait; 6°6'5.8" S, 105°25'22.3" E
Anak Krakatau was covered by smog, so that the visual observation could not
be done from the observatory post. Boom sound was not heard from the post.
Seismograph was still recording emission earthquakes but the number
decreased compare to the last week. Infrasonic sensor recorded 4 explosion
earthquakes. Recorded activities were deep volcanic earthquake 2 events,
emission/explosion earthquake 1,477 events and tectonic earthquake 1 event.
Anak Krakatau volcano is in level 2.

Slamet
Central Java; 7°14.30' S,109°12.30' E
During this week, Slamet volcano produced a white medium-thick ash plume
with the height of 50-100 m above the summit. Seismicity was dominated by
emission and tremor earthquakes with the amplitude of 0.5-5 mm, but there
was no a significant change compared to the last week. Seismograph recorded
shallow volcanic earthquake 5 events, continuous tremor and emission
earthquake 212 events.
Slamet volcano is in level 2.

Semeru
East Java; 8°6.50' S, 112°55' E
The visual observation showed that a white gray thin ash plume rose up to
600 m above the summit. Seismicity was still dominated by explosion
earthquakes and the number showed a increase, whereas the number of ash
fall decreased. During this week, seismograph recorded 623 explosion
earthquakes, pyroclastic flow 3 events, tremor 2 events and ash fall 72
events.
The alert level of Semeru volcano is in level 2.

Batur
Bali; 8°14.30' S, 115°22.30' E
During this week, from the visual observation, Batur volcano produced a
white thin ash plume with the height of 10 m above the crater edge.
Seismograph recorded shallow volcanic earthquake 3 events, deep volcanic 8
events, emission earthquake 4 events and tectonic 14 events.
Batur volcano is in level 2.

Karangetang
Siau island; 2°47' N, 125°29' E
A white thin-thick ash plume from the main and the second craters rose up
to 400 m above the craters. At night, was observed the light around the
crater that the height reached 75 m above the crater. Continuous tremor
volcanic dominated seismic activity, with the amplitude of 0.5-29 mm, and
only 1 event of tectonic was recorded.
Karangetang volcano is in level 2.

Lokon
North Sulawesi; 1°21.5' N, 124°47.5' E
During this week, there was no a significant change from this volcano
compared with the last week. A white thin-thick ash plume rose up to 400 m
high from the crater edge. A light was seen around the crater with the
height of 25 m above the crater. Tremor earthquake was recorded with 0.5-1
mm of amplitude and also recorded 32 tectonic earthquakes.
Lokon volcano is in level 3

Soputan
North Sulawesi; 1°6.5' N, 124°43' E
A significant change of Soputan volcano was not seen visually. A white
thin-medium emission ash plume rose 50 up to 200 m above the summit.
Seismicity was dominated by ash fall earthquakes (178 events). Seismograph
also recorded deep volcanic 6 events and tectonic 33 events.
Soputan volcano is in level 4.

Ijen
East Java; 8°3.5' S, 114°14.5' E
A white thin-medium ash plume rose up to 25 m above the crater. Seismicity
showed a decreased in the number of volcanic earthquakes, but tremor
volcanic earthquakes were recorded continuously. The complete seismicity as
follows : deep volcanic 1 event, shallow volcanic 11 events and tectonic 8
events.
Ijen volcano is in level 2.

Merapi
Central Java; 7°32.5' S, 110°26.5' E
Based on the visual and instrumental observations, the alert level of
Merapi volcano is waspada Merapi (level 2). The visual observation showed
that the volcano produced a white thin solfatar with the maximum height of
250 m from the summit and the pressure was low. Seismicity did not show a
significant decrease and increase in volcanic activity. The activities were
dominated by ash fall and multiphase earthquakes. Shallow and deep volcanic
events still occurred.
Merapi volcano is in level 2.




 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 268 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Sep 29, 2000 (18:42) * 35 lines 
 
Update On Previous Volcanic Cases- thanks to A_P

VOLCANOES-
Sept 20 2000- Japan Volcano Threatens To Explode-
Hundreds of earthquakes have jolted the region near central Japan's
Mt.Asama Volcano since the beginning of the week. On Monday, at least 138
quakes shook the mountain, located on the border between Nagano and
Gunma prefectures. There haven't been any evacutions. The tremors did
however increase on Tuesday by 40 an hour. It has been spewing steam. This
volcano has been silent for the last 217 years. A major explosion in
1783 killed 1,151 people.

Sept 20 2000- Mexican Volcano Threatens To Erupt-
On Wednesday a new lava dome formed on Popcatepetl Volcano which means
that lava is rising to the surface and could cause a major eruption.
The last major eruption of this volcano was in 1994 when it awoke from
its 67-year dormancy. Alert status has not been raised. The nearest
living establishment is 5 miles away from the base of this 17,259 foot
volcano.

Sept 22 2000- Guatemalan Volcano Spews Ash Cloud-
An active volcano in Guatemala shot out a huge cloud of ash and smoke
on Thursday, leaving nearby communities blanketed in ash. Plans to
evacuate residents is in consideration. Volcano del Fuego, which is Spanish
for Volcano of fire, was put on orange alert. The last major eruption
of this volcano was in May 1999.

Sept 28 2000- Japan Volcano Erupts-
Mt. Komagatake, a volcano in northern Japan, exploded on Thursday, but
there were no reports of damage or injuries. The 3,716-foot volcano,
located 441 miles NE of Tokyo, on the island of Hokkaido, last erupted
Sept.4. A major eruption of the volcano in 1929 killed two, and a 1856
eruption claimed 20.




 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 269 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Sep 29, 2000 (19:15) * 18 lines 
 
Mt. Cameroon, Cameroon
Location: 4.20N, 9.17E
Elevation: 13,428 ft (4095 m)


Mt. Cameroon is a poorly studied stratovolcano located in the nation of
Cameroon, 180 miles west of the capital Yaounde. This volcano is also
known locally as Mt. Faka and "Chariot of the Gods". It is one of
Cameroon's main tourist attractions. Thousands of people participate in a
race up its rocky slopes each year. It is the highest peak in West and
Central Africa. Cameroon has erupted six times this century, most recently
in the summer of 1999. Eruptions generally occur on the flanks of the
volcano and produce small cinder cones and lava flows. Cameroon was the
site of one of the earliest recorded volcanic eruptions--in the 5th
century BC--observed by a Cathaginian ship captain while sailing down the
Atlantic Coast of Africa.

Mahalo to A_P


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 270 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Oct  5, 2000 (13:42) * 26 lines 
 
*************************
Popocatepetl, Mexico
*************************
Mexican Volcano Spouts Steam And Ash Column
full Reuters report at:
http://dailynews.yahoo.com/h/nm/20001004/sc/mexico_volcano_dc_2.html

excerpt:
Mexico's Popocatepetl volcano...spouted a 4-mile column of ash on Tuesday,
its biggest this year, authorities said....CENAPRED said on Sept. 15 that
Popocatepetl's main volcanic crater had been sealed by the formation of a
dome-like structure. Tuesday's eruption of ash, gases and water came as the
dome became slightly uncovered, Valdes said.

CENAPRED bulletins and links to images are available at:
http://www.cenapred.unam.mx/boletines.html

*************************
Colima, Mexico
*************************
The 22 September update for Colima volcano in Mexico indicate weakening
activity but steam and ash emissions still are occurring.
Loosely translated from URL





 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 271 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Oct  5, 2000 (13:43) * 43 lines 
 
*********************************************
Mt. Komagatake and Mt. Asama, Japan activity
*********************************************
Information from Chris Eisinger

Mt. Komagatake erupted last week on Thursday, Sept. 28, following
an earlier eruption on Sept. 4. An AP news report is available at:
http://dailynews.yahoo.com/h/ap/20000928/wl/japan_volcano_1.html

AP news also reported previously that Mt. Asama in central Japan was
shaken by 138 earthquakes on Monday, Sept. 18 (compared with about 10
daily in recent months). By late Tuesday, Sept. 19 there were an average
of 40 volcanic tremors an hour. The last major eruption of Mt. Asama
in 1783 killed over 1,000 people.

*********************************************
White Island and Ruapehu, NZ updates
*********************************************
From: Dan Shackelford

For the week ending 29 September, White Island's MH vent continued to emit
gas with a very small amount of ash and the crater opened on 27 July
produced gas. Also, a swarm of high-frequency earthquakes took place, as
well as periodic low-frequency tremor.

Minor tremor noted at Ruapehu, but no change in surface activity.

From: http://www.gns.cri.nz/hazardwatch/latest/gweekvo.htm

White Island
During the week a swarm of small high-frequency earthquakes were recorded.
These were sourced at or near White Island. There has also been periodic
low-frequency tremor recorded. There have been no reported changes in
activity, with MH vent still producing a very small amount of ash. Both the
MH and the unnamed crater (formed July 27th) are emitting steam and gas.
The Scientific Alert Level remains at 1.

Other volcanoes
A small amount of volcanic tremor was observed at Ruapehu during the week.
No surface activity has been reported. The Scientific Alert Level remains
at 1.




 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 272 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Oct  5, 2000 (13:44) * 53 lines 
 
*******************************
Mount Ulawun, Papua New Guinea
*******************************
From: Dan Shackelford

Papua New Guinea's Ulawun volcano erupted briefly on 29 Sept. 2000 at 0230
from its summit. Heavy ash falls prompted evacuations. As of 2-3 Oct. there
have been no further eruptions but the summit crater continues to emit
white fume, while low - moderate seismicity continues, including harmonic
tremor.


Full report: http://www.postcourier.com.pg/20001002/news02.htm

excerpt:
Mt Ulawun quiet but stage 2 alert remains.
The stage two alert on Mount Ulawun will be maintained indefinitely despite
a decline in the volcanic activity.
Mt Ulawun, on the border of East and West New Britain provinces, erupted at
2.30am on Friday but no casualties or major damages had been reported so far.
Government officials say that although the eruption had stopped, there was
still low to moderate seismic activity, which indicate that the volcano was
still active.
Reports of the early morning eruption were not received at the Rabaul
Volcanological Observatory until about 8am, because of communication
problems with its monitoring station on Mount Ulamona.
A team of government officials from East New Britain comprising the senior
volcanologist Ima Itikarai, provincial disaster co-ordinator Peniel Lotu
and health adviser Bernard Lukara flew to the area to assess the situation.
Their report was still to be ratified by the East and West New Britain
provincial disaster committees.
But government officers in Bialla said there has been a decline in
activity. The summit of the volcano was clear while the vent was emitting
thin white vapor.

Full report: http://www.postcourier.com.pg/20001003/news08.htm

excerpts:
Alert kept up on volcano
THE stage two alert on Mount Ulawun will remain in force until authorities
are convinced there is no imminent danger of another eruption.
An update on the volcanic activity by the East New Britain provincial
disaster committee, which is monitoring the situation through the Rabaul
Volcanological Observatory, said the summit activity had quietened down.
But the continuous occurrence of volcanic tremors provided evidence that
the volcano was still active.

West New Britain Governor Clement Nakmai yesterday met with the provincial
executive council, the administration and disaster committee, to discuss
the fate of the 3750 displaced people in care centres at Bakada, Soi and
Kabaya. Officials in Bialla said the immediate concern was to feed those in
care centres.



 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 273 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Oct 11, 2000 (22:29) * 39 lines 
 
Kilauea update

0510 October 8, 2000
Note: Your observer will be attending a meeting in Waikiki
on October 9-11. The next predawn report will be written
on October 12. In the meantime, any important developments
will be reported here as needed.

Kamokuna continues to gobble up all the lava that makes
its way across the coastal flat. This Sunday morning at
0435, the entry was glowing brightly and giving off a
moderate steam plume. Still, the amount of lava entering
the water seems substantially less than that pouring
through the lava tube above Pulama pali. Apparently the
new flow on the coastal flat is inflating and consequently
taking up some of the lava that otherwise would make it
all the way to the coast.

Kamokuna is about 1.5 km west-southwest of Waha`ula and has
been the site of repeated entries over the years. Narrow
streams of lava are trickling over the old sea cliff there,
spaced across a shoreline distance of about 600 m. The mid-
dle of the three benches at Kamokuna is about 360 m wide
and has been the most active for the past several days.

On Pulama pali this morning at 0435, the only glow is from
the long-lived skylight high on the scarp.

The crater of Pu`u `O`o is dark on this cool, blustery
morning.

Volcanic tremor near Pu`u `O`o continues at a weak to
moderate level. Earthquake activity is low across the
island. The tilt at Kilauea summit is rather flat (ac-
tually continuing the long-term slow deflation underway
since the eruption began in 1983), as it is near Pu`u
`O`o and everywhere else along the east rift zone.




 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 274 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Oct 17, 2000 (20:52) * 11 lines 
 
**********************************
Piton de la Fournaise eruption
**********************************
From: Jean-Louis CHEMINEE

A new eruption, the third in 2000, started at Piton de la Fournaise
(Reunion Island) Oct 12 at 5:05, local time, after a seismic crisis started
at 4:09, local time. This eruption, situated SE of Dolomieu crater flank,
in the Enclos Fouquet, follows 4 weeks of increasing seismicity and ground
deformations.



 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 275 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Oct 17, 2000 (20:55) * 63 lines 
 
************************************
MVO update, Friday, October 6, 2000
************************************
From: Dan Shackelford
Subject: Spine growth, incandescent rockfalls and pyroclastic flows at
Soufriere Hills

For the week ending 6 October, Soufriere Hills displayed spine and dome
growth, small pyroclastic flows and incandescent rockfalls. Somewhat
reduced seismic levels when compared to the previous week,

Following from Montserrat Volcano Observatory, care of Peter Dunkley
:
Report for the period midday, 29 September 2000 to midday, 6 October 2000

Activity at the Soufrière Hills volcano has continued this week with the
summit lava dome continuing to grow.

Clear views of the summit of the volcano were seen on most days of the
week. A large steeply inclined lava spine dominated the eastern part of
the summit region of the dome and changed in size and shape throughout the
week. On the evening of the 30th September the top of the spine had reached
an altitude of 1054 metres, this being the highest measurement taken on the
dome so far. On the morning of 6 October there were several smaller spines.
Observation flights indicate that there has been no new growth on the
western flanks of the dome.

Rockfalls were confined to the eastern side of the dome, where they
contribute to a very broad apron of talus accumulating in the upper reaches
of the Tar River valley. Rockfalls of incandescent material were observed in
this area at night. There were a number of very small pyroclastic flows off
the eastern side of the dome, the largest of which passed down the Tar River
but did not reach the delta. This short-lived but energetic flow occurred on
the morning of the 2nd October and produced a dense, dark ash cloud which
remained at a low level and moved rapidly to the northwest on the prevailing
wind, depositing ash in the Salem area before being swept out to sea.

The level of seismic activity was considerably lower than in the previous
week. The broadband seismic network recorded a total of 169 rockfall
signals, 29 hybrid, 25 long period and 16 volcano-tectonic earthquakes for
the reporting period.

COSPEC measurements indicate an increase in sulphur dioxide emissions
compared with the previous week, with daily average values of 790 and 948
tonnes on the 2nd and 3rd October respectively.

Residents of Montserrat and visitors to the island are advised to tune in to
ZJB Radio for up-to-date information on the status of the volcano. Rockfall
and pyroclastic flow activity is likely to remain at a high level whilst the
dome continues to grow, producing ash clouds which may blow over inhabited
areas if winds are from the south or southeast. Elevated levels of
pyroclastic flow activity may develop very rapidly and could affect any
valleys around the volcano. Ash masks should be worn in ashy conditions or
when you disturb ash. The Belham valley should be avoided during and after
periods of heavy rain and everyone is reminded that access to Plymouth,
Bramble airport and beyond is prohibited. There is a maritime exclusion zone
around the southern part of the island that extends two miles beyond the
coastline from Trant's Bay in the east to Garibaldi Hill on the west coast.
The daytime entry zone remains closed.

12 noon, Friday, 6 October 2000




 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 276 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Oct 24, 2000 (23:02) * 111 lines 
 
********************************************
KVERT Information Release; October 17, 2000
********************************************
From: Alaska Volcano Observatory
Kamchatkan Volcanic Activity
INFORMATION RELEASE 00-44
Wednesday, October 18, 2000, 12:20 KDT (2320 UTC)

The following Release was received by the Alaska Volcano Observatory via
e-mail from KVERT (Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruptions Response Team). All times
are in Kamchatkan Daylight Time, 21 hours ahead of Alaska Daylight Time.

BEZYMIANNY VOLCANO 55o 58'N, 160o36'E; Elevation 2,895 m
CURRENT LEVEL OF CONCERN COLOR CODE IS YELLOW.
PREVIOUS LEVEL OF CONCERN COLOR CODE WAS GREEN.

A thermal anomaly, first observed in satellite images by AVO on September
21, has increased in intensity during the past week. According to AVO
satellite data, a 4 pixel thermal anomaly at Bezymianny was observed in a
nighttime AVHRR image at 07:04 KDT on October 18. One pixel was saturated
at 50 degrees Celsius, and a recovery pixel was also present, indicative of
intense thermal activity. Background temperature values were about -10 to
-15 degrees Celsius. This is the most intense thermal activity that has
been observed since the initial observation of the anomaly on September 21.
No ash plumes or drifting ash clouds have been detected. Thermal anomalies
detected in satellite data have preceded explosive eruptions of Bezymianny
by days to weeks in October 1995, May and December 1997, February 1999, and
March 2000. However, in June 1998, intense thermal activity was not
followed by an explosive event.

Only two small (M0) earthquakes were registered under the volcano during
the past 5 days. On most days, clouds obscured the volcano. On October 16,
weak fumarolic activity was observed.

It is necessary to note that the nearest seismic station ZLN has been out
of order since October 14.

PLEASE CONTACT AVO IF YOU HAVE QUESTIONS OR COMMENTS.
Olga Chubarova David Schneider
Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Alaska Volcano Observatory
Response Team, IVGG, Piip Blvd, 9 4200 University Drive
Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, RUSSIA Anchorage, Alaska 99508
E-mail: ochubarova@emsd.iks.ru E-mail: djschneider@usgs.gov
tel. (415-22)59385 907-786-7037


***************************************
KVERT Weekly Update, October 20, 2000
***************************************
From: Alaska Volcano Observatory
Kamchatkan Volcanic Activity
INFORMATION RELEASE 00-45
Friday, October 20, 2000, 12:00 KDT (2300 UTC)
The following Release was received by the Alaska Volcano Observatory via
e-mail from KVERT (Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruptions Response Team). All times
are in Kamchatkan Daylight Time, 21 hours ahead of Alaska Daylight Time.

KLYUCHEVSKAYA GROUP OF VOLCANOES
KLYUCHEVSKOY VOLCANO 56o03'N, 160o39'E; Elevation 4,750 m
CURRENT LEVEL OF CONCERN COLOR CODE IS GREEN.
During the past week (October 13-19), seismic activity was near
background levels. Shallow earthquakes occurred. On October 13, a
fumarolic plume rose 200 m above the volcano and extended 5 km to the
east. On October 15, weak fumarolic activity was observed. On other days,
clouds obscured the volcano.

BEZYMIANNY VOLCANO 55o58'N, 160o36'E; Elevation 2,895 m
CURRENT LEVEL OF CONCERN COLOR CODE IS YELLOW.
A thermal anomaly, first observed in satellite images by AVO on September
21, has increased in intensity and size during the past week.
Only three small (M0) earthquakes were registered under the volcano during
the past week. On most days, clouds obscured the volcano. On October 16,
weak fumarolic activity was observed.

SHEVELUCH VOLCANO 56o38'N, 161o19'E; Elevation 2,447 m
CURRENT LEVEL OF CONCERN COLOR CODE IS YELLOW.
On October 15, weak fumarolic activity was observed. On October 16, a
gas-steam plume rose 350 m above the dome. On other days, clouds obscured
the volcano. Weak continuous volcanic tremor was recorded during the entire
week. At 15:12 KDT on October 14(02:12 UTC), seismic data indicated a
possible gas-ash explosion as a 20-minutes-long series of strong shallow
seismic events occurred. The height of the cloud was estimated on the
basis of the seismicity at ~7,500 m ASL.

KARYMSKY VOLCANO 54o03'N, 159o27'E; Elevation 1,486 m
CURRENT LEVEL OF CONCERN COLOR CODE IS GREEN.
Seismic activity was at background levels.

AVACHINSKAYA GROUP OF VOLCANOES, 53o15'N, 158o51'E;
CURRENT LEVEL OF CONCERN COLOR CODE IS GREEN.
Seismicity at Avachinsky and Koryaksky volcanoes is at normal levels.

MUTNOVSKAYA GROUP OF VOLCANOES
GORELY VOLCANO, 52o33'N, 158o02'E, Elevation 1,828M
MUTNOVSKY VOLCANO, 52o27'N, 158o12'E, Elevation 2,324 M.
CURRENT LEVEL OF CONCERN COLOR CODE FOR BOTH VOLCANOES IS GREEN.
On October 14-15 and 17-18, both of volcanoes were quiet. On other days,
clouds obscured the volcanoes. On October 13-16, microseismic signals were
registered on seismic station GRL.

PLEASE CONTACT AVO IF YOU HAVE QUESTIONS OR COMMENTS.
Olga Chubarova David Schneider
Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Alaska Volcano Observatory
Response Team, IVGG, Piip Blvd, 9 4200 University Drive
Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, RUSSIA Anchorage, Alaska 99508
E-mail: ochubarova@emsd.iks.ru E-mail: djschneider@usgs.gov
tel. (415-22)59385 907-786-7037






 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 277 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Oct 27, 2000 (23:12) * 92 lines 
 
*******************************************************
Indonesian Volcano Update, 10-16 October
*******************************************************

For the week ending 16 October, the Indonesian volcanoes Slamet and Semeru
showed a decrease in the level of their activity, whereas the volcanoes Api
Siau (lava flow and avalanches) and Merapi (earthquake swarm and deep
earthquakes) showed a significant increase in their activities. Kerinci,
Krakatau, Lokon-Empung and Soputan remained at about the same level of activity.
From: http://www.vsi.dpe.go.id/news/index.html

Weekly Report No. 585 - 10-16 October 2000

Kerinci
Jambi, Sumatera; 1°41.5' S, 101°16' E, summit elev. 3,800 m
Ash plume still occurred and dominating at Kerinci activity. The color was
commonly in white thin-thick, rose up to 400 m height. Seismicity was still
dominated by small explosion earthquakes and increased in volcanic
earthquake. Deep volcanic (A) 3 events, shallow volcanic (B) 1 event, small
explosion 261 events, and 3 events of tectonic earthquake.
The alert level of Kerinci volcano is in level 2.

Anak Krakatau
Sunda strait; 6°6'5.8" S, 105°25'22.3" E
Krakatau activity more quite during the week. There was no thundering sound
from the volcano. Seismograph continued to record small explosion
earthquake but the number decreased over last week. The complete seismicity
during the week were 24 events of small explosion and 1 event of tectonic
earthquake.
Anak Krakatau volcano is in level 2.

Slamet
Central Java; 7°14.30' S,109°12.30' E
During the week Slamet activity showed a significant decreasing. It was
represent from both visual and instrumental monitoring. Ash plume rose
about 50-100 m height and seismograph only record a continuous tremor with
the amplitude of 0.15-7 mm.
Slamet volcano is in level 2.

Semeru
East Java; 8°6.50' S, 112°55' E
From seismograph recording Semeru activity indicated a major decreasing
this week. The number of seismicity was decreased over the previous week.
Pyroclastic flow occurred once time. Detail seismicity were deep volcanic
(A) 1 event, shallow volcanic (B) 3 events, explosion 592 events,
pyroclastic 1 event, avalanche 41 events, and 9 events of tectonic
earthquake.
The alert level of Semeru volcano is in level 2.

Karangetang
Siau island; 2°47' N, 125°29' E
Karangetang activity showed a major increasing within this week. Main
crater and crater II continued to ejecting white thin-thick ash plume, hit
about 500 m height above the summit. Sometime was heard a thundering sound
from the volcano and night view was observed the red flame up to 75 m.
On 14 October 2000, at 18.40 WITA (local time) was observed glowing lava
which flowed away 100 m distance to the Nenitu river. Meanwhile the
avalanche hit about 1000 m.
Seismograph recorded a significant increasing of deep volcanic (A) and
small explosion earthquake. Complete data listed as follow : deep volcanic
(A) 36 events, shallow volcanic (B) 1 event, small explosion 145 events,
tectonic 11 events, and a continuous of tremor earthquake with the
amplitude of 0.5-23 mm.
Karangetang volcano is in level 2.

Lokon
North Sulawesi; 1°21.5' N, 124°47.5' E
Based on visual observation there is no major change in Lokon activity. But
the volcano was still ejecting the white thin-thick ash plume that hit
about 250 m height. Red flame with the radiation of 25 m was shown from the
crater. Seismograph was recorded 6 events of deep volcanic (A) and 22
events of tectonic earthquake.
Lokon volcano is in level 2.

Soputan
North Sulawesi; 1°6.5' N, 124°43' E
There is major change in Soputan activity during this week. Seismicity was
dominated by avalanche earthquake but recorded 1 of deep volcanic
earthquake. Complete seismicity were deep volcanic (A) 1 event, tectonic 18
events, and 242 events of avalanche earthquake.
Soputan volcano is in level 2.

Merapi
Central Java; 7°32.5' S, 110°26.5' E
Although visual observation was obscured by the haze, Merapi activity
showed a significant increasing. Seismograph recorded a significant swarm
and deep volcanic earthquake during this week. Meanwhile, seismicity was
still dominated by superficial earthquakes such as multiphase and avalanche
earthquake.
Merapi volcano is in level 2.




 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 278 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Oct 27, 2000 (23:16) * 34 lines 
 
I know this man with the JPL initials. VERY well, indeed. I also know Jim Griggs! We even share the same ISP!

************************************
Year 2001 IAVCEI Volcano Calendars
************************************
From: John Lockwood

Dear Volcanophile Friends:

Brian Hausback and Steve McNutt's superb Labor of Love, the Sacramento
Volcanological Society's "2001 IAVCEI Volcano Calendars" (and other
calendars focusing on Hawaiian Volcanic activity) are now available at the
HAWAIIAN VOLCANO STORE (http://www.volcanostore.com).

Please pardon the delay in presenting these, but the Store has undergone a
change of ownership and management, and has been completely
redesigned. Jim Griggs of Volcano, Hawaii, well-known for his photographs
of Hawaiian volcanic activity, is the new Proprietor of the Store, and is
now responsible for carrying the shop to new heights!. Marti and I have
enjoyed filling thousands of orders for you over the past four years, but
have decided that we really weren't cut out to be "shopkeepers". There are
lots of volcanoes "out there", and so long as our legs stay strong, we
intend to make them our main focus in life - both for fun and work!

Jim and his colleagues will be greatly expanding the Store line of
volcano-related products in the near future, and they look forward to
hearing from you as to new quality products you'd like to see stocked. As
before, the Store will be offering most products to you at below retail
cost. Please stop by and see the changes!

Aloha 'Oukou,
Jack & Marti




 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 279 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Oct 27, 2000 (23:28) * 43 lines 
 
Smithsonian Institution
Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network
Volume 25, Number 8, August 2000

VOLCANOES

Arenal (Costa Rica) Maps, photos, and seismic data on the 23 August eruption

Poas (Costa Rica) Fumarolic activity and increased seismicity during
JanuaryJune 2000

Shishaldin (Alaska) Thermal anomaly and small explosions on 11 August

Shiveluch (Kamchatka) Fumarolic plume, multiple gasash explosions, and
partial dome collapses

Bandai (Japan) Unprecedented increase in seismicity during 1416 August

Komagatake (Japan) Small eruptions on 4 and 28 September, the first since
October 1998

Aoba (Vanuatu) Increase in temperature and acidity at Lake Voui during
AprilAugust 2000

Ulawun (Papua New Guinea) Eruption on 29 September causes the evacuation of
nearby towns

Rotorua (New Zealand) Smallscale hydrothermal eruption on 18 September

White Island (New Zealand) Ashandsteam emissions accompanied by magmatic
eruption

Stromboli (Italy) Lowtomoderate eruptive activity JanuarySeptember 2000

EARTHQUAKES

Santa Cruz Islands (Mw 6.7) 3 August; Sakhalin Island (Mw 6.8) 4 August;
Kermadec Islands (Mw 6.7) 15 August; Indonesia (Ms 6.8) 28 August

Editors: Rick Wunderman and Edward Venzke
Editorial Assistants: Gari Mayberry, Luke Jensen, Alicia Arroyo, David
Charvonia, and Jacquelyn Gluck



 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 280 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Oct 28, 2000 (23:53) * 3 lines 
 
For an idea of how the Island of Hawaii is made of various volcanoes:




 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 281 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Oct 28, 2000 (23:54) * 33 lines 
 
Hawaiian Meaning
The Hawaiian name "Kilauea" means "spewing" or "much spreading," apparently in
reference to the lava flows that it erupts.

Most Recent Eruption
Continuous since January 3, 1983

Number of Historical Eruptions
61, not counting the continuous lava-lake activity in Halema`uma`u crater

Summit Caldera
The caldera itself has no Hawaiian name other than Kilauea but houses the famous
crater, Halema`uma`u; "hale" is a house, "ma`uma`u" a type of fern. Kamapua`a, a
jilted suitor of Pele, is said to have built a house of ferns over Halema`uma`u to keep
Pele from escaping her home and causing eruptions. The ploy failed.

Dimension: 6 x 6 km (outermost faults), 3 x 5 km (main depression)
Depth: 165 m deep
Age: probably several incremental collapses 500-210 years ago

Oldest Dated Rocks
23,000 years old

Estimated Age of Earliest Subaerial Eruptions
50,000-100,000 years

Estimated Age of First Eruption of Kilauea
300,000-600,000 years before present

Hawaiian Volcano Stage
Shield-forming stage




 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 282 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Oct 28, 2000 (23:57) * 3 lines 
 
Close-up of where the erutpion is taking place:




 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 283 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Oct 29, 2000 (00:04) * 27 lines 
 

In our latest effort to improve the volcano-monitoring instruments on Mauna Loa and Kilauea, we
have just completed the installation of the most sensitive instruments available for monitoring the
strain deep beneath the surface of a volcano. Three holes more than 100 m deep were drilled into
Mauna Loa, and an existing deep hole in Kilauea's summit area was also used. In each hole were
installed an ultra-sensitive strainmeter and a seismic package consisting of a three-component
broadband seismometer and a strong-motion sensor. Currently the installations are being tested
and modified where necessary. Later this year, a borehole tiltmeter may be added high in each
hole. Once all of this is completed, the state-of-the-art instrumentation will radio data to the
Hawaiian Volcano Observatory in real time and make possible the early detection and tracking of
events occurring deep within Mauna Loa and Kilauea with unprecedented clarity.

The instruments were installed in a collaboration between USGS scientists from HVO and the
Earthquake Hazards Program (Menlo Park, CA) and scientists from the Center for the Study of
Active Volcanoes (CSAV), University of Hawai`i in Hilo. The Carnegie Institution of Washington
- Department of Terrestrial Magnetism manufactured the instruments and advised us in their
installation. Funding for the drilling came through a grant from the Department of Defense via
NASA.

The project received invaluable assistance from Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park, the Mauna
Loa Observatory, the Mauna Loa High Altitude Observatory, and Hokukano Ranch. The holes
on Mauna Loa were drilled by DOSECC (Drilling, Observation, and Sampling of the Earth's
Continental Crust, Inc.).

More... http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/howwork/strain/




 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 284 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Oct 31, 2000 (19:32) * 90 lines 
 
*********************************************
KVERT Information Release; October 29, 2000
*********************************************
Kamchatkan Volcanic Activity
INFORMATION RELEASE 00-47
Monday, October 30, 2000, 10:30 KST (2230 UTC)

The following Release was received by the Alaska Volcano Observatory via
e-mail from KVERT (Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruptions Response Team). All times
are in Kamchatkan Standard Time, 21 hours ahead of Alaska Standard Time.

KLYUCHEVSKAYA GROUP OF VOLCANOES

BEZYMIANNY VOLCANO 55o58'N, 160o36'E; Elevation 2,895 m
CURRENT LEVEL OF CONCERN COLOR CODE IS ORANGE.
PREVIOUS LEVEL OF CONCERN COLOR CODE WAS YELLOW.

The number and energy of shallow earthquakes has continued to increase.
Seismic data indicate that (hot?) rock avalanches have rolled down from the
dome. Beginning at 01:15 KDT on October 28, energy from B-type earthquakes
increased. A thermal anomaly, first observed in satellite images by AVO on
September 21, continued to be detected (8 pixels with 4 pixel at saturation
temperature of 50 degrees Celsius in the satellite image at 06:32 KST on
October 30). At 08:10 KST on October 30, a gas-steam plume rose 1000 m
above the volcano and extended to the northeast. The previous few days, the
volcano was obscured by clouds. Unfortunately, KVERT has incomplete seismic
data because of unstable
seismic stations operation.


*********************************************
KVERT Update, Friday, October 27, 2000
*********************************************
Kamchatkan Volcanic Activity
INFORMATION RELEASE 00-46
Friday, October 27, 2000, 13:00 KDT (0000 UTC)

The following Release was received by the Alaska Volcano Observatory via
e-mail from KVERT (Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruptions Response Team). All times
are in Kamchatkan Daylight Time, 21 hours ahead of Alaska Daylight Time.

KLYUCHEVSKAYA GROUP OF VOLCANOES; KLYUCHEVSKOY VOLCANO 56o03'N, 160o39'E;
Elevation 4,750 m. CURRENT LEVEL OF CONCERN COLOR CODE IS GREEN. During the
past week (October 20-26), seismic activity was near
background levels. Shallow earthquakes occurred. On October 23 and 25, weak
fumarolic activity was observed. On other days, clouds obscured the volcano.

BEZYMIANNY VOLCANO 55o58'N, 160o36'E; Elevation 2,895 m
CURRENT LEVEL OF CONCERN COLOR CODE IS YELLOW.
A thermal anomaly, first observed in satellite images by AVO on September
21, continued to be detected (4 pixels with one pixel at saturation
temperature of 50oC). On October 21, a fumarolic plume rose 50 m above the
volcano and extended to the east. On October 25, a fumarolic plume rose 50
m above the volcano and extended 20 km to the south. On other days, clouds
obscured the volcano. A few shallow earthquakes (M0) per day wee
registered under the volcano. Since October 25, seismic data indicate that
(hot?) rock avalanches have rolled down from the dome. From 20:40 to 21:00
KDT on October 26, spasmodic volcanic tremor was registered.
Unfortunately, KVERT has not complete seismic data because of unstable
seismic stations operation.

SHEVELUCH VOLCANO 56o38'N, 161o19'E; Elevation 2,447 m
CURRENT LEVEL OF CONCERN COLOR CODE IS YELLOW.
On October 25, a gas-steam plume rose 200 m above the dome. On other days,
clouds obscured the volcano. Weak continuous volcanic tremor and small
shallow earthquakes were recorded on October 22-23. At 22:29 KDT on
October 14(09:29 UTC) and at 21:14 KDT on October 26, seismic data
indicated possible gas-ash explosions as shallow seismic events occurred.
The height of the cloud was estimated on the basis of the seismicity at
~4,000 m ASL. Since 01:00 on October 26, volcanic tremor continued to be
recorded.

KARYMSKY VOLCANO 54o03'N, 159o27'E; Elevation 1,486 m
CURRENT LEVEL OF CONCERN COLOR CODE IS GREEN.
Seismic activity was at background levels. On October 25, weak local
events were registered and a small pyroclastic flow possibly occurred.

AVACHINSKAYA GROUP OF VOLCANOES, 53o15'N, 158o51'E;
CURRENT LEVEL OF CONCERN COLOR CODE IS GREEN.
Seismicity at Avachinsky and Koryaksky volcanoes is at normal levels.

MUTNOVSKAYA GROUP OF VOLCANOES: GORELY VOLCANO, 52o33'N, 158o02'E,
Elevation 1,828M; MUTNOVSKY VOLCANO, 52o27'N,158o12'E, Elev. 2,324 M.
CURRENT LEVEL OF CONCERN COLOR CODE FOR BOTH VOLCANOES IS GREEN.
On October 20 and 25,both volcanoes were quiet. On October 24, a gas-steam
plume rose 700 m above the Mutnovsky volcano. On other days, clouds
obscured the volcanoes. Since October 24, no microseismic signals were
registered on seismic station GRL.




 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 285 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Oct 31, 2000 (21:15) * 55 lines 
 
****************************
Popocatepetl, Mexico
****************************
Subject: Renewed dome growth and explosive activity at Popocatepetl.

New dome growth is occurring at Mexico's Popocatepetl volcano. A rather
vigorous eruption on 29 October at 1710 lofted an impressive ash cloud to
~3 km above the crater, with ashfalls to the ENE. This event followed
several days of increased seismicity which is believed indicative of new
tholoid growth.

According to http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/VAAC/messages.html, a "hot spot" was
seen on satellite imagery for this event as well.

From: http://www.cenapred.unam.mx/cgi-bin/popo/reportes/ultrep.cgi

********************************************
KVERT Information Release, October 30, 2000
********************************************
From: Alaska Volcano Observatory

Kamchatkan Volcanic Activity
INFORMATION RELEASE 00-48

Tuesday, October 31, 2000, 11:00 KST (2300 UTC)
The following Release was received by the Alaska Volcano Observatory via
e-mail from KVERT (Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruptions Response Team). All times
are in Kamchatkan Standard Time, 21 hours ahead of Alaska Standard Time.

KLYUCHEVSKAYA GROUP OF VOLCANOES

BEZYMIANNY VOLCANO 55o58'N, 160o36'E; Elevation 2,895 m
CURRENT LEVEL OF CONCERN COLOR CODE IS ORANGE.

Beginning at 23:00 KST on October 30, seismic activity increased. The
most intense seismic activity was registered from 01:46 to 02:46 KST on
October 31 (from 13:46 to 14:15 GMT on October 30). The seismic record did
not show a distinct explosive event.

AVHRR satellite data from AVO showed an ash eruption at Bezymianny. The
image from October 30 at 1700 GMT showed an ash plume extending from the
volcano to the southeast (azimuth 110-115 degrees) for 55 km (~30 nautical
miles). An image from October 30 at 1800 GMT, showed the ash plume
extending for about 80 km (45 nautical miles) to the southeast (azimuth
110-115 degrees). It was not possible to estimate the height of the ash
plume. Wind data from Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky at 1200 GMT showed that the
wind was generally out of the west at all altitudes, so it was not possible
to estimate height based on cloud movement. According to visual report
from Koziyrevsk at 07:30 KST on October 31, a gas-steam plume rose 1500 m
above the volcano and extended to the southeast.

Seismic activity at the volcano continues. Seismic data analysis implies
that the volcanic activity may increase and another ash eruption can occur
with little warning.



 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 286 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Nov  1, 2000 (20:10) * 56 lines 
 
**********************************************
MVO Weekly Activity Report, 27 October 2000
**********************************************
Montserrat Volcano Observatory
Montserrat, W.I.
Report for the period midday, 20 October 2000 to midday, 27 October 2000

Activity at the Soufrière Hills volcano has continued at an elevated level
this week.
Clear views of the summit of the volcano were seen on most days. Growth
of the lava dome continued on the east side of summit region where
spectacular incandescence was observed at night. Growth was dominated by
the semi-continuous extrusion of a broad lava spine inclined at a steep
angle upwards towards the east. At various stages large portions of the
spine broke off, but growth generally kept pace with disintegration as fresh
material continued to be extruded. On the 25h October the top of the spine
had an altitude of 1039 metres, and the general height of the surrounding
summit region of the active lobe had an altitude of around 1000 metres.
Observation flights indicate that there has been no new growth on the
western and northern flanks of the dome.

Rockfalls were confined to the eastern side of the dome, where they
contribute to the talus fan accumulating in the upper reaches of the Tar
River valley. The talus is beginning to bury the remnant buttress of older
dome material on the north-east flank which formed during the 1995-98 phase
of growth. Rockfalls produced small ash clouds which drifted
north-westwards on the prevailing wind and gave rise to very light ash falls
in the populated areas of the island. Rockfalls of incandescent material
were observed at night.

The level of seismic activity has been much lower than in previous weeks.
The broadband seismic network recorded a total of 214 rockfall signals, 9
hybrid, 35 long period and 4 volcano-tectonic earthquakes for the
reporting period. Some of the rockfalls had long period precursor signals
characteristic of small explosive events.

COSPEC measurements indicate daily average sulphur dioxide emissions of
235, 925 and 2252 tonnes on the 23th, 24th and 26th October respectively.

Residents of Montserrat and visitors to the island are advised to tune in to
ZJB Radio for up-to-date information on the status of the volcano. Rockfall
and pyroclastic flow activity is likely to remain at a high level whilst the
dome continues to grow, producing ash clouds which may blow over inhabited
areas if winds are from the south or southeast. Elevated levels of
pyroclastic flow activity may develop very rapidly and could affect any
valleys around the volcano. Ash masks should be worn in ashy conditions or
when you disturb ash. The Belham valley should be avoided during and after
periods of heavy rain and everyone is reminded that access to Plymouth,
Bramble airport and beyond is prohibited. There is a maritime exclusion zone
around the southern part of the island that extends two miles beyond the
coastline from Trant's Bay in the east to Garibaldi Hill on the west coast.
The daytime entry zone remains closed.

12 noon, Friday, 27 October 2000




 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 287 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Nov  4, 2000 (21:26) * 30 lines 
 
Mexico on Alert Over Volcano Popocatepetl Activity
MEXICO CITY (Reuters) - Mexican authorities were on alert
on Saturday for a possible strong exhalation of ash and smoke
by the volcano Popocatepetl, which lies 38 miles from Mexico
City, due to an increase in volcanic activity.
"We have increased our preventive measures and increased
the radius of security to 10 km (6.2 miles). Previously the
radius was 7 km (4.3 miles) from the crater," a spokesman for
the National Center for Prevention of Disasters (Cenapred) told
Reuters.
However, the spokesman said the activity of the volcano,
known as "The Smoking Mountain" in the indigenous Nahuatl
language, had diminished since Saturday morning after earlier
increasing.
After the volcano's activity picked up on Friday, the
center decided to step up the state of alert to "yellow phase
three" from "yellow phase two," which means preventive measures
are reinforced among the local population.
"This does not in any way imply a possible evacuation," the
spokesman said.
Recently, Popocatepetl, 17,884 feet high, has been
registering strong exhalations. The volcano sporadically
exhaled small amounts of steam and gases on Saturday.
Popocatepetl, active for the past six years, in 1997 spewed
up a spout of ash 11.2 miles into the sky, causing eye
irritation and respiratory problems among thousands of people
living nearby.





 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 288 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Nov  5, 2000 (18:56) * 49 lines 
 
***********************************************
Montserrat Volcano Observatory: Weekly Report
***********************************************
Montserrat Volcano Observatory
Montserrat, W.I.
Report for the period midday, 27 October 2000 to midday, 3 November 2000

Activity at the Soufrière Hills volcano has continued at an elevated level
this week.

Growth of the lava dome has continued on the east side of summit region.
Clear views of the volcano were seen on the last three days of the
reporting period when the summit region of the dome was occupied by a
cluster of toppled spine fragments, the highest of which had an altitude of
1013 metres. Observation flights indicate that there has been no new growth
on the western and northern flanks of the dome.

Rockfalls were confined to the eastern side of the dome, where they
contribute to the talus fan accumulating in the upper reaches of the Tar
River valley. The talus has continued to encroach upon the remnant
buttress of older dome material on the north-east flank which formed during
the 1995-98 phase of growth. Rockfalls produced small ash clouds which
drifted north-westwards on the prevailing wind and gave rise to very light
ash falls in the populated areas of the island. Rockfalls of incandescent
material were observed at night.

The level of seismic activity was slightly lower than in the previous week.
The broadband seismic network recorded a total of 146 rockfall signals, 20
hybrid, 19 long period and 3 volcano-tectonic earthquakes for the
reporting period. A few rockfalls had long period precursor signals
characteristic of small explosive events.

Residents of Montserrat and visitors to the island are advised to tune in to
ZJB Radio for up-to-date information on the status of the volcano. Rockfall
and pyroclastic flow activity is likely to remain at a high level whilst the
dome continues to grow, producing ash clouds which may blow over inhabited
areas if winds are from the south or southeast. Elevated levels of
pyroclastic flow activity may develop very rapidly and could affect any
valleys around the volcano. Ash masks should be worn in ashy conditions or
when you disturb ash. The Belham valley should be avoided during and after
periods of heavy rain and everyone is reminded that access to Plymouth,
Bramble airport and beyond is prohibited. There is a maritime exclusion zone
around the southern part of the island that extends two miles beyond the
coastline from Trant's Bay in the east to Garibaldi Hill on the west coast.
The daytime entry zone remains closed.

12 noon, Friday, 3 November 2000




 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 289 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Nov  5, 2000 (18:58) * 92 lines 
 
************************************
KVERT Update, Friday, Nov. 3, 2000
************************************
From: Alaska Volcano Observatory
Kamchatkan Volcanic Activity
INFORMATION RELEASE 00-49
Friday, November 3, 2000, 18:00 KST (0600 UTC)

The following Release was received by the Alaska Volcano Observatory via
e-mail from KVERT (Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruptions Response Team). All times
are either in Kamchatkan Daylight Time, 21 hours ahead of Alaska Daylight
Time or Kamchatkan Standard Time, also 21 hours ahead of Anchorage.

KLYUCHEVSKAYA GROUP OF VOLCANOES;

KLYUCHEVSKOY VOLCANO 56o03'N, 160o39'E; Elevation 4,750 m.
CURRENT LEVEL OF CONCERN COLOR CODE IS GREEN.
During the past week (October 27-November 2), seismic activity was near
background levels. On October 29-31, a gas-steam plume rose 400-700 m above
the volcano and extended 5 km to the southwest and sourtheast on
October30-31. On other days, clouds obscured the volcano.

BEZYMIANNY VOLCANO 55o58'N, 160o36'E; Elevation 2,895 m
CURRENT LEVEL OF CONCERN COLOR CODE IS YELLOW.
PREVIOUS LEVEL OF CONCERN COLOR CODE WAS ORANGE.
On October 27-29, the volcano was obscured by clouds. The number and
energy of shallow earthquakes continues to increase. Seismic data indicate
that (hot?) rock avalanches have rolled down from the dome. Beginning at
01:15 KDT on October 28, energy from B-type earthquakes increased. No ash
plumes or drifting clouds was observed at 07:30 and 15:30 KST on October 30
satellite images. At 08:10 KST on October 30, a gas-steam plume rose 1 km
above the volcano and extended to the northeast. Beginning at 23:00 KST on
October 30, a significant increase in seismicity occurred. The most
intense seismic activity was registered from 01:46 to 02:15 KST on October
31 (132:46 to 14:15 UTC on October30). The seismic record did not5 show a
distinct explosive event. AVHRR satellite data from AVO showed an ash
eruption at the volcano. The image from October 31 at 05:00 KST (Oct. 30
at 1700 UTC), showed an ash plume extending from the volcano to the
southeast for 55 km. An image from Oct. 31 at 06:00 KST (Oct. 30 at 1800
UTC), showed the ash plume extending for about 80 km to the southeast. It
was not possible to estimate the height of the ash plume. According to
visual reports from Koziyrevsk at 07:30 KST on Oct. 31, a gas-steam plume
rose 1500 m above the volcano and extended to the southeast. At 12:10 KST,
an ash-poor plume rose 3 km above the volcano, at 13:30 a gas-steam plume
rose 1 km, and at 15:15 KST, a gas-steam plume rose 2 km above the volcano.
An image from Oct. 31 at 15:06 KST (0306, Oct. 31 UTC), showed an ash
plume extended for about 40 km to the northeast that might have a minor
amount of ash. A larger, diffuse cloud was seen off the east coast of
Kamchatka that seemed to be continuous with the more distinct plume coming
from the volcano. It extended for about 250 km to the southeast but did
not appear to contain an ash component.
The most intensive seismicity was registered from 03:20 to 04:00 KST and at
06:26 KST on Nov. 2. The satellite image at 06:26 KST on Nov. 2 showed an
ash plume extended 50 km west of the volcano, then 130 km to the southwest.
The height of the plume was ~ 6,500 m ASL. According to visual reports
from Koziyrevsk at 08:00 KST on Nov. 2, a gas-steam plume rose 1000 m above
the volcano and extended to the southwest; at 08:42 KST, an ash-gas plume
rose 1500 m above the volcano and extended to the southwest. Beginning at
12:00 KST on Nov. 2, seismic activity began to decrease. A satellite image
at 16:21 on Nov. 2 revealed a 231 km long ash plume approximately 270 km
southwest of the Bezymianny summit, centered within the lower third of the
Kamchatkan Peninsula. The satellite image at 16:50 revealed a 250 km long
ash plume ~ 300 km southwest of the Bezymianny summit. An image from Nov.
3 at 06:18 KST (1818 UTC, Nov 2), showed the plume extending for ~ 30 km to
the southeast. According to visual reports from Koziyrevsk at 13:55 KST on
Nov. 3, a gas-steam plume rose 1000 m above the volcano.

SHEVELUCH VOLCANO 56o38'N, 161o19'E; Elevation 2,447 m
CURRENT LEVEL OF CONCERN COLOR CODE IS YELLOW.
On October 29, a gas-steam plume rose 400 m above the dome. On Oct. 31,
Nov. 1, a powerful gas-steam plume rose 700 m above the dome and extended
5 km to the northwest and east on October 30-31. On other days, clouds
obscured the volcano. At 22:29 KDT on October 14(09:29 UTC) and at 15:20
KDT on October 27 (0220 UTC) and at 17:11 KDT on Oct. 28, seismic data
indicated possible gas-ash explosions as shallow seismic events occurred.
The height of the cloud was estimated on the basis of the seismicity at
~4,000-4,500 m ASL.

KARYMSKY VOLCANO 54o03'N, 159o27'E; Elevation 1,486 m
CURRENT LEVEL OF CONCERN COLOR CODE IS GREEN.
Seismic activity was at background levels.

AVACHINSKAYA GROUP OF VOLCANOES, 53o15'N, 158o51'E;
CURRENT LEVEL OF CONCERN COLOR CODE IS GREEN.
Seismicity at Avachinsky and Koryaksky volcanoes is at normal levels.

MUTNOVSKAYA GROUP OF VOLCANOES: GORELY VOLCANO, 52o33'N, 158o02'E,
Elevation 1,828M; MUTNOVSKY VOLCANO, 52o27'N,158o12'E, Elev. 2,324 M.
CURRENT LEVEL OF CONCERN COLOR CODE FOR BOTH VOLCANOES IS GREEN.
Both volcanoes were quiet.




 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 290 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Nov  6, 2000 (20:44) * 22 lines 
 
Monday, November 6, 2000
Two hikers found dead atlava flow The Volcanoes Park hikers had severe burns; cause of death is unknown
By Rod Thompson
Star-Bulletin
HAWAII VOLCANOES NATIONAL PARK -- Two hikers were found dead of unknown causes about four miles from
the end of Chain of Craters Road at midday yesterday, according to a park ranger at Hawaii Volcanoes National Park.
Their names were withheld pending notification of their next of kin.
The two, a man and a woman, had apparently walked across a series of lava flows that had been deposited in the area in
the last decade. They were found near where a current lava flow enters the ocean, said ranger Doug Lentz.
Rangers were notified about the bodies by a cell phone call at about 1:30 p.m., Lentz said. The park used a private
helicopter to fly rangers to the scene, and the bodies were retrieved by a Hawaii County helicopter.
Hiking to the lava flow is permitted, but signs in the immediate area warn not to go farther, Lentz said. Officials at the park
were not immediately clear on where the bodies were.
The park advises anyone hiking in the area to have sturdy boots, lots of drinking water, protection from sun and rain, and
flashlights. Park officials had no information on how the hikers were equipped.
Lentz said the hikers had suffered severe burns but were fully clothed, so it was difficult to determine the extent of their
burns. They also had cuts and bruises on their hands, knees and heads.
They were found on high ground, not down on a "bench" of fresh lava at the water's edge, where signs prohibit hiking, Lentz
said.
"They were up where the general public is allowed to be."
An autopsy will be done to determine cause of death, he said.



 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 291 of 997:  (sprin5) * Tue, Nov  7, 2000 (07:40) * 1 lines 
 
Strange, no obvious cause. Could it have beent he fumes or heat?


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 292 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Nov  7, 2000 (12:36) * 1 lines 
 
I've been where they were found and no reason for them to be so badly burnt. Scratches and abrasions are common if you fall out there on the sharp new flows, but not dangerous in that area. The police say it appears there was no foul play. However, how else do they explain these inconsistencies. I'll keep you posted!


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 293 of 997: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Tue, Nov  7, 2000 (15:52) * 1 lines 
 
Could they have been on the beach and then climbed higher on the flow?


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 294 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Nov  7, 2000 (16:11) * 2 lines 
 
How did they bet so badly burnt?? Surely they could not have moved from where that happened to the place they were found. There is more to this than meets the eye...there are no beaches along there...just unstable cliffs



 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 295 of 997: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Tue, Nov  7, 2000 (16:12) * 1 lines 
 
A real mystery. It seems very strange.


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 296 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Nov 10, 2000 (19:06) * 38 lines 
 
**********************************************
New GVP/USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report
**********************************************
From: Gari Mayberry

The Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's
Volcano Hazard Program have collaborated to create the Weekly Volcanic
Activity Report, an online summary of global volcanic activity on a weekly
basis that can be accessed via the Global Volcanism Program’s website at
http://www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/ (under Preliminary Notices) or the USGS
Volcano Hazard Program’s website at http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/.

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report consists of:

· Brief summaries of current volcanic activity with links to the
information sources and to definitions for technical terms in the USGS
photoglossary
· Background information about the reported volcanoes compiled by Global
Volcanism Program staff
· Maps that highlight the location of the reported volcanoes in reference
to geographical features and other volcanoes in the region
· An archive of the weekly reports sorted by volcano and date
· A link to a new USGS web page that provides current updates for US and
Russian volcanoes
· And links to more comprehensive reports that are published monthly in the
Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network


*******************************************************************
Gari Mayberry
USGS/Smithsonian Institution
National Museum of Natural History E-421
Washington, DC 20560-0119

Phone: (202) 357-2618 Fax: (202) 357-2476
mayberry@volcano.si.edu
*******************************************************************



 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 297 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Nov 15, 2000 (11:09) * 3 lines 
 
Update on the two people found dead on the lava flow:

Bodies not burned. Officials awaiting toxicology results.


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 298 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Nov 16, 2000 (21:42) * 14 lines 
 
****************
Kilauea Update
****************

0555 November 16, 2000
If rain washes air, we have the cleanest on the planet this morning. That allows the glow at Kamokuna to be particularly intense, and the skylight high on Pulama pali gleams like a jewel at 0505.

The heavy rain obscures all views of the crater of Pu`u `O`o this Thursday morning.

Volcanic tremor near Pu`u `O`o remains at a moderate level.
Earthquake activity is low across the island. The tilt-
meters at Kilauea's summit and along the east rift zone
are now showing flat signals, except for several hours last night, when the giant earthquake in New Ireland caused slow, peak-to-peak oscillations at Kilauea's summit amounting to more than 12 microradians. Alarms at two tiltmeters were set off by the large and rapid tilts.



 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 299 of 997: Mike Griggs  (mikeg) * Fri, Nov 17, 2000 (22:53) * 5 lines 
 
I've visited two volcanoes this year: Mount Teide on Tenerife in the Canary Islands this September and then Mount Fuji on Japan just last week. My friend and I drove up and over Tiede, about 2500m (about 8-9000 feet) in a tiny little 1.0 litre rental car...a most nerve-wracking experience! The view was fantastic, though. As close to a feeling of alien landscape as I've ever experienced. There were huge great lava fields that were just incredible. Maybe I'll buy a scanner, scan some photos and post them here.


Last week on Mount Fuji was great. Went up in a coach tour this time, which was more relaxing. The top of Fuji is usually obscured by cloud, but once we'd reached the visitors centre we were above the cloud. The view was *incredible*. Absolutely no cloud except for a 'hat' of cloud that flew around the caldera at high-speed. I have never seen that before. I guess it must be due to convection currents of some kind coming out of the volcano (it's only dormant, not exctint). I took loads of photos of that, so I'm hoping they will come out.


I like volcanoes :-)



 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 300 of 997: Mike Griggs  (mikeg) * Fri, Nov 17, 2000 (22:57) * 1 lines 
 
Shame I can't spell extinct, though...


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 301 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Nov 17, 2000 (23:52) * 3 lines 
 
Hey, Mike!!! Remember Mauna Loa? Didn't you do a bit of remote theorizing about when we punch though the crust? How about Kilauea? It is erupting even as I write this. Aloha!!! Come to Hawaii and see some REAL volcanoes!

Your trip sounds like it was splendid. I am envious like you cannot believe. Amazing about that cloud on Fujiyama. Never heard of that effect. Thanks for sharing. Noe, get thee to a scanner, and if you need space on Spring's hard drive for them, send'um to me and I'll send you the urls for them! Mahalo Nui Loa.


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 302 of 997: Mike Griggs  (mikeg) * Sat, Nov 18, 2000 (00:16) * 3 lines 
 
Thanks, Marcia. I think I have a telnet account, but I can't remember the hostname. I tried www.spring.net but that no longer works. I seem to think it was .spring.net


Care to share the hostname? :-)



 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 303 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Nov 18, 2000 (00:53) * 1 lines 
 
unfortunately, since terry changed servers only he and his chief programmer-lurker have access. Ftp I will email to you if you'd like - it is my space on Geo. I hate not having telnet access anymore!!!


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 304 of 997: Mike Griggs  (mikeg) * Sat, Nov 18, 2000 (00:56) * 1 lines 
 
Oh...I can't say that I used the telnet access much anyway. Tough luck, I guess! If/when I ever scan them I will happily send them to you.


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 305 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Nov 18, 2000 (02:33) * 57 lines 
 
Thanks, Mike - I'll be delighted to accommodate resize and so forth and accedit you for your efforts.

*************************************
MVO weekly report, 17 November 2000
*************************************
From: Dr Gill Norton

Montserrat Volcano Observatory
Montserrat, W.I.
Report for the period midday, 10 November 2000 to midday, 17 November 2000

Activity at the Soufrière Hills volcano has remained at an elevated level
this week with the continued growth of the lava dome on the eastern side of
the summit region.

The level of seismic activity was higher than in the previous week with a
marked increase in the number of long period earthquakes. The broadband
seismic network recorded a total of 207 rockfall signals, 33 hybrid, 144
long period and 7 volcano-tectonic earthquakes for the reporting period.

Clear views of the dome were seen over the period 10 to 13 November. The
summit was still dominated by the extrusion of a broad lava spine inclined
at a steep angle up and towards the east. On 12 November the spine had an
altitude of 1059 metres or 3475 feet. On 13 November it had grown to 1077
metres or 3530 feet, the greatest height measured on the dome throughout the
eruption. Brief views of the dome on the morning of 17 November showed that
the spine had continued to grow still further, although a direct measurement
was not possible.

The number of rockfalls and pyroclastic flows increased towards the end of
the week. A small pyroclastic flow on 15 November entered the upper reaches
of Tyre's Ghaut traveling about 1 km away from the dome. On 17 November,
pyroclastic flow deposits were also noted in the upper reaches of Tuitt's
and White's Ghaut on the north-eastern side of the volcano. This represents
the first new dome material to have traveled down the notch between the
north-eastern and northern lobes of the 1995-98 dome. Most rockfall
activity, however, is still occurring across the eastern face of the dome
above the Tar River. Ash clouds from this activity reached no more than
10,000 feet and mostly traveled to the west across the exclusion zone.

Residents of Montserrat and visitors to the island are advised to tune in to
ZJB Radio for up-to-date information on the status of the volcano. Rockfall
and pyroclastic flow activity is likely to remain at a high level whilst the
dome continues to grow, producing ash clouds which may blow over inhabited
areas if winds are from the south or southeast. Elevated levels of
pyroclastic flow activity may develop very rapidly and could affect any
valleys around the volcano. Ash masks should be worn in ashy conditions or
when you disturb ash. The Belham valley should be avoided during and after
periods of heavy rain and everyone is reminded that access to Plymouth,
Bramble airport and beyond is prohibited. There is a maritime exclusion zone
around the southern part of the island that extends two miles beyond the
coastline from Trant's Bay in the east to Garibaldi Hill on the west coast.
The daytime entry zone remains closed.

12 noon, Friday, 17 November 2000




 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 306 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Nov 18, 2000 (02:49) * 51 lines 
 
EUROPEAN GEOPHYSICAL SOCIETY
XXVI GENERAL ASSEMBLY
NICE 25-30 MARCH 2001
ANNOUNCEMENT AND CALL FOR PAPERS FOR SYMPOSIA ON VOLCANIC HAZARDS
SESSIONS ON VOLCANIC HAZARDS (NH):
NH6.01 Volcanic hazards from explosive eruptions
Convener: Baxter, P.; Co-Convener(s): Macedonio, G.
NH6.02 Parametrization and modelling of lava flows for hazard assessment
Convener: Dingwell, D.B.
NH6.03 Gas emission
Convener: Chiodini, G.; Co-Convener(s): Allard, P.
CO-SPONSORED SESSIONS (SE):
SE13.01 Geophysical and geochemical modelling of unrest
episodes at volcanic areas.
Convener: De Natale, G.; Co-Convener(s): Cornet, F.H., Dahm, T.
SE13.03 Neogene-recent magmatism in the Mediterranean region
Convener: Wilson, M.; Co-Convener(s): Beccaluva, L., Bianchini, G.
SE13.04 Vesuvius and Campi Flegrei - volcanism and volcanic hazards
Convener: Civetta, L.; Co-Convener(s): Orsi, G., Patella, D.

SUBMISSION OF ABSTRACTS
Deadline for receipt of abstracts is 1 DECEMBER 2000
The abstracts must be sent to the EGS Office (EGS@copernicus.org).
Please, send an additional copy to one of the convener of your choice.

Electronic submission is strongly encouraged. Abstracts must be
formatted according to the rules described on the Web page
http://www.copernicus.org/EGS/EGS.html

A LaTeX style and guide is provided on this Web page.
E-mail the abstract as a LaTeX, ASCII, WORD, WordPerfect, Postscript
or PDF file.
Posters with brief oral introduction during the oral session and
extended presentations during the poster sessions are encouraged.

GENERAL INFORMATION AND REGISTRATION
General information on the EGS Assembly and registration forms are
available by browsing the Web page
http://www.copernicus.org/EGS/EGS.html

EGS2001: XXVI General Assembly
Sending an abstract does not mean registration.
Please do not send the registration form to the convener but to the EGS
Office.

PLEASE POST THIS ANNOUNCEMENT AND CIRCULATE IT AMONG COLLEAGUES
More information on the the Scientific Programme, Abstract Submission,
Registration, etc. can be found at the following URL:
http://www.copernicus.org/EGS




 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 307 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Nov 18, 2000 (14:14) * 1 lines 
 



 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 308 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Nov 19, 2000 (14:07) * 105 lines 
 
***************************************
White Island and Ruapehu, New Zealand
***************************************
From: Dan Shackelford

For the week ending 3 November, White Island's vents only emit steam and
gas. No signs of visible unrest at Ruapehu.

For the week ending 10 November, no eruptions at New Zealand volcanoes.
Minor levels of tremor at Ruapehu and weak to moderate degassing at White
Island from its two active vents (9 Nov. observations).

From: http://www.gns.cri.nz/hazardwatch/latest/gweekvo.htm

11/3/00
Eruptive activity has largely ceased at White Island, although the active
vents continue to emit steam and gases. Mt Ruapehu shows no signs of
surface activity. Both White Island and Ruapehu remain at Alert Level 1
(signs of volcano unrest). All other volcanoes are at Alert Level 0
(dormant or quiescent).

11/10/00
No eruptive activity has occurred at any of the volcanoes this week.
Scientists visiting White Island on 9 November found weak to moderate
fumarole activity, with the two active vents producing a white steam and
gas plume. At Ruapehu minor levels of volcanic tremor have been recorded.
Both White Island and Ruapehu remain at Alert Level 1 (signs of volcano
unrest). All other New Zealand volcanoes are at Alert Level 0 (dormant or
quiescent).


**********************************
Piton de la Fournaise, Reunion
**********************************
From: Thomas Staudacher

Regain of activity at Piton de la Fournaise.

An eruption started at Piton de la Fournaise volcano on october 12.
Activity was quite reduced for about 2 weeks, until begin of november and a
new cone was formed, named "Piton Morgabim". Lava flows of 4.5 km formed in
the "Grand Brûlé" on the east of the volcano.
Since November 1rst, tremor constantly increased over 8 days. From november
5, intense fumeroles formed just above the actual crater. Tremor highly
increased over 24 hours and on nov 9, a new well formed 30 m above the
first one. Since 48 hours, eruption tremor is extremely high, but constant
and regular. Piton Morgabim is very active, with a 15 m wide lava lake,
intense degasing and large heavy lava fountains.
New lava flows pf about 2 km lengths formed and partly covered the june
lava flows.

==========================================
Thomas Staudacher, Jean Louis Cheminée
Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise
Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris
14 RN3, le 27ème
97418 La Plaine des Cafres
La Réunion

*****************************
Colima, Mexico
*****************************
From: Dan Shackelford

Explosive eruption at Mexico's Colima volcano on the evening of 10 November
which produced an ash cloud to ~6 km above sea level, which drifted to ENE.

Following from: http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/VAAC/messages.html

FVXX21 KWBC 110015
VOLCANIC ASH ADVISORY
ISSUED 0015 UTC 11 NOV 2000 BY THE WASHINGTON VAAC
.
COLIMA 00-016 MEXICO 1931N 10337W
.
BACKGROUND: COLIMA MEXICO (1401-04)
SUMMIT HEIGHT 13451 FT (4100 M))
.
SOURCES OF INFORMATION: GOES-8 VISIBLE AND INFRARED AND
MULTISPECTRAL IMAGERY. MEXICO CITY METEOROLOGICAL WATCH
OFFICE.
.
ERUPTION DETAILS: ERUPTION AT 10/2333Z.
.
DETAILS OF ASH CLOUD: THE MEXICO CITY METEOROLOGICAL WATCH
OFFICE REPORTS AN ERUPTION OF COLIMA TO FL200. THE ASH IS
MOVING TOWARDS THE EAST NORTHEAST. SATELLITE IMAGERY THROUGH
10/2345Z SHOWS NO ASH.
.
TRAJECTORY: ACCORDING TO UPPER AIR REPORTS ASH FROM THE SUMMIT
TO FL200 WILL MOVE TOWARDS THE EAST NORTHEAST AT 15 TO 20KTS.
.
OUTLOOK: SEE SIGMETS.
.
THE NEXT MESSAGE WILL BE ISSUED AT 11/0600 UTC.
.
REAL TIME SATELLITE IMAGERY AND VOLCANIC ASH ADVISORIES OFTEN
ACCOMPANIED BY A MAP DEPICTING ASH LOCATION ARE AVAILABLE AT
INTERNET URL ADDRESS
HTTP://WWW.SSD.NOAA.GOV/VAAC/WASHINGTON.HTML
(ALL LOWER CASE EXCEPT /VAAC/)
.
PLEASE REFER TO SIGMETS FOR CURRENT WARNINGS.
.



 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 309 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Nov 19, 2000 (14:12) * 60 lines 
 
*******************************
MVO Weekly Activity Report
*******************************
From: Peter Dunkley

Montserrat Volcano Observatory
Montserrat, W.I.
Report for the period midday, 3 November 2000 to midday, 10 November 2000

Activity at the Soufrière Hills volcano has remained at an elevated level
this week with the continued growth of the lava dome on the eastern side of
the summit region.

Clear views of the dome were seen on several days during the reporting
period. The summit was dominated by the extrusion of a broad lava spine
inclined at a steep angle upwards towards the east. At various stages parts
of the spine broke off, shedding large blocks on the upper parts of the
dome. On 4th November the spine had an altitude of 1017 metres, but by the
evening of 5th November it was noticeably higher. When next seen on the
morning of 9th November much of the spine had disintegrated and only a broad
basal stump remained. Incandescent glow could be seen on the active part of
the dome at night. Observation flights indicate that there has been no new
growth on the western and northern flanks of the dome.

Rockfalls were confined to the eastern side of the dome, where they continue
to contribute to the broad talus fan accumulating in the upper reaches of
the Tar River valley. Incandescent rockfalls were observed at night.

Heavy rainfall in the early hours of 4th November produced mudflows down the
Belham River. Further heavy rainfall on the afternoon of 8th November
produced mudflows in a number of valleys including the Belham River.
Coinciding with this second period of rainfall, continuous rockfalls and
small pyroclastic flows occurred within the Tar River over a period of
several hours, as minor amounts of material avalanched off the eastern flank
of the lava dome. The pyroclastic flows appear to have been of low energy
and did not reach the Tar River delta. Ash clouds generated by these flows
reached heights of about 6000 feet and drifted northwards on the prevailing
wind.

The level of seismic activity was slightly higher than in the previous week.
The broadband seismic network recorded a total of 252 rockfall signals, 9
hybrid, 11 long period and 3 volcano-tectonic earthquakes for the
reporting period.

Residents of Montserrat and visitors to the island are advised to tune in to
ZJB Radio for up-to-date information on the status of the volcano. Rockfall
and pyroclastic flow activity is likely to remain at a high level whilst the
dome continues to grow, producing ash clouds which may blow over inhabited
areas if winds are from the south or southeast. Elevated levels of
pyroclastic flow activity may develop very rapidly and could affect any
valleys around the volcano. Ash masks should be worn in ashy conditions or
when you disturb ash. The Belham valley should be avoided during and after
periods of heavy rain and everyone is reminded that access to Plymouth,
Bramble airport and beyond is prohibited. There is a maritime exclusion zone
around the southern part of the island that extends two miles beyond the
coastline from Trant's Bay in the east to Garibaldi Hill on the west coast.
The daytime entry zone remains closed.

12 noon, Friday, 10 November 2000



 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 310 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Nov 19, 2000 (14:14) * 61 lines 
 
**************************************
KVERT Update, Friday, Nov. 10, 2000
**************************************
From: Alaska Volcano Observatory

Kamchatkan Volcanic Activity
INFORMATION RELEASE 00-50
Friday, November 10, 2000, 11:30 KST (2330 UTC)

The following Release was received by the Alaska Volcano Observatory via
e-mail from KVERT (Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruptions Response Team). All times
are in Kamchatkan Standard Time, 21 hours ahead of Anchorage.

KLYUCHEVSKAYA GROUP OF VOLCANOES

KLYUCHEVSKOY VOLCANO 56o03'N, 160o39'E;
Elevation 4,750 m.
CURRENT LEVEL OF CONCERN COLOR CODE IS GREEN.
During the past week (November 3-9), seismic activity was near background
levels. On Nov. 3, weak fumarolic activity was observed. On Nov. 4,6, and
7, a gas-steam plume rose 150-800 m above the volcano and extended 10 km to
the southeast on Nov. 7. On other days, clouds obscured the volcano.

BEZYMIANNY VOLCANO 55o58'N, 160o36'E; Elevation 2,895 m
CURRENT LEVEL OF CONCERN COLOR CODE IS GREEN.
PREVIOUS LEVEL OF CONCERN COLOR CODE WAS YELLOW.
Seismicity has decreased to background levels. No Nov. 3-6, a gas-steam
plume rose 1000-2000 m above the volcano and extended 20-60 km mainly to
the southeast. On Nov. 7, a gas-steam plume rose 500 m above the volcano.
On Nov. 9, clouds obscured the volcano.

SHEVELUCH VOLCANO 56o38'N, 161o19'E; Elevation 2,447 m
CURRENT LEVEL OF CONCERN COLOR CODE IS YELLOW.
On Nov. 3-4, 6, and 8, a gas-steam plume rose 100-300 m above the dome. On
Nov. 7, a gas-steam plume rose 1500 m above the dome. On other days,
clouds obscured the volcano.

KARYMSKY VOLCANO 54o03'N, 159o27'E; Elevation 1,486 m
CURRENT LEVEL OF CONCERN COLOR CODE IS GREEN.
Seismic activity was at background levels.

AVACHINSKAYA GROUP OF VOLCANOES, 53o15'N, 158o51'E;
CURRENT LEVEL OF CONCERN COLOR CODE IS GREEN.
Seismicity at Avachinsky and Koryaksky volcanoes is at normal levels.

MUTNOVSKAYA GROUP OF VOLCANOES:
GORELY VOLCANO, 52o33'N, 158o02'E, Elevation 1,828M
MUTNOVSKY VOLCANO, 52o27'N,158o12'E, Elev. 2,324 M.
CURRENT LEVEL OF CONCERN COLOR CODE FOR BOTH VOLCANOES IS GREEN.
On Nov. 3-8, Gorely volcano wa quiet, and a gas-steam plume rose 300-800 m
above Mutnovsky volcano. On Nov. 9, the volcanoes were obscured by clouds.
The seismicity was near background levels.

PLEASE CONTACT AVO IF YOU HAVE QUESTIONS OR COMMENTS.
Olga Chubarova Tom Miller
Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Alaska Volcano Observatory
Response Team, IVGG, Piip Blvd, 9 4200 University Drive
Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, RUSSIA Anchorage, Alaska 99508
E-mail: ochubarova@emsd.iks.ru E-mail: tmiller@usgs.gov
tel. (415-22)59385 907-786-7454



 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 311 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Nov 20, 2000 (21:24) * 34 lines 
 
********************************
Caribbean Volcano Cruise II
********************************
From: David Lea

Announcement:

Many of you may have heard about the volcano cruise that took place in the
Caribbean last year aboard the 150 foot topsail schooner, Sir Robert Baden
Powell. Well we are having another one in 2001, only instead of 21 days, it
will only be 10 days long. You can check out the ship that we will be
sailing on and get a lot more information by going to last years website
at: www.volcano-island.com/cruise

The ship will depart Martinique in the French West Indies on April 3, 2001
The passengers/participants will disembark in St. Maarten on April 14, 2001

The volcanic islands we will be visiting will be Martinique, Dominica,
Guadeloupe, Montserrat, Nevis and St.Kitts
The leader of this expedition will once again be David Lea, well known
videographer of the Montserrat eruption and creator of the documentary
series, "The Price of Paradise" and other educational videos.
www.priceofparadise.com

We will be climbing the volcanoes in Martinique, Guadeloupe, Nevis and St.
Kitts, along with a visit to the famous boiling lake in Dominica.
Montserrat will no doubt be the centerpiece of the cruise as it is still in
eruption. Visits to all of the observatories are also being arranged. The
ship is also fully equipped with the latest diving gear for those of you
that are interested in some great diving.

For further information you can contact David Lea directly at:
lead@candw.ag



 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 312 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Nov 21, 2000 (20:10) * 6 lines 
 
Who wold be stupid enough to live on a live volcano?!

Cities on Volcanoes 2 conference (12-16 February 2001, Auckland, New Zealand)
programme now available on-line at:
http://www.gns.cri.nz/news/conferences



 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 313 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Nov 21, 2000 (20:11) * 44 lines 
 
****************************************
Piton de la Fournaise, Reunion activity
****************************************
Piton de la Fournaise eruption which started on october 12, suddenly stopped
on november 13, after 33 days of continuous eruption.
During the last five days of activity, tremor was unusually high and at
Piton Morgabim very vigorous eruption activity occured.
On november 9th, a new eruption went opened some 30 m above the initial one
and slight phreatomagmatic events could be observed.
On november 13 at 22h45 (local time) the tremor suddenly disappeared within
only 15 minutes.
On november 15, up to 800 °C hot lava fields were still present formed by
the final lava flows.
The crater showed an about 100 m large and an about 40 m deep cavity, which
was formed by welding together of both eruption sites.

Thomas Staudacher & Jean Louis Cheminée
Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise
Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris
14 RN3, le 27ème
97418 La Plaine des Cafres
La Réunion

tél.: 02 62 27 52 92
fax.: 02 62 59 12 04

***************************************
White Island and Ruapehu, New Zealand
***************************************
For week ending 17 November, White Island developed a new degassing vent
just SE of MH vent and MH vent was noisely actively degassing too. No
significant change in seismicity at White Island though. Minor volcanic
tremor continues at Ruapehu.

From: http://www.gns.cri.nz/hazardwatch/latest/gweekvo.htm

White Island continues to emit steam and gases. Early in the week the noise
from the active MH vent was so loud that it could be heard from the beach
in still conditions. By Thursday, a small new vent southeast of MH was also
steaming. This slight increase in activity was not accompanied by any
significant seismic activity. At Ruapehu minor levels of volcanic tremor
continue to be recorded.




 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 314 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Nov 26, 2000 (22:37) * 18 lines 
 
*******************************************
Vanuatu volcanoes on "STROMBOLI ON-LINE"
*******************************************
From: Roberto Carniel

Dear volcanophiles

Just a brief note to let you know that STROMBOLI ON-LINE
(http://stromboli.net)
has established, after field work done by Carniel and Fulle in July 2000 on
Ambrym, Lopevi and Yasur, a section on Vanuatu's volcanoes.
It includes photos, videoclips, maps and a QuickTime-VR panorama of Yasur.
The direct URL is:
http://stromboli.net/perm/van/index-en.html
As always, this material is also available in German and Italian:
http://stromboli.net/perm/van/index-de.html
http://stromboli.net/perm/van/index-it.html



 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 315 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Nov 27, 2000 (20:42) * 38 lines 
 
*********************************
Api Siau and Merapi, Indonesia
*********************************
For the week ending 20 November, Api Siau (Karangetang) ejected ash from
its two active craters, frequent boomings and nighttime glares. Merapi
emitted a thin ash plume to 530m and notable seismicity continued.

From: http://www.vsi.dpe.go.id/news/index.html

Weekly Report No. 590

14-20 November 2000

Karangetang
Siau island; 2°47' N, 125°29' E
Karangetang activity continued during this week. White-thin ash plume
appeared from main crater and crater II rose up 600 m height above the
summit. A frequently booming sound was heard from the summit. Sometimes at
night sight the observer noted red flame from the summit, the height is
about 75 m.

Seismic record dominated by discontinuous tremor, which has amplitude 0.5-4
mm. During this week seismograph also recorded some multiphase earthquakes.
Detail of seismic activity were: deep volcanic (A) 7 events, 3 events of
shallow volcanic (B), 51 events of multiphase, 18 events of small
explosion, 45 events of tectonic, and discontinuous tremor earthquake.

Karangetang volcano is in level 2.

Merapi
Central Java; 7°32.5' S, 110°26.5' E
Merapi volcano continued to ejecting white ash plume. During the week ash
plume rose up 530 m height above the summit and low in pressure.
Seismograph recorded both of deep and shallow volcanic earthquakes, but
seismicity still dominated by multiphase earthquakes.

Merapi volcano is in level 2.



 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 316 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Nov 27, 2000 (20:53) * 58 lines 
 
*************************************
MVO weekly report, 24 November 2000
*************************************
Montserrat Volcano Observatory
Montserrat, W.I.
Report for the period midday, 17 November 2000 to midday, 24 November 2000

Activity at the Soufrière Hills volcano has remained at an elevated level
this week with the continued growth of the lava dome and a marked increase
in the number of rockfall signals.

The level of seismic activity was higher than in the previous week. The
broadband seismic network recorded a total of 497 rockfall signals, 1
volcano-tectonic, 85 long period and 16 hybrid earthquakes for the reporting
period. The number of rockfalls has more than doubled relative to the
previous week, although the number and energy of the long period earthquakes
has decreased.

Clear views of the dome were seen over the period from 17 to 22 November.
The lava spine that had been extruding over the previous week was seen
briefly on 17 November and the height of the top of the spine was estimated
as over 1085 m or 3560 feet. However views over the weekend showed that the
large spine had collapsed and a number of smaller spines were visible in the
summit area.

On the afternoon of 17 November and over the following few days, rockfalls
and small pyroclastic flows were occurring down the notch between the
northeastern and northern lobes of the 1995-98 dome. These were reaching
into the upper parts of Tuitt’s and White’s ghauts to the northeast of the
dome and traveling down the northern edge of the Tar River valley. Some new
deposits were also noted in the upper White River valley to the south of the
dome. Ash clouds from this activity reached no more than 10,000 feet and
mostly traveled to the west across the exclusion zone. Towards the end of
the week, the rockfall activity down the eastern flank had decreased,
although the number of rockfalls detected by the seismic network remained
high.

Measurements of sulphur dioxide emissions from the volcano were made on 23
November and showed that the average flux was 1050 tonnes per day. This is
higher than the previous measurement of 610 tonnes per day on 10 November,
but is similar to other measurements made over the last 3 months.

Residents of Montserrat and visitors to the island are advised to tune in to
ZJB Radio for up-to-date information on the status of the volcano. Rockfall
and pyroclastic flow activity is likely to remain at a high level whilst the
dome continues to grow, producing ash clouds which may blow over inhabited
areas if winds are from the south or southeast. Elevated levels of
pyroclastic flow activity may develop very rapidly and could affect any
valleys around the volcano. Ash masks should be worn in ashy conditions or
when you disturb ash. The Belham valley should be avoided during and after
periods of heavy rain and everyone is reminded that access to Plymouth,
Bramble airport and beyond is prohibited. There is a maritime exclusion zone
around the southern part of the island that extends two miles beyond the
coastline from Trant’s Bay in the east to Garibaldi Hill on the west coast.
The daytime entry zone remains closed.

12 noon, Friday, 24 November 2000



 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 317 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Dec  4, 2000 (22:18) * 50 lines 
 
*************************************
MVO weekly report, 1 December 2000
*************************************
Montserrat Volcano Observatory
Montserrat, W.I.
Report for the period midday, 24 November 2000 to midday, 1 December 2000

Activity at the Soufrière Hills volcano has remained at an elevated level
this week with continued growth of the lava dome.

The level of seismic activity was comparable to last week. The broadband
seismic network recorded a total of 491 rockfall signals, no
volcano-tectonic, 69 long period and 13 hybrid earthquakes for the reporting
period.

Clear views of the dome were possible briefly on the evening of 27 November.
The crest of the dome was dominated by a large shark’s fin-shaped spine.
Glowing rockfalls were seen cascading down the eastern and southeastern
faces of the dome. Poor visibility through the rest of the week prevented
further observations being made, although new rockfall deposits were seen
predominantly in the upper reaches of the Tar River valley.

Measurements of sulphur dioxide emissions from the volcano were made on 28
November and showed that the average flux was 1020 tonnes per day. This is
similar to the values measured last week.

Dr. Glenn Mattioli, Andy Eby and Lizzette Rodriguez from the University of
Puerto Rico are visiting Montserrat this week to collaborate with the MVO in
a GPS monitoring campaign. Occupations of several sites around the volcano
are in progress, using both MVO and University of Puerto Rico equipment, so
that the movements of the flanks of the volcano can be measured very
accurately. This is part of a long-established collaborative venture that
has been ongoing since the start of the eruption.

Residents of Montserrat and visitors to the island are advised to tune in to
ZJB Radio for up-to-date information on the status of the volcano. Rockfall
and pyroclastic flow activity is likely to remain at a high level whilst the
dome continues to grow, producing ash clouds which may blow over inhabited
areas if winds are from the south or southeast. Elevated levels of
pyroclastic flow activity may develop very rapidly and could affect any
valleys around the volcano. Ash masks should be worn in ashy conditions or
when you disturb ash. The Belham valley should be avoided during and after
periods of heavy rain and everyone is reminded that access to Plymouth,
Bramble airport and beyond is prohibited. There is a maritime exclusion zone
around the southern part of the island that extends two miles beyond the
coastline from Trant’s Bay in the east to Garibaldi Hill on the west coast.
The daytime entry zone remains closed.
12 noon, Friday, 1 December 2000




 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 318 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Dec 14, 2000 (19:48) * 49 lines 
 
**********************************************************
Updates: Semeru, Api Siau and Bromo Volcanoes, Indonesia
**********************************************************

For the week of 5-11 December 2000, Semeru's eruption, which began 33 years
ago, continues with thick white fume, two pyroclastic flows and numerous
explosions (513 explosion earthquakes). Api Siau (a.k.a. Karangetang)
exhibited fume columns from both active craters and occasional nighttime
glares to 25m height and a marked increase in seismicity (which includes
continous tremor). The new eruption at Bromo with manifold explosions and
ash columns rising to as much as 900m a.c. (above crater), continuous
tremor and strong sulfur odor.

Source report: http://www.vsi.dpe.go.id/news/index.html
Weekly Report No. 593
5-11 December 2000

Semeru
East Java; 8°6.50' S, 112°55' E
A 600 m white-thick fume rose from Jonggring Seloko crater. Seismic record
dominated by explosion earthquake (513 events), the others record were: 1
event of deep volcanic (A), 1 event of shallow volcanic (B), 16 events of
avalanche, 6 events of tectonic, and 2 event of pyroclastic flow.
The alert level of Semeru volcano is in level 2.

Karangetang
Siau island; 2°47' N, 125°29' E
Volcanic activity increased during reported period, white-thin fume
exhibited from crater II and main crater. This fume reached 50 m above the
summit. An indistinct fire plume observed frequently at night sight. The
fire plume reached up to 25 m above the summit. An extrem increase on
volcanic earthquake occurred within this week. Seismic record showed: 135
events of deep volcanic (A) earthquake, 1 event of shallow volcanic (B),
151 events of multiphase, 74 events of small explosion, 8 events of
tectonic, and a continuous of tremor volcanic.
Karangetang volcano is in level 2.

Bromo
East Java; 7°56.30' S, 112°37' E
Within this period, G. Bromo still stated as "waspada" level. Volcanic
activity marked by ongoing explosion and continuous tremor. Ash explosion,
which is accompanied by grey-brown to dark fume. Fume's height
approximately 150-900 m above crater rim, sulphur smelled strongly from
observation post. 817 events of explosion earthquake, which has amplitude
of 4-30 mm and continuous tremor, which has amplitude of 2-6 mm recorded
during observation period.
Bromo volcano is in level 2.




 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 319 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Dec 14, 2000 (21:40) * 24 lines 
 
***************************************
Colima, Fuego, and Tungurahua updates
***************************************

Colima, Mexico
---------------
As of 1800 on 6 December, activity at Colima was at low seismic,
deformation and visual levels. The recent tendency has been that of low,
waning levels of measured activity. See:
http://www.ucol.mx/volcan/report1.html

Fuego, Guatemala
-----------------
Several small explosions at Guatemala's Fuego volcano in the evening of 9
December.

Tungurahua, Ecuador
---------------------
Thin ash plume from Ecuador's Tungurahua volcano in the early hours of 10
December.

Source: http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/VAAC/messages.html




 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 320 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Dec 19, 2000 (18:14) * 3 lines 
 
Popocatepetl is erupting - for updating image please go to:

http://www.cenapred.unam.mx/images/popo.jpg


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 321 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Dec 19, 2000 (19:01) * 1 lines 
 
or try http://www.cenapred.unam.mx/popo/UltimaImagenVolcan2.html


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 322 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Dec 19, 2000 (21:17) * 14 lines 
 



Popocatepetl volcano, seen from the Mexican village of San
Nicolas de los Ranchos, erupts late December 18, 2000. The
eruptions have caused small forest fires on its slopes in Puebla
state where thousands of residents had been evacuated, but many
others refused to leave. (Daniel Aguilar/Reuters)
--------------


Ash Plume earlier in the week - Popocatepetl, Mexico




 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 323 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Dec 19, 2000 (21:25) * 76 lines 
 
Mexico's Popocatepetl Erupts, Thousands Evacuated

SAN PEDRO CHOLULA, Mexico (Reuters) - Mexico's
Popocatepetl volcano spewed molten rock into the sky Tuesday
forcing more than 30,000 people to abandon their homes and
sparking fears a glacier could become dislodged and trigger
massive mudslides.
Flaming rock burst from the 17,884-foot high volcano at 2 a.m. on
-- the second eruption in a few hours in what was the volcano's
most violent activity for decades -- perhaps centuries.
Mexican authorities, fearing a roughly 3,000 feet long glacier on
the volcano's western face could become dislodged by molten
rock and cause mudslides, expanded an emergency zone to 12.5
miles from 7.5 miles.
"We are on maximum alert ... because we have to be ready for
any possible contingency regarding the glacier," Interior Minister
Santiago Creel told a news conference on Tuesday.
The volcano, revered as a divinity by indigenous peoples before
the 1521 Spanish Conquest, was stable later Tuesday but
authorities predicted more activity before the day was out.
Authorities helped establish makeshift shelters for the more than
30,000 evacuees, whose homes were near the base of the
volcano.
Creel said eventually more than 48,000 people living in central
Puebla, Mexico and Morelos states near the mountain -- Mexico's
second highest -- would have to be evacuated from their homes.
President Vicente Fox flew by helicopter to towns near the volcano
and toured evacuee shelters as government officials met to
coordinate their response to the emergency.
EVACUATED VILLAGERS FEAR FOR HOMES, FAMILY
MEMBERS
In a refuge in San Pedro Cholula, in Puebla state which Fox visited
early Tuesday, villagers who had been evacuated from their
homes voiced worries about family members who had been
separated from them in the upheaval.
"I want to find my children. They are very small. They left the
house first and by the time I came out last night they had gone, I
must look for them," Margarita Cortes, carrying a baby on her
back, told Reuters.
Cortes' husband, like other men from villages at risk, stayed back
out of fear for his home. Others have been driven home in army
trucks to check on their abandoned properties.
One man, aged 75, apparently overcome by shock from the
eruption, reportedly died of a heart attack on Monday in the village
of San Pedro Benito Juarez, in Puebla state.
Local radio reported that in the village of Santiago Xalitzintla, in
Puebla state, soldiers forced residents to leave their houses on
Monday night as the mountain threw up slabs of molten rock,
some as much as 1.5 feet (45 cm) in diameter.
Army patrols were manning many of the roads into communities
closest to the volcano. Puebla city airport was closed on Tuesday.
Popocatepetl, or "smoking mountain" in the indigenous Nahuatl
language and pronounced poh-poh-kah-teh-peh-til, was inactive
from 1927 to 1994, when there was a moderate eruption. Since
then it has been increasingly active, sending up smoke and ash
columns.
In April 1996, five mountain climbers died near the crater's rim
during an explosion of the volcano, which is believed to have been
formed about 300,000 years ago.
Fox, who was sworn in on Dec. 1, attempted to reassure villagers
in refuges as government officials met to coordinate their
response to the emergency.
"You can rest assured, the army is looking after your houses and
everything," he told a woman in an evacuation shelter in Chalco, in
Mexico state.
Creel said some 1,500 troops from the armed forces and 800
more police were involved in the emergency operation and that
there had only been minor incidents of looting.
Airplanes were taking off and landing normally in Mexico City
airport, 42 miles from the volcano. Ash can pose a danger to
airplanes if it enters their turbines.
"...No airline has suspended flights," Roberto Canovas, director of
the air terminal, told journalists.
Mexico City authorities said a rain of ash could cover the city but
so far winds had blown the volcanic ash toward Puebla state.



 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 324 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Dec 21, 2000 (00:07) * 24 lines 
 
***********************
Popocatepetl, Mexico
***********************

As many of you are aware, Popocatepetl in Mexico erupted large amounts of
ash and steam last week, and experienced a spectacular eruption on Monday
night (December 18). Some reports say it was the largest eruption in over
a thousand years. Since Monday night, it has erupted at least three times,
in its greatest activity in over 400 years. Activity seems to have slowed
today, Wednesday December 20.

Updates on Popocatepetl activity can be found at the CENAPRED web site:
http://www.cenapred.unam.mx/

Reports are also available through the Smithsonian Global Volcanism Program
Preliminary Notices of Volcanic Activity,
http://www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/gvn/world/index.htm

and at the Volcano World website,
http://volcano.und.nodak.edu/vwdocs/current_volcs/popo/mar5popo.html

Finally, general news coverage can be found at:
http://dailynews.yahoo.com/fc/Science/Earthquakes_and_Seismology/



 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 325 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Dec 22, 2000 (20:07) * 29 lines 
 
*********************************
Bromo Volcano, Indonesia
*********************************
Bromo volcano in Indonesia began a new eruption on 30 November. Prior to
that there was no specific precursory events known, although the monitoring
seismograph has been down since 18 October, just the usual white gas plume
of low intensity, rising ~50m. Some sort of increased activity may have
begun earlier since the local government urged a no-climbing effort on the
29th. The initial explosion sent up a dark ash cloud to 100-150m ht.
Increased activity thereafter with ash clouds to 600-700m a.c. (above
crater). Ash falls to 1-3cm depth at distances of 40 km by early December.
From: http://www.vsi.dpe.go.id/news/index.html

Bromo Crisis
4 December, 2000
A minor explosion occurred suddenly on Bromo volcano on 30 November 2000.
There was no a specific cursor before it. Daily activity marked by white
ash plume which had low intensity and rose up about 50 m height. There is
no seimicity data because the seismograph did not work since 18 October 2000.
The first explosion ejected dark ash as height as 100-150 m height above
the crater rim. An explosion ongoing up to now and increased. Ash explosion
reached 600-700 m height above the crater rim and hit 1-3 cm thick in 40 km
distance from the volcano.
Since 29 November 2000 a local government recommended to people living
around volcano and tourists not to climb the volcano for a several time
until normal. Bromo activity increased and stated in level 2.
For further monitoring VSI will be repair the old seismograph and install
the new telemetry one and EDM (Electronic Distance Measurement).



 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 326 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Dec 22, 2000 (20:07) * 31 lines 
 
*********************************
Popocatepetl, Mexico (1401-09)
*********************************

Tue, 12 Dec 2000

There was a massive exhalation of ash and steam from the volcano
Popocatepetl, near Mexico City. The eruption was detected by the Center for
Prevention of Natural Disasters (CENAPRED), and relayed to the Washington
D.C. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) by way of the Mexico City
Meteorological Watch Office.

The eruption began at approximately 2207 UTC (5:07 EST) and was immediately
visible on the Popocatepetl "Web Cam" set up by CENAPRED. A large plume of
mostly ash (judging by the darkened color of the plume) was seen exiting
the summit. An analysis of subsequent imagery from the National Oceanic and
Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Geostationary Operational Environmental
Satellite (GOES-8) indicated a dense ash cloud extending 37 kilometers (20
nautical miles) to the northeast. The immediate area around the volcano was
clear of water clouds at the time. The only disability in the satellite
detection was a post GOES-8 maneuver that resulted in a navigation error of
about 30 to 50 kilometers.

The ash cloud was estimated to reach a level of 29,000 feet above sea level
based on upper air wind observations.

For details of the current eruption including real time satellite imagery,
visit:
http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/VAAC/popo.html




 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 327 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Dec 22, 2000 (20:09) * 62 lines 
 
*****************************
Volcano Expedition website
*****************************
From: David Hilton (David Hilton)


Please join us on a scientific expedition to study the volcanoes of Costa
Rica via the Internet beginning Thursday, January 4, 2001.


The Scripps Web site, titled Volcano Expedition
(http://www.sio.ucsd.edu/volcano/), will allow users to log on and follow a
two-week-long field trip to six active volcanic areas in the highlands of
Costa Rica in Central America. The site will feature photographic
documentation of the expedition, along with videos of the field research
being conducted by a multinational team of earth scientists and graduate
students. Web users will be able to travel along with the team by logging
on to daily reports from the field.


This expedition represents the first stage of an NSF-sponsored
investigation of the volatile systematics of the Central America volcanic
margin. We will target recent lavas, fumaroles, and geothermal waters. The
goal is to understand geochemical cycling through the earth's crust via the
processes of subduction and volcanic emission.


David Hilton (Scripps Institution of Oceanography)


*****************************
Lake Nyos, Cameroon website
*****************************
From: Gaudru

Dear Colleague,

We are pleased to inform you that a new website concerning the Lake Nyos in
Cameroon is now running.

In 1986, a tremendous explosion of CO2 from the lake Nyos, West of
Cameroon, killed more than 1700 people and livestock up to 25 km away. The
dissolved CO2 is seeping from springs beneath the lake and is trapped in
deep water by the high hydrostatic pressure. If the CO2 saturation level is
reached, bubbles appear and draw a rich gas water up. An avalanche process
is triggered which results in an explosive over-turn of the whole lake. A
French team has carried out since 1990 a series of tests in an attempt to
release the gas slowly through vertical pipes. The site, also, show a
general overview about the Lake and the degassing project. Information
contact for the site : Michel.Halbwachs@univ-savoie.fr

To access directly at the Nyos homepage :
http://perso.wanadoo.fr/mhalb/nyos

and/or by a direct link from the SVE website : http://www.sveurop.org (see
article/Lake Nyos)

(in addition, we inform you that a new page about the recent SVE mission on
the Serreta submarine volcano (Azores) is also already running) - under
construction




 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 328 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Dec 26, 2000 (17:03) * 9 lines 
 
*********
Kilauea
*********

0550 December 26, 2000
Boxing Day at Kilauea brings more lava on Pulama pali. This morning at 0459, a moderately vigorous flow has reached the base of the pali 200-400 m farther west than the flows of the past week. The new flow apparently is fed from either a higher breakout point than were the previous flows or a tongue of these flows that headed more southward than normal. The new flow is burning scattered trees, but kona winds blow the smoke smell northward, leaving clean air on the coastal flat.
The previous flows are still visible farther east on the pali, but they are mostly crusted over, with four large incandescent patches separated by dull crust.
Mapping on Sunday, and glow this morning, indicate that lava is slowly moving seaward on the coastal flat. Still, more than 2 km separate the flow front from the water.
The crater of Pu`u `O`o is dark this morning, seismic tremor near Pu`u `O`o is weak to moderate and beneath Kilauea caldera is weak, and the tilt at Kilauea summit and along the east rift zone is flat.


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 329 of 997:  (sprin5) * Wed, Dec 27, 2000 (04:07) * 1 lines 
 
What is the significance of boxing day in Hawaii, I know they have this in Candada as well.


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 330 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Jan  1, 2001 (15:44) * 1 lines 
 
Nothing whatsoever. We are totally Americanized here. I guess we were not colonized out here for long enough and the New England missionaries brought American traditions with them. No Boxing day except to return the boxes you got the day before you did not like...


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 331 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Jan  5, 2001 (00:26) * 19 lines 
 
Proof of Kilauea’s big bang shocks Hawaii geologists

The volcano once had a
Mt. St. Helens-style eruption,
never before known in the islands
By Rod Thompson
Big Island correspondent
HILO -- Sometime before 1000 A.D., Kilauea volcano blasted skyward in an eruption so massive it sent rocks and dust as much
as 18 miles into the air.
The cloud of debris may have been seen on Maui, said Don Swanson, scientist-in-charge at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory.
And the eruption may have changed the way Hawaiians viewed Kilauea, ushering in the new volcano goddess Pele, said Hawaiian
cultural consultant Kepa Maly.
For several years, geologists have known about fist-size rocks shot through the air, different from surrounding rocks, lying on the
ground south of Kilauea, Swanson said.
In August, geologists took a closer look.
"What we found surprised, even shocked us," Swanson said. About five miles from the summit, they found a rock weighing 4.3
pounds. At six miles from the summit, they found one weighing nearly 3 pounds.




 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 332 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Jan  5, 2001 (00:27) * 2 lines 
 
more of the above article plus maps:
http://starbulletin.com/2001/01/04/news/story2.html


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 333 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Jan  5, 2001 (15:53) * 5 lines 
 
check http://www.spring.net/yapp-bin/restricted/read/geo/2.161

then look at this aerial view of where he was camped - in center foreground on an old hilltop!
http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/hazards/dds24167_L.jpg



 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 334 of 997: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Tue, Jan  9, 2001 (17:58) * 1 lines 
 
How far away is Maui from Hawaii?


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 335 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Jan 10, 2001 (14:22) * 16 lines 
 
The Alahelenui channel is about 12 miles across - one of the roughest channels in the world. It separates The Kohala mountains of Hawaii from Haleakala Volcano on Maui.

Re Popocatepetl: From Yahoo Volcanology Club's Steve:

Some phreatic emmissions are visable.
Sulfur dioxide emmisions were reported to be slightly lower.
I am unsure how reliable Mex television is.
Volcanologist here recommended against any people being allowed back
into area closer than Oaca and &or 10 km of the volcano.
Ary troops are still in the area for any further actions to remove
people.
Some residents have drifted back dispite concerns of
so 2 and other vapors .
Biggest fear is the melting of the glacial snow as clodest par of year
is passing fast.



 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 336 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Jan 11, 2001 (20:47) * 36 lines 
 
A field trip and conference in the week immediately preceding the Cities on
Volcanoes 2 conference in Auckland, New Zealand.

A conference and field trip to be held in Australia in early February 2001
will be concerned with scoria cones and small lava shields of Quaternary
age, extensive flows, and some 40 maar volcanoes with tuff rings, crater
lakes and swamps, which occur on the Western Victorian Volcanic Plains.

A field trip leaves Melbourne on Saturday 3rd February 2001 and travels
through the main volcanic field with leaders who have worked on
volcanicity, dating, crater lake stratigraphy and fauna sequences, pollen
sequences and recent lake level change related to current climate
fluctuation. Staying for two nights in the old pastoral town of Camperdown,
and then reaching the small historic coastal town of Port Fairy in far
Western Victoria on the afternoon of Monday 5th, about 50 researchers and
post-graduate students will meet for the rest of the week to discuss all
aspects of the Quaternary history of the region, as part of a regular
meeting of the Australasian Quaternary Association (AQUA). A mid-conference
field trip on Wednesday 7th will visit the famous Tower Hill nested maar,
and also the nearby Mt Eccles volcanic complex and young stony rise flows.

The conference will conclude at lunchtime on Friday 9th February, allowing
attendees to return to Melbourne in time to catch evening flights at
Melbourne airport, and so allowing ample time to travel to Auckland for the
Cities on Volcanoes 2 meeting commencing on Monday 12th.

The young volcanic subprovince of Western Victoria has many similarities to
the Auckland field and this meeting provides an interesting (and
inexpensive!) opportunity for those going to the Auckland meeting, or just
interested in young areal volcanism, to see another famous field, and hear
the latest information on dating, volcanic history and the risk of future
eruption.

For details of the conference, field trip and other program details see:

http://www.arts.monash.edu.au/ges/research/conference.html


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 337 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Jan 11, 2001 (21:33) * 45 lines 
 
******************************
Mayon Volcano, Philippines
******************************
From: Dan Shackelford
Subject: Something brewing at Mayon

Activity at the beautifully conic Philippine volcano Mayon seems to be
increasing. Increased seismicity, a growing summit lava dome and copious
amounts of gas have been noted. Inflation has been noted, indicating
possible magma ascending in the conduit. No crater glows though, yet.
From: http://www.phivolcs.dost.gov.ph/Volcanoes/Mayon/MayonIndex.html
(follow link at top of page to latest bulletin and photos)

Mayon Volcano Bulletin
7:00 PM, 09 January 2001
A possible resurgence of activity is evident from recent observations on
Mayon. Reports by the Ligñon Hill Observatory in Legazpi City disclosed an
apparently growing lava dome, which is also emitting voluminous volcanic
gases from the summit crater. Significantly increased earthquake
occurrences have also occurred this past week and these events are likely
related to ascent of magma. Such ascent is also indicated by slight ground
tilt that has coincided with appearance of the lava dome, and the sustained
gas outputs visible during cloud breaks. Due to near-constant cloud cover,
however, no crater glow has been observed yet but the major monitored
parameters strongly suggest that activity is rapidly progressing beyond the
usual background or quiet conditions.

Because of the reactivation of the volcano which may eventually lead to a
lava flow-producing or pyroclastic flow-producing eruption, PHIVOLCS is now
hoisting Alert Level 2, meaning increased and sustained volcanic unrest. No
time frame or precise eruption prediction can be given yet because of the
short observation period and the lack of good visibility of the summit
area. As a precaution against hazards from sudden explosions, however,
PHIVOLCS advises the public to stay away from the six (6) kilometer radius
Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ) and to avoid major river channels that
originate from the volcano. In addition, all treks within the prescribed
PDZ, should be postponed until the alert has been lowered to the
appropriate level.

In the meantime, additional volcano monitoring teams are now being sent
on-site to further evaluate the unrest and any significant developments
shall be relayed to all concerned.

PHIVOLCS



 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 338 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Jan 13, 2001 (22:07) * 23 lines 
 
U.S. Relief Supplies to Be Sent to El Salvador

WASHINGTON (Reuters) - A U.S. aid agency said on Saturday it would
dispatch a planeload of plastic sheeting, medical kits, blankets and
other supplies to earthquake victims in El Salvador as soon as an
airport there reopened.
"We have supplies prepared and ready to go in Miami but we have to
wait until an airport is open for us to land in," said Joseph Schultz, a
spokesman for the U.S. Agency for International Development.
The supplies will include plastic sheeting to create makeshift shelter,
five-gallon plastic jugs for water, personal hygiene kits, medical kits
and blankets, he said.
The agency said it had three people on the ground in El Salvador, and
hoped to get five more emergency workers into the Central American
nation by early on Sunday.
The spokesman said he had no information regarding the powerful
earthquake because of downed telephone lines.
The quake's epicenter was about 65 miles southeast of the capital San
Salvador. Red Cross and local authorities said dozens of people had
died in El Salvador and Guatemala.
A spokesman for the Pentagon said there were no immediate plans to
send U.S. military troops to the area to assist with emergency relief.



 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 339 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Jan 13, 2001 (22:09) * 74 lines 
 
Central America Quake Death Toll Up

SAN SALVADOR, El Salvador (AP) - A major earthquake shook Central
America on Saturday, unleashing a landslide that buried hundreds of
houses near El Salvador's capital and killing at least 63 people across
the region.
About 1,200 people are believed to be missing in the buried Las
Colinas neighborhood just west of San Salvador, Red Cross spokesman
Carlos Lopez Medina said.
Medina said that at least 61 people were killed across El Salvador but
the national police estimated the death toll at near 100.
The 7.6-magnitude quake centered off El Salvador's southern coast
also rocked Honduras and Guatemala, where two deaths were reported.
Buildings swayed in Mexico City, about 600 miles to the northwest.
Salvadoran President Francisco Flores declared a national emergency
and appealed for international aid to help look for buried victims and
assist survivors.
Hundreds of rescuers frantically ripped at the earth with sticks and bare
hands to reach those buried in the middle class Las Colinas area,
where a 1,500-foot landslide carried away houses, cars and trees.
A distraught Arturo Magana, 25, wandered about to find his 18-year-old
brother, Jaime.
``I don't know where to dig because I don't know where the house is,''
he said.
``This is terrible. I don't think we will be able to pull out any victims;
everything has been buried,'' said David Lara, a rescue worker
struggling at the mass of dirt and concrete with a shovel.
Lopez estimated that 300 houses had been destroyed in Las Colinas.
By night, 20 bodies had been recovered at Las Colinas. No survivors
had yet been found.
``There is my boy! Help me! Help me!'' wailed Carmen de Marin, a
41-year-old woman weeping beside the buried ruins of her Las Colinas
house.
She said her 12-year-old son Jaime Ernesto Marin had stayed home to
await a phone call from his father in the United States when she went
out shopping shortly before the quake hit at about 11:35 a.m.
In the southeastern town of San Miguel, the wall of a hospital collapsed
and 25 people were known to be dead in a small village nearby.
News of the damage was slowed by the fact that much of El Salvador's
telephone service and electricity was knocked out by the quake for
several hours. Only sketchy reports had arrived from many hard-hit
areas.
In Santa Ana, about 35 miles northwest of the capital, the
116-year-old El Calvario church collapsed, killing at least one employee
and possibly others worshipping inside, according to the Rev. Robert
Castro.
The Red Cross reported that 13 people died in nearby Sosonati. Some
200 other victims were rushed to the area hospital, which authorities
weren't sure was still structurally sound.
The quake was centered off the Salvadoran coast, about 65 miles
southwest of San Miguel, according to the U.S. Geological Survey in
Denver, Colo.
It took more than an hour for some San Salvador radio stations to
return to the air and telephone service remained spotty at
mid-afternoon. There were cracked buildings and shattered windows
across the city of 500,000.
Officials at San Salvador's international airport said all flights had been
canceled .
Most businesses in the city closed - though in a surreal touch, acrobats
and dancers from a touring circus marched through the streets past
frightened people, using a loudspeaker to promote a coming
performance.
Police in neighboring Guatemala said a man and a 2-year-old girl were
killed and three other people were injured when a pair of homes
collapsed in the city of Jalpataua.
Local radio stations reported the collapse of a church in Suchitepequez,
in southern Guatemala.
The quake set off car alarms and temporarily knocked out electricity,
radio, television and cellular phone service all over Guatemala, but
most service was quickly restored.
Honduran officials reported cracked buildings in several cities, but there
were no reports of injuries.
A 1986 earthquake centered near San Salvador killed an estimated
1,500 people and injured 8,000.


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 340 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Jan 15, 2001 (20:12) * 0 lines 
 


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 341 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Jan 15, 2001 (20:29) * 28 lines 
 
From Rob in New Zealand on http://clubs.yahoo.com/clubs/volcanoesandvolcanologist

Nine caldera volcanoes exist in New Zealand, but seven of them have
been buried by flows of ignimbrite and breccia, mainly from Taupo, but
also Okataina. Other caldera's are Maroa, Whakamaru, Rotorua, and Oruanui.
The latter exists only in name as it borders Taupo, and the more recent
eruptions at Taupo since Oruanui had it's 15 minutes of fame 26500
years have completely wiped it out. It is essentially part of Taupo. All
the caldera's in New Zealand have had a violent history typical of
caldera volcanoes. Parts of Maroa and Whakamaru can still be seen but they
have a least 200 metres of ignimbrite and ash from various eruptions
elsewhere overtop, so all that can be seen is the top of the rim.
Eruptions at Taupo and Okataina will occur again as seismic tests show
that vast magma bodies lie under both. Both have population centres
nearby (Rotorua city - pop. 45000 - 8km from Okataina, and the towns of
Taupo (15000)and Turangi (3500), near Taupo). Ignimbrite flows from
caldera volcanoes have gotten as far as the Manukau Harbour, 150 miles
north-northwest of Taupo. Eight hydro-electric powerstations, two geothermal
stations, and a thermal station use the water of the Waikato river
which drains from Lake Taupo in the caldera. The city of Hamilton (145000
people)is 90 miles from Taupo and is sited on the banks of the Waikato
River. This means 20 percent of the power generation, 40% percent of New
Zealands population, possibly 50% of all tourism, the main trunk
railway and main highway, our only large pulp and paper mill, plus a fair
portion of our dairy, and sheep farming capacity is threatened by the
caldera volcanoes of the North Island.




 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 342 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Jan 15, 2001 (23:47) * 406 lines 
 
Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network
Volume 25, Number 11, November 2000

Rabaul (Papua New Guinea) Ashfall during August-October most abundant since
1995
Ulawun (Papua New Guinea) An eruption during 28 September-2 October 2000
sends a plume to 1012 km
Langila (Papua New Guinea) Mild Vulcanian eruptions during July-October 2000
Karkar (Papua New Guinea) Rumored eruption on 29 September believed to stem
from Ulawun's ash fall
Manam (Papua New Guinea) Low August-October 2000 activity; increased
seismicity 18 September
Karangetang (Indonesia) February-December included explosions, ash falls,
lava flows, and debris flows
Tengger Caldera (Indonesia) Sudden explosion 29 November; eruption
continues as of 18 December
Merapi (Indonesia) Consistent gas plume; lava avalanches and landslide; new
lava dome and fractures
Slamet (Indonesia) During May-October 2000, continuous tremor and abundant
explosion earthquakes
Kaba (Indonesia) Explosions and light gray ash
Marapi (Indonesia) Large explosions in March 2000 eject ash
Heard Island (Indian Ocean) Discovery of a distinct vent below Mawson Peak;
brown fumes in November
Shiveluch (Kamchatka) Frequent steam plumes, weak tremor, and possible
gasandash explosions

Rabaul
New Britain Island, Papua New Guinea
4.271 S, 152.203 E; summit elev. 688 m
All times are local (= GMT + 10 hours)
This report, which covers the period from August through October 2000,
notes that Vulcanian eruptions prevailed at Tavurvur during 29 August
through October 2000. These eruptions bore far more ash than typical.
Substantial amounts of ash blew towards the city of Rabaul and other
inhabited areas. During the second and third weeks of September the amount
of ash falling reached a maximum since the current eruption began on 28
November 1995.
On 2 and 9 August eruptive plumes contained ash. At other times during
August vent activity was relatively low, consisting only of small volumes
of thin white vapor. The 29 August eruption changed this pattern.
Although the main phase of the 29 August eruption began at 1158, it was
preceded by a series of weak explosions yielding dark gray ash plumes.
After these less-forceful explosive events ended, moderate volumes of dark
gray ash clouds erupted. Subsequently, and through 8 September, the
eruption pattern was comprised of interchanging periods of either
continuous, moderate-volume ash emissions or relatively subdued ash-cloud
emissions typically white to pale gray in color.
At about 2200 on 8 September, the eruption became more intense, frequent,
and discrete explosions producing thick billowing dark ash clouds.
Throughout the rest of September, periods of sub-continuous ash emissions
occurred. After 21 September, however, discrete explosions and
sub-continuous ash emissions declined and continued at a subdued level.
Throughout September, observers saw incandescent lava fragments
occasionally ejected. Residents saw these ejected fragments more frequently
after the onset of explosive activity on 8 September, and around this time
the residents regularly noted audible noises associated with venting.
Explosions every few minutes produced sub-continuous moderate to heavy ash
emissions that continued in October. Some of the larger explosions showered
the N and NE flanks of the volcano with bombs. At night these were seen to
be incandescent (red to dull orange). On inspection most projectiles were
lithic blocks, but a minority were in a plastic state with some bread-crust
surfaces. Jet-aircraft-like roaring from the vent was common and some of
the larger explosions could be heard at distances of over 15 km. Toward the
end of October, the explosions were less forceful, but contained increased
volumes of solid fragments.
All activity during the reporting period appears to have been confined to
the 1941 vent; the 1995 crater issued only white vapor. The current phase
enlarged the vent as a result of explosive activity. The N crater was
breached, forming a saddle-like depression in the rim reaching about 15-20
m lower than the originally symmetrical and level line comprising the ridge.
During the first 2-3 weeks of September ash clouds rose as high as 2 km
above the summit. As previously noted, many plumes blew N and NW to drop
ash on inhabited areas. As a result, many Rabaul businesses were adversely
affected and, by the end of the September, some had moved ~40 km SE of
Rabaul to the settlement of Kokopo. The major health center in Rabaul town
was also affected and patients with respiratory problems were moved to
another health center near Kokopo. During early October the ashfalls caused
patients to undergo evacuation from Nonga Hospital (5 km NNW of Rabaul).
Toward the end of October the annual change in the trade winds caused less
ashfall in Rabaul town; frequent heavy rains around this time also provided
relief from suspended dust.
Seismicity correlated fairly directly with behavior observed at the summit,
and accordingly, seismic activity remained relatively low until the onset
of the eruption. The total number of low-frequency earthquakes recorded
during August was 208, with the largest daily number of 35 on 30 August.
This monthly total was slightly higher than that in July. During the main
episodes of ash eruption between 29 August and 8 September, seismicity was
characterized by bands of non-harmonic volcanic tremor. Bands of volcanic
tremor with reduced amplitude were recorded again during 17-19 September
and, until the end of the month, seismicity included sporadic
short-duration tremor associated with sub-continuous ash ejections.
For August and September, respective high-frequency earthquakes totaled 17
and 8; all occurred NE of Rabaul caldera. The time difference between S-
and P-wave arrivals for these events (S minus P) was 3-6 seconds. Since 28
November 1995, strings or significant numbers of high-frequency NE
earthquakes have correlated with greater summit activity at Tavurvur. The
time interval from the onset of the high-frequency earthquakes to greater
summit activity ranged between one week to a few months. Rabaul's last
major NE earthquake sequence occurred during May-June 2000 (see Bulletin v.
25, no. 7).
During September a total of 3,661 low-frequency earthquakes were recorded.
This total includes explosion earthquakes (with air phases). When like
earthquake records were compared, the September record attained the highest
total since May 1996 (when 3,993 such earthquakes were recorded).
September's highest daily total, 228, was recorded on 11 September; the
lowest total, 3, was recorded on 4 and 7 September, occurring on days when
tremor dominated the seismicity. October seismicity included 2,544
low-frequency earthquakes.
Ground deformation measurements from electronic and wet tiltmeters showed
some caldera inflation from July 1999 to April 2000. After April, the trend
changed to show deflation until about August 2000. Tiltmeters registered
slow inflation during the first few days of September, followed by
subsidence, and then stable conditions on 8 September. Some
deformation-monitoring sites in the area of Tavurvur seemed to indicate a
deflationary trend starting in late September and continuing through October.
Background. The last of two Holocene caldera-forming eruptions of Rabaul
took place 1,400 years ago. Several large historical eruptions have formed
intra-caldera cones. The latest significant eruptive episode, in 1994,
included venting at both the Tavurvur and Vulcan cones. The low-lying
Rabaul caldera forms a sheltered harbor once utilized by New Britain's
largest city. The 8 x 14 km caldera is widely breached on the east, where
its floor is flooded by Blanche Bay. Two major Holocene caldera-forming
eruptions took place as recently as 3,500 and 1,400 years ago. Three small
stratovolcanoes lie outside the northern and NE caldera rims. Post-caldera
eruptions built basaltic-to-dacitic pyroclastic cones on the caldera floor
near the NE and western caldera walls. Several of these, including Vulcan
cone, which was formed during a large eruption in 1878, have produced major
explosive activity during historical time. A powerful explosive eruption in
1994 forced abandonment of Rabaul city.
Information Contacts: Ima Itikarai, David Lolok, Herman Patia, and Steve
Saunders, Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), P.O. Box 386, Rabaul, Papua New
Guinea (Email: rvo@global.net.pg).

Ulawun
New Britain, Papua New Guinea
5.04 S, 151.34 E; summit elev. 2,334 m
All times are local (= GMT + 10 hours)
An eruption from Ulawun that started on 28 September continued until 2
October 2000 (Bulletin v. 25, no. 8). Preliminary information was based on
news media reports and aviation sources. The Rabaul Volcano Observatory
(RVO) has since provided more accurate and detailed reports for the
August-October 2000 period.
Activity during August. During August, summit activity remained low,
chiefly consisting of weak releases of thin white vapor. While the summit
activity remained quiet, some obvious changes were recorded in seismicity
and ground deformation (electronic tiltmeter).
High-frequency earthquakes had occurred sporadically since mid-1998 in very
low numbers (~1/day). A brief period of recording in April 2000 registered
~ 2/day. In mid-June 2000, following the resumption of seismic recording,
high-frequency earthquakes were first seen to have increased to 15-20/day.
This comparatively high number of earthquakes continued through July and
August. Deployment of a portable seismograph during 13-15 August indicated
these earthquakes had epicenters at Ulawun.
During August, low-frequency earthquakes occurred as usual. On about 26
August, both amplitudes and event counts dropped by a factor of three. Also
beginning in August, an electronic tiltmeter located on the flanks ~2.5 km
WSW of the crater vent began to show some inflation on the NS component. By
month-end about 7 mrad of inflationary tilt was recorded. The EW component
(radial to the vent) lacked changes.
Eruption of 28 September-2 October. A relatively small-to-moderate eruption
began on 28 September 2000. Several long-term precursors to the eruption
were unambiguous. High-frequency earthquakes increased dramatically after
June 2000. Electronic tiltmeter trends showed inflation beginning in early
August 2000. Short-term, immediate precursors included an increase in both
the number of low-frequency earthquakes and the real-time seismic amplitude
measurements (RSAM). The latter began to escalate on 27 September 2000.
The late-stage build-up towards the eruption began at 2200 on 27 September
with an increase in low-frequency earthquakes and their amplitudes. A
further increase in seismicity took place at about 0200 on the 28th. There
began a series of small nonharmonic volcanic tremors with durations up to a
few minutes. These increased between 1200 and 1800 on the 28th.
The late-stage buildup also appeared in RSAM readings. RSAM values changed
at 2200 on the 27th from a background level of 2 units, rising at 1200 on
the 28th to ~10 units, then by 1800 to 30 units. After 1800, RSAM values
continued to rise and the instruments registered intense continuous
volcanic tremor. Around this time the RSAM counts exhibited an artificial
decline attributed to an overwhelmed event-counting system.
Other notable changes in the character of the RSAM plot occurred at 2240 on
the 28th, and at 0115 and 0240 on the 29th. The first two times correlated
with behavior noted by the observer watching the summit crater.
Specifically, at 2240 on the 28th the observer saw the first glow
reflecting off an ash-cloud emission. RVO scientists mark this as the
beginning of the eruption. At 0120 on the 29th, production of incandescent
lava fragments intensified, indicating the onset of a Strombolian eruption.
At 0240 on 29 November, the RSAM peaked at 8045 units. Thus, scientists
inferred this as the time when the Strombolian phase of the eruption
peaked. During the cover of darkness, ash clouds were just visible,
initially illuminated by the glow and gradually by incandescent fragments.
The latter became common by about 1200 on the 29th when ash clouds were
seen blowing NW. The ash clouds began to become voluminous from 0100 on the
29th, coinciding with the intensification of the Strombolian phase of the
eruption. The ash clouds were emitted forcefully, accompanied by loud
roaring and rumbling noises.
By first light on 29 September people some distance away from Ulawun were
able to see a thick vertical eruption column that rose ~12-15 km above the
summit (figure 1). In relatively clear morning weather, the eruption column
was visible from Rabaul, ~130 km NE of Ulawun. By this time ash clouds had
blown WSW to NW. Roaring and rumbling noises ceased at about 1000 and
resumed again at about 1300. At about this time also, there was a slight
and brief change in wind direction resulting in the eruption's ash clouds
being redirected to the N and NE.
The eruption produced a moderate amount of ashfall. Ashfall was heavy 10 km
downwind of the vent. Beyond that, the amount of ashfall was much reduced,
lessening still further away from the vent. The ashfall destroyed gardens
and cash-crop plantations within 10 km of its main path. Satellite images
of the ash distribution showed that the ash was blown downwind 80-100 km
from the vent.
The eruption produced three pyroclastic flows. They traveled down
pre-existing gullies on the N, NW, and SE flanks. During past eruptions,
pyroclastic flows also followed the same gullies down from the cone's 2,300
m summit elevation. The N-directed pyroclastic flow was the biggest. It
descended to 580 m elevation. The NW-directed pyroclastic flow was the
second biggest. It divided into two arms at 900 m elevation and its
terminus reached an elevation similar to the one on the N flank. The SE
flow was relatively small. The eruption lacked lava flows.
Scientists inspected the crater area from the air on 7 October and found
two vents on the summit (labeled Vents A and B on figure 2). Comparing Vent
A to its appearance during 1993, the overall depth of the crater floor
appeared to have risen, becoming about 100-150 m shallower. The fill
consisted of older material that collapsed from the inner crater wall and
possibly new ejecta from the current eruption. A prominent breach on the N
crater rim was evident and may have been created by the N pyroclastic flow.
Judging by its close proximity, this flow originated from Vent B.
En-echelon cracks on the E end of the crater suggested inward sagging of
that side of the crater rim. At the time of the inspection, few emissions
escaped the vents; however, traces of white and blue vapor wafted from
other areas inside the crater.
Figure 2. An oblique aerial photo showing Ulawun's summit area and Vents A
and B between 0800 and 0900 on 7 October 2000. Other visible features
include a breach on the NNE crater rim caused by the avalanche of
pyroclastic flow material from Vent B. Photographed by Ima Itikarai;
courtesy of RVO.
There were reports of multiple vents during past eruptions. However, aerial
inspections in 1985 and 1993 only revealed evidence of Vent A. Ulawun had a
flank eruption on the SE side during the 1978 eruption.
RVO staff in Rabaul established communication links with the volcano
observer based near Ulawun at 1606 on 27 September after noting increased
RSAM values. Data from Ulawun were transmitted to RVO every 20 minutes. The
RSAM values led to discussions with civil authorities and directions to
local residents throughout the night at two-hour intervals. During the
process, alert stages one and two were declared. This resulted in
evacuating the local population, an effort accomplished with the help of a
local timber company. Assistance was later provided by the West New Britain
Provincial Government. This time-line of events is contrary to preliminary
information (Bulletin v. 25, no. 8). that relied on local news media.
Activity during October. By 3 October the volcano produced only thin white
vapor with no noise or night glow. Various ancillary observations occurred
in the next weeks: during 6, 8, 10, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18 October and 1
November observers noted low rumbling or banging or both; when under cover
of darkness they usually saw accompanying weak, steady glows. In at least
one case they smelled sulfurous odors.
The noises at 1000 on 1 November accompanied a thick dark ash cloud that
rose 100-200 m above the summit. By 1100 silent ash clouds were seen
forcefully rising ~200 m above the summit. Activity then declined for a few
hours until 1430-1700, an interval when observers saw thick dark gray ash
clouds and occasionally heard weak rumblings. Activity quieted after that
and by 2 November emissions had returned to white vapor without noise or
night glow.
On 13 and 17 October small mudflows occurred, originating on the upper NW
flanks and sweeping down a dry creek through Ubili village and then to the
sea. At certain places the flows spread laterally. No reported damage or
casualties were caused by either mudflow.
October seismicity included tremor and numerous low-frequency earthquakes.
Volcanic tremors were dominant during 1-4, 8-11, and 30-31 October. The
low-frequency earthquakes can be characterized by RSAM data. On 1 October
RSAM stood at ~30-40 units; steady decline brought the 7 October RSAM to ~5
units. On the 8th and 11th there followed peaks of over 20 units. After
that RSAM declined steadily until it reached background levels on 20
October. On 30 October, RSAM underwent a sudden increase to ~20-30 units
heralding the brief 1 November eruption.
The single electronic tiltmeter located on the high WSW flank showed a
steady change throughout October. The behavior could possibly be related to
edifice inflation.
Background. The symmetrical basaltic-to-andesitic Ulawun stratovolcano is
the highest volcano of the Bismarck arc, and one of Papua New Guinea's most
frequently active. Ulawun rises above the N coast of New Britain opposite
Bamus volcano. The upper 1,000 m of the 2,334-m-high volcano is
unvegetated. A prominent E-W-trending escarpment on the S may be the result
of large-scale slumping. Satellitic cones occupy the NW and E flanks. A
steep-walled valley cuts the NW side of the volcano, and a flank lava-flow
complex lies to the S of this valley. Historical eruptions date back to the
beginning of the 18th century. Twentieth-century eruptions were mildly
explosive until 1967, but after 1970 several larger eruptions produced lava
flows and basaltic pyroclastic flows, greatly modifying the summit crater.
Correction: In Bulletin v. 25, no. 8, it was erroneously stated that Ulawun
is also known as the North Son. Ulawun (or Ulavun) is, in fact, sometimes
referred to as The Father. North Son is Mount Likuruanga, a well eroded
cone abutting Ulawun to the NE. This group is completed by Bamus volcano to
Ulawun's SW. Bamus, a 2,000-m-high cone that last erupted in 1886, is
sometimes referred to as South Son.
Information Contacts: RVO (see Rabaul).

Langila
New Britain Island, Papua New Guinea
5.53 S, 148.42 E; summit elev. 1,330 m
All times are local (= GMT + 10 hours)
The mild Vulcanian eruptive activity that occurred at Langila's Crater 2
through June 2000 (Bulletin v. 25, no. 7) continued during July-October
2000. In addition, low-level volcanic activity continued at Crater 3. No
reports of unusual activity were submitted during July and August.
During September, intermittent, mild Vulcanian activity occurred at Crater
2. The activity consisted of moderate emissions of thin-to-thick white
vapor, which were occasionally accompanied by gray ash clouds. On 21, 25,
and 30 September thick, dark gray, convoluting ash clouds were forcefully
released, rose 200 m above the summit, blew to the N and NW, and deposited
fine ash. On 7, 9-11, and 27 September wisps of blue vapor accompanied the
emissions. During the month volcanic activity was low at Crater 3, with
only thin white vapor sporadically visible.
Through October intermittent, mild Vulcanian eruptions continued at Crater
2. The vent usually emitted white vapor, which was sometimes accompanied by
a blue tinge and occasionally by a light ash component. On 8 October a
forceful emission of thick ash rose to 1 km above the crater rim. This
heralded a few days of increased ash emissions, with some forcefully
expelled light gray/brown clouds on the 15th. During 16-24 October
continuous white vapor emissions with a small ash component were common. At
0801 on 24 October a dark gray-to-black ash column rose 1 km above the
crater rim. On 25 October an ash cloud that rose to 2 km above the crater
deposited ash toward the N. Likewise, at 0655 on 26 October a thick, white
vapor plume was accompanied by an ash column that rose to 1 km above the
crater rim. The ash emissions continued throughout the day, and similar
activity occurred the next day. For the rest of the month activity was
confined to white vapor with an occasional ash component. During October
varying amounts of white fume were emitted from Crater 3. Throughout the
period there were no reports of noises or night glow at the volcano; the
seismograph remained out of operation.
Background. Langila, one of the most active volcanoes of New Britain,
consists of a group of four small overlapping composite cones on the lower
eastern flank of the extinct Talawe volcano. Talawe is the highest volcano
in the Cape Gloucester area of NW New Britain. A rectangular, 2.5-km-long
crater is breached widely to the SE; Langila volcano was constructed NE of
the breached crater of Talawe. An extensive lava field reaches the coast on
the N and NE sides of Langila. Frequent mild-to-moderate explosive
eruptions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, have been recorded since
the 19th century from three active craters at the summit of Langila. The
youngest and smallest crater (Crater 3) was formed in 1960 and has a
diameter of 150 m. The Cape Gloucester observation post, airstrip, and
seismometer are 9 km N of the volcano.
Information Contacts: RVO (see Rabaul).

Karkar
offshore New Guinea, Papua New Guinea
4.65 S, 145.96 E; summit elev. 1,839 m
On 29 September there were reports of light ash fall on the NE coast of
Karkar island, and fine sand deposits were found at the bottom of a
swimming pool. The ash fall led to the rumor that Karkar volcano had
erupted. However, an aerial inspection of the central caldera and Bagiai
cone on 1 October showed that no eruptive activity had taken place.
Volcanologists believe that the ash most likely originated from an eruption
at Ulawun, which, at its peak on 29 September, had an eruption column to
12-15 km altitude. Ash erupted to those heights would have been taken well
into the jet stream and could have been transported to Karkar, which is
located 600 km to the W (downwind at high altitudes) of Ulawun. There have
been no reports of anomalous activity at Karkar since fumarolic gases
killed vegetation in September 1997 (Bulletin v. 22, no. 9).
Background. Karkar is a 19 x 25 km wide, forest-covered island that is
truncated by two nested summit calderas. The 5.5-km-wide outer caldera was
formed during one or more eruptions, the last of which occurred 9,000 years
ago. The excentric 3.2-km-wide inner caldera was formed sometime between
1,500 and 800 years ago. Parasitic cones are present on the northern and
southern flanks of Karkar; a linear array of small cones extends from the
northern rim of the outer caldera nearly to the coast. Most historical
eruptions, which date back to 1643, have originated from Bagiai cone, a
pyroclastic cone constructed within the steep-walled, 300-m-deep inner
caldera. The floor of the caldera is covered by young, mostly unvegetated
lava flows.
Information Contacts: RVO (see Rabaul).


Manam
offshore New Guinea, Papua New Guinea
4.10 S, 145.06 E; summit elev. 1,807 m
Following the 4 June 2000 eruption at Southern Crater (Bulletin v. 25, no.
7), volcanic activity was low at both summit craters through October 2000.
Seismicity remained relatively stable except for a slight increase in
amplitudes beginning on 18 September.
During August, activity at the two summit craters was low. Main Crater
gently emitted small-to-moderate volumes of white vapor, while Southern
Crater weakly emitted white vapor. Seismic-event amplitudes steadily
increased throughout the month, though the overall trend remained within
background levels. Daily average event counts were about 1,200, with some
fluctuations. No significant movements were recorded by the water-tube
tiltmeter 4 km SW of the summit.
Activity remained low throughout September, with vapor emissions from both
craters similar to those in August. Seismic amplitudes were steady until 18
September when a slight increase was observed that continued through the
end of the month. Daily average seismic event counts remained steady, with
about 1,300 events/day.
Throughout October both craters emitted varying amounts of white vapor, and
there were no reports of noise or night glow. Seismicity and tilt
measurements appeared to remain at background levels, although consistent
measurements could not be made because scientists did not have access to
the Tabele Observatory during 5-21 October.
Background. The 10-km-wide island of Manam is one of Papua New Guinea's
most active volcanoes. Four large radial valleys extend from the
unvegetated summit of the conical stratovolcano to its lower flanks. These
"avalanche valleys," regularly spaced 90 apart, channel lava flows and
pyroclastic avalanches that have sometimes reached the coast. Five
satellitic centers are located near the island's shoreline. Two summit
craters are present; both are active, although most historical eruptions
have originated from the southern crater, concentrating eruptive products
during the past century into the SE avalanche valley. Frequent historical
eruptions have been recorded since 1616.
Information Contacts: RVO (see Rabaul).




 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 343 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Jan 17, 2001 (15:34) * 68 lines 
 
************************************
MVO weekly report, 8 December 2000
************************************
Montserrat Volcano Observatory
Montserrat, W.I.
Report for the period midday, 1 December 2000 to midday, 8 December 2000

Activity at the Soufrière Hills volcano has remained at an elevated level
this week with continued growth of the lava dome.

The level of seismic activity was comparable to last week. The broadband
seismic network recorded a total of 547 rockfall signals, 1
volcano-tectonic, 72 long period and 15 hybrid earthquakes for the
reporting period.

Clear views of the dome were possible throughout the week. The main focus
of activity remains on the eastern flanks, although some small rockfalls
were seen on the western side of the new growth. The buttress of the
1995-98 dome above Tuitt’s Ghaut is being eroded away and engulfed by the
new dome growth behind. Rockfalls and small pyroclastic flows are now
regularly travelling down the upper reaches of Tuitt’s Ghaut. The notch
between the central and northeastern buttresses of the 1995-98 dome is now
60 m or 200 feet wide. Intense dome glow was seen throughout the week,
both from the east at Jackboy Hill and the west at Salem and Frith’s.
Spines are continuously growing and collapsing on the summit of the dome.
On 5 December, the top of a spine was at a height of 1060 m or 3480 feet,
and the flat top of the main dome was between 1020 and 1030 m height, that
is between 3350 and 3380 feet.

Measurements of sulphur dioxide emissions from the volcano were not
possible this week due to ashy conditions.

Andy Eby and Lizzette Rodriguez from the University of Puerto Rico
continued their collaboration with the MVO this week. Measurements of sites
at Galway’s, Roche’s, St. George’s Hill, Lookout and Reid’s Hill were made
throughout the week. These data continue a long time series of measurements
made by the University of Puerto Rico over the past 5 years in conjunction
with the MVO. Measurements have been made about every 3-4 months during
this period, and provide useful information on the long-term deformation of
the volcano.

Residents of Montserrat and visitors to the island are advised to tune in
to ZJB Radio for up-to-date information on the status of the volcano.
Rockfall and pyroclastic flow activity is likely to remain at a high level
whilst the dome continues to grow, producing ash clouds which may blow over
inhabited areas if winds are from the south or southeast. Elevated levels
of pyroclastic flow activity may develop very rapidly and could affect any
valleys around the volcano. In addition to the risk from pyroclastic flows,
the Belham valley should also be avoided during and after periods of heavy
rain. Ash masks should be worn in ashy conditions or when you disturb ash.
Everyone is reminded that access to Plymouth, Bramble airport and beyond is
prohibited. There is a maritime exclusion zone around the southern part of
the island that extends two miles beyond the coastline from Trant’s Bay in
the east to Garibaldi Hill on the west coast. The daytime entry zone
remains closed.

12 noon, Friday, 8 December 2000

Check out our web pages for recent pictures of the dome, including the
large spine from 17 November.

Dr Gill Norton
Director
Montserrat Volcano Observatory
Mongo Hill
Montserrat
West Indies



 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 344 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Jan 17, 2001 (18:18) * 28 lines 
 
MIYAKEJIMA VOLCANO, South of Tokyo

(Oyama 813 m, 34o04'43"N, 139o31'46"E)

(10/16/00)

According to JMA, Geological Survey of Japan, and Tokyo Institute of Technology, SO2 flux from the craters within the Miyakejima
summit caldera has still continued in high level; 30,000-50,000ton/day. Ash had been emitted continuously in early-September and
intermittently in late-September. The subsidence had not been clear after mid-August, although partial collapses of the northern cliff of
the caldera took place in late-September. A large pyroclastic cone inclined the southern cliff of the caldera, on which steaming craters
are located. The present altitude of the caldera floor is about 230 m according to the laser-distance meter survey from helicopter by
ERI.

As SO2 was too high, the Tokyo Metropolitan government to which the Miyakejima belongs decided that nobody stayed in the
island during night. By the early October, public workers and researchers had stayed in a boat floating near harbors (hotel-ship
system) and landed at the island in daytime. P3C of the Maritime Safety Department watched the activity during the operation. In the
early October, the hotel-ship system also stopped and public workers and researchers commuted by small boats between
Miyakejima and Kozu-shima, the nearest island to the former. Operation was limited along the road running the coastline, for a short
time, only when clear sky, and depending on the direction of the wind.

Electric power was cut when workers of the electric company did not stay in the island, so that most of monitoring equipment was
down in night and cloudy-rainy days. Though Earthquake Research Insatiate, University of Tokyo, and other national institutes kept
the gathering the real-time data, their aims were hardly filled.

Excellent images and great links: http://hakone.eri.u-tokyo.ac.jp/vrc/erup/miyake.html

(thanks Ian...)



 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 345 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Jan 17, 2001 (19:49) * 68 lines 
 
******************************
Mayon Volcano, Philippines
******************************

Subject: Mayon activity continues as of 15 January.

New dome began growing at Mayon on ~8 January. Aerial observations on 10
January found the dome to have a spiny, blocky surface as the crater floor
is being pushed up by the ascending magma. Voluminous steaming, slight
incandescence and heightened SO2 rates are being noted, as well as
increased seismicity. N flank of edifice is inflating. This activity still
ongoing as of 15 January.

Below from: http://www.phivolcs.dost.gov.ph/Volcanoes/Mayon/MayonIndex.html
Mayon Volcano Bulletin
8:00 AM, 12 January 2001
An aerial survey conducted on 10 January with the help of AFP confirmed the
presence of a lava dome inside the summit crater. The lava dome appeared to
have a spiny, blocky surface, which resulted from the crater floor being
pushed upward by magma beneath the crater. The lava dome is emitting
voluminous steaming and is the source of slight incandescence. The Sulfur
Dioxide (SO2) emission rate determined by the PHIVOLCS Correlation
Spectrometer (COSPEC) is 2,300 tonnes per day (t/d), which is way above the
500 t/d output usually observed Mayon's quiescent periods.
Earthquake activity related to lava dome growth remains significant. In the
past 24 hours, fifteen (15) low frequency-type volcanic earthquakes were
detected indicating that magma ascent is still ongoing. For reference, the
usual number of earthquakes recorded during repose is generally less than
five (5) events. Ground deformation being measured by electronic tiltmeters
deployed on the northern flank of the cone continues to report ongoing
tilting, also signifying intrusion of magma into the upper levels of the
volcano.
The above observations strongly suggest that magmatic ascent is in
progress. PHIVOLCS reminds the public that Alert Level 2 remains in effect.
A full-scale eruption, however, is still not evident because the trend in
monitored parameters have not yet attained critical levels. The six (6)
kilometer radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ) must therefore be off-limits
at all times because sudden explosions may occur as a result of hot lava
deposits in the crate area encountering groundwater. Visits within the PDZ
are also prohibited, especially treks to the summit area. PHIVOLCS also
suggests that residents near major river channels be extra alert against
possible volcanic mudflows, landslides and rockfalls that may result from
volcanic debris deslodged or eroded from the upper slopes.

PHIVOLCS
--------
Mayon Volcano Bulletin
8:00 AM, 15 January 2001
Earthquake activity generally remained at higher-than-usual levels. The
Mayon seismic network detected forty-seven (47) low frequency-type volcanic
earthquakes on 13 January and seismicity has been significantly high since
the lava dome was observed on 08 January.
Electronic tiltmeters deployed on the northern flank of the volcano
indicates sustained inflation of the edifice. This is corroborated by the
above-normal Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) outputs that were recorded in the past
week. These observations could be an indication of a magmatic intrusion.
Steaming activity was noted to be vigorous since the appearance of the lava
dome and crater glow was still visible at Intensity 1 (perceptible only
with the aid of a telescope). However, thick rain clouds obscured most of
the volcano since 14 January up to this writing.
Alert Level 2, which means sustained unrest with indications of magmatic
activity remains in effect. PHIVOLCS reminds the public to avoid the six
(6) kilometer-radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ) and that treks near the
summit is prohibited. Residents near river channels that originate from the
volcano are advised to be always aware of lahars, which may form during
heavy rains.
PHIVOLCS



 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 346 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Jan 19, 2001 (14:34) * 37 lines 
 
*****************************************
University of Hawai'i faculty position
*****************************************
From: Mike Garcia

Faculty Position in Volcanology
The University of Hawai'i Department of Geology & Geophysics, School of
Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST) invites applications for a
tenure-track faculty position in the general area of volcanology.
We are seeking candidates to augment and complement current department
research in igneous petrology, geochemistry and volcanology. Applicants
with expertise in quantification of magmatic processes (including melting
and magma transport, magma chamber and conduit processes, eruption
dynamics, and geochemical cycles) are especially encouraged to apply.
The successful applicants will join a large, dynamic research group and
will be expected to interact with numerous other Earth scientists within
SOEST. We expect to fill positions at the Assistant Professor level but
exceptional candidates at more advanced levels will be considered. Starting
salaries for these 9-month appointments will be dependent on qualifications
and experience. The successful candidates will be expected to develop
outstanding research programs, and to teach at the graduate and
undergraduate levels. Requirements for both positions include a PhD in
geology or related fields, and evidence of scientific research excellence
and teaching ability. Rank to be determined by qualifications and
experience. The anticipated starting date is August 2001, subject to
position clearance.
Applicants should send a curriculum vitae, a list of publications, a
summary of research and teaching interests, and addresses, phone-numbers
and email of three or more references to Volcanology Search, Department of
Geology and Geophysics, University of Hawaii, 1680 East-West Road,
Honolulu, Hawaii 96822 USA. Recruitment will continue until the positions
are filled.
To ensure full consideration applications should be sent immediately. The
search committee has already began to review applications. Information
about the Department can be found at website: www.soest.hawaii.edu/GG/.




 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 347 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Jan 21, 2001 (15:12) * 72 lines 
 
************************************
Indonesia update, 9-15 January 2001
************************************

The Volcanological Survey of Indonesia reports that for the week of 9-15
January Merapi showed a much higher level of activity and the Alert Status
was raised to 3 on the 10th. There are ash plumes, lava avalanches and
pyroclastic flows (to 4km in length). The avalanches and pyroclastic flows
are nearly continuous. Minor explosions occurred at Inelika (Flores
Island), increased activity at Java's Semeru (explosions and avalanches),
minor explosion at Api Siau, ongoing minor ash emissions at Lokon-Empung
were also noted in this report.
Following from: http://www.vsi.dpe.go.id/news/index.html

Weekly Report No. 598

9-15 January 2001

Merapi
Central Java; 7°32.5' S, 110°26.5' E
Merapi actiity is ongoing and higher than previously, and the level has
changed to level 3 since 10 January at 06.00 o'clock. It was represents
from both visual and instrumental monitoring.
Visual observations noted, ash plume was commonly in white thin-thick
color, low in pressure, rose 500 m height above the summit. Glowing lava
avalanche is continuing, flowed to the upstream of River Sat, Lamat and
Senowo. The total runout length was 2000 m. Pyroclastic flow occurred 29
events on 14 January 2001 and filled River Sat, Lamat and Senowo with the
maximum distance about 4000 m. During this week glowing lava avalanche and
pyroclastic flow occurred continuously with the interval of 0.5 - 1 hours.
Merapi volcano is in level 3.

Inelika
Central Flores; 8°44' S, 120°59' E
Minor explosion occurred on 11 January 2001 at 19.15 WITA (local time).
This explosion produced ash material which has the thickness less than 0.5
mm in Bajawa (about 8 km from the source). With the increasing activity
since 11 January 2001 Inelika is stated in level 3.
On 13 January 2001 at 07.00 WITA was seen 3 events of explosion. Ash
explosion hit about 300-1000 m height above crater rim. This product has
been blown eastward to the Toa village and southward to the Boya village,
Bajawa and Bolodio city. Thundering sound was heard from post observatory
(about 7.5 km to the summit). The color of ash is white thick.
Seismograph recorded continuous tremor earthquake with the amplitude of 2
mm and 59 events of explosion earthquake during the period. The amplitude
of explosion earthquake is 2-14 mm.
Inelika volcano is in level 3.

Semeru
East Java; 8°6.50' S, 112°55' E
There is significant increasing in seismicity, especially in deep volcanic
(A) earthquake. Total seismicity during the report were: 29 event of deep
volcanic (A), 1 event of shallow volcanic (B), explosion 693 events,
avalanche 80 events, and 4 events of tectonic earthquake.
The alert level of Semeru volcano is in level 2.

Karangetang
Siau island; 2°47' N, 125°29' E
One event of minor explosion occurred on 10 January, produced ash which
felt into the crater. Here is a list of seismicity: deep volcanic (A) 7
events, multiphase 5 events, explosion 1 event, tectonic 89 events.
Karangetang volcano is in level 2.

Lokon
North Sulawesi; 1°21.5' N, 124°47.5' E
Based on visual and instrumental observations there is no substantial
change in Lokon volcano. Ash plume from crater rose 50-200 m height.
Seismograph is continuing to record uncontinuous tremor which has 0.5-6 mm
amplitude. Complete data were listed as follow: 12 events of deep volcanic
(A), 22 events of shallow volcanic (B), 27 events of tectonic earthquake
and uncontinuous tremor earthquake.
Lokon volcano is in level 2.


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 348 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Jan 23, 2001 (00:00) * 22 lines 
 
Mexico Volcano Spews Huge Column of Ash, Smoke

MEXICO CITY (Reuters) - Mexico's Popocatepetl volcano, whose
December eruptions forced the evacuation of 41,000 villagers, on
Monday spewed an five-mile column of ash and smoke skyward,
authorities said.
"It's a huge mushroom cloud," said Carlos Valdez, an official with the
National Disaster Prevention Center.
The outburst blackened the sky over Puebla, a city of about two million
about 25 miles east of "Popo," as most Mexicans call the 17,884-foot
volcano.
The huge column also dominated the afternoon skyline in
Mexico City, home to some 18 million residents and located just 40
miles from the volcano.
But unlike December's eruptions, there were no showers of molten rock
from the volcano.
Evacuated villagers returned home shortly before the New Year and
there were no new evacuations immediately planned due to Monday's
activity, officials said.
However, residents were warned to keep outside of a 7.5-mile radius of
Popocatepetl (pronounced poh-poh-kah-TEH-peh-til), whose name
means "smoking mountain" in the indigenous Nahuatl tongue.


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 349 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Jan 24, 2001 (23:02) * 123 lines 
 
***********************
Popocatepetl, Mexico
***********************
From: Dan Shackelford
Subject: Strong eruption at Popocatepetl with pyroclastic flows.

(http://www.cenapred.unam.mx/boletines.html)

JAN 22 22:15 (04:15 Jan 22 GMT)
After a period of several weeks of quietness, today, in the afternoon,
Popocatepelt volcano increased its activity levels. At 14:58 a volcano
tectonic earthquake of magnitude 2.8 was detected on the East flank. The
event was possobly the precursor of a large exhalation that started at
16:15, producing an ash plume that reached several kilometers of height.

At 16:23 a more explosive phase was observed, and some incandescent
fragmets were ejected, and fell around the crater. After several minutes
several piroclastic flows were generated, and came down in several ravines
up to 4-6 Km. These flows, were visible in the North flank using our video
camera.

(EGO)
It is recommended not to approach the volcano to less than 12 km from the
crater.
The traffic light of volcanic alert remains yellow-3.

***********************
Mayon, Philippines
***********************
From: Dan Shackelford
Subject: Mayon restlessness persists.

Following a two day lull in seismicity, Mayon returned to higher seismic
levels on 18-19 January, reflecting continued inflation and summit lava
dome activity. SO2 was measured at 1700 tonnes/day on the 17th.

From: http://www.phivolcs.dost.gov.ph/vmepd/updates/mv010901.htm

Mayon Volcano Bulletin

12:00 NN 19 January 2001
After a brief respite in earthquake activity during the past two (2) days,
the monitoring network again recorded high seismic levels. Thirty-six (36)
low frequency-type volcanic earthquakes occurred in the past 24 hours,
which is probably caused by continued magma movement beneath the summit
lava dome. Tiltmeter records continue to show the inflationary trend
brought about by magma intrusion into shallow levels of the volcanic cone.
However, because of the prolonged rain and cloud cover during the past
week, dome activity could not be confirmed by visuals. The latest Sulfur
Dioxide output measured on 17 January was 1,700 tonnes per day, which is
higher than the background level and also reflects the restive state of the
volcano.

Alert Level 2, which means sustained unrest with indication of magmatic
activity remains in effect. PHIVOLCS reminds the public to avoid the
six(6)-kilometer radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ). In addition, treks
near the summit are prohibited due to possible sudden phreatic or
steam-driven explosions from the summit crater. Residents near river
channels that originate from the volcano are also advised to be always
aware of lahars, which may form during heavy rains.

PHIVOLCS

***********************
Santa Ana, El Salvador
***********************
It appears that there was no Santa Ana in El Salvador,

From: Alain Bernard
Subject: No Santa Ana eruption

Dear Volcanophiles,
There is no eruption of Santa Ana only an intensification of the
degassing from an active fumarolic area close to the crater lake.

Concern about health hazards due to an increase in the emission of
volcanic gases from Santa Ana was recently reported in the local
newspaper El diario de Hoy on January 12 (so one day before the
major quake). The archives can be consulted at
http://www.elsalvador.com/noticias/EDICIONESANTERIORES/

On January 18, Jim Vallance, Carlos Pullinger and Demetrio
Escobar flew over the volcano and found no evidence of new lava
inside the crater. The small crater lake (200m in diameter) was still
observed. Only glowing rocks were observed in the fumarolic field
due to relatively high temperature (523C in January 2000) of the
fumaroles.
see http://www.laprensa.com.sv/nacionales/nac7.asp

Changes in the degassing activity of Santa Ana was first reported
by Demetrio who observed an increase in the degassing in May
2000. At that time,the temperature of the lake rose from 18-19 to
30C.

Analyses of lake waters collected in July and August showed only a
slight increase in chlorides and sulfates but no change in pH (0.9)
or in Delta 34S compared to January 2000.

A. Bernard
Alain Bernard
BRUEGEL (Brussels Unit for Environmental,
Geochemical and Life Sciences Studies)
Université Libre de Bruxelles
160/02
50, Ave. Roosevelt
1050 Brussels Belgium
Ph:32/2/6502253
FAX:32/2/6502243
email: abernard@ulb.ac.be
-----
Subject: No eruption at Santa Ana

I learned late this weekend that there was NOT an eruption at Santa Ana
volcano in El Salvador. See the following URLs:

http://www.elsalvador.com/noticias/NACIONAL/nacio42.html (with a nice pic
of the crater and NEW fumarolic area)

Also: http://www.laprensa.com.sv/nacionales/nac1.asp
(There are places on the web that will translate for you ... I use
http://www.worldlingo.com or http://translator.go.com usually)




 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 350 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Jan 24, 2001 (23:04) * 99 lines 
 
*****************************************************
Updates for Indonesian volcanoes, 16-22 January 2001
*****************************************************
From: Dan Shackelford

For the week of 16-22 January, Merapi volcano continued its trend of
increasing activity, marked by numerous pyroclastic flows, lava avalanches
and incandescent lava flows. Along with heightened seismic levels, a new
lava dome ("lava Dome 2001") has formed on the summit in the shattered
remnants of Dome 1998. Also during this week, remote Flores Island volcano
Inielika continued to erupt ash to 1,000m from two vents within the crater
(NW-SE line), while Api Siau (Karangetang) experienced a minor explosion on
the 17th and lava avalanches occurred as well. Lokon-Empung showed
increased earthquake activity and an ash plume to 250m. The infamous Kelut
volcano showed increasing lake temperatures and inflation, prompting an
increase to Level 2 (alert level) on the 19th.

Source: http://www.vsi.dpe.go.id/news/index.html

Weekly Report No. 599

16-22 January 2001

Merapi
Central Java; 7°32.5' S, 110°26.5' E
Activity on merapi volcano is continuing and increase. That was represents
from visual and instrumental monitoring. Visual observation from many post
observatory showed that the active Merapi continued to erupt produced many
pyroclastic flow, ash, glowing lava flow and lava avalanche. This eruption
tend to increase, was marked with an increasing of seismicity, especially
in avalanche and multiphase earthquakes. Pyroclastic flow occurred
continuously more than 20 events per day traveled to the River Sat
(upstream of River Putih), Senowo, and Bebeng. The maximum distance is 4500
m to the River Sat and 3000 m to the River Bebeng. Glowing lava avalanche
activity has increased substantially this week traveled to the River Sat,
Senowo, and Bebeng as far as 3500 m, and suggested sourcing from many
point. Observer also noted that glowing lava avalanche occurred more than
150 events a day. They also noted that has growth a new lava dome which
called "Lava Dome 2001" on Merapi summit which lay on lava dome 1998 which
has broken few days before. The growing of the new lava dome is ongoing and
showed glowing around the dome at night sight. Pyroclastic flow which
occurred recently predicted sourcing from the new unstable dome. Ash rain
occurred surround Babadan, Ngepos and Kaliurang.
During the week solfatara is in white-thick color, medium-high pressure,
rose 850-1300 m height, and an average is about 95 ton/day. EDM measurement
could not be done because the reflector covered by ash. Seismograph
recorded 226 events of multiphase, 683 events of avalanche, 139 events of
pyroclastic flow and 2 events of tectonic earthquake.
Merapi volcano is in level 3.

Inelika
Central Flores; 8°44' S, 120°59' E
Ash explosion is ongoing reached 100-1000 m above crater rim. Observation
to the crater by VSI staffs on 21 January 2001 noted has occurred 2 new big
crater trending to southeast and northwest. Southeast crater has a hole
with diameter about 50 m and 10 m depth. The bottom of the crater has 25 m
of diameter and has closed. Ash plume appear from northern wall crater,
blew away to the south, low-high pressure. Around the crater was heard a
noising sound. The northwest crater has 20 m of diameter opened to the
northwest with the depth is 1.10 m. Ash plume eject vertically, and the
bottom of the crater has closed. Solfatara smelt low and was heard a low
noising sound. Material explosion contains ash and lapili. Ash is in light
grey color, felt around the crater with radius is about 10-20 m. Maximum
diameter of lapili is 50 cm. Lapili felt around the crater, the distance
about 500 m. Solfatara temperatur is 95°C, meanwhile ground temperatur near
solfata location is 89°C.
Inelika volcano is in level 3.

Karangetang
Siau island; 2°47' N, 125°29' E
On 17 January (08.45 WITA) has occurred a minor explosion produced ash and
lava avalanche. Ash felt down around Salili and Beong village, meanwhile
lava avalanche flowed to the east and west. Here is a list of seismicity:
deep volcanic (A) 8 events, 3 events of shallow volcanic (B), multiphase 9
events, explosion 1 event, tectonic 84 events, and 16 events of tremor
earthquake.
Karangetang volcano is in level 2.

Lokon
North Sulawesi; 1°21.5' N, 124°47.5' E
No major change was shown in Lokon volcano. White thin-thick ash plume rose
50-250 m above the crater. Seismograph recorded an increasing earthquake
especially in volcanic earthquake. Complete data were listed as follow: 77
events of deep volcanic (A), 62 events of shallow volcanic (B), 35 events
of tectonic earthquake and uncontinuous tremor earthquake with the
amplitude of 0.5-2.6 mm.
Lokon volcano is in level 2.

Kelut
East Java;7°56' S, 112°18.5' E
Kelut indicating an increasing activity during the period and since 19
January 2001 the alert level was changed from level 1 (normal active) to
the level 2. An increasing marked with an increasing of water crater lake
temperature, is about 47.5-49.1°C. Meanwhile the temperature average near
inlet is 47.5°C. Leveling measurement showed an inflation about 5.5-6 mm,
and on 21 January water level increased 5 cm. During the period seismograph
recorded 20 events of tectonic earthquake.




 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 351 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Jan 24, 2001 (23:06) * 59 lines 
 
*************************************
Scientific and Hazards Assessment -
Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat
*************************************
From: Dr Gill Norton

Subject: Preliminary statement from Risk and Hazard Assessment meeting,
Montserrat, 18 January 2001

SCIENTIFIC AND HAZARDS ASSESSMENT OF THE SOUFRIERE HILLS VOLCANO, MONTSERRAT

Preliminary Statement (18 January 2001)

The Soufrière Hills Volcano has entered into a second episode of prolonged
and vigorous dome growth. Since November 1999 the dome has grown at an
average rate of nearly 3 cubic metres per second. Growth was interrupted on
20 March 2000 by a major dome collapse, but otherwise growth has been
continuous. The dome is now at its largest size since the eruption began in
1995. It now has a total volume of over 120 million cubic metres and an
elevation of over 1000 metres above sea level.
For several months the direction of dome growth has been predominantly
towards the east with typically hundreds of rockfalls occurring per week,
mainly down the side of the dome towards the Tar River. This is the
configuration at the time of this statement. Further collapses and
pyroclastic flows are anticipated and are most likely to move down the Tar
River. These are unlikely to pose a direct threat to areas outside the
Exclusion Zone, but might result in ash fall in populated areas. Given the
present configuration of the dome, the risk to populated areas on
Montserrat is considered very low. However, in the event of a shift in the
direction of dome growth towards the north or west, as has happened in the
past, this would immediately make the Belham Valley an area of high risk.
Such a shift could happen at any time, over a period of a few hours to
days. Under such circumstances, the areas bordering the Belham Valley would
become vulnerable to pyroclastic flow hazards. If the main direction of
dome growth then persists towards the northern sector, other areas south of
the Nantes River might become vulnerable.
Observations of dome growth rates, seismicity and gas release rates
indicate that the volcano is now in a period of sustained eruption and it
is unlikely that the eruption will cease within the next 6 months. The most
likely prognosis is for at least a few more years of this type of activity.
However, there are increasing indications that the Soufrière Hills Volcano
is evolving into a persistently active state and may continue to erupt,
either continuously or intermittently, for an even longer time. Further
activity of the kind experienced in 1995-1998, including dome collapses,
pyroclastic flows, explosive activity, ash fall, and mudflows in periods of
high rainfall, is likely.

Dr Gill Norton
Director
Montserrat Volcano Observatory
Mongo Hill
Montserrat
West Indies
ph: +1-664-491-5647
fax: +1-664-491-2423
email1: gill@mvomrat.com
email2: gen@bgs.ac.uk
email3: gillnorton@yahoo.com



 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 352 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Feb  1, 2001 (18:48) * 281 lines 
 
Date: Wed, 31 Jan 2001 09:51:51 +0000
From: Lisa Koenig
Subject: GVP/USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report 24-30 Jan 2001
Sender: VOLCANO
X-Sender: lkoenig@imap4.asu.edu
Approved-by: Lisa Koenig
To: VOLCANO@asu.edu
Reply-to: VOLCANO
X-Mailer: QUALCOMM Windows Eudora Light Version 3.0.6 (32)

******************************************
GVP/USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report
24-30 Jan 2001
******************************************
From: Gari Mayberry

Weekly Volcanic Activity Report
24-30 January 2001



New Activity/Unrest: | Fuji, Japan | Mayon, Philippines | Merapi, Indonesia |

Ongoing Activity: | Etna, Italy | Kilauea, USA | Popocatépetl, México |
Shiveluch, Kamchatka | Soufrière Hills, Montserrat |


New Activity

FUJI Honshu, Japan 35.35°N, 138.73°E; summit elev. 3,776 m

According to a Reuters article from 29 January, the high number of
low-frequency earthquakes that were recorded at Fuji over the past several
months (133 in October, 222 in November, and 144 in December) decreased to
36 in January.

Background. The conical form of Fuji-san, Japan's highest and most noted
volcano, belies its complex origin. The modern postglacial stratovolcano is
constructed above a group of overlapping volcanoes, remnants of which form
irregularities on Fuji's profile. Growth of the Younger Fuji volcano began
with a period of voluminous lava flows from 11,000 to 8,000 years before
present (BP), accounting for four-fifths of the volume of the Younger Fuji
volcano. During the late Holocene, summit eruptions dominated from 3,000
to 2,000 BP, after which flank vents were active. The extensive basaltic
lava flows from the summit and some of the more than 100 flank cones and
vents blocked drainages against the Tertiary Misaka Mountains on the N side
of the volcano, forming the Fuji Five Lakes, popular resort destinations.
The last eruption of this dominantly basaltic volcano in 1707 was Fuji's
largest during historical time. It deposited ash on Edo (Tokyo) and formed
a large new crater on the east flank.

Source: Reuters,
http://www.enn.com/news/wire-stories/2001/01/01292001/reu_fuji_41678.asp
Fuji Reports
from
the monthly Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network


MAYON southeastern Luzon, Philippines 13.257°N, 123.685°E; summit elev.
2,462 m

PHIVOLCS reported that the increase in volcanic activity, which has
occurred since a lava dome was spotted in Mayon’s summit crater on 10
January, led them to raise the Alert Level from 2 to 3 (an increased
tendency towards eruption, with magmatic outbursts possible within the
coming weeks) on 25 January. During the previous week the monitoring
networks had detected numerous volcanic earthquakes, continued inflation at
the edifice, and very high gas emission from the summit crater (5,040
metric tons per day). In addition, several ash ejections coincided with
earthquakes that originated from beneath the lava dome, which appeared to
grow during the week. The ash-laden volcanic plumes typically rose up to
500 m above the crater and generally drifted with the prevailing wind to
the WNW and NW.

Background. The beautifully symmetrical Mayon volcano, which rises to 2,462
m above the Albay Gulf, is the Philippines' most active volcano. The
structurally simple volcano has steep upper slopes that average 35-40° and
is capped by a small summit crater. The historical eruptions of this
basaltic-andesitic volcano date back to 1616 and range from Strombolian to
basaltic Plinian. Eruptions occur predominately from the central conduit
and have also produced lava flows that travel far down the flanks.
Pyroclastic flows and mudflows have commonly swept down many of the
approximately 40 ravines that radiate from the summit and have often
devastated populated lowland areas. Mayon's most violent eruption, in 1814,
killed more than 1,200 people and buried an entire town in volcanic mud.
Eruptions that began in February 2000 led PHIVOLCS to recommend the
evacuation of people within 7 km of the summit in the SE and within 6 km
for the rest of the volcano on 23 February.

Sources: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology
http://www.phivolcs.dost.gov.ph/vmepd/vmepd.htm
Associated Press
http://dailynews.yahoo.com/h/ap/20010126/wl/philippines_volcano_2.html
Mayon Reports
from
the monthly Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network


MERAPI central Java, Indonesia 7.542°S, 110.442°E; summit elev. 2,947 m

An Associated Press article from 25 January reported that ash mixed with
rain fell on the village of Deres on the flanks of the volcano. Activity
reportedly increased slightly on 25 January.

Background. Merapi, one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes, lies in one
of the world's most densely populated areas and dominates the landscape
immediately N of the major city of Yogyakarta. The steep-sided modern
Merapi edifice, its upper part unvegetated due to frequent eruptive
activity, was constructed to the SW of an arcuate scarp cutting the eroded
older Batulawang volcano. Pyroclastic flows and lahars accompanying growth
and collapse of the steep-sided active summit lava dome have devastated
cultivated and inhabited lands on the volcano's western-to-southern flanks
and caused many fatalities during historical time. The volcano is the
object of extensive monitoring efforts by the Merapi Volcano Observatory
(MVO) of the Volcanological Survey of Indonesia.

Source: Associated Press
http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/aponline/20010125/aponline053616_000.htm
Merapi reports
from
the monthly Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network


Ongoing Activity

ETNA Sicily, Italy 37.73°N, 15.00°E; summit elev. 3,315 m

POSEIDON reported that during 22-28 January, eruptive activity at Etna was
dominated by modest, intermittent lava flows that were emitted from the
radial fracture on the N flank of the Southeast Crater. The Bocca Nuova
Crater mostly produced ash-and-gas emissions during the beginning of the
report period, but they decreased near the end of the period. At night,
weak Strombolian activity was observed inside the crater. Limited gas
emissions were released from the Northeast and Voragine craters.

Background. Mount Etna, towering above Catania, Sicily's second largest
city, has one of the world's longest documented records of historical
volcanism, dating back to 1500 BC. Historical lava flows cover much of the
surface of this massive basaltic stratovolcano, the highest and most
voluminous in Italy. Two styles of eruptive activity typically occur at
Etna. Persistent explosive eruptions, sometimes with minor lava emissions,
take place from one or more of the three prominent summit craters: Central
Crater, NE Crater, and SE Crater. Flank eruptions, typically with higher
effusion rates, occur less frequently and originate from fissures that open
progressively downward from near the summit. A period of more intense
intermittent explosive eruptions from Etna’s summit craters began in 1995.

Source: Sistema Poseidon http://www.poseidon.nti.it/IndexDinamiche.htm
Etna Reports
from
the monthly Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network


KILAUEA Hawaii, USA 19.43°N, 155.29°W; summit elev. 1,222 m

Surface lava flow activity on Pulama pali gradually declined during 27 and
28 January, with only two flows near the E and W sides of the flow field.
By 29 January, the area where lava entered the ocean was relatively large
and a small bench (land built out from the sea cliff) was being
constructed. Overall, volcanic tremor near Pu`u `O`o and in Kilauea`s
caldera was at low-to-moderate levels. Tiltmeters in the summit area and
along the east rift zone showed no deformation.

Background. Kilauea, one of five coalescing volcanoes that comprise the
island of Hawaii, is one of the world’s most active volcanoes.
Historically its eruptions originate primarily from the summit caldera or
along one of the lengthy E and SW rift zones that extend from the caldera
to the sea. The latest Kilauea eruption began in January 1983 along the E
rift zone. The Pu`u `O`o-Kupaianaha eruption is now in its 18th year and
55th eruptive episode. Since 1986, flows have traveled 11-12 km from the
vents to the sea, paving about 80 km2 of land on the S flank of Kilauea and
building 205 hectares of new land.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory
http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/kilauea/update/
Kilauea Reports

from the monthly Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network


POPOCATEPETL México 19.02°N, 98.62°W; summit elev. 5,426 m; All times are
local (= GMT 6 hours)

During the week several small-to-moderate sized eruptions occurred, with
light ashfall reported in two towns and a pyroclastic flow stopping 8 km
short of a town. The Washington VAAC reported that on 25 January an ash
plume, which was produced by rockfall activity, rose to ~7 km a.s.l and was
visible on GOES-8 imagery. According to CENAPRED, at 1338 on the same day
an exhalation produced an ash cloud that rose to 3 km above the volcano and
blew to the NW, depositing ash in San Pedro Nexapa, ~15 away. A minor
eruption at 1212 on 27 January produced an ash cloud that rose to 6.4 km
a.s.l. and blew to the NE, depositing light ash in the town of Santiago
Xalitzintla, ~15 km from the volcano. An ash-and-steam eruption at 1155 on
28 January produced an ash cloud that that rose to 7 km and blew to the NE.
Based on information from the Mexico City MWO, the Washington VAAC reported
that an eruption occurred at 1104 on 29 January. A pilot report stated that
the ash cloud from the eruption rose to ~11.9 km a.s.l., while CENAPRED
reported that the cloud rose to ~8 km a.s.l. and blew to the NE. The
eruption sent pyroclasts out to 1 km from the crater and produced
pyroclastic flows that traveled down the NE flank of the volcano, stopping
8 km before reaching the town of Santiago Xalitzintla. The pyroclastic
flows caused some melting of the summit glacier located primarily on the
upper N and W flanks. The volcano remained at Alert Level Yellow Phase III,
with a 12-km-radius restricted area.

Background. Popocatépetl, whose name is the Aztec word for smoking
mountain, towers to 5,426 m 70 km SE of México City and is North America's
second highest volcano. Frequent historical eruptions have been recorded
since the beginning of the Spanish colonial era. A small eruption on 21
December 1994 ended five decades of quiescence. Since 1996 small lava
domes have incrementally been constructed within the summit crater and
destroyed by explosive eruptions. Intermittent small-to-moderate
gas-and-ash eruptions have continued, occasionally producing ashfall in
neighboring towns and villages.

Photos (CENAPRED site): http://www.cenapred.unam.mx/boletines.html

Sources: Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres
http://www.cenapred.unam.mx/boletines.html
Washington VAAC http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/VAAC/messages.html
Associated Press
http://www0.mercurycenter.com/premium/world/docs/volcano27.htm
Popocatépetl Reports
from
the monthly Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network


SHIVELUCH Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia 56.653°N, 161.360°E; summit elev.
3,283 m; All times are local (= GMT + 12 hours)
KVERT reported that on 21-24 January seismicity was above background levels
and on 20-24 January a gas-and-steam plume rose 50-1,000 m above the
volcano. Shallow earthquakes were registered under the volcano along with
short-lived explosions at 0444 on 22 January and at 0924 on 24 January. The
Concern Color Code
remained at Yellow.

Background. The high, isolated massif of Shiveluch volcano (also spelled
Sheveluch) rises above the lowlands NNE of the Kliuchevskaya volcano group
and forms one of Kamchatka's largest and most active volcanoes. The
currently active Molodoy Shiveluch lava-dome complex was constructed during
the Holocene within a large breached caldera formed by collapse of the
massive late-Pleistocene Strary Shiveluch volcano. At least 60 large
eruptions of Shiveluch have occurred during the Holocene, making it the
most vigorous andesitic volcano of the Kuril-Kamchatka arc. Frequent
collapses of lava-dome complexes, most recently in 1964, have produced
large debris avalanches whose deposits cover much of the floor of the
breached caldera. During the 1990s, intermittent explosive eruptions took
place from a new lava dome that began growing in 1980. The largest
historical eruptions from Shiveluch occurred in 1854 and 1964.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team via the Alaska Volcano
Observatory http://www.avo.alaska.edu/avo3/update/kvert.htm
Shiveluch Reports

from the monthly Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network


SOUFRIERE HILLS Montserrat, West Indies 16.72°N, 62.18°W; summit elev. 1,052 m

Activity at the Soufrière Hills volcano during 19-26 January was lower than
the previous week, although the lava dome exhibited continued growth.
Compared to last week, seismic activity was reduced and the number of
rockfalls more than halved. Activity continued to be concentrated on the SE
side of the lava dome, with a large slabby lobe extruded above the Tar
River Valley, which is to the E of the volcano.

Background. The complex andesitic Soufriere Hills volcano occupies the
southern half of the island of Montserrat. The summit area consists
primarily of a series of lava domes emplaced along an ESE-trending zone.
Non-eruptive seismic swarms occurred at 30-year intervals in the 20th
century, but the first well-documented historical eruption on Montserrat
did not take place until 1995. Long-term small-to-moderate ash eruptions
were accompanied by lava dome growth and pyroclastic flows that initially
forced evacuation of the southern half of the island and then destroyed the
capital city of Plymouth, causing severe social and economic disruption.
The volcano is currently in a period of new dome growth.

Source: Montserrat Volcano Observatory http://www.mvomrat.com/
Soufriere Hills Reports

from the monthly Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network



 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 353 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Feb  2, 2001 (11:30) * 35 lines 
 
*********************
Merapi, Indonesia
*********************
From: Dan Shackelford
Subject: Dome Collapse at Merapi volcano on 28 January.

Partial collapse of Merapi's Lava Dome 2001 on 28 January 2001 led to
continuous pyroclastic flows and lava avalanches at 2-5 minute intervals
down the SW and W flanks for up to 4.5km. Increased activity began on 27
January. Thick ash plumes rose to 2000m above the summit, with thunderings.
This increased activity still persisting as of the 31 January report.

From: http://www.vsi.dpe.go.id/news/index.html (31 January 2001)

Merapi Update

31 January 2001

Merapi
Central Java; 7°32.5' S, 110°26.5' E
Merapi lava dome 2001 collapsed partially on Sunday, 28 January, 2001
resulting pyroclastic flow and molten lava avalanche which occured
continuously, with interval about 2-5 menits. Lava and pyroclastic flow
material entering to the River Sat in the southwest, Senowo in the westward
and Bebeng in southwest. The maximum runout is about 4500 m to the River
Sat. The eruption resulted ashfalls in 5 districts surround Merapi, i.e.:
Dukun, Srumbung, Salam, Ngluwar and Muntilan with the radius about 15-20
km. An increasing activity began on Saturday night (27 January at 00.00
local time), marked with continuous pyroclastic flow and molten lava
avalanche as long as 2 hours respectively. Eruption thick ash with strong
sulphurous smelt thundering about 2000 m above the summit. Until the
report, Merapi activity is ongoing and higher.
Merapi volcano is in level 3.




 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 354 of 997: Neil Hodgins  (ThinkingManNeil) * Wed, Feb  7, 2001 (09:53) * 37 lines 
 
Unusual Thermal Activity at Rotorua, NZ

January 26 eruption at Kuirau Park, Rotorua

Notes and comments from BJ Scott. (images below)

These notes and comments are based on a visit on Friday evening, and again on Monday.

On Friday 26 January about 3.30 to 3.40 PM NZDT, a muddy hot pool 2.5-3m diameter (Spring 721) burst into eruption, generating the largest hydrothermal eruption in Kuirau Park since 1966. The eruption of blocks and mud was to about 100 metres height and produced a thick carpet of blocks and mud to the east, extending over 120m from the vent. The eruption was very directional. Very little ejecta is distributed to the west (may be less than 30m from the vent). Blocks up to about 1m diameter were projected over 50m from vent, while blocks around 0.1m or less diameter landed over 100m away. The crater formed is about 10-12m in diameter.

It was possible to recognise 4 eruption deposits on Friday evening, and this may give some insight into the eruption. These are;

1) A ballistic block bed, the most widely distributed unit. It would appear that this unit is almost entirely formed from Oranui Formation.

2) A basal dark grey mud deposit directed to the east, ranging from about 400mm thick to a trace of only mm at Ranolf Street.

3) An upper, smaller and slightly lighter grey muds deposit. This was also distributed to the east, overlying the basal darker mud. It was smaller in distribution and the dispersal access was a little more to the SE. Thickness appeared to be about 100-150mm at it’s thickest.

4) A dark grey, very liquid hydrothermal mud distributed to the west, onto the adjacent road. This appears to be the contents of Spring 721.

The ballistic blocks appear to be present through almost all of the deposit. That is there are blocks that are clearly on top of all the mud’s, while other blocks are coated by mud with shelter zones on their leeward sides. Based on first impressions the dark grey liquid mud’s where erupted first, to the west. Then the main phase of the eruption commenced, ejecting mud’s and ballistic blocks to the east, this was followed by a smaller mud rich phase (no relationship with ballistics was ascertained), which was followed by a distinct ballistic shower, numerous cm sized blocks are impacted into all the mud’s. The ballistics extend well beyond the mud’s to the NE and its is not clear from first impressions the exact relationship to the mud’s.

Fallout of the mud layers has loaded all the trees and shrubs within the ejecta apron bending and braking many.

Images of the eruption:




Vegetation Damage



Geologist examining explosion crater



Eruption deposit of mud and blocks



Geologist examining block ejecta



Thermal Spring 721--site of the eruption



 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 355 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Feb  7, 2001 (19:55) * 1 lines 
 
Oh Neil - such amazing images. Mahalo Nui Loa!!! More than ever I am content not to live on the Pacific Ring of Fire. *Hugs*


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 356 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Feb  7, 2001 (20:41) * 22 lines 
 
Re: The recent India Earthquake: (thanks Ian!)


from: Noerjadi, Andrea
Sent: 2/8/01 5:02 AM
Subject: Click and Donate for the EarthQuake Relief

There is a site called http://www.causeanaffect.org/ which is paid for by corporate sponsors. Every click on its "Save a life" button will
result in donation of food packets for the victims. It will not cost anything to the people clicking on the site, because corporations are paying for the donations. One click per day is counted for donation.

I would appreciate it if you pass it along to the people in your address book.

Regards-

fr

Yahoo! Groups Sponsor

www.

[earthquake] posts replies to all list recipients. earthquake@yahoogroups.com



 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 357 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Feb 14, 2001 (23:18) * 401 lines 
 
*******************************************
GVP/USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report
7-13 February 2001
*******************************************

GVP/USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report
7-13 February 2001

NEW! World Map Showing Volcanoes Discussed This Week


New Activity/Unrest: | Ijen, Indonesia | Inielika, Indonesia | Kelut,
Indonesia | Lokon-Empung, Indonesia | Mayon, Philippines | Merapi,
Indonesia |

Ongoing Activity: | Guagua Pichincha, Ecuador | Karangetang, Indonesia |
Kilauea, USA | Popocatépetl, México | Shiveluch, Kamchatka | Soufrière
Hills, Montserrat |

New Activity


IJEN eastern Java, Indonesia 8.058°S, 114.242°E; summit elev. 2,386 m

During 30 January to 5 February, seismic activity increased at Ijen
volcano. This increase was marked by a large number of shallow volcanic
earthquakes (75). In addition, 2 small explosion events, 6 tectonic events,
and 2 tremor earthquakes occurred. The volcano is at Alert Level 2 (on a
scale of 1-4).

Background. The Ijen volcano complex consists of a group of small
stratovolcanoes constructed within the large 20-km-wide Ijen (Kendeng)
caldera. The N caldera wall forms a prominent arcuate ridge, but elsewhere
the caldera rim is buried by post-caldera volcanoes, including Gunung
Merapi stratovolcano, which forms the 2,799 m high point of the Ijen
complex. Immediately W of Gunung Merapi is the renowned historically
active Kawah Ijen volcano, which contains a nearly 1-km-wide,
turquoise-colored, acid crater lake. The picturesque lake is the site of a
labor-intensive sulfur mining operation, in which sulfur-laden baskets are
hand-carried from the crater floor. A half dozen small-to-moderate
phreatic eruptions have taken place from Kawah Ijen during the 20th century.

Source: Volcanological Survey of Indonesia
http://www.vsi.dpe.go.id/news/index.html
More Ijen Reports <
http://www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/volcano/region06/java/ijen/var.htm> from the
monthly Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network


INIELIKA central Flores, Indonesia 8.73°S, 120.98°E; summit elev. 1,559 m

During 6-11 February, Inielika volcano remained active and the VSI reported
no significant change in volcanic activity. An ash plume was observed
rising 25-500 m above the volcano and there was a slight increase in the
number of deep volcanic earthquakes in comparison to the previous week. The
Alert Level at the volcano was reduced from 3 to 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Background. Inielika is a broad, low volcano in central Flores Island that
was constructed within the Lobobutu caldera.The complex summit of the
volcano contains ten craters, some of which are lake filled, in a 5-sq-km
area. The largest of these craters, Wolo Runu and Wolo Lega North, are 750
m wide. The first historical eruption of Inielika, a phreatic explosion
that formed a new crater, did not occur until 1905, and was the volcano's
only eruption during the 20th century.

Source: Volcanological Survey of Indonesia,
http://www.vsi.dpe.go.id/news/index.html
No past reports


KELUT Java, Indonesia 7.93°S, 112.31°E; summit elev. 1,731 m

VSI scientists found that the temperature of Kelut’s crater lake had
increased and its pH dropped as follows. During 29 January to 7 February
the lake’s temperature ranged from 50.1 °C to 51 °C, compared with 47.5 °C
on 18 January and 38.5 °C on 8 January. On 7 February the pH of the water
was 5, compared with measurements of 6.3 in January 2001 and 6.9 in
November 2000. The volcano remained at Alert Level 2 (ranging from 1-4).

Background. The relatively inconspicuous 1,731-m-high Kelut stratovolcano
contains a summit crater lake that has been the source of some of
Indonesia's most deadly eruptions. A cluster of summit lava domes cut by
numerous craters has given the summit a very irregular profile. More than
30 eruptions have been recorded from Gunung Kelut since 1000 AD. The
ejection of water from the crater lake during Kelut's typically short, but
violent eruptions has created pyroclastic flows and lahars that have caused
widespread fatalities and destruction. After more than 5,000 people were
killed during the 1919 eruption, an ambitious engineering project sought to
drain the crater lake. This initial effort lowered the lake by more than 50
m, but the 1951 eruption deepened the crater by 70 m, leaving 50 million
cubic meters of water after repair of the damaged drainage tunnels. After
more than 200 people were killed in the 1966 eruption, a new deeper tunnel
was constructed, lowering the lake's volume to only about 1 million cubic
meters prior to the 1990 eruption.

Source: Volcanological Survey of Indonesia,
http://www.vsi.dpe.go.id/news/index.html
Kelut Reports
from
the monthly Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network


LOKON-EMPUNG northern Sulawesi, Indonesia 1.36°N, 124.79°E; summit elev.
1,580 m

After explosions occurred on 28 January, volcanic activity decreased.
During 30 January to 5 February an ash plume was observed rising 200-350 m
above the volcano. The seismograph on the volcano broke on 30 January. The
volcano remained at Alert Level 3 (on a scale of 1-4).

Background. The twin volcanoes Lokon and Empung, rising about 800 m above
the plain of Tondano, are among the most active volcanoes of Sulawesi.
Lokon, the higher of the two peaks (whose summits are only 2.2 km apart)
has a flat, craterless top. The morphologically younger Empung volcano has
a 400-m-wide, 150-m-deep crater that erupted last in the 18th century, but
all subsequent eruptions have originated from Tompaluan, a 150 x 250 m wide
double crater situated in the saddle between the two peaks. Historical
eruptions have primarily produced small-to-moderate ash plumes that have
occasionally damaged croplands and houses, but lava-dome growth and
pyroclastic flows have also occurred.

Source: Volcanological Survey of Indonesia,
http://www.vsi.dpe.go.id/news/index.html
Lokon-Empung Reports

from the monthly Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network


MAYON southeastern Luzon, Philippines 13.257°N, 123.685°E; summit elev.
2,462 m

The PHIVOLCS reported that volcanic activity remained high at Mayon.
Abundant low-frequency volcanic earthquakes associated with dome growth
took place on 7, 8, 9, 11, and 12 February and consisted of 29, 30, 29, 45,
and 30 events, respectively. Also on 12 February seismometers detected 2
rockfalls. The crater emitted voluminous steam and sulfur, with a maximum
of ~7,100 metric tons of SO2 detected on 12 February. Tiltmeters on the
volcano’s N flank continued to detect slight edifice inflation. On 11
February, PHIVOLCS reported that most of the springs in the E and S
quadrants of the volcano showed a decrease in discharge, despite increasing
rainfall. Inclement weather prevented observations of the volcano. Mayon
remained at Alert Level 3 (on a scale of 0-5).

Background. The beautifully symmetrical Mayon volcano, which rises to 2,462
m above the Albay Gulf, is the Philippines' most active volcano. The
structurally simple volcano has steep upper slopes that average 35-40° and
is capped by a small summit crater. The historical eruptions of this
basaltic-andesitic volcano date back to 1616 and range from Strombolian to
basaltic Plinian. Eruptions occur predominately from the central conduit
and have also produced lava flows that travel far down the flanks.
Pyroclastic flows and mudflows have commonly swept down many of the
approximately 40 ravines that radiate from the summit and have often
devastated populated lowland areas. Mayon's most violent eruption, in 1814,
killed more than 1,200 people and buried an entire town in volcanic mud.
Eruptions that began in February 2000 led PHIVOLCS to recommend on 23
February the evacuation of people within 7 km of the summit in the SE and
within 6 km for the rest of the volcano.

Sources: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology,
http://www.phivolcs.dost.gov.ph/vmepd/vmepd.htm
Mayon Reports
from
the monthly Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network


MERAPI central Java, Indonesia 7.542°S, 110.442°E; summit elev. 2,947 m;
All times are local (= GMT + 7 hours)

Intense and dangerous volcanic activity continued at Merapi with hot lava
avalanches, near-continuous pyroclastic flows, and an eruption on 10
February that deposited ash on many cities out to 60 km E of the volcano.
During 30 January to 5 February, continuous hot lava avalanches and
pyroclastic flows traveled down the SW flank of the volcano along the Sat,
Senowo, and Bebeng rivers to a maximum runout distance of ~4.5 km. Lava
avalanches also traveled down the Lamat River, a drainage that avalanches
had not previously traveled down during the current period of volcanic
activity. Approximately 25 pyroclastic flows occurred daily. Ash associated
with the pyroclastic flows fell around Merapi. During 0430 to 0630 on 3
February heavy rain mixed with ash and produced minor lahars. On 6 February
the dome was reported as being 1 million cubic meters in volume and growing
at 45 cubic meters per day.

Pyroclastic-flow activity began at 2100 on 9 February and lasted up to 1
hour. At 0200 on 10 February, a medium-sized pyroclastic flow lasted for
~30 minutes. At 0330 the same day “lava dome 1998,” which was under the new
lava dome (“lava dome 2001”), partially collapsed. The collapse triggered
a large and continuous pyroclastic flow that lasted as long as 2.5 hours.
The pyroclastic flow traveled up to 7 km SW of the summit towards the Sat
River, and 4.5 WSW to the Lamat River. The resultant ash cloud rose up to
5-8 km above the summit, spread ~60 km towards the E, and deposited ash on
the towns of Klaten, Solo, Sukoharjo, and Boyolali. The greatest ash
thickness was ~1 cm, reported within a 5 km radius around the volcano. At
0530 the Alert Level at the volcano was raised from 3 to 4, the highest
level. News articles reported that ~12,000 residents near the volcano were
evacuated on 10 February, though many people returned to their property the
next day despite the evacuation order. By 11 February, lava dome 2001 was
estimated to be 1.4 million cubic meters in volume and unstable, especially
after the 10 February collapse of “lava dome 1998.”

Background. Merapi, one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes, lies in one
of the world's most densely populated areas and dominates the landscape
immediately N of the major city of Yogyakarta. The steep-sided modern
Merapi edifice, its upper part unvegetated due to frequent eruptive
activity, was constructed to the SW of an arcuate scarp cutting the eroded
older Batulawang volcano. Pyroclastic flows and lahars accompanying growth
and collapse of the steep-sided active summit lava dome have devastated
cultivated and inhabited lands on the volcano's western-to-southern flanks
and caused many fatalities during historical time. The volcano is the
object of extensive monitoring efforts by the Merapi Volcano Observatory of
the Volcanological Survey of Indonesia.

Sources: Volcanological Survey of Indonesia,
http://www.vsi.dpe.go.id/news/index.html
Darwin VAAC, http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/VAAC/OTH/AU/messages.html
Australian Broadcasting Company
http://www.abc.net.au/news/newslink/weekly/newsnat-10feb2001-83.htm,
Associated Press
http://dailynews.yahoo.com/h/ap/20010211/wl/indonesia_volcano_4.html
Merapi Reports
from
the monthly Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network


Ongoing Activity


GUAGUA PICHINCHA north-central Ecuador 0.17°S, 78.60°W; summit elev. 4,784 m

Lava dome growth continued at dome 9 at a rate similar to that of previous
weeks. Rockfalls were observed travelling to the SW towards Cristal River.
The volcano remained at Alert Level Yellow
.

Background. Guagua Pichincha rises immediately W of Quito, Ecuador’s
capital city. The broad volcanic massif is cut by a large horseshoe-shaped
summit caldera, ~6 km in diameter and 600 m deep, that was breached to the
W during a slope failure ~50,000 years ago. Subsequent late-Pleistocene
and Holocene eruptions from the central vent consisted of explosive
activity with pyroclastic flows accompanied by periodic lava dome growth
and destruction. A major eruption in 1660 deposited 30 cm of ash in Quito,
but most of the many eruptions since the Spanish colonial era have been
minor. The latest eruptive period began with phreatic explosions in 1998.
Magmatic eruptions first occurred in October 1999, and intermittent
eruptions of varying scale since then have blanketed Quito and surrounding
towns with ash.

Source: Instituto Geofísico http://www.epn.edu.ec/~igeo/index.html
Guagua Pichincha Reports
http://www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/volcano/region15/ecuador/guagua/var.htm from
the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network


KARANGETANG [API SIAU] Siau island, Indonesia 2.78°N, 125.48°E; summit
elev. 1,784 m

The VSI reported that since the 28 January eruption there has been no
significant change in activity observed at Karangetang. Seismicity remained
dominated by multi-phase earthquakes. The volcano remained at Alert Level 2
(on a scale of 1-4).

Background. Karangetang (also known as Api Siau) lies at the northern end
of the island of Siau, N of Sulawesi, and contains five summit craters
strung along a N-S line. One of Indonesia's most active volcanoes,
Karangetang has had more than 40 recorded eruptions since 1675.
Twentieth-century eruptions have included frequent explosions, sometimes
accompanied by pyroclastic flows and lahars.

Source: Volcanological Survey of Indonesia
http://www.vsi.dpe.go.id/news/index.html
Karangetang reports
from
the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network


KILAUEA Hawaii, USA 19.43°N, 155.29°W; summit elev. 1,222 m

Surface flows continued to travel down the Pulama pali, with no lava
entering the sea. A tiltmeter near the HVO showed a small (about 0.4
microradian) deflation shortly before 1230 on 10 February. After 10
February, tiltmeters in the summit area and along the E rift zone showed
flat signals. Volcanic tremor near Pu`u `O`o and in Kilauea`s caldera was
at low-to-moderate levels.

Background. Kilauea, one of five coalescing volcanoes that comprise the
island of Hawaii, is one of the world’s most active volcanoes.
Historically its eruptions originate primarily from the summit caldera or
along one of the lengthy E and SW rift zones that extend from the caldera
to the sea. The latest Kilauea eruption began in January 1983 along the E
rift zone. The Pu`u `O`o-Kupaianaha eruption is now in its 18th year and
55th eruptive episode. Since 1986, flows have traveled 11-12 km from the
vents to the sea, paving about 80 km2 of land on the S flank of Kilauea and
building 205 hectares of new land. Intensive monitoring and field research
by staff of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory, established in 1912, make
Kilauea one of Earth's best studied volcanoes.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory
http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/kilauea/update/
Kilauea Reports

from the monthly Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network


POPOCATÉPETL México 19.02°N, 98.62°W; summit elev. 5,426 m; All times are
local (= GMT 6 hours)

The Washington VAAC reported several small ash-bearing eruptions during the
week. At 1921 on 8 February an eruption produced a small ash cloud that
rose up to ~7.6 km a.s.l. and blew to the NE. At 1400 on 9 February an
eruption produced an ash cloud that rose up to ~6.7 km. A small ash plume
produced from emissions that occurred at 1338 and 1348 on 11 February was
visible in GOES-8 imagery. The ash plume rose up to ~7.9 km a.s.l. and blew
to the S.

Background. Popocatépetl, whose name is the Aztec word for smoking
mountain, towers to 5,426 m 70 km SE of México City and is North America's
second highest volcano. Frequent historical eruptions have been recorded
since the beginning of the Spanish colonial era. A small eruption on 21
December 1994 ended five decades of quiescence. Since 1996 small lava
domes have incrementally been constructed within the summit crater and
destroyed by explosive eruptions. Intermittent small-to-moderate
gas-and-ash eruptions have continued, occasionally producing ashfall in
neighboring towns and villages.

Photos (CENAPRED site): http://www.cenapred.unam.mx/boletines.html

Sources: Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres,
http://www.cenapred.unam.mx/boletines.html
Washington VAAC http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/VAAC/messages.html
Popocatépetl Reports
from
the monthly Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network


SHIVELUCH Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia 56.653°N, 161.360°E; summit elev.
3,283 m; All times are local (= GMT + 12 hours)

The KVERT reported that during most of the week seismicity was at
background levels. At 1100 on 2 February a powerful gas-and-ash eruption
produced a plume that rose 800 m above the volcano and spread ~3 km towards
the W. The same day, observations from Klyuchi town revealed that at 1804 a
short-lived eruption produced an ash plume that rose up to ~5.3 km a.s.l.
The event was accompanied by a 2-minute-long shallow seismic signal that
was detected more than 110 km from the volcano. Afterwards, during 1807 to
1824 strong volcanic tremor was registered. The Concern Color
remained at Yellow.

Background. The high, isolated massif of Shiveluch volcano (also spelled
Sheveluch) rises above the lowlands NNE of the Kliuchevskaya volcano group
and forms one of Kamchatka's largest and most active volcanoes. The
currently active Molodoy Shiveluch lava-dome complex was constructed during
the Holocene within a large breached caldera formed by collapse of the
massive late-Pleistocene Strary Shiveluch volcano. At least 60 large
eruptions of Shiveluch have occurred during the Holocene, making it the
most vigorous andesitic volcano of the Kuril-Kamchatka arc. Frequent
collapses of lava-dome complexes, most recently in 1964, have produced
large debris avalanches whose deposits cover much of the floor of the
breached caldera. During the 1990s, intermittent explosive eruptions took
place from a new lava dome that began growing in 1980. The largest
historical eruptions from Shiveluch occurred in 1854 and 1964.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team via the Alaska Volcano
Observatory http://www.avo.alaska.edu/avo4/updates/kvertweekly.htm
Shiveluch Reports

from the monthly Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network


SOUFRIERE HILLS Montserrat, West Indies 16.72°N, 62.18°W; summit elev. 1,052 m

The MVO reported that during 2 to 9 February activity at the Soufrière
Hills volcano was slightly higher than during the previous week as lava
dome growth continued. Seismic activity remained similar to the previous
week, although it increased towards the end of the report week. Rockfall
activity was low during the beginning of the week, but significantly
increased beginning on 6 February; only 9 rockfalls were recorded on 5
February, while 70 were recorded on 6 February. Brief observations revealed
that volcanic activity remained concentrated on the E side of the lava dome
and that two large near-vertical spines stood on the dome’s summit. By 8
February new pyroclastic-flow deposits were emplaced at the head of Tuitt’s
Ghaut ~300 m to the N of the dome. The Washington VAAC reported that
throughout the week low-level (up to
~2.1 km a.s.l.) ash clouds, presumably produced by rockfalls, and periodic
hot-spot activity were visible on GOES-8 imagery.

Background. The complex andesitic Soufriere Hills volcano occupies the
southern half of the island of Montserrat. The summit area consists
primarily of a series of lava domes emplaced along an ESE-trending zone.
Non-eruptive seismic swarms occurred at 30-year intervals in the 20th
century, but the first well-documented historical eruption on Montserrat
did not take place until 1995. Long-term small-to-moderate ash eruptions
were accompanied by lava dome growth and pyroclastic flows that initially
forced evacuation of the southern half of the island and then destroyed the
capital city of Plymouth, causing severe social and economic disruption.
The volcano is currently in a period of new dome growth.

Source: Montserrat Volcano Observatory http://www.mvomrat.com/
Washington VAAC http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/VAAC/messages.html
Soufriere Hills Reports

from the monthly Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network




 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 358 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Feb 14, 2001 (23:19) * 2 lines 
 
Etna is active if anyone wants to watch:
http://web.poseidon.nti.it/Sorvis/vulcano.asp?Vulcano=Etna&Refresh=30


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 359 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Feb 16, 2001 (15:47) * 44 lines 
 
*******************
Miyakejima, Japan
*******************

Dr. S. Nakada's (University of Tokyo) web page update on Japan's Miyakejima
shows that although eruptive activity probably ended in October 2000, and
subsidence deformation is waning, the extraordinarily high SO2 emission
rates continue at 20, - 50,000 metric tons/day. Low seismic levels since
September. Increasing temperatures in the active crater reached 4000C in
late December with slight incandescence, but the incandescence has since
disappeared.

From: http://hakone.eri.u-tokyo.ac.jp/vrc/erup/miyake.html

National Coordination of Volcanic Eruption Prediction, chaired by Prof.
Yoshiaki Ida (Univ. of Tokyo) issued the comments on the Miyakejima
activity on February 5, 2001, as follows.

Huge amount of volcanic gas has been emitted from the summit crater at
Miyakejima.

No typical eruptions had taken places except for the emission of volcanic
gas since last October. Ash fall was reported in only the places nearby
crater. The temperature of the active crater had increased by December, 400
degree C in late-December, associated with slight incandescence in nights,
the latter which disappeared in late-January.

Ground deformation implying shrinkage of Miyakejima, which began in last
July, had declined, though it has still continued in the smallest level.
Seismic activity had been low in level since last September, although
low-frequency earthquakes occurred in the shallow part in late-January.

The height of smokes emitted from the summit crater ranged from several
hundreds to two thousand meters above the crater. The amount of SO2 emitted
had been maintained in a range from about 20 to 50 kiloton a day. High
abundance of SO2 often had been observed even at the volcano flanks
depending on weather condition. Most of SO2 is considered to result from
degassing from magma. At the present, there is no sign indicating the
decrease in abundance of SO2 emitted.

As the activity emitting SO2 is considered to still continue at Miyakejima,
should pay attention to volcanic gas. Also attention to mud flows is needed
when rains.



 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 360 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Feb 20, 2001 (14:43) * 14 lines 
 
Erupting Alaska Volcano Creates Ash Plume

ANCHORAGE, Alaska (Reuters) - A volcano on an uninhabited island in
Alaska's Aleutian chain erupted, sending a plume of ash as high as
35,000 feet, the Alaska Volcano Observatory said.
Cleveland Volcano, a 5,674-foot peak on remote Chuginadak Island,
erupted at about 6 a.m. Alaska time (noon EST), the observatory said.
A few hours later Monday, a light dusting of ash was reported in the
nearest community, Nilkoski, an Aleut village of about
30 people that is 45 miles east of the Cleveland Volcano, the
observatory said.
Eleven eruptions of Cleveland Volcano have been reported since 1893,
the observatory said.
Chuginadak Island is about 950 miles southwest of Anchorage.


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 361 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Feb 20, 2001 (18:38) * 80 lines 
 
*******************************************************
AVO Information Release: Cleveland eruption 02-19-2001
*******************************************************
From: avo-sci@usgs.gov

ALASKA VOLCANO OBSERVATORY
Monday, February 19, 2001 1600 AST (0100 UTC)

CLEVELAND VOLCANO (CAVW #1101-24)
VOLCANIC ACTIVITY REPORT #02 (abridged)
52°49'N 169°57'W
Summit Elevation 5,674 ft (1,730 m)

Cleveland volcano in the central Aleutian Islands erupted explosively this
morning at approximately 0600 AST (1500 UTC). As of 1600 AST (0100 UTC
February 20) satellite images indicate the main part of the ash cloud lies
in a region bounded by 53o - 55oN, 168o? 171oW. The most recent Volcanic
Ash Advisory Statement (issued 2300 UTC) reports that the ash cloud is
moving eastwards at approximately 30 knots. Pilot reports from 1310 AST
(2210 UTC) indicate ash cloud tops at 35,000 feet ASL. Subsequent pilot
reports and satellite data indicate diminishing intensity of the ash plume
emanating from the volcano. Observers in Nikolski (45 miles east of Mt.
Cleveland) reported light ash fall starting at 1200 AST (2100 UTC),
continuing through to the present.

-------------

ALASKA VOLCANO OBSERVATORY
Monday, February 19, 2001 2130 AST (0630 UTC)

CLEVELAND VOLCANO (CAVW #1101-24)
VOLCANIC ACTIVITY REPORT #03
52°49'N 169°57'W
Summit Elevation 5,674 ft (1,730 m)

Cleveland volcano in the central Aleutian Islands erupted explosively this
morning at approximately 0600 AST (1500 UTC). A Volcanic Ash Advisory
Statement (issued 2300 UTC) reported the ash cloud moving eastwards at
approximately 30 knots. Pilot reports from 1310 AST (2210 UTC) indicate ash
cloud tops at 35,000 feet ASL. Subsequent pilot reports and satellite data
indicate first a diminishing intensity of the ash plume emanating from the
volcano and by late afternoon an ending of explosive activity. Observers in
Nikolski (45 miles east of Mt. Cleveland) reported light ash fall starting
at 1200 AST (2100 UTC) and ending about 1600 AST (0100 UTC). The ash and
steam cloud, which extended in a northerly direction for at least 75 miles,
has drifted eastward towards Dutch Harbor, Akutan, and beyond by 1900 AST
(0400 UTC). Satellite imagery continues to show a large thermal anomaly at
the volcano and further explosive eruptions could occur with very little
warning.

Mt. Cleveland forms the western half of Chuginadak Island, a remote and
uninhabited island in the east central Aleutians. It is located about 40
km (25 mi) west of Umnak Island and about 75 km (45 mi) west of the
community of Nikolski. A distinctively symmetrical stratovolcano,
Cleveland has erupted 11 times since 1893. On May 25, 1994 sent a
short-lived ash plume to about 10.5 km (35,000 ft) altitude. Ash fall from
this eruption impacted the north and east flanks of the volcano, and small
debris flows may have formed on the southwest flank. On October 20, 1994,
AVO identified another possible ash plume on satellite imagery; however, no
eruption was confirmed.

Recent eruptions from Mt. Cleveland have been characterized by short-lived
explosive bursts of ash, at times accompanied by lava fountaining, lava
flows, and debris flows down the flanks. Cleveland is not seismically
monitored, therefore we do not assign it a level of concern color code.

AVO will continue to monitor the situation closely and will issue further
updates as information becomes available.

abbreviated color code key (contact AVO for complete description):

GREEN volcano is dormant; normal seismicity and fumarolic activity
occurring
YELLOW volcano is restless; eruption may occur
ORANGE volcano is in eruption or eruption may occur at any time
RED significant eruption is occurring or explosive eruption expected
at any time

volcano information on the internet: http://www.avo.alaska.edu



 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 362 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Feb 20, 2001 (19:08) * 56 lines 
 

*************************************
MVO weekly report, 16 February 2001
*************************************
From: Dr Gill Norton

Montserrat Volcano Observatory
Montserrat, W.I.
Report for the period midday, 9 February 2001 to midday, 16 February 2001

Activity at the Soufrière Hills Volcano fluctuated markedly this week, as
growth of the lava dome continued.

The level of seismic activity varied considerably through the week, with a
pronounced peak in activity over the weekend. Since that time, the rockfall
activity has gradually decreased. The broadband seismic network recorded a
total of 500 rockfall signals, 100 long period rockfall signals, 1
volcano-tectonic, 2 hybrid, and 15 long period earthquakes for the reporting
period. The energy of the rockfalls and long period rockfalls peaked early
on the morning of 11 February.

Visibility of the volcano has been reasonable this week, with some excellent
views on 13 and 14 February. The two large spines observed last week had
collapsed, and a large lobe had formed on the eastern face of the dome above
Tar River. New pyroclastic flow deposits had formed down Tar River, although
they had not reached as far as the old coastline. Some small-volume deposits
were observed down White River to the south and in Tuitt’s Ghaut to the
northeast.

Sulphur dioxide gas measurements were made with the correlation spectrometer
this week. On 9 and 15 February, measurements from the helicopter gave
average fluxes of 670 and 420 tonnes per day respectively. Static
measurements on 9 and 14 February gave average fluxes of 220 and 80 tonnes
per day. Static measurements are consistently lower than helicopter
traverses.

Rockfall and pyroclastic flow activity is likely to continue whilst the dome
grows, producing ash clouds which may blow over inhabited areas. Ash masks
should be worn in ashy conditions or when ash is disturbed.

Residents of Montserrat and visitors to the island are advised to tune in to
ZJB Radio for up-to-date information on the status of the volcano. Elevated
levels of pyroclastic flow activity may develop very rapidly and could
affect any valleys around the volcano. In addition to the risk from
pyroclastic flows, the Belham valley should also be avoided during and after
periods of heavy rain. Everyone is reminded that access to Plymouth, Bramble
airport and beyond is prohibited. There is a maritime exclusion zone around
the southern part of the island that extends two miles beyond the coastline
from Trant’s Bay in the east to Garibaldi Hill on the west coast. The
daytime entry zone remains closed.

12 noon, Friday, 16 February 2001

Check out the MVO’s web site at www.mvomrat.com for recent pictures of the
dome.



 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 363 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Feb 27, 2001 (13:24) * 0 lines 
 


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 364 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Mar  7, 2001 (20:49) * 16 lines 
 
GVP/USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report
28 February- 6 March 2001

New Activity/Unrest: | Cleveland, USA | Kliuchevskoi, Kamchatka | Lokon-Empung, Indonesia | Mayon, Philippines | Merapi, Indonesia |
Ongoing Activity: | Etna, Italy | Kilauea, USA | Ijen, Indonesia | Popocatépetl, México | Semeru, Indonesia | Shiveluch, Kamchatka | Soufrière Hills, Montserrat |

New Activity
CLEVELAND Aleutian Islands, USA 52.82°N, 169.95°W; summit elev. 1,730 m
The AVO reported that no further eruptive activity was observed or detected at Cleveland since the 19 February eruption. During 19 February to 2 March, GOES-10 imagery showed a weak thermal anomaly that was probably related to hot material deposited on the flanks of the volcano on the 19th. Photographs taken a few days after the eruption showed significant accumulation of spatter and lava blocks high on the steep flanks of the volcano; occasional avalanching of this debris may produce small, localized ash plumes.
Background. The symmetrical Mount Cleveland stratovolcano is situated at the western end of the uninhabited dumbbell-shaped Chuginadak Island in the east-central Aleutians. The 1,730-m-high stratovolcano is the highest of the Islands of Four Mountains volcanoes and is one of the most active in the Aleutians. Numerous large lava flows descend its flanks. It is possible that some 18th to 19th century eruptions attributed to Carlisle volcano, located across the Carlisle Pass Strait to the NW, should be ascribed to Cleveland. In 1944 Cleveland produced the only known fatality from an Aleutian eruption. Recent eruptions from Mt. Cleveland have been characterized by short-lived explosive ash emissions, at times accompanied by lava fountaining and lava flows down the flanks.
Source: Alaska Volcano Observatory, http://www.avo.alaska.edu/avo4/updates/updates.htm
http://www.avo.alaska.edu/avo4/updates/updates.htm

Cleveland Reports http://www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/volcano/region11/aleutian/cleve/var.htm
http://www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/volcano/region11/aleutian/cleve/var.htm



 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 365 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Mar 10, 2001 (15:43) * 72 lines 
 
*************************************
Kamchatkan Volcanic Activity, 9 March, 2001
*************************************

INFORMATION RELEASE 09-02
Friday, March 9, 2001, 13:30 KST (2250 UTC)

The following Release was received by the Alaska Volcano Observatory via
e-mail from KVERT (Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruptions Response Team). All times
are in Kamchatkan Standard Time, 21 hours ahead of Anchorage.

KLYUCHEVSKAYA GROUP OF VOLCANOES
KLYUCHEVSKOY VOLCANO; 56o03'N, 160o39'E; Elevation 4,750 m.
CURRENT LEVEL OF CONCERN COLOR CODE IS GREEN.
During the past week (March 2-8), seismic activity was near background
levels. Weak interrupted spasmodic tremor was registered. On March 3 and
5-7, a gas and steam plume rose 100-200 m above the volcano and extended 5
km to the southeast on March 7. On March 4, a gas and steam plume rose
600-1000 m above the volcano and extended more than 10 km to the northeast.
On other days, the volcano was obscured by clouds.

BEZYMIANNY VOLCANO; 55o58'N, 160o36'E; Elevation 2,895 m
CURRENT LEVEL OF CONCERN COLOR CODE IS GREEN.
No seismicity was registered under the volcano during the week. On March
2-3 and 5-7, a gas and steam plume rose 50-400 m above the volcano and
extended up to 15 km to the southeast. On other days, the volcano was
obscured by clouds.

SHEVELUCH VOLCANO; 56o38'N, 161o19'E; Elevation 2,447 m
CURRENT LEVEL OF CONCERN COLOR CODE IS YELLOW.
Seismicity mainly at background levels. On March 2-6, several series of
shallow earthquakes were registered. Following them, in certain cases, weak
spasmodic volcanic tremor was registered. Possibly these bursts of activity
corresponded to weak ash-gas explosions to a height of 2000-3000 m above
the crater. According to visual data and satellite images AVO, on March
2-6, a gas and steam plume rose 300-800 m above the volcano and extended
50 km to the east on March 3-4. At 15:45 KST, on March 7, seismic data
indicated a short-lived gas-ash explosions probably occurred as a series of
shallow earthquakes and high-frequency tremor were registered during 15
minutes. According to visual reports from Klyuchi town, at 16:00 KST , an
ash-gas plume rose 1500 m above the dome and extended km to the
northwest. According to information from Elizovo airport, at 16:20 KST
pilots registered (flight # 74052,elevation of flight 8,100 m) an ash plume
of a height about 10 km above Sheveluch volcano moving 30 km to the
northeast. Satellite images (AVO) from 17:15 KST show two plumes of the
cloud. One extended to the east from the volcano, and was a low altitude
mostly steam plume. The other extended to the north, and had a signal that
indicates volcanic ash. The plume extended for 50 km to the north at a
height of 7-8 km ASL. On March 8, the volcano was obscured by clouds. Short
series of shallow earthquakes and spasmodic volcanic tremor continued to be
recorded.

KARYMSKY VOLCANO; 54o03'N, 159o27'E; Elevation 1,486 m
CURRENT LEVEL OF CONCERN COLOR CODE IS GREEN.
Seismic activity was near background levels. During the week a few short
series of small shallow earthquakes and one episode of weak high-frequency
spasmodic tremor were registered

AVACHINSKAYA GROUP OF VOLCANOES; 53o15'N, 158o51'E;
CURRENT LEVEL OF CONCERN COLOR CODE IS GREEN.
Seismicity at Avachinsky and Koryaksky volcanoes was at background levels.

MUTNOVSKAYA GROUP OF VOLCANOES:
GORELY VOLCANO; 52o33'N, 158o02'E, Elevation 1,828 m;
MUTNOVSKY VOLCANO; 52o27'N, 158o12'E, Elevation 2,324 m.
CURRENT LEVEL OF CONCERN COLOR CODE FOR BOTH VOLCANOES IS GREEN.
During the past week seismic activity was at background levels. On March
2-5 and 7-8, Gorely volcano was quiet. On March 2-5 and 7-8, a gas - steam
plume rose 200-500 m above Mutnovsky volcano. On March 6, both volcanoes
were obscured by clouds.




 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 366 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Mar 10, 2001 (15:43) * 39 lines 
 
***********************************************
AVO Weekly Update, 9 March, 2001
***********************************************

ALASKA VOLCANO OBSERVATORY
Weekly Update
Friday, March 9, 2001 12:00 PM AST (2100 UTC)

CLEVELAND VOLCANO (CAVW #1101-24)
52°49'N 169°57'W Summit Elevation 5,674 ft (1,730 m)

No further eruptive activity has been reported or detected at Cleveland
volcano. As such, AVO will stop detailing activity at Cleveland in these
updates until new activity is detected or reported.

OTHER ALASKA VOLCANOES

Seismic activity is monitored in real time at 22 volcanoes in Alaska.
Satellite images of all Alaskan volcanoes are analyzed daily for evidence
of ash plumes and elevated surface temperatures. Some volcanoes may
currently display anomalous behavior without being considered to be at a
dangerous level of unrest.

Spurr, Redoubt, Iliamna, Augustine, Snowy, Griggs, Katmai, Novarupta,
Trident, Mageik, Martin, Aniakchak, Pavlof, Dutton, Isanotski, Shishaldin,
Fisher, Westdahl, Akutan, Makushin, Great Sitkin, and Kanaga volcanoes are
all at or near normal levels of background seismicity. AVO did not detect
ash plumes or significant elevated surface temperatures in the vicinity of
any volcano.

abbreviated color code key (contact AVO for complete description):
GREEN volcano is dormant; normal seismicity and fumarolic activity
occurring
YELLOW volcano is restless; eruption may occur
ORANGE volcano is in eruption or eruption may occur at any time
RED significant eruption is occurring or explosive eruption expected
at any time

volcano information on the internet: http://www.avo.alaska.edu


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 367 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Mar 10, 2001 (15:50) * 12 lines 
 
******************************
Lava Tube Formation Request
******************************

I'm in search of an animation depicting lava tube formation. Does
anyone know of such a thing and where I might find it? If so, please
reply to Ralph Hitz. Thank you. (Sorry for the repeat message for those individuals
that I've already contacted about this.)

Ralph Hitz [rhitz@tcc.tacoma.ctc.edu]




 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 368 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Mar 10, 2001 (15:51) * 59 lines 
 
******************************
MVO Weekly Report, 9 March 2001
******************************

From: Dr Gill Norton

Montserrat Volcano Observatory
Montserrat, W.I.
Report for the period midday, 2 March 2001 to midday, 9 March 2001

Activity at Soufrière Hills Volcano decreased this week with a return to
steady growth of the lava dome.

The broadband seismic network recorded a total of 629 rockfall signals, 22
long period rockfall signals, 45 long period earthquakes, 4 volcano-tectonic
and 280 hybrid earthquakes. The banded tremor recorded last week had died
away by early in the week. Almost all the hybrid earthquakes were associated
with this tremor activity. During the middle part of the week rockfall
activity, which had been low, returned to more usual levels. The volcano
seemed to have resumed steady dome growth by the end of the week.

Observations confirmed that the main growth area had switched to the south
of the dome with most rockfall activity concentrated in the upper reaches of
the White River valley. Light ashfall from the activity this week was blown
over the north of the island although, by the end of the week, the wind had
switched back to the more usual direction towards the west.

Sulphur dioxide gas measurements were made with the correlation spectrometer
this week. On 8 March measurements from the helicopter gave an average flux
of 240 tonnes per day. Static measurements on 2, 6, 7 and 8 March gave
average fluxes of 1230, 190, 100 and 370 tonnes per day respectively.

The final report from the scientific and hazards assessment of Soufrière
Hills Volcano in January 2001 was published today. Check out the MVO website
for a full copy of the report (www.mvomrat.com).

Rockfall and pyroclastic flow activity is likely to continue whilst the dome
grows, producing ash clouds which may blow over inhabited areas. Ash masks
should be worn in ashy conditions or when ash is disturbed.

Residents of Montserrat and visitors to the island are advised to tune in to
ZJB Radio for up-to-date information on the status of the volcano. Elevated
levels of pyroclastic flow activity may develop very rapidly and could
affect any valleys around the volcano. In addition to the risk from
pyroclastic flows, the Belham valley should also be avoided during and after
periods of heavy rain. Everyone is reminded that access to Plymouth, Bramble
airport and beyond is prohibited. There is a maritime exclusion zone around
the southern part of the island that extends two miles beyond the coastline
from Trant's Bay in the east to Garibaldi Hill on the west coast. The
daytime entry zone remains closed.
12 noon, Friday, 9 March 2001

Dr Gill Norton
Director
Montserrat Volcano Observatory
Mongo Hill
Montserrat
West Indies



 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 369 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Mar 10, 2001 (16:12) * 106 lines 
 
**********************************
Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network
Volume 26, Number 1, January 2001
From: Ed Venzke
**********************************
Merapi (Indonesia) Failure of 1998 lava dome on 10 February causes major eruption
Krakatau (Indonesia) Eruptive activity through late October 2000; infrasonic earthquakes detected
Peuet Sague (Indonesia) 1999 activity continues through 14 June; explosions in late December 2000
Karangetang (Indonesia) Explosions in late January 2001 eject ash and lava
Lokon-Empung (Indonesia) 28 January explosion sends ash and glowing ejecta skyward
Inielika (Indonesia) Explosive activity declines; new images of the summit area
Tengger Caldera (Indonesia) Minor explosions, ash emissions, and tremor through 8 January 2001
Aoba (Vanuatu) Sustained elevation of Lake Voui's temperature indicates increased heat transfer
Nyamuragira (Africa) Lava flows began erupting in early February; one injury reported
Guagua Pichincha (Ecuador) Year 2000 summary; geophysicist takes fatal fall in January 2001
Cleveland (Aleutian Islands) 19 February explosion sends ash up to 10 km
Obituary
Death of volcano seismologist Diego Viracucha at Guagua Pichincha
Rick Wunderman, Edward Venzke, Gari Mayberry, Luke Jensen, and David Charvonia

Merapi
central Java, Indonesia
07.54 S, 110.44 E; summit elev. 2,911 m
All times are local (= UTC + 7 hours)
Renewed unrest began on the night of 27 January with continuous pyroclastic flows and hot lava avalanches, which lasted up to two hours. Since mid-January a Level 3 hazard status has remained in effect for the volcano. The Volcanological Society of Indonesia (VSI) reported that on 28 January 2001 Merapi's "2001" lava dome (Bulletin v. 25, no. 12) partially collapsed resulting in pyroclastic flows and hot lava avalanches with recurrence intervals of ~2-5 minutes. Pyroclastic material flowed down to the Sat, Bebeng, and Senowo Rivers, to the SW, SW, and W of Merapi, respectively. Their maximum runout distance occurred in the Sat River drainage, where flows reached ~4.5 km from the source. A plume, thick with sulphurous ash, rose 2 km above the summit. The eruption generated ashfalls within a radius of 15-20 km; ash fell on the Dukun, Srumbung, Salam, Ngluwar, and Muntilan Districts surrounding Merapi.
VSI geophysicist Ratdomopurbo reported that the unstable lava dome was actively growing taller and larger; continued magma chamber injection had caused the pyroclastic flows and lava avalanches at the surface. Magma migration was indicated by increased deep volcanic (A-type) and shallow volcanic (B-type) earthquakes since August 2000. On 31 January pyroclastic flows occurred continuously, reaching up to ~3.5 km from the summit and flowing mainly into the Sat River, but also into the Senowo and Bebeng Rivers. At Babadan Observatory, located 4 km from the summit, a seismograph recorded earthquakes related to pyroclastic flows that exceeded the instrument's scale for up to 60 seconds during the interval of 1601-1822. Ashfall continued within 15 km of Merapi. A recent photograph showed a new active vent on Merapi's summit. VSI scientists engaged in Merapi research remained uncertain whether the vent in the photo had only emitted gases or had also emitted lava and tephra.
Pyroclastic flows and lava avalanches continued through 5 February (figures 1 and 2). Approximately 25 pyroclastic flows occurred daily and moved down the flanks to the Sat, Bebeng, and Senowo Rivers with a maximum runout distance of 4.5 km. Lava avalanches flowed down to the Lamat River, W of the volcano, in addition to the three above-mentioned rivers; lava avalanches reached a distance of 3.5 km from Merapi's summit, falling 1 km short of flows from the previous week. Ashfalls continued, and heavy rain on 3 February caused a minor lahar that initiated at 0430. Summarizing observations, Syamsul Rizal Wittiri stated that Merapi's lava dome continued to grow larger with the addition of ~45,000 cubic meters of material per day; lava dome volume as of 6 February was 1 million cubic meters. On 9 February at 2100 a continuous pyroclastic flow occurred for ~1 hour.
A major eruptive episode occurred on 10 February (figure 3). At 0200 purported magma migration toward the surface was associated with a medium-sized, 30-minute-long pyroclastic flow. At 0330 failure of the 1998 lava dome sent an ash cloud billowing 5 km above the summit and generated sizable pyroclastic flows that extended up to 7 km from Merapi in the direction of the Sat River and 4.5 km in the direction of the Lamat River. At 0530 Merapi's alert was raised from 3 to 4, the highest level, for the first time since July 1998 (Bulletin v. 23, no. 7). The ash plume from the eruption spread 60 km toward the E over the communities of Klaten, Solo, Sukoharjo, and Boyolali. Ashfall produced an ash layer with a maximum thickness of 1 cm at a 5 km radius from the volcano. Stations recorded high seismicity accompanying the eruption. Instrumentation detected decreasing magnetic intensity near the summit, indicating high heat and magma near the surface.
Syamsul Rizal Wittiri predicted that Merapi's activity will continue and potentially increase because the 2001 lava dome, which attained a volume of 1.4 million cubic meters, is unstable due to the collapse of the 1998 dome. Merapi's alert level remained at 4 as of 14 February.
Background. Merapi, one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes, dominates the landscape immediately N of the city of Yogyakarta in one of the world's most densely populated areas. The steep-sided modern edifice, its upper part unvegetated due to frequent eruptive activity, was constructed to the SW of an arcuate scarp cutting the eroded older Batulawang volcano. Pyroclastic flows and lahars accompanying growth and collapse of the steep-sided active summit lava dome have devastated cultivated lands on the volcano's western-to-southern flanks and caused many fatalities during historical time.
Information Contacts: Dali Ahmad, Volcanological Survey of Indonesia (VSI), Jalan Diponegoro No. 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (Email: dali@vsi.dpe.go.id; URL: http://www.vsi.dpe.go.id); Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/).

Krakatau
Sunda Strait
6.10 S, l05.42 E; summit elev. 813 m
Krakatau activity continued after the previous report (Bulletin v. 25, no. 5) through October 2000 although intensity decreased relative to the 29 May 2000 eruption. The volcano's hazard status, however, did not exceed 2 (on a scale of 1-4) within the report period. During 27 June-2 July explosions sent ash to heights up to 500 m, and booming sounds could be heard on three occasions. VSI reports resumed as of 25-30 July when seismographs recorded 1,961 explosion earthquakes, compared to 441 about a month earlier. An infrasonic sensor detected 37 events. A volcanic ash advisory was issued based on a pilot report of ash observed at an altitude of ~6,100 m. Satellite imagery did not detect a significant plume on this date, and no additional ash advisories were dispatched.
Activity remained similar through 15-21 August. Frequent booming was heard, and high numbers of explosion and infrasonic earthquakes were detected. A volcanic ash advisory was issued on 20 August although it indicated that plumes were sparse, did not reach high altitudes, and dissipated quickly. During 22 August-4 September a white, low-density plume rose 50 m above the summit. No visual observations could be made due to heavy fog, clouds, or smog masking the summit from view during 5 September-30 October, although seismicity indicated persistent activity. During 5-18 September, 3,220 explosions and 17 infrasonic events were recorded. Audible booming, however, ceased on 12 September, and activity decreased dramatically through the end of October. Deep volcanic (A-type) earthquakes stopped occurring as of 10 October, although a low number of small explosion earthquakes and tectonic earthquakes continued through 30 October. No further VSI reports were issued for Krakatau in 2000.
Background. Krakatau lies in the Sunda Strait between Java and Sumatra. Caldera collapse destroyed the ancestral Krakatau edifice, forming a 7-km-wide caldera. Remnants of this volcano formed Verlaten and Lang Islands; subsequently Rakata, Danan, and Perbuwatan volcanoes were formed, coalescing to create the Krakatau island extant prior to 1883. Caldera collapse during the catastrophic 1883 eruption destroyed Danan and Perbuwatan volcanoes, and left only a remnant of Rakata volcano. The post-collapse cone of Anak Krakatau (Child of Krakatau) grew within the 1883 caldera at a point between the former cones of Danan and Perbuwatan; Anak Krakatau has been the site of frequent eruptions since 1927.
Information Contacts: VSI; Darwin VAAC (see Merapi).

Peuet Sague
Sumatra, Indonesia
4.92 N, 96.33 E; summit elev. 2,780 m
All times are local (= UTC + 7 hours)
Peuet Sague's 1999 activity (Bulletin v. 24, no. 5) was reported to have continued, although at a decreased level, through 14 June 1999. A malfunctioning seismograph prevented instrumental monitoring in late May, but thin white gas-and-steam plumes that rose ~15 m were visible. During the first week in June plumes continued to rise to heights of 20 m. Rumbling was heard on 18 occasions, and plumes continued to rise through 14 June.
The VSI did not release further reports until renewed activity began at 0800 on 25 December 2000 with the first of three explosions. A second explosion occurred at 1310, and a third one followed at 1130 on 26 December. The explosions generated ash that spread over a relatively large area. Ashfall occurred on Geumpang, Lutung, Mane, and Bangke villages up to 20 km away. An observer from the village of Trans reported having seen glowing lava flows at night. Reported emissions ceased for the remainder of 2000, and the hazard status stayed at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).
Background. The Peuet Sague stratovolcano contains four summit peaks. The crater believed to be active resides SE of one of the peaks of the lava dome (Mount Tutung). This narrow crater has a diameter of about 70 m and a depth of 80 m. The last major eruption occurred in 1918-21 when ash was emitted, a lava dome was formed, and pyroclastic flows spilled into surrounding uninhabited forests. A 1975 team that reached the peak found no eruptive activity, but documented a lake (500 x 800 m) at the foot of Mount Tutung. Within Tutung's crater they found a small (40 x 75 m) blue lake surrounded by four solfataras. Scientists inspecting the summit area in 1984 found burned trees surrounding the main crater, likely due to a 1979 eruption. Local eyewitnesses and pilots reported ash columns above the summit in 1979, 1986, and 1991.
Information Contact: VSI (see Merapi).

Karangetang
Siau Island, Indonesia
2.47 N, 125.29 E; summit elev. 1,784 m
All times are local (= UTC + 8 hours)
Eruptive activity at Karangetang since the previous report (Bulletin v. 25, no. 12) continued through 5 February 2001. A minor explosion occurred at 2227 on 25 January and produced an ash-heavy plume that rose 700 m; ash fell into the sea W of the volcano. The eruption also featured a molten lava avalanche that flowed down to the Kelitu River with a maximum runout distance of ~1,250 m from the summit. At 2109 on 28 January a second, Strombolian-style explosion occurred that sent glowing ejecta 300 m above the crater; a black ash cloud rose 1 km and ashfall was observed on a nearby beach. The 28 January eruption also sent lava avalanches ~1,500 m down Karangetang's W flank. Seismicity for the period 23-29 January was dominated by multi-phase earthquakes.
During 30 January-5 February no significant visual activity was observed; multi-phase earthquakes outnumbered all others during the week. VSI maintained a hazard status of 2 (on a scale of 1-4) for Karangetang, and no further eruptive episodes were reported.
Background. Karangetang (also called Api Siau) lies at the northern end of the island of Siau, N of Sulawesi, and contains five summit craters strung along a N-S line. One of Indonesia's most active volcanoes, Karangetang has had more than 40 recorded eruptions since 1675. Twentieth-century eruptions have included frequent explosions, sometimes accompanied by pyroclastic flows and lahars.
Information Contact: VSI (see Merapi).

Lokon-Empung
northern Sulawesi, Indonesia
1.36 N, 124.79 E; summit elev. 1,580 m
All times are local (= UTC + 8 hours)
A white, low-density plume rose 50-200 m above Lokon's summit during 2-8 January 2001. Seismographs recorded a high number (~250) of both deep and shallow volcanic earthquakes during the week. The following week a plume continued to rise, and volcanic earthquakes decreased in number by about 90%. Discontinuous tremor with amplitudes of 0.5-6.0 mm was registered. During 16-22 January the plume rose up to 250 m in height. Volcanic earthquake activity again spiked, but reached only about half the quantity that had occurred during the first week of the month. Discontinuous tremor continued having amplitudes of 0.5-2.6 mm.
An explosion sent ash and glowing ejecta skyward from Lokon at 1920 on 28 January. Explosion earthquakes registered a maximum amplitude of 48 mm during a 175-second interval. Volcanic bombs were ejected from the crater and fell on Lokon's N slope. The ash cloud's specifics could not be measured due to rainy weather. Workers at the Kakaskasen observatory post detected an acrid sulphurous smell following the explosion. Observations the following day, 29 January, revealed a light-colored, high-density ash plume that rose ~300 m. The hazard status for Lokon was raised from 2 to 3 (on a scale of 1-4) following the explosion. Early February activity showed a decrease in unrest, although a high-density plume continued to rise up to 350 m, and small explosion earthquakes with amplitudes of 20-30 mm recurred.
Background. The twin volcanoes Lokon and Empung, rising about 800 m above the plain of Tondano, are among the most active volcanoes of Sulawesi. Lokon, the higher of the two peaks, whose summit is only 2.2 km from Empung's, has a flat, craterless top. The morphologically younger Empung volcano has a 400-m-wide, 150-m-deep crater that erupted last in the 18th century. All subsequent eruptions have originated from Tompaluan, a 150 x 250 m double crater situated in the saddle between the two peaks. A crater lake formed after the May 1969 eruption. Pyroclastic flows were reported in 1970.
Information Contact: VSI (see Merapi).

Inielika
Lesser Sunda Islands
8.73 S, 120.98 E; summit elev. 1,559 m
All times are local (= UTC + 8 hours)
The following report covers Inielika's activity during 23 January-5 February 2001. The VSI issued three photographs showing Inielika's summit area (figures 4-6). No explosions occurred during 23-29 January, unlike earlier in the month (Bulletin v. 25, no. 12). Instead, a white gas-and-steam plume rose 100-500 m above the summit. Volcanic earthquakes, tectonic earthquakes, and continuous tremor with amplitudes varying from 0.3 to 1.2 mm occurred.
Activity remained relatively similar during the following week of 30 January-5 February. A gas-and-steam plume rose 25-500 m above the summit. The number of deep volcanic (A-type) earthquakes increased with respect to the previous week, and tremor was no longer continuous. The VSI maintained Inielika's hazard status at Level 3 (on a scale of 1-4) as of 5 February.
Background. Inielika is a broad, low volcano on central Flores Island that was constructed within the Lobobutu caldera. The complex summit of the volcano contains ten craters, some of which are lake filled, in a 5-sq-km area. The largest of these, Wolo Runu and Wolo Lega North, are 750 m wide. The first historical eruption of Inielika, a phreatic explosion that formed a new 125-m-wide crater, did not occur until 1905, and was the volcano's only eruption during the 20th century.
Information Contact: VSI (see Merapi).

Tengger Caldera
Java, Indonesia
7.94 S, 112.95 E; summit elev. 2,329 m
Explosions from Bromo cone and unbroken tremor continued at Tengger Caldera since the previous report (Bulletin v. 25, no. 11). An average of 99 minor explosions daily during 19-25 December 2000 produced gray-brown ash that rose ~300-450 m above the cone's rim. The volcano's seismograph recorded 678 explosion earthquakes and tremor with amplitudes that ranged from 2 to 12 mm.
VSI reports resumed during 2-8 January 2001 when activity was purportedly lower. Small explosions sent gray-brown to dark ash 200 m above the crater, and about 29 events occurred per day. The seismograph registered 191 explosion earthquakes and continuous tremor with amplitudes of 2-10 mm. Tengger's hazard status remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and no further VSI reports were issued. The Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre, however, issued an advisory to aviators on 15 January to warn them of an ash cloud up to an altitude of 3 km drifting toward the NE. The advisory also stated that ground-based observations indicated that irregular eruptions sent ash up to altitudes of 2,750 m, over 400 m above the Bromo cone. When the report was issued, ash was expected to spread E-NE at ~30 km/hour; heavy cloud-cover prevented the acquisition of satellite information concerning the eruption. No further ash advisories were released after 15 January.
Background. The 16-km-wide Tengger caldera is located at the northern end of a volcanic massif extending from Semeru volcano. The massive Tengger volcanic complex dates back to the early Pleistocene and consists of five overlapping stratovolcanoes, each truncated by a caldera. Lava domes, pyroclastic cones, and a maar occupy the flanks of the massif. The most recent of the Tengger calderas is the 9 x 10-km-wide Sand Sea caldera, which formed incrementally during the late Pleistocene and early Holocene. An overlapping cluster of post-caldera cones was constructed on the floor of the Sand Sea caldera within the past several thousand years. The youngest of these is Bromo, one of Java's most active and most frequently visited volcanoes. Bromo is a centrally located cone, with a 700-m-diameter crater; it has had more than 50 known eruptions since 1804.
Information Contacts: VSI; Darwin VAAC (see Merapi).

Aoba
Ambae Island, Vanuatu
15.38 S, 167.83 E; summit elev. 1,496 m
Voui crater lake's temperature and hydro-acoustic signals are measured continuously by an automated station that transmits in real time via satellite (Bulletin v. 23, no. 10). Recent measurements revealed heavy activity under the lake during March-June 2000 (Bulletin v. 25, no. 8), when the estimated 50 x 10^6 m^3 volume of water rapidly increased in temperature by more than 7 deg C (figure 7).
The increase was accompanied by acoustic signals covering a wide range of frequencies (figure 7, bottom). Those in the audible band ( 100 Hz) were thought to be associated with the emission of gas bubbles and an increase in submarine fumarolic activity. Those in the ultrasound band (30-190 kHz) could stem from fluids circulating within the hydrothermal zone beneath the lake (figure 8).
Background. Aoba, also called Lombenben, is an oval, basaltic shield volcano. Rising 3,900 m above its base to almost 1,500 m above sea level, Aoba has an estimated volume of 2,500 km^3, making it the largest of the volcanoes of the Hebrides Arc. It lies in front of the d'Entrecasteaux collision zone, at the boundary between the N and S Aoba basins. Two concentric summit calderas enclose a main central crater containing Lake Voui. Numerous secondary craters and cones lie along fractures leading to the edge of the island, where magma-seawater interactions in the past have produced several maars. The island is covered in a dense rainforest.
Information Contacts: Michel Lardy, Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement (IRD), Centre d"Ile de France 93143 Bondy Cedex, France (Email: lardy@bondy.ird.fr); Michel Halbwachs, Universite de Savoie, BP1104, F 73376 Le Bourget du Lac Cedex, France (Email: michel.halbwachs@univ-savoie.fr); Jeanne Tabbagh, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Department de geophysique appliquee, 75252 Paris Cedex O5, France (Email: tabbagh@ccr.jussieu.fr); Douglas Charley, Department of Geology, Mines, and Water Resources, PMB01, Port-Vila, Vanuatu, Oceania (Email: charley@vanuatu.com.vu).

Nyamuragira
eastern Africa
1.408 S, 29.20 E; summit elev. 3,058 m
All times are local (= UTC + 2 hours)

Nyamuragira, Africa's most active volcano, was the subject of recent reports from USAID/OFDA, volcanic observatories and research centers, Reuters news, and satellite remote-sensing observers. Our last report on Nyamuragira was in late January 2000 (see Bulletin v. 25, no. 1). The volcano is situated about 40 km NE of the city of Goma in an area held by the rebel group Congo Rally for Democracy.
Field reports. A preliminary USAID/OFDA report provided by Jim Smith indicated that Nyamuragira began erupting at 0032 on 6 February. Observations made during a flight over the volcano revealed that there were active lava flows. The lava appeared to be flowing from two fissures; one to the W towards the town of Kitchanga, and another to the S in the direction of both the town of Mugunga (Sake) and Nyiragongo volcano. Smoke was observed near Nyamuragira and thunder was heard. Cloudy conditions prevented clear views of the volcano. These observations were confirmed subsequently by reports received from Hiroyuki Hamaguchi, Tohoku University, and his collaborator, Akumbi Mbilizi, Observatore Volcanologie de Goma.
News reports from Reuters. An 18 February Reuters news article by Jean-Baptiste Kayigamba reported that the volcano spewed large amounts of molten lava from three cones with "flames" rising 100 m above the volcano. The lava flowing down the mountain threatened both the roads running N from Goma and a wide area of the rebel-held territory that lies near the border between the Democratic Republic of Congo (formerly Zaire) and Rwanda.
Reuters noted further that experts at the Lwiro Natural Science Research Centre in Bukavu, S of Goma, said abnormal activity was detected in December. The initial eruption on February 6 gradually increased, and showers of volcanic ash fell on an area estimated at between 20 km^2 and 30 km^2. Officials say the effect on crops and pastures used for grazing will be devastating, and water supplies are likely to be contaminated over a wide area. The news report mentioned that Noel Kiloha, a volcanologist who worked for the Belgian Institute for Scientific Research in the area before independence, will continue to monitor the situation. He told Reuters: "We believe the eruption will continue for several weeks-we still hear terrible underground rumblings." One casualty was reported; a man lost his leg when he accidentally stepped into a lava flow.
Remote thermal data. Scientists from the University of Hawaii used Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS), an instrument carried aboard NASA's Earth Observing System satellites) to image thermal anomalies associated with the eruption. MODIS provides high radiometric sensitivity (12 bit) in 36 spectral bands ranging in wavelength from 0.4 um to 14.4 um. Two bands image at a nominal resolution of 250 m at nadir, five bands at 500 m and the remaining 29 bands at 1,000 m.
MODIS observed no hot spots prior to detecting a ~7 x 5 km anomaly centered 7-10 km N of the volcano summit on 7 February. By 8 February, the northern anomaly had increased in size and was orientated in a SSW-NNE direction, and a second anomaly had appeared just to the SSE of the summit. The latter was ~13 x 6 km in size, oriented in an E-ESE direction. On 11 and 12 February, the two anomalies had the same distribution and orientation, both showing an alignment along a SSE-NNW line drawn through the summit. The E-trending S flank hot spot had attained a maximum dimension of ~17 km, while that of the NNE-trending N flank was ~22 km.
Background. Africa's most active volcano, Nyamuragira is a massive basaltic shield volcano north of Lake Kivu and NW of Nyiragongo volcano, along the border between Rwanda and the Democratic Republic of Congo. Lava flows from Nyamuragira cover 1,500 km^2 of the East African rift. The summit is truncated by a small 2 x 2.3 km summit caldera that has walls up to about 100 m high. Some historical eruptions have occurred within the summit caldera, modifying the morphology of the caldera floor. Other eruptions have issued from the numerous fissures and cinder cones on the volcano's flanks. Flank radial fissure activity has been common in the 30 eruptions known since 1882. A lava lake in the summit crater, active since at least 1921, drained in 1938. Twentieth-century flank lava flows extend more than 30 km from the summit, reaching as far as Lake Kivu.
Information Contacts: Andy Harris, Eric Pilger, and Luke Flynn, HIGP/SOEST, University of Hawaii, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822 (Email: harris@pgd.hawaii.edu, pilger@pgd.hawaii.edu, flynn@pgd.hawaii.edu); MODIS, Vincent Salomonson (Team Leader), NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 974, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA http://ltpwww.gsfc.nasa.gov/MODIS/



 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 370 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Mar 10, 2001 (16:16) * 67 lines 
 
Guagua Pichincha
north-central Ecuador
0.171 S, 78.598 W; summit elev. 4,784 m
All times are local (= UTC - 5 hours)

Although previous reports discussed events through July 2000 (Bulletin v. 25, no. 6; v. 25, no. 3; v. 24, no. 12), a summary for the entire year has become available and in the interest of evenness of coverage will be reviewed here. A second, brief report is also included, covering events through mid-January. This latter report includes a tragic event that took place on 14 January 2001, the death of the energetic Instituto Geofisico volcano seismologist Diego Viracucha (see Obituary).

Activity during the year 2000 was generally more moderate than during 1999. The dome that started to form on 18 December 1999 ("dome 8") maintained a slow rate of growth until 23 July 2000 when it was disrupted by a series of small explosions. This growth brought about clear and continuous changes in dome morphology, abundant long-period (LP) earthquakes (monthly averages of ~8,700), and numerous seismically detected rock falls (monthly averages of ~3,000). The 23 July 2000 explosions were also accompanied by pyroclastic flows that descended the Cristal river but apparently did not make it to the confluence with the Cinto river as they had in 1999. Moreover, the 23 July 2000 explosions also failed to create a massive ash plume with its attendant disruption to local inhabitants.

After the 23 July explosions, the subsequent extrusions creating the next dome ("dome 9") were accompanied by abnormally high seismicity. For example, there were 20,646 LP earthquakes monthly starting in August 2000. Around this time, signals for rockfalls totaled ~5,400 a month. Starting on 18 December dome 9 grew comparatively slowly with few morphological changes, but was again accompanied by high, though more moderate seismicity (until December 2000 signals included 11,498 LP events and 3,475 rockfalls). In early 2001, the volume of dome 9 stood at 3 x 10^6 m^3, only about 14% smaller than its predecessor, dome 8.

The external flanks deformed after July 2000. Specifically, radial deflation on the E flank (Refugio station) reached 60 urad. This small-to-moderate deflation was the largest yet seen since the onset of the crisis.

In late 2000 and earliest 2001 with the continuing growth of dome 9, Guagua Pichincha had ~100 earthquakes per day, considerably fewer than in some previous months. Still, in the week of 7-13 January, the volcano's LP earthquakes appeared to have greater magnitudes and source depths because they registered significantly at stations located 10 km out from the crater. Tectonic earthquakes 10 km SW of the crater also registered. Field observers on 14 January attempted to correlate these new, stronger LP earthquakes to visible changes or processes. The observers saw a new crater forming within dome 9, but otherwise, they noted few other surface manifestations that could be linked to the LP earthquakes.

Background. Guagua Pichincha and the older Pleistocene Rucu Pichincha stratovolcanoes rise immediately W of Quito at the W end of the 25-km-long volcanic complex. The horseshoe-shaped summit crater, ~2 km in diameter and 600 m deep, was breached to the W during a slope failure ~50,000 years ago. Subsequent late-Pleistocene and Holocene eruptions from the central vent consisted of explosive activity with pyroclastic flows accompanied by periodic lava dome growth and destruction. Many minor eruptions have occurred since the Spanish colonial era. A central lava dome was probably emplaced during the volcano's largest historical eruption, in 1660, that dropped 30 cm of ash on Quito and generated W-flank pyroclastic flows. The volcano has no permanent ice cap. Seismic data has been collected intermittently since 1977 and continuously since 1981 by the Instituto de Geofisico, Escuela Politecnica. They installed a 6-station telemetered seismic network in August 1988. Phreatic activity from the NE flank of the lava
ome in 1981 and 1982 ejected a small amount of ash and blocks. A single phreatic explosion occurred from the same area in 1985.

Since October 1999 a series of large and small eruptions have blanketed Quito and surrounding towns with silty ash. The high viscosity of the lava erupting suggests effusions will result in dome building rather than extended lava flows. The eighth dome in the current cycle began growing in January 2000 and is becoming increasingly unstable.

Information Contact: Instituto Geofisico (IG), Escuela Politecnica Nacional, Apartado 17-01-2759, Quito, Ecuador (URL: http://www.epn.edu.ec/~igeo/).


Cleveland
Aleutian Islands, USA
52.82 N, 169.95 W; summit elev. 1,730 m
All times are local (= UTC - 8 hours)

At 0600 on 19 February workers at the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) using satellite imagery detected an ash cloud emanating from Cleveland volcano. The eruption was apparently explosive (figure 10). According to images captured at 0945 the ash cloud had split and drifted in two directions; one traveled 120 km SE of the volcano and reached an altitude of over 5 km, while the other cloud drifted higher, traveled 100 km N, and rose to an altitude of over 9 km (figure 11). A volcanic ash advisory was first issued at 1040 on the same day indicating that ash was being carried E at a velocity of ~55 km/hour and had reached an altitude of over 10 km. Subsequent pilot reports and satellite data revealed a diminishing intensity of the ash issuing from Cleveland, although observers in Nikolski, 72 km to the E, reported ashfall initiating at 1200 and persisting through 1600. Explosive activity ended by late afternoon.

Figure 10. Cleveland on 21 February. The usually white, snow-covered flanks are shown darkened by ash from the eruption. Photo was taken by Burke Mees (PenAir pilot) and transmitted courtesy of AVO.

Figure 11. Composite of GOES images showing the progressive locations and evolution of the ash clouds erupted from Cleveland during 19-21 February. The initial image of the plume (far left) was taken at 0815 on 19 February approximately 2 hours after the eruption began (labeled "2/19/01, 1615 Z"). Over time the plume bifurcated, sent ash SE to an altitude of 6 km, and ash N and slightly W to an altitude of 9 km. Ash clouds rose to a maximum altitude of over 10 km (roughly "FL330," aviation shorthand for 33,000 feet) before dissipating. Times are listed in UTC (not local time). The image also highlights the importance of quickly relaying information from volcano observatories to airline dispatchers in order to keep pilots aware of potential ash along their routes. Only areas of detected ash are shown, and ash may be present elsewhere. Image noise has been removed for clarity. Courtesy of AVO.

AVO workers observed a persistent large thermal anomaly at the volcano, which indicated that further eruptions could occur at any time. Pilots flying near the volcano late on 21 February confirmed no further ash production, but one did observe steaming near the termination of a flow on the volcano's SW flank. The steaming was located where rubbly, apparently hot debris entered the sea, and could have been an active lava flow or a fan of debris; it likely explains the thermal anomaly detected in satellite images. A thermal anomaly continued to be detected as of 26 February, suggesting that low-level activity was still occurring. No level of concern color codes were assigned for Cleveland because AVO has no seismic monitoring stations at the volcano.

Even after the eruption ceased, the eastward drifting ash-and-steam cloud continued to be a hazard to aviators (figure 11). The SE portion of the plume approached the westernmost point of Umnak Island by 1030 on the day of the eruption, and the entire plume was carried farther E so that it reached Dutch Harbor and Akutan by 1900.

Satellite imagery at 0730 on 20 February showed the ash cloud as a band extending from S of Port Heiden to N of Nunivak Island. No ashfall was reported at Dutch Harbor, Port Heiden, or Dillingham, however.

By 0530 on 21 February the cloud could be seen on satellite imagery stretching from near Montague Island S about 150 km over the northern portion of the Gulf of Alaska. The ash band dissipated and became undetectable in satellite images by about 1700 on 21 February. A smaller ash cloud may also have drifted over interior Alaska reaching N of Fairbanks, but it became indistinguishable from weather clouds by the same time.

Background. The symmetrical Mount Cleveland stratovolcano is situated at the western end of the dumbbell-shaped Chuginadak Island. The 1,730-m-high stratovolcano is one of the most active volcanoes of the Aleutian Islands and has numerous large lava flows on its flanks. In 1944 Cleveland produced the only known fatality from an Aleutian eruption. It is possible that some 18th to 19th century eruptions attributed to Carlisle volcano, located across the Carlisle Pass strait to the NW, should be ascribed to Cleveland (Miller and others, 1998).

Reference: Miller, T.P., McGimsey, R.G., Richter, D.H., Riehle, J.R., Nye, C.J., Yount, M.E. and Dumoulin, J.A., 1998, Catalog of the historically active volcanoes of Alaska: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 98-582, Alaska Volcano Observatory, Alaska, 1998. 104 p.

Information Contacts: Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of (a) U.S. Geological Survey, 4200 University Drive, Anchorage, AK 99508-4667 USA (Email: tlmurray@usgs.gov; URL: http://www. avo.alaska.edu/), (b) Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, P.O. Box 757320, Fairbanks, AK 99775-7320 USA (Email: eich@giseis.alaska.edu), and (c) Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys, 794 University Ave., Suite 200, Fairbanks, AK 99709 USA (Email: cnye@giseis.alaska.edu); Anchorage Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), 6930 Sand Lake Road, Anchorage, AK 99502, USA (URL: http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/VAAC/ OTH/AK/messages.html).


Obituary

Diego Viracucha, an accomplished 37-year-old mountaineer and for 9 years a volcano seismologist at the Instituto Geofisico, looked into the crater on the morning of 14 January 2001 and reported his impressions via radio. He informed his two assistants that he was going to go ahead alone for several hundred meters W of the seismic station "Pino" in order to take photos. He planned to return in 20 minutes and remain in contact via radio, but later attempts to contact him failed. Apparently he slipped and fell over the caldera rim, a 200- to 300-m-high cliff in that region; his body was found hours later. Given the length of the fall and the impact, he probably died immediately from head wounds and internal injuries.

Recovery of the body was accomplished using mountaineering techniques rather than a helicopter due to fog. The day-long effort involved many, including six IG volcanologists, the Civil Defense, the Guards of the Refuge, the Red Cross, an elite police group, mountaineer groups, and family members. The site of the accident was 2.5 hours from GGP Refuge and it took all day to recover the body. A second accident occurred during this effort when Galo Viracucha, a cousin of Diego, fell and rolled 150 m downslope and later died from his injuries.

Diego had studied the seismic patterns of Cotopaxi, Guagua Pichincha, Cayambe and Tungurahua. He was an accomplished mountaineer and had scaled almost all of the important peaks of Ecuador's volcanoes. One of his greatest passions since September 1999 was keeping a close visual-photographic record of the changes in the domes of Guagua Pichincha. His excellent companionship, his unflagging enthusiasm, his well-stilled knowledge of the seismicity of the active volcanoes--leaves a tremendous void in the Instituto's monitoring efforts.

_____________________________________________________________________
Ed Venzke
Global Volcanism Program, NMNH E-421 Tel: (202) 357-2822
Smithsonian Institution Fax: (202) 357-2476
Washington, DC 20560-0119 Email: venzke@volcano.si.edu
GVP Webmaster http://www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/
____________________________________________________________________





 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 371 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Mar 16, 2001 (11:49) * 82 lines 
 
U.S. Geological Survey
Hawaiian Volcano Observatory
PO Box 51, Hawaii National Park, HI 96718
Phone (808) 967-7328 FAX (808) 967-8890

Volcano Watch - March 15, 2001

Professor Fusakichi Omori - an instrumental person at HVO

The U.S. Geological Survey's Hawaiian Volcano Observatory currently
operates a network of 65 seismic stations. Signals from each station,
including the four on Maui, are radio-telemetered to HVO and recorded.
When an earthquake is detected, the arrival time of the earthquake at each
station is timed, and an epicenter is determined within a few seconds. It
takes a few minutes longer to calculate a magnitude. Then the location and
magnitude of the event are posted on our web site (http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov).
The present high-tech seismic operation at HVO had a humble beginning
92 years ago. In his preparation for establishing a volcano observatory,
Thomas A. Jaggar traveled to Japan in 1909 to learn about Japanese
seismological methods. He met with Professor Fusakichi Omori, head of the
Seismological Institute of the Tokyo Imperial University. Thus began a
long friendship that lasted until Professor Omori's death in 1923. HVO
greatly benefited from this personal relationship.
The meeting in Japan resulted in the presentation to Dr. Jaggar of an
Omori seismograph, various seismological publications, and a set of
construction plans for a seismic vault. When the original HVO was built at
the site of the present Volcano House hotel, a basement was dug, and the
Whitney Seismological Laboratory was constructed in accordance with the
plans of Professor Omori. The first instrument installed was the Omori
seismograph, followed a year later by two Bosch-Omori seismographs
purchased by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. These instruments
were entirely mechanical, with amplification of the horizontal ground
movement dependent upon the length of the weighted pendulum arm.
Variations of these instruments were the main seismic detectors for
40 years until 1953, when electromagnetic sensors were introduced. One
instrument, which was also used for tilt measurements, however, remained in
operation until 1963, when the Whitney vault was abandoned. The National
Park Service is now in the process of restoring the vault and
reestablishing the seismographs.
In addition to his seismographs, HVO used the methodology developed
by Professor Omori to locate earthquakes. The tables or traveltimes of
different earthquake waves published by Professor Omori were ideal for
locating local Hawaiian earthquakes. Of greater importance to HVO were the
publications describing the physical, petrologic, geodetic and seismometric
data of Japanese volcanic eruptions by Professor Omori and his colleagues.
Professor Omori's accounts of the 1914 eruption of Sakurajima Volcano
are classic. The description of the eruption, earthquake activity, ground
deformation, gases, eruptive products and societal concerns are covered.
Jaggar patterned his volcano monitoring efforts to detect precursory
signals reported by Professors Omori and Koto.
The technology and techniques used to monitor volcanoes today may
have changed, but the precursory phenomena remain the same. Thomas A.
Jaggar would be proud if he could now see the Observatory that he
established and the earthquake monitoring program built upon his friendship
with Fusakichi Omori. But he wouldn't be surprised by our rapid detection
and reporting capabilities; he foresaw that in 1941!

Eruption Update

Eruptive activity of Kilauea Volcano continued unabated at the Pu`u
`O`o vent during the past week and provided visitors with an occasional
glimpse of surface flow activity on Pulama pali and on the coastal flats.
Lava is pooling in the coastal flats and not entering the ocean at this
time. The broad active flow front extends 1.5 km (0.9 mi) to the west from
the end of the Royal Gardens private access road. A small lobe of the flow
front is now only 0.3 km (0.2 mi) from the sea coast.
One earthquake was reported felt during the week ending on March 15.
Residents of Pahala and Hawaiian Ocean View Estates felt an earthquake at
5:05 a.m. on Sunday, March 11. The magnitude-3.4 earthquake was located 4
km (2.4 mi) north of Pahala at a depth of 6.5 km (3.9 mi).

This article was written by scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey's
Hawaiian Volcano Observatory.

Carolyn Bell
Public Affairs Specialist
U.S. Geological Survey
Mail Stop 119 National Center
Reston, VA 20192
Phone: 703-648-4463
Fax: 703-648-4466



 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 372 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Mar 17, 2001 (17:37) * 136 lines 
 
*******************************************
GVP/USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report
7-13 March 2001
**************************************
http//www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/usgs/
New Activity/Unrest | Cleveland, USA | Mayon, Philippines | Nyamuragira, DR Congo |
Nyiragongo, DR Congo |
Ongoing Activity | Etna, Italy | Kilauea, USA | Kliuchevskoi, Kamchatka | Lokon-Empung,
Indonesia | Merapi, Indonesia | Popocatépetl, México | Shiveluch, Kamchatka |
Soufrière Hills, Montserrat |

New Activity

CLEVELAND Aleutian Islands, USA 52.82°N, 169.95°W; summit elev. 1,730 m; All times are local (= UTC- 9 hours)
The AVO reported that an explosive eruption at Cleveland began at 0500 on 11 March. The resultant ash cloud was visible on satellite imagery from the onset of the eruption and after it ended 3 hours later. Wind-data analysis suggested that the ash cloud reached a height of 6-7.6 km a.s.l. By 1400 the main part of the ash cloud was detached from the volcano and drifting to the E. Satellite imagery from 2030 showed that the ash cloud was located in two main regions; one region was centered ~80 km S of Dutch Harbor and was ~80 km in diameter, and the other was centered ~160 km SE of Dutch Harbor and extended ~160 km E to W and ~65 km N to S. Both areas of ash were visible on satellite imagery through 1315 on 12 March. In addition, a thermal anomaly on the volcano, which was first detected shortly after the eruption began, persisted. AVO interpreted the thermal anomaly to indicate that unrest was continuing at Cleveland and that further explosive activity could occur at anytime. By 0930 on 13 March the ash clou
was no longer visible on satellite imagery.
Background. The symmetrical Mount Cleveland stratovolcano is situated at the western end of the uninhabited dumbbell-shaped Chuginadak Island in the east-central Aleutians. The 1,730-m-high stratovolcano is the highest of the Islands of Four Mountains volcanoes and is one of the most active in the Aleutians. Numerous large lava flows descend its flanks. It is possible that some 18th to 19th century eruptions attributed to Carlisle volcano, located across the Carlisle Pass Strait to the NW, should be ascribed to Cleveland. In 1944 Cleveland produced the only known fatality from an Aleutian eruption. Recent eruptions from Mt. Cleveland have been characterized by short-lived explosive ash emissions, at times accompanied by lava fountaining and lava flows down the flanks.
Source Alaska Volcano Observatory http//www.avo.alaska.edu/avo4/updates/updates.htm
Anchorage VAAC http//www.ssd.noaa.gov/VAAC/OTH/AK/messages.html
Tokyo VAAC http//www.ssd.noaa.gov/VAAC/OTH/JP/messages.html
Cleveland Reports http//www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/volcano/region11/aleutian/cleve/var.htm
from the monthly Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network

MAYON southeastern Luzon, Philippines 13.257°N, 123.685°E; summit elev. 2,462 m; All times are local (= UTC + 8 hours)
PHIVOLCS reported that during 7 to 13 March, 6-33 low-frequency earthquakes were recorded daily. One SO2 emission measurement was made during the week on 4 March, with a reading of 1,750 metric tons. Like the previous weeks, a slight inflationary trend was detected at the volcano's edifice and weak-to-moderate steaming was occasionally seen. At 1509 on 11 March a brief ash discharge reached a height of 150 m and drifted to the SW. At 1940 the same day faint incandescence was observed at the crater using a telescope; graded as level 1 intensity. Mayon remained at Alert Level 3 (on a scale of 0-5).
Background. The beautifully symmetrical Mayon volcano, which rises to 2,462 m above the Albay Gulf, is the Philippines' most active volcano. The structurally simple volcano has steep upper slopes that average 35-40° and is capped by a small summit crater. The historical eruptions of this basaltic-andesitic volcano date back to 1616 and range from Strombolian to basaltic Plinian. Eruptions occur predominately from the central conduit and have also produced lava flows that travel far down the flanks. Pyroclastic flows and mudflows have commonly swept down many of the approximately 40 ravines that radiate from the summit and have often devastated populated lowland areas. Mayon's most violent eruption, in 1814, killed more than 1,200 people and buried an entire town in volcanic mud. Eruptions that began in February 2000 led PHIVOLCS to recommend on 23 February 2000 the evacuation of people within 7 km of the summit in the SE and within 6 km for the rest of the volcano.
Source Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology,
http//www.phivolcs.dost.gov.ph/vmepd/vmepd.htm
http//www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/volcano/region07/luzon/mayon/var.htm
from the monthly Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network

NYAMURAGIRA Democratic Republic of the Congo 1.408°S, 29.20°E; summit elev. 3,058 m
The eruption at Nyamuragira that began on 5 February continued, with lava flows mainly traveling down the S flank of the volcano. The UN Integrated Regional Information Network reported on 27 February that a UN-government assessment team that visited the town of Goma, ~40 km S of the volcano, determined that ash and lava from the eruption had damaged agriculture and livestock. The team warned that there was an urgent need for food, medicine, and vegetable seeds in the affected areas of Goma, Kitshanga, and Kalungu. According to the Goma Volcanological Observatory, a new eruption began on 2 March with eruptive activity concentrated mainly on the S flank. The Observatory stated that wind had blown ash towards the W and ash fall had destroyed ~50 km2 of pasture and 150 km2 of crops up to 30 km from the volcano in the towns of Rusaya, Kirolirwe, Burungu, Minova, the Masisi territory, and the S part of Kichanga. Ash and gas from the eruption have caused many people in those areas and Goma to experience fever, di
rrhea, headache, conjunctivitis, and respiratory problems.
Background. Africa's most active volcano, Nyamuragira is a massive basaltic shield volcano N of Lake Kivu and NW of Nyiragongo volcano. Lava flows from Nyamuragira cover 1,500 sq km of the East African Rift. The 3058-m-high summit is truncated by a small 2 x 2.3 km summit caldera that has walls up to about 100 m high. About 40 historical eruptions have occurred since the mid-19th century within the summit caldera and from numerous fissures and cinder cones on the volcano's flanks. A lava lake in the summit crater, active since at least 1921, drained in 1938. Twentieth-century flank lava flows extend more than 30 km from the summit, reaching as far as Lake Kivu.
Sources. Goma Volcanological Observatory
UN Integrated Regional Information Network http//www.congo2000.com/english/news/index.htm
Reuters http//www.enn.com/news/wire-stories/2001/03/03112001/reu_lava_42467.asp
Nyamuragira Reports http//www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/volcano/region02/africa_e/nyamura/var.htm
from the monthly Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network

NYIRAGONGO Democratic Republic of the Congo 1.52°S, 29.25°E; summit elev. 3,469 m
The Goma Volcanological Observatory reported that there may be renewed volcanic activity at Nyiragongo volcano, ~10 km SE of Nyamuragira volcano. The observatory stated that during the current eruption of Nyamuragira the temperature increased in Nyiragongo's main cone and Shaheru fissure, ~3 km S of the summit. In addition, new fumaroles were observed inside Nyiragongo's main crater and along the fissure connecting the main crater and Shaheru cone. Cracks that were observed in the crater of the main cone suggested that dilatation of the crater had occurred.
Background. One of Africa's most notable volcanoes, Nyiragongo contained an active lava lake in its deep summit crater that drained catastrophically through its outer flanks in 1977. In contrast to the low profile of its neighboring shield volcano, Nyamuragira, Nyiragongo displays the steep slopes of a stratovolcano. Benches in the steep-walled, 1.2-km-wide summit crater mark the levels of former lava lakes, which have been observed since the late 19th century. About 100 parasitic cones are located on the volcano's flanks and along a NE-SW zone extending as far as Lake Kivu. Monitoring is done from a small observatory building located in Goma, ~18 km S of the Nyiragongo crater.
Source Goma Volcanological Observatory
Nyiragongo Reports http//volcano.si.edu/gvp/volcano/region02/africa_e/nyiragon/var.htm
from the monthly Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network


Ongoing Activity

ETNA Sicily, Italy 37.73°N, 15.00°E; summit elev. 3,315 m
According to the Italy's Volcanoes website, during the first half of March mild, but occasionally vigorous eruptive activity continued at Etna's summit craters much like it has since mid January. Near-continuous Strombolian activity continued at two vents in Bocca Nuova Crater and Strombolian activity intermittently occurred within the central pit of the Northeast Crater. Short lobes of lava continued to form after slowly emerging from a vent on the NNE flank of the Southeast Crater cone.
Background. Mount Etna, towering above Catania, Sicily's second largest city, has one of the world's longest documented records of historical volcanism, dating back to 1500 BC. Historical lava flows cover much of the surface of this massive basaltic stratovolcano, the highest and most voluminous in Italy. Two styles of eruptive activity typically occur at Etna. Persistent explosive eruptions, sometimes with minor lava emissions, take place from one or more of the three prominent summit craters Central Crater, NE Crater, and SE Crater. Flank eruptions, typically with higher effusion rates, occur less frequently and originate from fissures that open progressively downward from near the summit. A period of more intense intermittent explosive eruptions from Etna's summit craters began in 1995.
Source Italy's Volcanoes http//www.geo.mtu.edu/~boris/ETNA_intro.html
Etna Reports
http//www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/volcano/region01/italy/etna/var.
from the monthly Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network

KILAUEA Hawaii, USA 19.43°N, 155.29°W; summit elev. 1,222 m
Lava slowly flowed SE down the Pulama pali and across the coastal plain in a broad flow front, ~1.5 km wide. Much of the flow front was within 1-1.3 km of the coastline, with the closest point ~700 m from the coast. Overall, volcanic tremor near Pu`u `O`o was low-to-moderate and tremor at Kilauea's caldera was low. Tiltmeters in the summit area and along the E rift zone showed flat signals.
Background. Kilauea, one of five coalescing volcanoes that comprise the island of Hawaii, is one of the world's most active volcanoes. Historically its eruptions originate primarily from the summit caldera or along one of the lengthy E and SW rift zones that extend from the caldera to the sea. The latest Kilauea eruption began in January 1983 along the E rift zone. The Pu`u `O`o-Kupaianaha eruption is now in its 18th year and 55th eruptive episode. Since 1986, flows have traveled 11-12 km from the vents to the sea, paving about 80 km2 of land on the S flank of Kilauea and building 205 hectares of new land. Intensive monitoring and field research by staff of the US Geological Survey's Hawaiian Volcano Observatory, established in 1912, make Kilauea one of Earth's best studied volcanoes.
Source US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory http//hvo.wr.usgs.gov/kilauea/update/
Kilauea Reports
http//www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/volcano/region13/hawaii/kilauea/var.htm
from the monthly Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network

KLIUCHEVSKOI Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia 56.06°N, 160.64°E; summit elev. 4,835 m
The KVERT reported that during 2-8 March seismicity was at background levels, with weak spasmodic tremor occasionally registered. On 4 March a gas-and-steam plume rose 600-1,000 m above the volcano and extended more than 10 km to the NE. As reported by the Tokyo VAAC, GMS-5 imagery showed that the plume rose to a height of ~9.5 km a.s.l. The Concern Color Code remained at Green.
http//www.avo.alaska.edu/avo4/updates/kvertweekly.htm
Background. Kliuchevskoi is Kamchatka's highest and most active volcano. Since its origin about 7,000 years ago, the beautifully symmetrical, 4,835-m-high basaltic stratovolcano has produced frequent moderate-volume explosive and effusive eruptions without major periods of inactivity. More than 100 flank eruptions, mostly on the NE and SE flanks of the conical volcano between 500 m and 3,600 m elevation, have occurred during the past 3,000 years. The morphology of its 700-m-wide summit crater has been frequently modified by historical eruptions, which have been recorded since the late-17th century. Historical eruptions have originated primarily from the summit crater, but have also included major explosive and effusive events from flank craters.
Source Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team via the Alaska Volcano Observatory http//www.avo.alaska.edu/avo4/updates/kvertweekly.htm
Tokyo VAAC http//www.ssd.noaa.gov/VAAC/OTH/JP/messages.html
Kliuchevskoi Reports http//www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/volcano/region10/kamchat/kliuchev/var.htm
from the monthly Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network

LOKON-EMPUNG northern Sulawesi, Indonesia 1.36°N, 124.79°E; summit elev. 1,580 m
The VSI reported that visual observations made during 27 February to 5 March revealed that activity decreased at Lokon-Empung. Only small-to-medium sized steam plumes were observed rising 50-150 m above the crater. The Alert level was reduced from 3 to 2 (on a scale of 1-4).
Background. The twin volcanoes Lokon and Empung, rising about 800 m above the plain of Tondano, are among the most active volcanoes of Sulawesi. Lokon, the higher of the two peaks (whose summits are only 2.2 km apart) has a flat, craterless top. The morphologically younger Empung volcano has a 400-m-wide, 150-m-deep crater that erupted last in the 18th century, but all subsequent eruptions have originated from Tompaluan, a 150 x 250 m wide double crater situated in the saddle between the two peaks. Historical eruptions have primarily produced small-to-moderate ash plumes that have occasionally damaged croplands and houses, but lava-dome growth and pyroclastic flows have also occurred.
Source Volcanological Survey of Indonesia, http//www.vsi.dpe.go.id/news/index.html
Lokon-Empung Reports
http//www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/volcano/region06/sulawesi/lokon/var.htm
from the monthly Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network

MERAPI central Java, Indonesia 7.542°S, 110.442°E; summit elev. 2,947 m
Visual and instrumental monitoring conducted by VSI personnel revealed that volcanic activity at Merapi had decreased; therefore on 7 March the Alert Level was reduced from 3 to 2 (on a scale of 1-4). During 27 February- 5 March, volcanic activity was dominated by an average of 100 lava avalanches per day. The avalanche material traveled to the SW, entering the Sat and Senowo rivers with runout distances of 2.3-2.5 km. On 6 March a pyroclastic flow deposited material up to 1.5 km down the Sat River.
Background. Merapi, one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes, lies in one of the world's most densely populated areas and dominates the landscape immediately N of the major city of Yogyakarta. The steep-sided modern Merapi edifice, its upper part unvegetated due to frequent eruptive activity, was constructed to the SW of an arcuate scarp cutting the eroded older Batulawang volcano. Pyroclastic flows and lahars accompanying growth and collapse of the steep-sided active summit lava dome have devastated cultivated and inhabited lands on the volcano's western-to-southern flanks and caused many fatalities during historical time. The volcano is the object of extensive monitoring efforts by the Merapi Volcano Observatory of the Volcanological Survey of Indonesia.
Source Volcanological Survey of Indonesia, http//www.vsi.dpe.go.id/news/index.html
Merapi Reports
http//www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/volcano/region06/java/merapi/var.htm
from the monthly Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network

POPOCATÉPETL México 19.02°N, 98.62°W; summit elev. 5,426 m; All times are local (= UTC 6 hours)
CENAPRED reported that Popocatépetl's activity was at low-to-moderate levels during most of the week, with small exhalations accompanied by steam emissions. Based on reports from the Mexico MWO, the Washington VAAC reported that at 2024 on 12 March an ash cloud from an exhalation of Popocatépetl was observed at a height of ~ 7 km a.s.l. The ash cloud was not visible on GOES-8 imagery. The volcano remained at Alert Level Yellow Phase III, with a restricted area of 12-km-radius.
Background. Popocatépetl, whose name is the Aztec word for smoking mountain, towers to 5,426 m 70 km SE of México City and is North America's second highest volcano. Frequent historical eruptions have been recorded since the beginning of the Spanish colonial era. A small eruption on 21 December 1994 ended five decades of quiescence. Since 1996 small lava domes have incrementally been constructed within the summit crater and destroyed by explosive eruptions. Intermittent small-to-moderate gas-and-ash eruptions have continued, occasionally producing ashfall in neighboring towns and villages.
Photos (CENAPRED site) http//www.cenapred.unam.mx/boletines.html
Sources Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres, http//www.cenapred.unam.mx/boletines.html
Washington VAAC, http//www.ssd.noaa.gov/VAAC/messages.html
Popocatépetl Reports
http//www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/volcano/region14/mexico/popo/var.html
from the monthly Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network

SHIVELUCH Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia 56.653°N, 161.360°E; summit elev. 3,283 m; All times are local (= UTC + 12 hours)
The KVERT reported that during 2-6 March, several series of shallow earthquakes were registered, with some followed by weak spasmodic volcanic tremor. The bursts of activity may have corresponded to weak ash-and-gas explosions that rose to heights of 2-3 km above the crater. During 3-4 March, visual and satellite-based data revealed that a gas-and-ash plume rose 300-800 m above the crater and drifted more than 50 km to the E. At 1545 on 7 March seismic data indicated the probable occurrence of a short-lived gas-and-ash explosion, accompanied by a series of shallow and high-frequency earthquakes for ~15 minutes. Observers in Klyuchi town reported that at 1600 the same day the ash-and-gas plume rose 1.5 km above the lava dome and extended to the NW. According to a pilot report, at 1620 the ash plume was visible at a height of 10 km above the volcano drifting towards the NE. The AVO reported that satellite imagery at 1715 showed two plumes one was at a low altitude, composed mostly of steam, and drifted to the
E; the other was located 7-8 km a.s.l., composed mostly of ash, and drifted to the N. At 1625 the Tokyo VAAC detected the ash cloud on GMS-5 imagery at a height of ~10 km a.s.l. The ash cloud was no longer visible on satellite imagery by 0342 on 8 March. The Concern Color Code remained at Yellow.
http//www.avo.alaska.edu/avo4/updates/kvertweekly.htm
Background. The high, isolated massif of Shiveluch volcano (also spelled Sheveluch) rises above the lowlands NNE of the Kliuchevskaya volcano group and forms one of Kamchatka's largest and most active volcanoes. The currently active Molodoy Shiveluch lava-dome complex was constructed during the Holocene within a large breached caldera formed by collapse of the massive late-Pleistocene Strary Shiveluch volcano. At least 60 large eruptions of Shiveluch have occurred during the Holocene, making it the most vigorous andesitic volcano of the Kuril-Kamchatka arc. Frequent collapses of lava-dome complexes, most recently in 1964, have produced large debris avalanches whose deposits cover much of the floor of the breached caldera. During the 1990s, intermittent explosive eruptions took place from a new lava dome that began growing in 1980. The largest historical eruptions from Shiveluch occurred in 1854 and 1964.
Source Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team via the Alaska Volcano Observatory http//www.avo.alaska.edu/avo4/updates/kvertweekly.htm
Tokyo VAAC http//www.ssd.noaa.gov/VAAC/OTH/JP/messages.html
Shiveluch Reports http//www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/volcano/region10/kamchat/shiveluc/var.htm
from the monthly Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network

SOUFRIÈRE HILLS Montserrat, West Indies 16.72°N, 62.18°W; summit elev. 1,030 m
The MVO reported that during 2-9 March activity decreased at Soufrière Hills volcano in comparison to the previous week, with the lava dome returning to a steady growth rate. Early in the report week the banded tremor recorded the previous week died away, as did the associated hybrid earthquakes. Rockfall activity increased during the middle of the week, returning to more usual levels. The volcano appeared to have resumed steady dome growth by the end of the week. Observations confirmed that the main area of lava-dome growth had switched to the S of the dome on 25 February, which led to a concentration of rockfall activity in the upper portions of the White River Valley. Light ashfall from activity during the week was blown over the N of the island, although by the end of the week the wind switched back to the more usual direction towards the W. The Washington VAAC reported that throughout the week low-level ash clouds (up to ~3 km a.s.l.), presumably produced by rockfalls, and periodic hot-spot activity we
e visible on GOES-8 imagery.
Background. The complex andesitic Soufrière Hills volcano occupies the southern half of the island of Montserrat. The summit area consists primarily of a series of lava domes emplaced along an ESE-trending zone. Non-eruptive seismic swarms occurred at 30-year intervals in the 20th century, but the first well-documented historical eruption on Montserrat did not take place until 1995. Long-term small-to-moderate ash eruptions were accompanied by lava dome growth and pyroclastic flows that initially forced evacuation of the southern half of the island and then destroyed the capital city of Plymouth, causing severe social and economic disruption. The volcano is currently in a period of new dome growth.
Sources Montserrat Volcano Observatory http//www.mvomrat.com/
Washington VAAC http//www.ssd.noaa.gov/VAAC/messages.html
Soufrière Hills Reports http//www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/volcano/region16/w_indies/soufhill/var.htm
http//www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/volcano/region16/w_indies/soufhill/var.htm
from the monthly Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network

*********************************************************
Gari Mayberry
US Geological Survey/Global Volcanism Program
Smithsonian Institution
National Museum of Natural History E-421
Washington, DC 20560-0119
mayberry@volcano.si.edu
URL http//www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/usgs/
**********************************************************







 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 373 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Mar 20, 2001 (20:02) * 43 lines 
 
ALASKA VOLCANO OBSERVATORY
Monday, March 19, 2001 2030 AST (March 20, 0530 UTC)

VOLCANIC ACTIVITY REPORT
CLEVELAND VOLCANO (CAVW #1101-24)
52°49'N 169°57'W
Summit Elevation 5,674 ft (1,730 m)

AVO detected an explosive eruption at Cleveland Volcano in satellite
imagery that began about 2330 UTC (1430 AST). According to images from
0330 UTC (1830 AST) the ash cloud is V-shaped with one leg extending to the
east 115 mi (185 km) and the other leg extending to the southeast about 125
mi (200 km). The National Weather Service estimates the top of the cloud
to be 30,000 ft ASL. The eruption may still be continuing as of the latest
satellite image from 0430 UTC (1930 AST). An observer in Nikolski reported
about 0400 UTC (1900 AST) a strong haze resulting from the ash that
extended to the southeast from the volcano, but no ashfall in Nikolski.

Mt. Cleveland forms the western half of Chuginadak Island a remote and
uninhabited island in the east central Aleutians. It is located 40 km (25
mi) west of Umnak Island and 75 km (45 mi) west of the community of
Nikolski. A distinctively symmetrical stratovolcano, Cleveland has erupted
at least 11 times since 1893. An explosive event on February 19, 2001 sent
ash to 35,000 feet (10.5 km) ASL. The March 11, 2001 event produced an ash
plume that reached a height of 20,000-25,000 ft (6.1-7.6 km) ASL.

Eruptions of Mt. Cleveland are characterized by short-lived explosive
bursts of ash, at times accompanied by lava fountaining and lava flows down
the flanks. Cleveland is not monitored seismically, therefore we do not
assign a level of concern color code.
AVO will continue to monitor the situation closely and will issue further
updates as information becomes available.

Abbreviated color code key (contact AVO for complete description):
GREEN volcano is dormant; normal seismicity and fumarolic activity
occurring
YELLOW volcano is restless; eruption may occur
ORANGE volcano is in eruption or eruption may occur at any time
RED significant eruption is occurring or explosive eruption expected
at any time
Volcano information on the internet: http://www.avo.alaska.edu
Recording of the status of Alaska's volcanoes (907) 786-7478



 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 374 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Mar 21, 2001 (19:09) * 343 lines 
 
*******************************************
GVP/USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report
14-20 March 2001
*******************************************
From Gari Mayberry

GVP/USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report
14-20 March 2001
http//www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/usgs/

New Activity/Unrest | Cleveland, USA | Mayon, Philippines | Miyake-jima,
Japan | Piton de la Fournaise, Reunion Island |
Ongoing Activity | Guagua Pichincha, Ecuador | Kilauea, USA |
Kliuchevskoi, Kamchatka | Merapi, Indonesia | Popocatépetl, México |
Shiveluch, Kamchatka | Soufrière Hills, Montserrat | Tungurahua, Ecuador |


New Activity

CLEVELAND Aleutian Islands, USA 52.82°N, 169.95°W; summit elev. 1,730 m;
All times are local (= UTC 9 hours)
The AVO reported that at 1430 on 19 March an explosive eruption at
Cleveland was detected on satellite imagery. The National Weather Service
estimated the top of the cloud to be at ~ 9 km a.s.l. An observer in the
town of Nikolski reported that at about 1900 a strong haze resulting from
the eruption extended SE from the volcano, but there was no ashfall. The
Washington VAAC concluded that the ash cloud had dissipated by 0230 on 20
March because it was no longer visible on satellite imagery.
Background. The symmetrical Mount Cleveland stratovolcano is situated at
the western end of the uninhabited dumbbell-shaped Chuginadak Island in the
east-central Aleutians. The 1,730-m-high stratovolcano is the highest of
the Islands of Four Mountains volcanoes and is one of the most active in
the Aleutians. Numerous large lava flows descend its flanks. It is
possible that some 18th to 19th century eruptions attributed to Carlisle
volcano, located across the Carlisle Pass Strait to the NW, should be
ascribed to Cleveland. In 1944 Cleveland produced the only known fatality
from an Aleutian eruption. Recent eruptions from Mt. Cleveland have been
characterized by short-lived explosive ash emissions, at times accompanied
by lava fountaining and lava flows down the flanks.
Sources Alaska Volcano Observatory
http//www.avo.alaska.edu/avo4/updates/updates.htm, Washington VAAC
http//www.ssd.noaa.gov/VAAC/messages.html
Cleveland Reports
http//www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/volcano/region11/aleutian/cleve/var.htm
from the monthly Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network

MAYON southeastern Luzon, Philippines 13.257°N, 123.685°E; summit elev.
2,462 m
PHIVOLCS reported that during 15 to 19 March, 10-37 low-frequency
earthquakes were recorded daily. An average of 2,900 metric tons per day
(t/d) of SO2 was recorded during the previous week, which was significantly
above the baseline value of 500 t/d. Many days a slight inflationary trend
was detected at the volcano’s edifice and moderate steaming was seen. No
incandescence was observed at the crater. PHIVOLCS warned that instrumental
and visual observations suggested that an eruption may occur in the coming
weeks and that the volcano remained at Alert Level 3. Observations revealed
that the lava dome growing at the summit had overlapped the pre-existing SE
rim of the summit crater. Further growth of the lava dome towards the SE
could result in rockfalls and avalanches that would be channeled down the
SE-flank Bonga Gully. In addition, large pyroclastic flows could occur down
the volcano’s SE slope.
Background. The beautifully symmetrical Mayon volcano, which rises to 2,462
m above the Albay Gulf, is the Philippines' most active volcano. The
structurally simple volcano has steep upper slopes that average 35-40° and
is capped by a small summit crater. The historical eruptions of this
basaltic-andesitic volcano date back to 1616 and range from Strombolian to
basaltic Plinian. Eruptions occur predominately from the central conduit
and have also produced lava flows that travel far down the flanks.
Pyroclastic flows and mudflows have commonly swept down many of the
approximately 40 ravines that radiate from the summit and have often
devastated populated lowland areas. Mayon's most violent eruption, in 1814,
killed more than 1,200 people and buried an entire town in volcanic mud.
Eruptions that began in February 2000 led PHIVOLCS to recommend on 23
February 2000 the evacuation of people within 7 km of the summit in the SE
and within 6 km for the rest of the volcano.
Source Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology
http//www.phivolcs.dost.gov.ph/vmepd/vmepd.htm
Mayon Reports
http//www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/volcano/region07/luzon/mayon/var.htm
from the monthly Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network

MIYAKE-JIMA Izu Islands, Japan 34.08°N, 139.53°E; summit elev. 815 m
Based on information from the Japan Meteorological Agency, the Kyodo news
agency reported that on 16 March volcanic tremor was recorded at
Miyake-jima. The tremor was the strongest to be recorded since 29 August
2000. On 19 March an eruption produced a black ash cloud that rose 800 m
above the volcano. The island is currently uninhabited because the current
volcanic activity that began on 26-27 June 2000 led officials to order an
evacuation on 1 September 2000.
Background. The circular, 8-km-wide island of Miyake-jima forms a low-angle
stratovolcano with a 3-km-wide summit caldera partially filled by the
summit cone Oyama (many reports call the volcano Oyama). Parasitic craters
and vents, including maars near the coast and radially oriented fissure
vents, dot the volcano. Frequent historical eruptions have originated at
vents ranging from the summit to sea level, causing much damage. The
previous eruption of Miyake-jima occurred in 1983; it forced ~4,000
residents to evacuate the island. There were no injuries or fatalities
reported then, but basaltic lava flows destroyed 80% of the W-flank town of
Ako and reached the sea on the SW coast.
Source Kyodo News http//home.kyodo.co.jp/
Miyake-jima Reports
http//ww.volcano.si.edu/gvp/volcano/region08/ivm_arc/miyake/var.htm
from the monthly Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network

PITON DE LA FOURNAISE Réunion Island, Indian Ocean 21.23°S, 55.71°E
The OVPDLF reported that instrumental measurements suggest that Piton de la
Fournaise may be entering a phase of heightened activity. Periods of
increased seismic activity were recorded in late January with up to 13
earthquakes per day, in late February to early March with up to 126
earthquakes per day, and from 10 March until at least 15 March with up to
20 earthquakes per day. Inflation was detected at the volcano’s summit from
mid-January to early February, and from the end of February to early March.
Since mid-January a continuous opening of fissures was recorded at the N
and S bases of the volcano, indicating inflation of the summit area.
Similar variations in activity were observed before eruptions on the E and
S flanks of the volcano in 1999 and 2000.
Background. The massive Piton de la Fournaise shield volcano on the island
of Réunion is one of the world's most active volcanoes. Most historical
eruptions have originated from the summit and flanks of a 400-m-high lava
shield, Dolomieu, which has grown within the youngest of three large
calderas. This depression is 8 km wide and is breached to below sea level
on the eastern side. More than 150 eruptions, most of which have produced
fluid basaltic lava flows within the caldera, have been documented since
the 17th century.
Source Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise
http//volcano.ipgp.jussieu.fr8080/reunion/stationreu2.html
Piton de la Fournaise Reports
http//www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/volcano/region03/indian_w/pdlf/var.htm
from the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network

Ongoing Activity

GUAGUA PICHINCHA north-central Ecuador 0.17°S, 78.60°W; summit elev. 4,784
m; All times are local (= UTC 5 hours)
Based on information from the IG, the Washington VAAC reported that a
moderate ash emission at 2145 on 18 March produced an ash cloud that rose
to a height of ~5.8 km a.s.l. The ash cloud was not visible on GOES-8
imagery. According to the IG, during the week a large number of
earthquakes, especially long-period events, were registered. The detection
of a small number of rockfalls confirmed that lava dome 9 continued to
slowly grow. The volcano remained at Alert Level Yellow
http//www.epn.edu.ec/~igeo/Vulcanologia/Alarmas/alarmas.htm
Background. Guagua Pichincha rises immediately W of Quito, Ecuador’s
capital city. The broad volcanic massif is cut by a large horseshoe-shaped
summit caldera, ~6 km in diameter and 600 m deep, that was breached to the
W during a slope failure ~50,000 years ago. Subsequent late-Pleistocene
and Holocene eruptions from the central vent consisted of explosive
activity with pyroclastic flows accompanied by periodic lava dome growth
and destruction. A major eruption in 1660 deposited 30 cm of ash in Quito,
but most of the many eruptions since the Spanish colonial era have been
minor. The latest eruptive period began with phreatic explosions in 1998.
Magmatic eruptions first occurred in October 1999, and intermittent
eruptions of varying scale since then have blanketed Quito and surrounding
towns with ash.
Sources Instituto Geofísico http//www.epn.edu.ec/~igeo/index.html,
Washington VAAC http//www.ssd.noaa.gov/VAAC/messages.html
Guagua Pichincha Reports
http//www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/volcano/region15/ecuador/guagua/var.htm
from the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network

KILAUEA Hawaii, USA 19.43°N, 155.29°W; summit elev. 1,222 m
Lava continued to flow down the Pulama Pali and across the coastal flat as
it has for the past 2.5 months. By the end of the week the front of the
lava flow was within 300 m of the coast. During the previous couple of
weeks, the lava flows had traveled farther E than any active flows since
1992. Overall, volcanic tremor near Pu`u `O`o was low-to-moderate and
tremor at Kilauea's caldera was low. For approximately the previous 2
weeks, small low-frequency earthquakes occurred below the caldera.
Tiltmeters in the summit area and along the E rift zone showed flat signals.
Background. Kilauea, one of five coalescing volcanoes that comprise the
island of Hawaii, is one of the world’s most active volcanoes.
Historically its eruptions originate primarily from the summit caldera or
along one of the lengthy E and SW rift zones that extend from the caldera
to the sea. The latest Kilauea eruption began in January 1983 along the E
rift zone. The Pu`u `O`o-Kupaianaha eruption is now in its 18th year and
55th eruptive episode. Since 1986, flows have traveled 11-12 km from the
vents to the sea, paving about 80 km2 of land on the S flank of Kilauea and
building 205 hectares of new land. Intensive monitoring and field research
by staff of the US Geological Survey’s Hawaiian Volcano Observatory,
established in 1912, make Kilauea one of Earth's best studied volcanoes.
Source US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory
http//hvo.wr.usgs.gov/kilauea/update/
Kilauea Reports
http//www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/volcano/region13/hawaii/kilauea/var.htm
from the monthly Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network

KLIUCHEVSKOI Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia 56.06°N, 160.64°E; summit elev.
4,835 m; All times are local (= UTC + 12 hours)
The KVERT reported that during 9-15 March seismic activity was above
background levels, with interrupted spasmodic tremor and shallow
earthquakes registered. Between 1925 and 1940 on 15 March, an intense
series of shallow earthquakes were registered. Gas-and-steam plumes rose 2
km above the volcano on 12 and 14 March, and others reached 100-250 m above
the volcano on 9, 11, and 13 March. The level of Concern Color Code was
raised from Green to Yellow
http//www.avo.alaska.edu/avo4/updates/kvertweekly.htm
Background. Kliuchevskoi is Kamchatka's highest and most active volcano.
Since its origin about 7,000 years ago, the beautifully symmetrical,
4,835-m-high basaltic stratovolcano has produced frequent moderate-volume
explosive and effusive eruptions without major periods of inactivity. More
than 100 flank eruptions have occurred during the past 3,000 years, mostly
on the NE and SE flanks of the conical volcano between 500 m and 3,600 m
elevation. The morphology of its 700-m-wide summit crater has been
frequently modified by historical eruptions, which have been recorded since
the late-17th century. Historical eruptions have originated primarily from
the summit crater, but have also included major explosive and effusive
events from flank craters.
Source Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team via the Alaska Volcano
Observatory http//www.avo.alaska.edu/avo4/updates/kvertweekly.htm
Kliuchevskoi Reports
http//www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/volcano/region10/kamchat/kliuchev/var.htm
from the monthly Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network

MERAPI central Java, Indonesia 7.542°S, 110.442°E; summit elev. 2,947 m
Visual and instrumental monitoring by VSI personnel revealed that volcanic
activity continued at Merapi. Hot lava avalanches continued to enter the
Sat, Senowo, Bebeng, and Lamat rivers, with a maximum runout distance of
2.5 km in the Sat River. Pyroclastic flows traveled up to 2.75 km down the
Sat, Senowo, and Bebeng rivers. Superficial earthquakes dominated the
seismicity, though fewer occurred than in the previous week. Observations
on 10 March revealed that high-pressure fumaroles appeared on most of the
dome’s surface. The volcano remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).
Background. Merapi, one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes, lies in one
of the world's most densely populated areas and dominates the landscape
immediately N of the major city of Yogyakarta. The steep-sided modern
Merapi edifice, its upper part unvegetated due to frequent eruptive
activity, was constructed to the SW of an arcuate scarp cutting the eroded
older Batulawang volcano. Pyroclastic flows and lahars accompanying growth
and collapse of the steep-sided active summit lava dome have devastated
cultivated and inhabited lands on the volcano's western-to-southern flanks
and caused many fatalities during historical time. The volcano is the
object of extensive monitoring efforts by the Merapi Volcano Observatory of
the Volcanological Survey of Indonesia.
Source Volcanological Survey of Indonesia,
http//www.vsi.dpe.go.id/news/index.html
Merapi Reports
http//www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/volcano/region06/java/merapi/var.htm
from the monthly Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network

POPOCATÉPETL México 19.02°N, 98.62°W; summit elev. 5,426 m
According to CENAPRED, volcanic activity that was relatively high during
14-16 March began to diminish on 17 March. On 14 and 15 March there were
many small exhalations of steam, ash, and gas, as well as episodes of
harmonic tremor that totaled 1 hour. On 15 March a new lava dome ~200 m in
diameter and 40 m high was observed at the volcano’s summit. By 17 March
fewer exhalations occurred than on previous days and harmonic tremor was
only detected for a total of 15 minutes. The volcano remained at Alert
Level Yellow Phase III, with a restricted 12-km-radius area.
Background. Popocatépetl, whose name is the Aztec word for smoking
mountain, towers to 5,426 m 70 km SE of México City and is North America's
second highest volcano. Frequent historical eruptions have been recorded
since the beginning of the Spanish colonial era. A small eruption on 21
December 1994 ended five decades of quiescence. Since 1996 small lava
domes have incrementally been constructed within the summit crater and
destroyed by explosive eruptions. Intermittent small-to-moderate
gas-and-ash eruptions have continued, occasionally producing ashfall in
neighboring towns and villages.
Photos (CENAPRED site) http//www.cenapred.unam.mx/boletines.html
Sources Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres,
http//www.cenapred.unam.mx/boletines.html
Washington VAAC, http//www.ssd.noaa.gov/VAAC/vaac.html
Popocatépetl Reports
http//www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/volcano/region14/mexico/popo/var.html
from the monthly Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network

SHIVELUCH Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia 56.653°N, 161.360°E; summit elev.
3,283 m
The KVERT reported that seismicity was at background levels. On 9 and 11-14
March gas-and-steam plumes rose 400-1,000 m above the volcano. The Concern
Color Code remained at Yellow
http//www.avo.alaska.edu/avo4/updates/kvertweekly.htm
Background. The high, isolated massif of Shiveluch volcano (also spelled
Sheveluch) rises above the lowlands NNE of the Kliuchevskaya volcano group
and forms one of Kamchatka's largest and most active volcanoes. The
currently active Molodoy Shiveluch lava-dome complex was constructed during
the Holocene within a large breached caldera formed by collapse of the
massive late-Pleistocene Strary Shiveluch volcano. At least 60 large
eruptions of Shiveluch have occurred during the Holocene, making it the
most vigorous andesitic volcano of the Kuril-Kamchatka arc. Frequent
collapses of lava-dome complexes, most recently in 1964, have produced
large debris avalanches whose deposits cover much of the floor of the
breached caldera. During the 1990s, intermittent explosive eruptions took
place from a new lava dome that began growing in 1980. The largest
historical eruptions from Shiveluch occurred in 1854 and 1964.
Source Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team via the Alaska Volcano
Observatory http//www.avo.alaska.edu/avo4/updates/kvertweekly.htm
Shiveluch Reports
http//www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/volcano/region10/kamchat/shiveluc/var.htm
from the monthly Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network

SOUFRIÈRE HILLS Montserrat, West Indies 16.72°N, 62.18°W; summit elev. 1,030 m
The MVO reported that during 9-16 March activity decreased at Soufrière
Hills volcano in comparison to the previous week, with the lava dome
continuing to steadily grow. Seismic activity significantly decreased
relative to the previous few weeks. Observations confirmed that most
rockfall activity occurred to the S down the White River, with occasional
rockfalls towards the E down Tar River Valley.
Background. The complex andesitic Soufrière Hills volcano occupies the
southern half of the island of Montserrat. The summit area consists
primarily of a series of lava domes emplaced along an ESE-trending zone.
Non-eruptive seismic swarms occurred at 30-year intervals in the 20th
century, but the first well-documented historical eruption on Montserrat
did not take place until 1995. Long-term small-to-moderate ash eruptions
were accompanied by lava dome growth and pyroclastic flows that initially
forced evacuation of the southern half of the island and then destroyed the
capital city of Plymouth, causing severe social and economic disruption.
The volcano is currently in a period of new dome growth.
Sources Montserrat Volcano Observatory http//www.mvomrat.com/
Soufrière Hills Reports
http//www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/volcano/region16/w_indies/soufhill/var.htm
from the monthly Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network

TUNGURAHUA Ecuador 1.47°S, 78.44°W; summit elev. 5,023 m; All times are
local (= UTC 5 hours)
During the week several small eruptions occurred at Tungurahua and seismic
activity was at high levels. Based on information from the IG, the
Washington VAAC reported that an ash emission at 1608 on 13 March produced
an ash cloud that rose to ~9.6 km a.s.l. and drifted to the NW. The IG
stated that the transmission lasted ~10 minutes and that light ash fell in
the towns of Cotalo and Pillaro. At 1415 on 15 March an eruption produced
an ash cloud that rose ~3.2 km above the volcano. An ash emission occurred
at 1756 on 16 March that rose to 8.8 km a.s.l. and drifted to the ENE.
Background. The steep-sided Tungurahua stratovolcano towers more than 3 km
above its northern base. It sits ~140 km S of Quito, Ecuador’s capital
city, and is one of Ecuador's most active volcanoes. The volcano's
historical eruptions have been restricted to the summit crater. They have
been accompanied by strong explosions and sometimes by pyroclastic flows
and lava flows that reached populated areas at the volcano's base. The
last major eruption took place from 1916 to 1918, although minor activity
continued until 1925. The latest eruption began in October 1999 and
prompted the evacuation of the town of Baños on the N side of the volcano.
Source Instituto Geofísico, http//www.epn.edu.ec/~igeo/index.html,
Washington VAAC http//www.ssd.noaa.gov/VAAC/messages.html
Tungurahua Reports
http//www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/volcano/region15/ecuador/tungurah/var.htm
from the monthly Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network

*********************************************************
US Geological Survey/Global Volcanism Program
Smithsonian Institution
National Museum of Natural History E-421
Washington, DC 20560-0119
URL http//www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/usgs/


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 375 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Mar 28, 2001 (15:44) * 132 lines 
 
************************************
Indonesia Update Report No. 607
12-18 March 2001
************************************
From: Dan Shackelford

For the week of 12 - 18 March, Merapi continues to strongly degas from the
entire surface of the new dome, with glowing avalanches to 3km and
pyroclastic flows to 1km in length. Lokon Empung emitted white gas plumes.
Inielika showed decreased seismicity (no visual observations due to
clouds). Api Siau remained rather quiet still, thick gas plumes and red
glows were the norm, no explosions or avalanches known during this week.
Decreased shallow volcanic earthquakes at Kawah Ijen but Anak Krakatau
showed increased shallow volcanic earthquakes. Semeru was cloud-covered but
seismicity was dominated by explosion earthquakes and avalanches. No
changes at Batur whereas Soputan displayed increased seismicity and
avalanche events. Kelut showed no unusual activity.

Following is from Dali Ahmad (Volcanological Survery of Indonesia):

VOLCANIC ACTIVITY REPORTS

Information contacts: Dali Ahmad (dali@VSI.dpe.go.id)
Hetty Triastuty (hetty@VSI.dpe.go.id)
Nia Haerani (haerani@VSI.dpe.go.id)
Suswati (suswati@VSI.dpe.go.id)

VSI
Jalan Diponegoro 57 Bandung 40122
Fax : + 62 22 72 02 761
Tel: + 62 22 72 14 612

Weekly Report No. 607
2-18 March 2001

Merapi
Central Java; 7°32.5' S, 110°26.5' E
Based on visual and instrumental monitoring Merapi activity is in
level 2. High vigilance is needed for people who work and living around
Merapi at radius 6 km from the summit.
Based on visual observations, solfatara is commonly in white thick
color, hit 575 m from the summit. Glowing lava avalanche is continuing
entered to the River Sat, Senowo, Bebeng, and Lamat, with the maximum
distance is 3 km to River Sat. Pyroclastic flow is ongoing, flowed 1 km away
to the River Sat, Senowo and Bebeng.
Superficial earthquakes are dominating the seismicity. The number and
amplitude decrease compare to the last week. Summit investigation on 17
March 2001 noticed that solfatara appear from almost of dome surface with
the high pressure and strong smell. Temperature around the summit feels hot.
There is no lahars that occurred during this week.
Merapi volcano is in level 2.

Lokon
North Sulawesi; 1°21.5' N, 124°47.5' E
During the week Lokon volcano often covered by clouds. From many
visual observations, white thin-medium plume is continuing appear from the
volcano hit 25-200 m above the crater rim. Seismic record since 13 March
were: 2 events of deep volcanic (A) earthquake and 19 events of tectonic
earthquake.
Lokon volcano is in level 2.

Inelika
Central Flores; 8°44' S, 120°59' E
Visual observation could not be done well because along this period
the volcano always covered by clouds. But from instrumental monitoring
Inelika activity appears decrease. During this period seismograph recorded 1
event of shallow volcanic (B) earthquake, 4 events of deep volcanic (A) and
13 events of tectonic earthquake.
Inelika volcano is in level 2.

Karangetang
Siau island; 2°47' N, 125°29' E
There was not explosion and lava avalanche that occur during the
period, and activity characterized with red-colored reflection above the
summit as height as 25 m and 50-400 m of white medium plume.
Karangetang volcano is in level 2.

Ijen
East Java;8°3.5' S, 114°14.5' E
Thick clouds covered the body of volcano during the report. Shallow
volcanic earthquakes are continuing but decrease over last week. Seismograph
recorded 27 events of shallow volcanic (B) earthquake, 3 events of small
explosion earthquake and 1 event of tectonic within this week.
Ijen volcano is in level 2.

Semeru
East Java; 8°6.50' S, 112°55' E
The summit of the volcano covered by clouds along the report, but from
seismicity record the volcano indicated an increasing in activity. Explosion
and avalanche earthquake still dominating seismicity and increase over last
week. Detail data were: 349 events of explosion earthquake, 10 events of
avalanche and 4 events of deep volcanic (A), and 3 events of tectonic
earthquake.
Semeru volcano is in level 2.

Anak Krakatau
Sunda Straits, 6°6'5.8" S, 105°25'22.3" E
Anak Krakatau showed a significant increasing within this week. It was
represents from the number of shallow volcanic earthquake which increase
compare to the week before. Detail seismiciy: 2 events of deep volcanic (A)
earthquake, 79 events of shallow volcanic (B), and 8 events of tectonic
earthquake.
Anak Krakatau is stated in level 2.

G. Soputan
North Sulawesi,124º41'12"N, 1º6'20"E
Almost the report, the Soputan edifice covered by clouds. Seismicity
record showed avalanche and tremor earthquake are ongoing and increase in
number. Seismograph recorded 12 events of tremor volcanic earthquake with
amplitude of 0.5-1 mm. Detail data listed as follow: 4 event of deep
volcanic (A) earthquake, 15 events of tectonic and 30 events of avalanche
earthquakes.
Soputan is stated in level 2.

G. Batur
Bali Island
115.37° N, 8.24° E, summit elevation 1717 m
There was no major changes from Batur volcano based on visual and
instrumental monitoring. During the report seismograph recorded 3 events of
shallow volcanic (B) earthquake, 4 events of deep volcanic (A) earthquake, 3
events of small explosion and tectonic earthquake 2 events.
Batur volcano is in level 2.

Kelut
East Java;7°56' S, 112°18.5' E
Visual and instrumental observations resulted no significant changing
in Kelut activity within the report. Seismograph recorded 2 events of
tectonic earthquake this week. Temperature measurement on 16 March 2001 is
50.2°C.
Kelut volcano is in level 2.




 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 376 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Mar 28, 2001 (15:46) * 67 lines 
 
*********************************
Cities on Volcanoes 2 abstracts
*********************************
From: David Johnston

Cities on Volcanoes 2 abstracts available

From the 12th to the 14th of February Auckland, New Zealand hosted the 2nd
Cities on Volcanoes conference. This well attended meeting attracted 220
registrations from over 20 countries and represented a variety of
disciplines, including Emergency Management, Physical Volcanology,
Heritage, Insurance, Education, Public Health, and Sociology.

The conference book of abstracts is now for sale - $35 (includes p&p). This
volume contains 152 abstracts and can be ordered from the Publications
Officer, Institute of Geological & Nuclear Sciences, P.O. Box 30-368, Lower
Hutt, New Zealand (fax: 64-4-570-4679), online at www.gns.cri.nz or email
sales@gns.cri.nz
(New Zealand orders in $NZ and all overseas in $US).

Cities on Volcanoes 2 T-shirts are also for sale - $20 (includes p&p).
These can be ordered from Diane Tilyard - email citiesonvolc2@gns.cri.nz
(New Zealand orders in $NZ and all overseas in $US). We accept credit cards.

*****************************************
From Magma to Tephra - paperback edition
*****************************************
From: xtracts@elsevier.nl [mailto:xtracts@elsevier.nl]
Now in PAPERBACK:

FROM MAGMA TO TEPHRA
Modelling Physical Processes of Explosive Volcanic Eruptions

Edited by
A. Freundt, GEOMAR, Forschungszentrum für Marine
Geowissenschaften, Kiel, Germany.
M. Rosi, Università di Pisa, Dipart. di Scienze della Terra,
Pisa, Italy.

Included in series Developments in Volcanology, 4
Hot MAGMA rising through the Earth's crust releases gases that
expand and may come into contact with external water that
vaporizes. The magma is then fragmented into an accelerating gas-
particle/droplet mixture that is shot into the atmosphere,
possibly in an overpressured state, where it may buoyantly rise
up into the stratosphere as an ash plume, partially or totally
collapse back to the surface, or rapidly expand sideways,
or undergo a combination of these processes.

TEPHRA is then deposited on the Earth's surface by pyroclastic
fall, flow or surge, or some hybrid mechanism. The combination of
processes that operate from the degassing of magma to the
emplacement of tephra makes an explosive volcanic eruption, and
the physical characterization of these processes is the scope of
this book.

In this book we summarize the insights into key aspects of
explosive volcanic eruptions gained from physical modelling to
date. The seven chapters are arranged in an order reflecting the
sequence from processes acting within the volcanic conduit
through dynamics of eruption and transport through the atmosphere
to mechanisms of emplacement on the Earth's surface.

For more information, reviews and a contents list, please visit:
http://www.elsevier.com/locate/isbn/0-444-82959-8




 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 377 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Apr  3, 2001 (12:43) * 36 lines 
 
********************************
Piton de la Fournaise, Reunion
********************************
Piton de la fournaise 27 March 2001

After an high seimic activity since end January, a final crises started at
Piton de la Fournaise volcano today 27 March 2001 at 12h55 local time.
We recorded about 120 seismic events, the strongest beeing of magnitude 2.0.
At 13h20 a new eruption started on the ESE flanc of Piton de la Fournaise,
with 5 fissures en echelon. The final one is situated at about 1900
altitude 200 m north of the crater "Morgabim", formed during the last
October 2000 eruption.
The location on the SE flanc was suggested due to typical variations,
observed since about 2 month by two extensometers and observed before
eruption which occured in the same area in July 1999, June 2000 and October
2000.

Thomas Staudacher
Jean Louis Cheminée
==========================================
Thomas Staudacher
Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise
Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris
14 RN3, le 27ème
97418 La Plaine des Cafres
La Réunion

tél.: 02 62 27 52 92
fax.: 02 62 59 12 04

********************************
Following GVP/USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 21-27 March 2001,
pictures and day to day news (in French…) about Piton de la Fournaise
current eruption on
http://www.clicanoo.com



 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 378 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Apr  3, 2001 (12:44) * 134 lines 
 
*******************************
Indonesia Updates, 19-23 March
*******************************

During 19 - 23 March, Merapi's new dome continued to fume heavily with
glows, while pyroclastic flows & avalanches took place periodically. The
volcanoes Lokon-Empung, Inielika, Api Siau, Kawah Ijen, Anak Krakatau,
Soputan, Batur and Kelut remained restless but not eruptively active.
Semeru continues its decades-long eruption. Following nearly two months of
relative quiet, Lokon-Empung erupted at 1440 on 26 March, sending up an ash
cloud some 1500m. The eruption lasted approx. 1/2 hour and resulted in
local ash falls. No incandescent pyroclastics were witnessed.

Following from Dali Ahmad of the Volcanological Survey of Indonesia
http://www.vsi.dpe.go.id/news/index.html

VOLCANIC ACTIVITY REPORTS

Information contacts: Dali Ahmad (dali@VSI.dpe.go.id)
Hetty Triastuty (hetty@VSI.dpe.go.id)
Nia Haerani (haerani@VSI.dpe.go.id)
Suswati (suswati@VSI.dpe.go.id)
VSI
Jalan Diponegoro 57 Bandung 40122
Fax : + 62 22 72 02 761
Tel: + 62 22 721 46 12

Weekly Report No. 608
19-23 March 2001

Merapi
Central Java; 7°32.5' S, 110°26.5' E
450 m white solfatara is continuing appear from the summit, was
observed from Ngepos observatory on 22 March 2001 08.15 WIB. Night
observations from Ngepos, Jrakah, Babadan and Kaliurang observatory noticed
red-colored reflection around lava dome. During the week observer reported 4
events of pyroclastic flows travelled 2 km to Sat river and 2.75 km of lava
avalanches. Observer did not reported a changing about lava dome 2001.
Furthermore, seismicity dominated with avalanche earthquakes.
Merapi volcano is in level 2.

Lokon
North Sulawesi; 1°21.5' N, 124°47.5' E
25-200 m of white thin-medium solfatara is continuing, but in general
Lokon activity looks decrease compare to the previous week. Seismograph
recorded 13 events of tectonic earthquake within the report.
Lokon volcano is in level 2.

Inelika
Central Flores; 8°44' S, 120°59' E
Visual observation obscured by the haze during the week. Instrumental
monitoring from seismograph showed 3 events of deep volcanic (A) and 9
events of tectonic earthquake.
Inelika volcano is in level 2.

Karangetang
Siau island; 2°47' N, 125°29' E
Observation to the volcano could not be done because the weather was
cloudy during the report, while seismograph is in repairing.
Karangetang volcano is in level 2.

Ijen
East Java;8°3.5' S, 114°14.5' E
Volcano edifice covered by clouds within the week. Monitoring to the
volcano based on seismograph noticed 12 events of shallow volcanic (B) and 4
events of small explosion earthquake, less than previous data.
Ijen volcano is in level 2.

Semeru
East Java; 8°6.50' S, 112°55' E
Although high in number, seismic activity on Semeru showed a
significant decreasing. Complete data listed as follow: 2 events of deep
volcanic (A), 259 events of explosion and 1 event of tectonic earthquake.
Semeru volcano is in level 2.

Anak Krakatau
Sunda Straits, 6°6'5.8" S, 105°25'22.3" E
After showed an increasing activity last week, within this week Anak
Krakatau showed decrease again. That was represents from the number of
seismicity which lees than previous data. Detail seismicity were: 34 events
of shallow volcanic (B) and 1 event of tectonic earthquake.
Anak Krakatau is stated in level 2.

G. Soputan
North Sulawesi,124º41'12"N, 1º6'20"E
There was no major change in Soputan activity based on visual and
instrumental observation. Almost the week, visual observation obscured by
clouds. 0.5-2 mm uncontinuous tremor is continuing. Seismograph also
recorded other seismicity, were: 5 event of deep volcanic (A) earthquake, 1
event of shallow volcanic (B), 18 events of tectonic and 56 events of
avalanche earthquakes.
Soputan is stated in level 2.

G. Batur
Bali Island
115.37° N, 8.24° E, summit elevation 1717 m
Batur volcano seems quiet. Both from visual and instrumental
monitoring no significant activity has reported. White thin plume appear
from crater rose 10 m height. Seismograph noticed 1 event of shallow
volcanic (B) earthquake and tectonic earthquake 10 events.
Batur volcano is in level 2.

Kelut
East Java;7°56' S, 112°18.5' E
Visual and instrumental observations resulted no significant changing
in Kelut activity within the report. Seismograph recorded 2 events of
tectonic earthquake this week. Temperature measurement on 16 March 2001 is
50.2°C.
Kelut volcano is in level 2.

******************************
Lokon-Empung Update, 26 March

26 March Ash Explosion on Lokon Volcano
Lokon volcano is situated at North Sulawesi at 1°21.5' N, 124°47.5' E
and summit elevation is 1784 m.
After 28 January 2001 explosion, Lokon activity is continuing up to
now and exploded again on 26 March 2001.
On 26 March, 2001 at 14.40 WITA (local time) Lokon volcano exploded.
Dark ash rose 1500 m above crater rim. Ash drifted east and northward.
Explosion did not produce any glowing materials. 25 minutes after explosion,
ash started to fall at Kinilow village (3.5 km from the crater) and
Kakaskasen village (4 km from the crater).

Explosion getting slow down and at 15.10 local time, white thick gas
emission observed from the crater, rose 400 m height.
Ash fall has thickness of 0.3-0.5 cm at Kinilow village, 0.1-0.3 cm at
Kakaskasen village, 1-2 cm around Pasahapen river, about 1 km from crater.
After explosion activity, tremor volcanic recorded between 14.42 until
14.57 local time, which has maximum amplitude of 2-16 mm. Seismograph
recorded 13 events of deep volcanic (A) and 12 events of shallow volcanic
(B) on 25 March and on 26 March recorded 6 events of deep volcanic (A) and 7
events of shallow volcanic (B) earthquake.



 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 379 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Apr  6, 2001 (15:43) * 79 lines 
 
Volcano Watch - April 5, 2001 - Kilauea's all cracked up, and that's not funny

Late on March 30, a visiting geology student from Oregon fell about
12 m (40 feet) into a crack in the ground between Crater Rim Drive and the
rim of Kilauea's caldera, opposite Kilauea Military Camp. He and a
companion had seen a dark area free of vegetation. Lacking a flashlight,
they couldn't tell what it was. After some discussion, they went for it.
The man fell. The young woman stopped in time, hurried back to the road,
left a slipper to mark the location, and ran screaming to KMC for help.
Paramedics quickly responded and worked with a rescue team from the
national park and Hawai`i County to pull the man to safety. He had ended up
on a narrow ledge, which kept him from falling much farther, and luckily
escaped with minor though numerous contusions.
Encounters with cracks in the summit area of Kilauea are not new. Two
members of Ellis` exploring party fell into cracks on Steaming Flat near
Sulphur Bank on August 1, 1823, though fortunately none was badly injured.
They had more of an excuse than do most later victims, however. Many cracks
were then covered by a thin veneer of volcanic ash erupted in and before
1790. Now more of the cracks are open and obvious, because the veneer has
washed away.
How do the cracks form? Most in the summit area result from the
collapse of the caldera in the late 15th century. They formed when the
caldera dropped down and the walls of the new depression moved slightly
toward the empty space. Similar kinds of cracks develop behind blasted
quarry faces.
Some of the cracks are actually small faults that formed during the
collapse of the caldera. They can be recognized by vertical offset, the
side nearest the caldera being a little lower than the other side.
Other cracks form during landslides or rockfalls into the caldera.
The 1983 Ka`oiki earthquake caused large rock slides that peeled away from
the northeast side of the caldera, damaging Crater Rim Drive beyond repair.
The Earthquake Trail, starting near Volcano House, now takes visitors along
the old pavement to the site of the slides, where hikers can note gaping
cracks cutting the pavement.
All of these cracks are more or less concentric to the caldera. Their
consistent pattern, paralleling the wall of the caldera, helps to recognize
them and to anticipate where one can step safely to avoid them.
Away from the high ground, some cracks on the caldera floor are also
concentric. Most are near Halemaumau and formed during the 1924 collapse of
the crater or during later rock falls. Many of these cracks are very
dangerous and are to be avoided at all cost.
Other cracks on the floor are straight, not curved, and are related
to eruptions. Most of these cracks trend a little north of due east.
Several can be seen northeast of Halemaumau, in the area of eruptions in
1954, 1971, and 1982.
Still other cracks on the caldera floor are related to the collapse
of the caldera itself. Some of these cracks have been reactivated from time
to time. A good example is the crack that crosses the road just beyond the
southeast end of the Halemaumau parking lot. It reopened in 1924, though
its trend shows it to be a caldera fault that formed much earlier.
Cracks are common in the summit area of Kilauea. Many visitors are
surprised by them. The crack hazards are easily avoided. Stay on trails,
don't walk after dark without a flashlight, and don't wander around
outdoors if you're under the influence.

Eruption Update

Eruptive activity of Kilauea Volcano continued unabated at the Pu`u
`O`o vent during the past week and provided visitors with an occasional
glimpse of surface flow activity on Pulama pali and on the coastal flats.
Lava is pooling in the coastal flats and not entering the ocean at this
time. The amoeba-like flow activity in the coastal flats has advance the
sluggish front to within 400 m (1,300 ft) of the sea coast in the old
Kupapa`u area near the eastern boundary of Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park.
Two earthquakes were reported felt by a resident of Aloha Estates
subdivision during the week ending on April 5. Both earthquakes were felt
on Monday, April 2 by the Glenwood resident. The first earthquake at 1:10
a.m. was located 15 km (9.0 mi) southeast of the summit of Kilauea Volcano
at a depth of 1.25 km (0.75 mi). The second earthquake at 8:52 a.m. was
located 6 km (3.6 mi) north of the summit of Kilauea Volcano at a depth of
24 km (14.4 mi). The two felt earthquakes had magnitudes of 3.0 and 3.2,
respectively.

This article was written by scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey's
Hawaiian Volcano Observatory.






 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 380 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Apr 10, 2001 (19:06) * 534 lines 
 
Smithsonian Institution
Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network
Volume 25, Number 2, February 2001

Editors: Rick Wunderman and Ed Venzke
Editorial Assistants: Gari Mayberry, Luke Jensen, David Charvonia, and
Jacquelyn Gluck
#####

McDonald Islands (Indian Ocean) Emission of volatiles on 9 November 2000;
morphological changes
Heard (Indian Ocean) Increased fumarolic activity in February and March
2001; possible lava flow
Kelut (Indonesia) Changes in water temperature, surface level, and pH
detected in crater lake
Kerinci (Indonesia) Gas and steam plumes and explosion earthquakes, February
to mid-October 2000
Ambrym (Vanuatu) Visits during 1999 and 2000 revealed variable lava lake
and explosive activity
Suwanosejima (Japan) Two subsidiary craters discovered; elevated activity
in December 2000
Miyakejima (Japan) Continued high SO2 flux; volcanic tremor and eruption
occur in mid-March
Fuji (Japan) September 2000-January 2001 swarm includes M £ 2.2 earthquakes
but lacks geodetic changes
Soufriere Hills (Montserrat) Dome growth, rockfalls, and pyroclastic flow
continue through March 2001


McDonald Islands
Indian Ocean
53.03 S, 72.60 E; summit elev. 186 m

Observations of McDonald Island were made from aboard the vessel “RSV
Aurora Australis” on 9 November 2000. These were the first documented
observations of the volcano in several months. Atmospheric conditions were
overcast but afforded good lateral visibility. Venting of volatiles was
first sighted at a distance of 24 km from the island. Subsequent
observations were made as close as 7 km offshore. Dispersed activity was
visible at several points high on the flanks of the island. On the NE side,
fumarolic activity was most pronounced at the top of a short steep gully
extending below the apparent summit crater. Pulses of emission produced
plumes 30-50 m high from this point every few minutes. Volatiles were also
being emitted from several other points on the NW slopes, and at the N end
of the island where they originated at the foot of rock bluffs near the top
of the coastal slope and at another location on the slope at ~60 m
elevation. There was no evidence of activity on the S portion of the island.

The emissions observed during November 2000 were less pronounced than those
described on 13 January 1999 (Bulletin v. 24, no. 1). They also appear to
have been issuing from higher on the slopes than those observed on 18 March
and 2 April 1997 (Bulletin v. 23, no. 2). The position of the most forceful
emissions observed during November 2000 appeared identical to those first
seen in March 1997. Significant emissions from the face below the crater at
~70 m elevation, and from two points at the head of an apron of
dark-colored rubble a few hundred meters N of the gully extending from the
summit crater, were also similar to those of 1997. Weak discharges that
rose from the N edge of the apron were detectable to ~80 m elevation during
November 2000, but were absent during March 1997. No steaming ground was
observed below ~60-70 m elevation during November 2000, nor was there any
evidence of fumarolic activity at sea level as had been cited during March
1997.

Comparisons of color vertical air photographs taken in 1980 from 3,050 m,
1,650 m, and 980 m altitudes to oblique photographs taken from sea level
aboard the "RSV Aurora Australis" on 18 March 1997 and 9 November 2000
(figure 1) indicate that the most significant changes to the morphology of
the volcano occurred prior to the vessel's first visit. Some steep coastal
slopes appeared to have been replaced by slopes of more moderate angle. A
more jagged skyline of bare rock has replaced the relatively smooth,
vegetated upper slopes that previously existed.

Figure 1. General view of the NE coast of McDonald Island under hazy
conditions on 9 November 2000. Photo by Graeme Snow (AAD), courtesy of
Kevin Kiernan.
Background. Three small, low islands on the Kerguelen Plateau form the
McDonald Islands. The largest island, McDonald, has an area of 1 km^2 and
is composed of a layered phonolitic tuff plateau cut by phonolitic dikes
and lava domes. Some general references on McDonald Island include
Collerson and others (1998); Kiernan and McConnell (1999); and Quilty and
Wheller (2000). A nearby active submarine eruption was inferred from
phonolitic pumice that washed up on Heard Island in 1992; this marked the
first historical activity at McDonald. Volcanic plumes from McDonald Island
were observed in December 1996 and January 1997.

References: Collerson, K.D., Regelous, M., Frankland, R., Wendt, J.I.,
Kiernan, K., and Wheller, G., 1998, 1997 eruption of McDonald Island
(southern Indian Ocean): new trace element and Th-Sr-Nd isotopic
constraints on Heard-McDonald magmatism: Abstracts, 14th Australian
Geological Convention, Townsville, July 1998.

Kiernan, K., and McConnell, A., 1999, Geomorphology of the Sub-Antarctic
Australian Territory of Heard Island-McDonald Island: Australian
Geographer, v. 30, no. 2, p. 159-195.

Quilty, P.G., and Wheller, G., 2000, Heard Island and the McDonald Islands:
A window on the Kerguelen Plateau: Papers & Proceedings of the Royal
Society of Tasmania, v. 133, no. 2, p. 1-12.

Information Contacts: Suzanne Stallman, Gordon Bain, and Graeme Snow,
Australian Antarctic Division (AAD), Channel Highway, Kingston, TAS 7050,
Australia (URL: http://www.antdiv.gov.au/; Email:
Suzanne.Stallman@aad.gov.au, Gordon.Bain@aad.gov.au, Graeme.
Snow@aad.gov.au); Kevin Kiernan and Anne McConnell, Geography &
Environmental Studies, University of Tasmania, GPO Box 252-79, Hobart TAS
7001, Australia (URL: http://www.geol.utas.edu.au/geog/; Email: kevink@
fpb.tas.gov.au, annemc@aaa.net.gov.au).


Heard
Indian Ocean
53.106 S, 73.513 E; summit elev. 2,745 m
All times are local (= UTC + 7 hours)

Fumarolic activity emanating from Big Ben stratovolcano on Heard Island
increased since the previous report period of October-November 2000
(Bulletin v. 25, no. 11). Both the vent at the summit of Mawson Peak and
the second, recently confirmed vent downslope from the summit, were
involved in the activity in early February 2001.

At about 2100 on 2 February an increased emission of volatiles was observed
from Atlas Cove, located ~15 km NW of the summit where the main island
connects with the Laurens Peninsula (see maps in Bulletin v. 10, no. 2 and
v. 23, no. 2). Under daylight the plume had a yellow-colored tinge. By
midnight venting increased substantially. Observations continued until 0100
on 3 February when emissions appeared to diminish and clouds obscured the
view. No lava or ejecta were observed from the Atlas Cove vantage point.

The plumes rose up to ~1,000 m in height, but tended to vary in extent over
time. The precise points of emission were hidden by the high shoulder of
Big Ben. Nevertheless, the emissions appeared to emanate from two discrete
vents, one at Mawson Peak, and the other the newly discovered vent
estimated to be 300-400 m vertically below it (lower than previously
thought) on the S-facing slope.

Observations on the afternoon of 3 February revealed further abatement of
volatile venting. Some workers suggested the presence of a third vent based
on observations from Anzac Peak on Laurens Peninsula at the NW end of the
island, but these findings are not yet substantiated. From a high point on
Laurens Peninsula a black lava flow (?) on Mawson Peak was observed to be
closer to the Atlas Cove side of the island than on previous visits. The
possible flow was ~100 m wide and ~1,500 m long, but size estimates were
hindered by distance, the enormity of Big Ben, the lack of any comparative
scale, and the acute viewing angle.

On 5 March observers obtained good views of Big Ben from Red Island, at the
farthest N tip of the Laurens Peninsula, but were unable to discern any
summit activity despite clear conditions. Further observations from the
same vantage point at 1330 on 7 March afforded a brief 5-8 minute view of
the summit and revealed that a significant plume rose 100-200 m and drifted
several kilometers downwind. The plume's width was estimated to be 50 m.
The "black scar" first viewed on 3 February and interpreted as a plausible
lava flow was again visible and appeared unchanged since its last observation.

The findings in early February and March 2001 are consistent with recent
observations during a helicopter overflight of Big Ben that confirmed the
presence of a vent well below the summit of Mawson Peak (Kiernan &
McConnell, 2000). They compound the likelihood that more than one vent was
involved in earlier eruptive activity during 1950-52 and 1985 (ANARE
Station Reports; Neumann van Padang, 1963), contrary to recent conclusions
by Quilty & Wheller (2000). Observations of volcanism on Heard Island,
however, are limited because of its remoteness, and since the summit area
is frequently shrouded in clouds. Hence, the general level of activity
observed recently is difficult to assess.

Background. Heard Island on the Kerguelen Plateau in the southern Indian
Ocean consists primarily of the emergent portion of two volcanic
structures. The large glacier-covered composite cone of Big Ben comprises
most of the island, and the smaller Mt. Dixon volcano lies at the NW tip of
the island across a narrow isthmus. Little is known about the structure of
Big Ben volcano because of its extensive ice cover. The historically active
Mawson Peak forms the island’s high point and lies within a 5-6 km wide
caldera breached to the SW side of Big Ben. Small satellitic scoria cones
are located mostly on the N coast. Several subglacial eruptions have been
reported in historical time. The remote island volcano is uninhabited, but
includes an infrequently occupied base operated by the ANARE.

References: Kiernan, K., and McConnell, A., 2000, ASAC Project 1118,
Geomorphological Evolution of Heard Island: Report to Atlas Cove Station
Leader, ANARE.

Neumann van Padang, M., 1963, Arabia and the Indian Ocean: Catalogue of the
Active Volcanoes of the World, v. 16, p. 1-64.

Quilty, P.G., and Wheller, G., 2000, Heard Island and the McDonald Islands:
A window on the Kerguelen Plateau: Papers & Proceedings of the Royal
Society of Tasmania, v. 133, no. 2, p. 1-12.

Information Contacts: Stu Fitch and Andrew Lock, Australian Antarctic
Division, Channel Highway, Kingston, TAS 7050, Australia (URL:
http://www.antdiv.gov. au/; Email: stuart.fitch@afma.gov.au, Andrew_Lock@
aad.gov.au); C.J. Klok, Department of Zoology and Entomology, University of
Pretoria, Pretoria 0002, South Africa (URL:
http://www.up.ac.za/academic/zoology/; Email: cjklok@zoology.up.ac.za);
Kevin Kiernan and Anne McConnell, Geography & Environmental Studies,
University of Tasmania, GPO Box 252-79, Hobart TAS 7001, Australia (URL:
http://www.geol.utas.edu.au/geog/; Email: kevink@fpb.tas.gov.au,
annemc@aaa.net.au).


Kelut
Java, Indonesia
7.93 S, 112.31 E; summit elev. 1,731 m

Monitoring of Kelut's crater lake indicated a relative increase of water
temperature, a rise in surface level, and a decrease in pH into late
February 2001. The Volcanological Survey of Indonesia (VSI) released new
information revealing that temperatures actually began to rise as of 8
January 2001, rather than on 19 February as disclosed in a previous report
(Bulletin v. 25, no. 12). The lake reached a maximum temperature of 51.2
deg C on 30 January (table 1).

Table 1. Crater lake temperatures during 8 January-26 February 2001 and pH
during November 2000February 2001. The maximum temperature increase was
12.7°C, while the overall increase for the period was 9.3°C. In contrast,
pH decreased. Courtesy of VSI.

Date Water Temperature pH

Nov 2000 6.9
Jan 2001 6.3

08 Jan 2001 38.5
18 Jan 2001 47.5
19 Jan 2001 49.1
29 Jan 2001 50.1
30 Jan 2001 51.2
02 Feb 2001 50.1
07 Feb 2001 51.0 5.0
13-19 Feb 2001 47.5 5.3
20-26 Feb 2001 47.8 5.3

A 60-cm increase in lake water level was observed as of 19 January relative
to the height at an undisclosed earlier date. Workers measured pH values of
the crater lake water and detected a significant overall decrease in pH, or
an increase in acidity (table 1). VSI maintained a hazard status of 2 (on a
scale of 1-4) since 19 January 2001.

Background. Although relatively small and infrequently reported on, Kelut
has produced some of Indonesia’s most deadly eruptions. There have been 10
fatal crater lake eruptions, and an estimated 10,000 people died in lahars
in 1586. Drainage tunnels engineered to control the lake level have greatly
reduced the destructive impact of recent eruptions. Kelut’s 1000 AD
eruption is the oldest historically recorded in Indonesia.

Information Contact: Dali Ahmad, Volcanological Survey of Indonesia (VSI),
Jalan Diponegoro No. 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (Email:
dali@vsi.dpe.go.id; URL: http://www.vsi.dpe.go.id).


Kerinci
Sumatra, Indonesia
1.69 S, 101.27 E; summit elev. 3,805 m

Persistent fumarolic activity occurred at Kerinci during February to
mid-October 2000. During the report period Kerinci mainly produced
light-colored, variably dense gas-and-steam plumes that rose 50-600 m.
Plumes were occasionally reported to darken and become dense between 29
February and 20 March, possibly indicating ash emission, although no
ashfall was reported. Small explosion earthquakes, usually related to gas
discharge, dominated seismicity throughout the interval with an average of
~240 events recorded per week. These earthquakes were continuous during
late April to mid-May. Consistent numbers of deep volcanic (A-type),
shallow volcanic (B-type), and tectonic earthquakes occurred throughout the
period. During the report interval no major eruptions were observed, and
Kerinci's hazard status did not exceed 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Background. The summit of Kerinci, Indonesia's highest volcano, contains a
deep 600-m-wide crater often partially filled by a small crater lake. The
volcano is also known as Gadang, Berapi Kurinci, Korinci, or Peak of
Indrapura. The massive 13 x 25 km wide volcano towers 2,400-3,300 m above
surrounding plains. Kerinci is elongated in a N-S direction and is capped
by an unvegetated, young summit cone constructed NE of an older crater
remnant. One of Sumatra’s most active volcanoes, Gunung Kerinci has
produced a series of moderate explosive eruptions during the 19th and 20th
centuries. Usually, the crater of Kerinci is filled with green to yellow
water. In March 1934 the crater drained but a lake returned in February
1937. Phreatic explosions from the summit crater are reported almost
annually from the Kayu Aro tea estate on the S flank. The surrounding
region is sparsely populated.

Information Contact: Dali Ahmad, Volcanological Survey of Indonesia (VSI),
Jalan Diponegoro No. 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (Email:
dali@vsi.dpe.go.id; URL: http://www.vsi.dpe.go.id).


Ambrym
Ambrym Island, Vanuatu
16.25 S, 168.12 E; summit elev. 1,334 m
All times are local (= UTC + 11 hours)

The following report discusses observations of Marum and Benbow craters (in
the central and WSW portions of Ambrym's caldera, respectively). The
observations were made in September-October 1999 and August-October 2000.
Our previous Ambrym report discussed aerial observations made in late
February 2000 (Bulletin v. 25, no. 4). Marum and Benbow host long-standing
lava lakes with active surfaces (sometimes molten and sometimes chilled).

1999 Marum observations. On 24 September 1999 the lava lake was once again
present at more or less the normal site. It measured ~60 m in diameter and
underwent significant degassing accompanied by turbulent waves and the
escape of incandescent fragments. On several occasions, observers witnessed
large collapses on the periphery as well as rapid and sudden variations in
the lake’s surface level. At the foot of the SE face, perhaps three
explosive vents ejected plumes of ash and cauliflower-shaped discharges of
steam at irregular intervals varying from 8 to 30 minutes. At night,
observers distinguished incandescence along concentric faults on the lava lake.

On 22 October 1999 observers camped on the crater's edge, on the
ash-covered floor found to its ESE. They noted that the main lava lake had
grown since September, and it displayed more violent, regular degassing.
Its surface was continuously disrupted by waves and escaping incandescent
fragments that rained all the way down the active terrace. Observers saw a
second small elongate lake and reported that its surface too was sometimes
very agitated. At night, several incandescent faults were seen on the
bottom of the terrace. These spread open and then closed, indicating that
the entire zone had a thin, partially solidified crust.

On 23 October bad weather prevented visual observations, but at night
observers saw intense red glow, felt tremors, and heard rumblings. On 24
October, at sunrise, the meteorological conditions were excellent, but
volcanic gas obscured the crater.

1999 Benbow observations. On 23 September 1999, observers looking toward
Benbow crater from the sea saw a large column of ash and gas rising about
1,200 m above the crater. On two occasions at night, visitors saw brief
instances of weak incandescence in the plume’s interior.

A month later, on 23 October 1999, despite unstable weather conditions,
observers reached summit crests and saw gas occupying the crater's
interior. They saw the first terrace only for a brief moment and then only
partially, making it impossible to say whether the lava lake was again
molten at the surface. The characteristic rumblings that accompanied the
regular degassing on the lake's surface were perceptible but weak, as if
molten material lay beneath a thin chilled surface.

2000 Marum observations. During the nights of 2 and 3 August 2000 a lava
lake was clearly visible (about 100 x 60 m in size). Regular and sustained
degassing agitated the surface with big waves. Showers of incandescent
fragments rose to heights of ~50-70 m.

On the night of 16 August a tropical depression crossed the region
affecting an area extending at least as far as the Banks Islands ~200 km N.
Heavy rains fell on the Marum plateau. Thick "smoke" rose from the crater,
impeding visual observations.

On the night of 30 September-1 October, incessant rain again fell on the
Marum plateau. Very poor visibility in the crater stopped for a few minutes
around 0100, enabling observers to confirm the absence of the lava lake’s
exposed molten surface. At that time, only two small and closely spaced
circular vents emitted incandescent gases.

2000 Benbow observations. Observers descended to the first terrace level on
3 August 2000, crossing along the crests that encircled the central shaft.
At this time, there was no exposed molten lava on the lake's surface.
Still, violent and continuous explosions fed a darkly colored, dense ash
plume. These outbursts came from a vent situated in the deepest part of the
central opening. The excursion failed to get around the NE vent on the
terrace level N1 due to a zone of mass wasting that left a scar ~160 m
deep. On 17 August, torrential rains and excessively violent winds impeded
attempts to approach Benbow.

On 1 September, people descending to terrace N1 felt sub-continuous tremor
but found comparatively little gas. What gas there was looked blue in color
and hung over the central opening. The lava lake was once again present
(but difficult to see due to impeded access caused by the above-mentioned
scar). Degassing accompanied by rumblings and strong detonations sent
incandescent lava fragments to heights of ~100 m.

Background. Ambrym, a large basaltic volcano with a 12-km-wide caldera, is
one of the most active volcanoes of the New Hebrides arc. A thick, almost
exclusively pyroclastic sequence, initially dacitic, then basaltic,
overlies lava flows of a pre-caldera shield volcano. The caldera was formed
during a major Plinian eruption with dacitic pyroclastic flows about 1900
years ago. Post-caldera eruptions, primarily from Marum and Benbow cones,
have partially filled the caldera floor and produced lava flows that ponded
on the caldera floor or overflowed through gaps in the caldera rim.
Post-caldera eruptions have also formed a series of scoria cones and maars
along a fissure system oriented ENE-WSW. Eruptions have apparently occurred
almost yearly during historical time from cones within the caldera or from
flank vents. However, from 1850 to 1950, reporting was limited mostly to
extra-caldera eruptions that would have affected local populations.

Information Contact: G. de St. Cyr, c/o Bulletin of the Geneva Society of
Volcanology, C.P. 6423, CH-1211, Geneva 6, Switzerland (Email:
svg@worldcom.ch).


Suwanose-jima
Ryukyu Islands, Japan
29.53 N, 129.72 E; summit elev. 799 m
All times are local (= UTC - 9 hours)

An observer on Suwanose-jima reported seeing "smoke" rise from NE of the
summit crater at about 1700 on 19 December 2000. The following day,
Kazuhiro Ishihara from Sakura-jima Volcano Research Center (SVRC, formerly
Sakura-jima Volcano Observatory, SVO) of Kyoto University inspected the
crater area during a helicopter flyover. He observed an ash-laden,
high-temperature gas emission from the main active crater, On-take, and
from two newly formed craters on the outer NE slope of the main crater
(figures 2 and 3).

Figure 2. Topographic map of Suwanosejima illustrating the main active
crater (1), Ontake, and the newly discovered craters (2, 3). Thick textured
lines are crater rims. Contour interval is 100 m. After a map by SVRC.

Figure 3. Photo of the NE slope of Suwanosejima showing the main active
crater (1), Ontake, and two subsidiary craters (2, 3). Courtesy of SVRC.

Subsequent observations on 24 December by Masato Iguchi and Daisuke Miki,
both of SVRC, revealed more about the nature of the craters' activities.
Craters 2 and 3 were ~40 m and ~200 m away from the main crater rim,
respectively. Crater 2 had a diameter of ~25 m, and crater 3 had a diameter
of ~10 m. The craters were thermally surveyed from a helicopter. On-take
(crater 1) had a temperature of ~450 deg C, and emitted light-colored
vapor. Crater 2 released an ash-laden plume and had a temperature of ~100
deg C. Crater 3, which had a temperature of ~270 deg C, ejected gas and a
small amount of ash.

Seismicity recorded by SVRC showed that ~10 deep volcanic (A-type)
earthquakes occurred monthly, an increase since fall 1999. Shallow volcanic
(B-type) earthquakes had also increased since early 2000 with the
occurrence of ~50-300 events monthly. Researchers using GPS techniques
discovered that deformation had increased the distance between
Suwanose-jima and Nakano-shima, a neighboring island, by 1 cm. SVRC
indicated that activity was elevated, but that it did not imply an
immediate large-scale eruption.

Background. The 8-km-long, spindle-shaped island of Suwanose-jima is
occupied by a stratovolcano with two historically active summit craters.
The volcano is one of the most active in Japan. Only about 50 persons live
on the sparsely populated island. The summit of the volcano is truncated by
a large breached crater. The breach opens and extends to the sea on the E
flank; it was formed by edifice collapse. Intermittent Strombolian
eruptions have taken place from On-take, the NE summit crater. The largest
historical eruption took place in 1813-14, when thick scoria deposits
blanketed residential areas, after which the island was uninhabited for
about 70 years. The SW crater produced lava flows that reached the W coast
in 1813, and lava flows reached the E coast of the island in 1884.

Information Contacts: Disaster Prevention Research Institute, Kyoto
University (URL: http://www.dpri. kyoto-u.ac.jp/); Setsuya Nakada and
Hidefumi Watanabe, Volcano Research Center, Earthquake Research Institute,
University of Tokyo, Yayoi 1-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032, Japan (URL:
http://hakone.eri.u-tokyo. ac.jp/vrc/VRC.html; Email:
nakada@eri.u-tokyo.ac.jp, kaneko@eri.u-tokyo.ac.jp).


Miyake-jima
Izu Islands, Japan
34.08 N, 139.53 E; summit elev. 815 m

Activity since October 2000 (Bulletin v. 25, no. 9) through 12 February
2001 has been characterized by high volumes of volcanic gas emission. Minor
ashfall was reported only near the summit crater. The active crater's
temperature increased to 400 deg C during late December 2000; slight
incandescence of the crater was observed at night, but disappeared by late
January 2001. Ground deformation of Miyake-jima, which began in July 2000,
declined, but still continued. Seismicity was low during September
2000-early February 2001, although shallow low-frequency earthquakes
occurred in late January.

During October 2000-early February 2001 the plume that rose from
Miyake-jima varied in height from several hundred meters to as much as two
thousand meters. The SO2 flux maintained high values in the range of
~18,000-45,000 metric tons/day during the period. An abundance of the gas
was often observed around the volcano's flanks depending on weather
conditions. As of early February 2001, there was no indication of any
decrease in the SO2 flux.

On 16 March 2001 the largest volcanic tremor episode since 29 August 2000
was recorded at Miyake-jima. Three days later, on 19 March, an eruption
produced a black ash cloud that rose 800 m above the volcano. The island
has remained uninhabited since 1 September 2000 when officials ordered an
evacuation due to the persistent volcanic activity that began on 26-27 June
2000 (Bulletin v. 25, no. 5).

Background. The circular, 8-km-wide island of Miyake-jima forms a low-angle
stratovolcano with a 3-km-wide summit caldera partially filled by the
summit cone Oyama (many reports call the volcano Oyama). Parasitic craters
and vents, including maars near the coast and radially oriented fissure
vents, dot the volcano. Frequent historical eruptions have originated at
vents ranging from the summit to sea level, causing much damage. A
significant eruption of Miyake-jima occurred in 1983 that forced ~4,000
residents to evacuate the island. There were no injuries or fatalities
reported then, but basaltic lava flows destroyed 80% of the W-flank town of
Ako and reached the sea on the SW coast.

Information Contacts: Setsuya Nakada and Hidefumi Watanabe, Volcano
Research Center, Earthquake Research Institute, University of Tokyo, Yayoi
1-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032, Japan (URL:
http://hakone.eri.u-tokyo.ac.jp/vrc/VRC.html; Email:
nakada@eri.u-tokyo.ac.jp, kaneko@eri.u-tokyo.ac.jp); Japan Meteorological
Agency, Volcanological Division, 1-3-4 Ote-machi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100,
Japan (URL: http://www.kishou.go.jp/english/); Kyodo News Agency (URL:
http://home.kyodo.co.jp/).


Fuji
Honshu, Japan
35.35 N, 138.73 E; summit elev. 3,776 m

According to the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), a relatively large
number of low-frequency, low-magnitude earthquakes have occurred at ~15 km
depth below Fuji volcano since September 2000 (table 2, figure 4). For
comparison, during recent years before this spike, the number of
earthquakes had averaged only 1-2 per month. The maximum earthquake
magnitude during September 2000-January 2001 was M 2.2, recorded on 11
October. During November-December earthquakes with M greater than 2.0 occurred 7
times. Earthquake hypocenters were generally located below an area NE of
the summit. Geodetic parameters measured by GPS, EDM, and tilt-meters did
not escalate. Located 150 km W of Tokyo, Fuji's close proximity encouraged
the installation of enhanced instrumentation in order to better monitor the
volcano. Previous seismic swarms at Fuji in 1987 and 1996 (Bulletin v. 12,
no. 8 and v. 21, no. 2) had lower event counts than the current episode.

Table 2. Seismic events registered at Fuji during September 2000-January
2001. Data courtesy of JMA and Reuters.

Month Seismic Events

Sep 2000 35
Oct 2000 133
Nov 2000 222
Dec 2000 144
Jan 2001 36

Figure 4. Latitude, longitude, depth, and magnitude of seismicity at Fuji
during September 2000February 2001. Earthquake crosssections are shown in
NS (upper right) and EW (bottom) planes. Figure by Shinichi Sakai; courtesy
of Setsuya Nakada (VRCERI).





 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 381 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Apr 10, 2001 (19:08) * 248 lines 
 
Background. The conical form of Fuji-san, Japan's highest and most noted
volcano, belies its complex origin. The modern postglacial stratovolcano is
constructed above a group of overlapping volcanoes, remnants of which form
irregularities on Fuji's profile. Growth of the Younger Fuji volcano began
with a period of voluminous lava flows from 11,000 to 8000 years before
present (BP), accounting for four-fifths of the volume of the Younger Fuji
volcano. Minor explosive eruptions dominated activity from 8000 to 4500 BP,
with another period of major lava flows occurring from 4500 to 3000 BP.
Subsequently, intermittent major explosive eruptions occurred, with
subordinate lava flows and small pyroclastic flows. Summit eruptions
dominated from 3000 to 2000 BP, after which flank vents were active. The
extensive basaltic lava flows from the summit and some of the more than 100
flank cones and vents blocked drainages against the Tertiary Misaka
Mountains on the N side of the volcano, forming the Fuji Five Lakes,
popular resort destinations. The last eruption of this dominantly basaltic
volcano in 1707 was Fuji's largest during historical time; it deposited ash
on Edo (Tokyo) and formed a large new crater on the E flank.

Information Contacts: National Research Institute for Earth Science and
Disaster Prevention, 3-1, Tennodai, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki-ken, 305, Japan
(URL: http://www.bosai.go.jp/); Setsuya Nakada, Hidefumi Watanabe, and
Shin-ichi Sakai, Volcano Research Center, Earthquake Research Institute,
University of Tokyo, Yayoi 1-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032, Japan (URL:
http://hakone.eri.u-tokyo.ac.jp/vrc/VRC.html; Email:
nakada@eri.u-tokyo.ac.jp, kaneko@eri.u-tokyo.ac.jp,
coco@eri.u-tokyo.ac.jp); Japan Meteorological Agency, Volcanological
Division, 1-3-4 Ote-machi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100, Japan (URL:
http://www.kishou.go.jp/english/); Reuters (URL: http://www.reuters.com/).


Soufriere Hills
Montserrat, West Indies
16.72 N, 62.18 W; summit elev. 915 m

Dome growth continued from 7 October 2000 through 9 March 2001. Until the
end of February 2001, the growth occurred predominantly on the E side of
the volcano. However, on 25 February, the direction of the growth and the
character of the seismicity changed markedly; the dome growth shifted
towards the S, and the weekly number of hybrid earthquakes increased by
more than an order of magnitude. During this entire period, residents were
advised of the potential dangers associated with pyroclastic flows and
advised to avoid the Belham valley during periods of heavy rain. Access to
Plymouth, Bramble airport, and beyond was prohibited, and a maritime
exclusion zone was declared around the S part of the island extending 3.3
km beyond the coastline. Since November 1999, the dome has grown at an
average rate of nearly 3 m^3/sec and is now at its largest size since the
eruption began in 1995, with a total volume of over 120 x 10^6 m^3 and an
elevation greater than 1,000 m.
Recent MVO assessment. A summary assessment of the volcano's activity,
status, and related risks covering the period from April 2000 through
January 2001 was published recently by MVO. A significant finding from this
assessment was: "While one prognosis is for at least a few more years of
such eruptive activity, an eruption duration measured in decades has to be
contemplated." Other extracts from the report are presented below:

"The period July 1995 to March 1998 was the first phase of the present
eruption. A lava dome grew . . . accompanied by several hazardous phenomena
. . . . There was then a second phase . . . from March 1998 to November
1999. In this phase, no significant dome growth was detected, but hazardous
activity continued . . . . Dome growth resumed in November 1999 . . . [and]
represents a third phase of the eruption."

"The seismic monitoring detected relatively intense periods of rockfall and
long-period (LP) activity . . . from August to October [2000] . . . and
from mid-November 2000 [to January 2001] . . .. There appears to be an
underlying 14-week cycle to this type of seismic activity . . .. However,
hybrid swarms have been rare and weak by comparison with 1997 activity.
Although their generation mechanisms are still poorly understood, hybrid
earthquakes may be related to fracturing of plugs that form in the conduit,
and their absence suggests that conduit conditions may now be subtly
different from previous stages . . .."

"Based on the seismic evidence, the growth of the latest . . . dome seems
to have been different in some respects . . .. The only current prognostic
feature in the observable seismicity is the weak 14-week cycle."

"Volcanic gases continue to be routinely monitored. The flux of sulphur
dioxide over the last ten months has maintained quite high levels . . . .
Occasional measurements of chlorine flux indicate that the flux of chlorine
relative to sulphur dioxide increases . . . when the dome is growing."

"Two key changes have affected the morphology of the volcano since 1998 . .
. which have important implications for hazards. . . . Two remnants of the
1995-1998 dome remain adjacent to the northern wall of English’s Crater.
Over the last year, a narrow gap between the two remnants has gradually
widened and deepened . . .. This deep gully is expected to provide a path
for potential collapses on that side of the dome. Since 1997, Mosquito
Ghaut has been in-filled by pyroclastic-flow and rockfall deposits and no
longer exists as a pathway to channel future pyroclastic flows away to the
[NE]. Thus, collapses moving down the outlet gully will run in a generally
northerly direction, and these topographic changes mean that pyroclastic
flows towards the north are now much more likely to be channeled into the
Belham Valley . . . ."

"The group considered the possibility of tsunami hazards that might affect
other Caribbean islands. Based on modeling studies carried out by French
colleagues a collapse of the current dome . . . into the sea is not
expected to generate a tsunami sufficiently large to affect other islands.
However, new data . . . show that there have been several very large
edifice failures of the Soufriere Hills Volcano in its geological past.
Another collapse of such size would cause a significant regional tsunami
hazard. Thus, any precursory signs of a major edifice failure should
continue to be watched for in the monitoring [program]."

"The duration of the eruption of the Soufriere Hills Volcano now exceeds
about 85% of all documented dome eruptions worldwide. Most dome eruptions
last only a few years, but some have durations measured in decades.
Examples of the latter kind of dome eruption include the Bezymianny volcano
in Kamchatka, Russia, which started to erupt in 1956 and is still active,
and the Santiaguito dome in Guatemala, which started to erupt in 1923 and
is also still active."

"There is currently a lack of clarity about the legal responsibilities and
obligations of the MVO . . . [and other official organizations] in relation
to providing warnings of detected ash injections to civil aviation
authorities. The group recommends that HMG [Her Majesty's Government]
investigate as a matter of urgency where responsibility lies and what
[organization] should issue such warnings."

Activity since 6 October 2000. Until the end of 2000 the summit was
dominated by a broad lava spine inclined at a steep angle towards the E. On
25 October the spine had a peak elevation of 1,030 m and by 13 November had
grown to 1,077 m, the greatest height measured throughout the eruption. On
5 December the top of the spine was at 1,060 m, while the flat top of the
main dome was between 1,020 and 1,030 m. By the end of December the spine
had grown back to 1,071 m. Two large near-vertical spines were observed on
4 February 2001, but both had collapsed by the following week. A large
stubby spine visible in the S part of the summit area on 22 February rose
to 1,068 m.

Rockfalls took place throughout the period. Until 25 February 2001, these
traveled predominantly down the E or NE side of the dome, and occurred
typically in numbers of hundreds per week (table 3). Some of these glowed
and occasionally produced small ash clouds, but none reached altitudes
greater than 3,000 m. These rockfalls contributed to an accumulating talus
fan in the upper reaches of the Tar River valley. The talus began to bury
the remnant buttress of older dome material on the NE flank that formed
during the 1995-98 growth phase. Rockfalls that occurred after 25 February
traveled predominantly S of the dome, mainly in the upper reaches of the
White River valley. (N.B. The White River is sometimes confused with
White’s Ghaut, which lies to the N of the dome.)

Table 3. Seismic and gas data from the Soufriere Hills during 20 October
2000 to 9 March 2001. Courtesy of MVO.

Time Period Rockfall Hybrid Volcano Long Range of Average
Tectonic Period Daily SO2 (t/d)

20 Oct27 Oct 2000 214 9 4 35 2352252
27 Oct03 Nov 2000 146 20 3 19

10 Nov17 Nov 2000 207 33 7 144 no data
24 Nov01 Dec 2000 491 13 69 1020 (28 Nov)
01 Dec08 Dec 2000 547 15 1 72 no data

15 Dec22 Dec 2000 423 12 1 74 400 (20 Dec)
22 Dec29 Dec 2000 708 10 2 53 7451100

12 Jan19 Jan 2001 943 54 345 (18 Jan)
19 Jan26 Jan 2001 417 1 55 330350
26 Jan02 Feb 2001 313 8 21 45 105360
02 Feb09 Feb 2001 409 5 1 40 180500
09 Feb16 Feb 2001 500 2 1 15 80670
16 Feb23 Feb 2001 486 18 6 53 210720
23 Feb02 Mar 2001 729 388 3 58 1801400
02 Mar09 Mar 2001 629 280 4 45 1001230

Pyroclastic flows were also produced throughout the period. A small one on
15 November 2000 traveled N from the summit, entered the upper reaches of
Tyre's Ghaut, and reached ~1 km away from the dome. On 17 November
pyroclastic-flow deposits were noted in the upper reaches of Tuitt's Ghaut
and White's Ghaut on the volcano's NE side; this was the first new dome
material to have traveled down the notch between the N and NE lobes from
the 1995-98 dome. By 8 December 2000 the notch between the central and NE
buttresses of the 1995-98 dome was 60 m wide. Another small flow occurred
down the White River valley on 1 February 2001 and traveled about 1 km from
the dome. On 8 February 2001 new pyroclastic-flow deposits had formed in
the upper portion of Tuitt's Ghaut up to ~300 m from the dome. By
mid-February new pyroclastic-flow deposits had also formed down the Tar
River on the E flank, and, by 23 February, had reached as far as the old
coastline. New deposits were also seen by 23 February in the S White River
valley just 50 m short of the coastline.

On 25 February 2001 a pyroclastic flow spread over the N and central parts
of the White River fan. A hybrid earthquake swarm occurred after this
collapse (table 3). Subsequently, small pyroclastic flows traveled into the
upper portion of the White River valley and were accompanied by banded
tremor and weak hybrid earthquakes. By 9 March steady dome growth appeared
to have resumed.

Seismicity and COSPEC measurements of SO2 are presented in table 3. The SO2
data are in the range of average daily values (in metric tons/day) measured
during the report week and include the range of data obtained from both
helicopter and static mounted sensors.
Background. The complex andesitic Soufriere Hills volcano occupies the
southern half of the island of Montserrat. The summit area consists
primarily of a series of lava domes emplaced along a ESE-trending zone.
Prior to 1995, the youngest dome was Castle Peak, which was located in
English's Crater, a 1-km-wide crater breached widely to the east.
Block-and-ash flow and surge deposits associated with dome growth
predominate in flank deposits. Non-eruptive seismic swarms occurred at
30-year intervals in the 20th century, but the first well-documented
historical eruption on Montserrat did not take place until 1995. Long-term
small-to-moderate ash eruptions were accompanied by lava dome growth and
pyroclastic flows that initially forced evacuation of the southern half of
the island and then destroyed the capital city of Plymouth.

Information Contact: Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO), Mongo Hill,
Montserrat, West Indies (URL: http://www.mvomrat.com/).

#####

This information is from a worldwide network of correspondents, who receive
a Bulletin that includes illustrations not available in this electronic
version of the text. Text, figures, and photographs can also be accessed
the Internet World Wide Web (URL: http://www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/). The
issue date is the closing date for regular monthly reports, not the
publication date; more recent information about ongoing activity is often
included.

* The Bulletin is available by subscription from the American Geophysical
Union, 2000 Florida Ave. NW, Washington, DC 20009 USA, at $22/year for US
addresses, $39/year outside the US.

* The information in our reports is necessarily preliminary, and subject to
change as the reported events are studied in more detail. Please contact
the original sources for updates and corrections before using Bulletin
information.

* The network depends on prompt communication from observers around the
world. Please help by sending news of current activity via Internet
electronic mail (gvn@volcano.si.edu), telephone (202:3571511), fax
(202:3572476), or airletter (Global Volcanism Program, National Museum of
Natural History - Room E-421, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC
20560-0129 USA).

#####


_____________________________________________________________________
Ed Venzke
Global Volcanism Program, NMNH E-421 Tel: (202) 357-2822
Smithsonian Institution Fax: (202) 357-2476
Washington, DC 20560-0119 Email: venzke@volcano.si.edu

GVP Webmaster
______________________________________________________________________



 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 382 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Apr 10, 2001 (19:09) * 72 lines 
 
ALASKA VOLCANO OBSERVATORY
Weekly Update
Friday, April 6, 2001 11:00 AM ADT (1900 UTC)

CLEVELAND VOLCANO (CAVW #1101-24)
52049'N 169057'W
Summit Elevation 5,674 ft (1,730 m)

Unrest at Cleveland Volcano in the east-central Aleutians continues.
Although Cleveland is not monitored directly by seismic instrumentation, an
AVO seismic network 230 km to the east of the volcano has intermittently
recorded low-level volcanic tremor over the last several weeks that is
likely related to activity at Cleveland. Since the eruption of 19 March,
AVO has received no further reports of significant activity from pilots or
residents of Nikolski, and no further explosive activity has been observed
in satellite images. Satellite analysis last confidently detected a thermal
anomaly in the vicinity of the volcano on March 23.

Based on these data and the historical pattern of repeated, sudden
explosions at Cleveland extending over a period of months, AVO reminds
readers that additional ash-producing eruptions are possible at any time.
In addition, movement of recently erupted material from the steep flanks of
Cleveland may produce small, localized ash plumes and avalanches into the
sea.

AVO does not assign a color code to Cleveland because of the lack of a
seismic network immediately around the volcano. We continue to monitor the
situation closely by satellite, through careful analysis of more distant
seismic station data, and by phone contact with air and ground observers in
the region.


OTHER ALASKA VOLCANOES

Seismic activity is monitored in real time at 22 volcanoes in Alaska.
Satellite images of all Alaskan volcanoes are analyzed daily for evidence
of ash plumes and elevated surface temperatures. Some volcanoes may
currently display anomalous behavior without being considered to be at a
dangerous level of unrest.

Spurr, Redoubt, Iliamna, Augustine, Snowy, Griggs, Katmai, Novarupta,
Trident, Mageik, Martin, Aniakchak, Pavlof, Dutton, Isanotski, Shishaldin,
Fisher, Westdahl, Akutan, Makushin, Great Sitkin, and Kanaga volcanoes are
all at or near normal levels of background seismicity. AVO did not detect
ash plumes or significant elevated surface temperatures in the vicinity of
any volcano.

Abbreviated color code key (contact AVO for complete description):

GREEN volcano is dormant; normal seismicity and fumarolic activity
occurring
YELLOW volcano is restless; eruption may occur
ORANGE volcano is in eruption or eruption may occur at any time
RED significant eruption is occurring or explosive eruption expected
at any time

Volcano information on the internet: http://www.avo.alaska.edu
Recording of the status of alaska's volcanoes (907) 786-7478

CONTACT INFORMATION:

Tom Murray, Scientist-in-Charge, USGS
tlmurray@usgs.gov
(907) 786-7497

John Eichelberger, Coordinating Scientist, UAF-GI
eich@gi.alaska.edu(907) 474-5530

The Alaska Volcano Observatory is a cooperative program of the U.S.
Geological Survey, the University of Alaska Fairbanks Geophysical
Institute, and the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys.



 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 383 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Apr 10, 2001 (19:10) * 54 lines 
 
***********************************
Gorda Ridge eruption, Oregon coast
***********************************
From: Dan Shackelford

Submarine eruption off the Oregon coast on the Gorda Ridge

It would appear that a submarine volcanic eruption is taking place off the
Oregon coast, marked by T-Phase seismicity, continuous tremor and near the
February 1996 eruption site on the Gorda Ridge. T-Phase events began about
1800 PST on 3 April and still continued as of 5 April. Seismicity indicates
the reputed eruption began near the summit "narrowgate", with dike
propagation to the S.

Following from:
http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/vents/acoustics/seismicity/nepac/gordaridge01.html

At about 0050Z on JD 094 (Tuesday April 3, 1800 PST), volcanic seismicity
was detected by the PMEL T-phase Monitoring System. The activity is located
on Gorda Ridge. The seismic activity is very similar to earlier JdF events:
no large main shock, rapidly repeating earthquakes, and the presence of a band
of continuous tremor. The event is relatively loud, being heard on
multiple SOSUS arrays and the Pacific Northwest Seismic Network.

The general location (42.15 N, 127.05W (or 42 9'N; 127 3'W) is on the
Jackson segment, just below the North Gorda segment which was the site of a
February 1996 eruption. The activity is analogous to that event, being
located near the summit of the "narrowgate" on the south side and showing
indications of dike propagation.

A response effort is currently planned by the combined event response team
funded by NSF and NOAA using RV New Horizon. New developments will be
broadcast at this site.

UPDATE (4/5 1700PDT): Activity continues at a reduced level; description
information has been updated. A response cruise is planned from Eureka,
California on Monday, April 9th.

UPDATE (4/5 1030PDT): Response planning continues. The Scripps RV New
Horizon may be available in San Diego.

UPDATE (4/5 0830PDT): Activity continued overnight. Several of the larger
earthquakes have been picked up by the Pacific Northwest seismic networks.
A detailed look at the event is under construction and will be posted by
late today. Response planning continues.

UPDATE (4/4-1430PDT): Seismic activity has slowed in the last few hours.
SOSUS-derived earthquake source locations show indications of lateral
migration to the south, typical of dike injections. A current earthquake
location file is provided.

Northwest land seismic arrays have successfully detected at least ten of
the events from this sequence. More information to follow.



 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 384 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Apr 13, 2001 (14:49) * 165 lines 
 
Volcano Watch - April 12, 2001

Volcanoes exempt from capital gains
Here's a riddle for you-which large land holder on the Big Island
condemns property at will, holds liens on large parts of the island, and
doesn't pay a cent of taxes? Kilauea Volcano has seized a lot of real
estate in the last 18 years, but, unlike the rest of us, won't be
struggling with tax forms this weekend.
To date, the eruption that began in 1983 has covered about 102 sq km
(40 sq miles) of preexisting land. Forty percent of that land is inside
Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park. Another 35 percent belongs to the State,
including large parcels of forest reserve and natural area reserve. Only
25 percent of the property covered by this eruption is privately held,
though it included hundreds of house lots.
Most of the private property is near Kilauea's southern coastline,
where the eruption has added about 206 hectares (510 acres) of new land to
the island. The biggest chunk of this lies outboard of the sites of Harry
K. Brown Park and Kaimu black sand beach, where a plain of pahoehoe
extended the coastline seaward by as much as 0.6 km (0.4 mi). The new land
belongs to the State, under the terms of a 1977 Hawaii Supreme Court
decision in the case of the State of Hawaii vs. Zimring. The disputed land
in this case was 7.9 acres formed by the 1955 eruption of Kilauea, which
sent a lava flow into the ocean at Kehena.
The largest remaining kipuka within the flow field contains the
remains of Royal Gardens subdivision, which is located on the steep slope
of Pulama pali. Royal Gardens was the scene of the first house to be
claimed by lava during this eruption, back in early 1983. It is also the
scene of the latest destruction--four long-abandoned houses were overrun in
the last year.
If ever property were subject to a lien by the volcano, it's Royal
Gardens. The subdivision has the dubious distinction of being the only
inhabited area to be impacted by all three of the main epochs of this
eruption. From 1983 through 1985, lava flows from the central vent at Pu`u
`O`o overran the upper slopes of the subdivision. The eruption shifted 3
km (1.9 mi) northeast to the Kupaianaha vent in 1986, and for the next five
years, flows whittled away at the eastern side of the subdivision and
wrapped around its lower end. In early 1992, Kupaianaha died, and the
eruption returned to flank vents on the southwest slope of the Pu`u `O`o
cone. Since then, flows approaching from the west have encroached on the
lower end of the subdivision, merging with the Kupaianaha flows on the
coastal plain. This activity is continuing today.
Most of the land claimed by the volcano during this eruption has been
buried and reburied many times over in the last 18 years, some of it to a
depth of 25 m (80 ft) or more. Currently, surface flows are pushing
eastward on the coastal plain, repaving ground that was first buried in
1989-91 by pahoehoe from Kupaianaha.
Lava hasn't entered the ocean since January of this year, but the
broad surface flows are gradually making their way toward the ocean near
the eastern boundary of the National Park. As of April 12, active lava was
within 400 m (1300 ft) of the shoreline, but judging from its behavior in
the last two months, it's in no hurry to get there.
No earthquakes were reported felt during the week ending on April 12,
2001.
This article was written by scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey's
Hawaiian Volcano Observatory.

ALASKA VOLCANO OBSERVATORY
Weekly Update
Friday, April 13, 2001 10:00 AM ADT (1800 UTC)
CLEVELAND VOLCANO (CAVW #1101-24)
52°49'N 169°57'W Summit Elevation 5,674 ft (1,730 m)

Unrest at Cleveland Volcano in the east-central Aleutians continues.
Satellite analysis last confidently detected a thermal anomaly in the
vicinity of the volcano on April 8th; the volcano was largely obscured by
clouds during the rest of the week. Low-level pulses of volcanic tremor,
likely related to activity at Cleveland, were detected on several occasions
during the last week by an AVO seismic network 230 km to the east of the
volcano. AVO has received no reports of significant activity from pilots or
residents of Nikolski and no further explosive activity has been observed
in satellite images since the last eruption on March 19.
Based on these data and the historical pattern of repeated, sudden
explosions at Cleveland extending over a period of months, additional
ash-producing eruptions could occur at any time. In addition, movement of
recently erupted material from the steep flanks of Cleveland may produce
small, localized ash plumes and avalanches into the sea.
AVO does not assign a color code to Cleveland because of the lack of a
seismic network immediately around the volcano. We continue to monitor the
situation closely by satellite, through careful analysis of more distant
seismic station data, and by phone contact with air and ground observers in
the region.
OTHER ALASKA VOLCANOES
Seismic activity is monitored in real time at 22 volcanoes in Alaska.
Satellite images of all Alaskan volcanoes are analyzed daily for evidence
of ash plumes and elevated surface temperatures. Some volcanoes may
currently display anomalous behavior without being considered to be at a
dangerous level of unrest.
Spurr, Redoubt, Iliamna, Augustine, Snowy, Griggs, Katmai, Novarupta,
Trident, Mageik, Martin, Aniakchak, Pavlof, Dutton, Isanotski, Shishaldin,
Fisher, Westdahl, Akutan, Makushin, Great Sitkin, and Kanaga volcanoes are
all at or near normal levels of background seismicity. AVO did not detect
ash plumes or significant elevated surface temperatures in the vicinity of
any volcano.

Abbreviated color code key (contact AVO for complete description):
GREEN volcano is dormant; normal seismicity and fumarolic activity
occurring
YELLOW volcano is restless; eruption may occur
ORANGE volcano is in eruption or eruption may occur at any time
RED significant eruption is occurring or explosive eruption expected
at any time

Volcano information on the internet: http://www.avo.alaska.edu
Kamchatkan Volcanic Activity
INFORMATION RELEASE 16-01
Friday, April 13, 2001, 12:30 KDT (2350 UTC)
The following Release was received by the Alaska Volcano Observatory via
e-mail from KVERT (Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruptions Response Team). All times
are in Kamchatkan Daylight Time, 21 hours ahead of ADT.

KLYUCHEVSKAYA GROUP OF VOLCANOES
KLYUCHEVSKOY VOLCANO; 56o03'N, 160o39'E; Elevation 4,750 m.
CURRENT LEVEL OF CONCERN COLOR CODE IS GREEN.
PREVIOUS LEVEL OF CONCERN COLOR CODE WAS YELLOW.
At the beginning of the past week (April 6-12), seismic activity was at
background levels. On April 6-7, a gas and steam plume rose 700-1000 m
above the volcano and extended 5-10 km to the southeast. The level of
volcanic tremor began to increase at 10:00 KDT on April 7, noticeable
increasing in the level of tremor occurred at 13:00 KDT on April 7. Seismic
activity under the volcano increased sharply at 07:17 KDT on April 8 (18:17
UTC on April 7). The swarm of shallow earthquakes (Ml ~ 2) and volcanic
tremor were registered. No volcanic activity was observed. At 8:30 KDT on
April 8, a gas and steam plume rose 400 m above the volcano and extended 5
km to the east. Since 09:00 KDT seismic activity has decreased. In the
evening on April 8, a gas and steam plume rose 100 m above the volcano and
extended 3 km to the southwest. Shallow earthquakes (Ml Less than 2) and weak
volcanic tremor continued to occur during the rest of the week. On April
9-10, the volcano was quiet; on April 11, the volcano was obscured by
clouds. On April 12, a gas and steam plume rose 100 m above the volcano.

BEZYMIANNY VOLCANO; 55o58'N, 160o36'E; Elevation 2,895 m
CURRENT LEVEL OF CONCERN COLOR CODE IS GREEN.
No seismicity was registered under the volcano. On April 6-8, a gas and
steam plume rose 400-700 m above the volcano and extended to the southeast
on April 6, and 10-20 km to the south on April 7-8. On April 10, weak
fumarolic activity was observed. On April 11-12, the volcano was obscured
by clouds.

SHEVELUCH VOLCANO; 56o38'N, 161o19'E; Elevation 2,447 m
CURRENT LEVEL OF CONCERN COLOR CODE IS YELLOW.
Seismicity was above the background levels. Separate shallow earthquakes,
short series of them, and episodes of volcanic tremor were registered
during the week. Possibly some of these seismic events corresponded to weak
ash-gas and steam-gas explosions. On April 6-8, a gas and steam plume rose
500-800 m above the volcano and extended 5-10 km to the east. At 15:00 KDT
on April 7, a gas and steam explosions to a height of 1500 above the
volcano were observed. On April 10, a gas and steam plume rose 50 m above
the volcano. On other days, the volcano was obscured by clouds.

KARYMSKY VOLCANO; 54o03'N, 159o27'E; Elevation 1,486 m
CURRENT LEVEL OF CONCERN COLOR CODE IS GREEN.
Seismic activity was at background levels.

AVACHINSKAYA GROUP OF VOLCANOES; 53o15'N, 158o51'E;
CURRENT LEVEL OF CONCERN COLOR CODE IS GREEN.
Seismicity at Avachinsky and Koryaksky volcanoes was at background levels.

MUTNOVSKAYA GROUP OF VOLCANOES:
GORELY VOLCANO; 52o33'N, 158o02'E, Elevation 1,828 m;
MUTNOVSKY VOLCANO; 52o27'N, 158o12'E, Elevation 2,324 m.
CURRENT LEVEL OF CONCERN COLOR CODE FOR BOTH VOLCANOES IS GREEN.
Both volcanoes were obscured by clouds the entire week. No seismicity was
registered under the volcanoes.




 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 385 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Apr 16, 2001 (19:47) * 66 lines 
 
**********************************
AVO Weekly Update for 04/13/2001
**********************************
From: avo-sci@usgs.gov

ALASKA VOLCANO OBSERVATORY
Weekly Update
Friday, April 13, 2001 10:00 AM ADT (1800 UTC)

CLEVELAND VOLCANO (CAVW #1101-24)
52°49'N 169°57'W
Summit Elevation 5,674 ft (1,730 m)

Unrest at Cleveland Volcano in the east-central Aleutians continues.
Satellite analysis last confidently detected a thermal anomaly in the
vicinity of the volcano on April 8th; the volcano was largely obscured by
clouds during the rest of the week. Low-level pulses of volcanic tremor,
likely related to activity at Cleveland, were detected on several occasions
during the last week by an AVO seismic network 230 km to the east of the
volcano. AVO has received no reports of significant activity from pilots or
residents of Nikolski and no further explosive activity has been observed
in satellite images since the last eruption on March 19.

Based on these data and the historical pattern of repeated, sudden
explosions at Cleveland extending over a period of months, additional
ash-producing eruptions could occur at any time. In addition, movement of
recently erupted material from the steep flanks of Cleveland may produce
small, localized ash plumes and avalanches into the sea.

AVO does not assign a color code to Cleveland because of the lack of a
seismic network immediately around the volcano. We continue to monitor the
situation closely by satellite, through careful analysis of more distant
seismic station data, and by phone contact with air and ground observers in
the region.

OTHER ALASKA VOLCANOES

Seismic activity is monitored in real time at 22 volcanoes in Alaska.
Satellite images of all Alaskan volcanoes are analyzed daily for evidence
of ash plumes and elevated surface temperatures. Some volcanoes may
currently display anomalous behavior without being considered to be at a
dangerous level of unrest.

Spurr, Redoubt, Iliamna, Augustine, Snowy, Griggs, Katmai, Novarupta,
Trident, Mageik, Martin, Aniakchak, Pavlof, Dutton, Isanotski, Shishaldin,
Fisher, Westdahl, Akutan, Makushin, Great Sitkin, and Kanaga volcanoes are
all at or near normal levels of background seismicity. AVO did not detect
ash plumes or significant elevated surface temperatures in the vicinity of
any volcano.

Abbreviated color code key (contact AVO for complete description):
GREEN volcano is dormant; normal seismicity and fumarolic activity
occurring
YELLOW volcano is restless; eruption may occur
ORANGE volcano is in eruption or eruption may occur at any time
RED significant eruption is occurring or explosive eruption expected
at any time

Volcano information on the internet: http://www.avo.alaska.edu
Recording of the status of alaska's volcanoes (907) 786-7478

The Alaska Volcano Observatory is a cooperative program of the U.S.
Geological Survey, the University of Alaska Fairbanks Geophysical
Institute, and the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys.




 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 386 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Apr 23, 2001 (05:18) * 132 lines 
 
Volcano Watch - April 19, 2001

April is Earthquake and Tsunami Awareness Month

Early Monday morning, residents of the northern half of the island
were awakened by a magnitude-3.9 earthquake. This was a gentle reminder
that we live in one of most seismically active areas in the United States.
The month of April is observed as earthquake awareness month in the State
of California and as tsunami awareness month in the State of Hawaii. Both
natural hazards have struck this island with disastrous results, so it is
especially important that kama`ainas are reminded, and malihinis are made
aware, of these hazards.
April could also be considered earthquake awareness month here in
Hawai`i because the largest historical earthquake occurred on April 3,
1868, in the Ka`u district. The estimated magnitude of this event was 7.9,
larger than the magnitude-7.8 San Francisco earthquake of April 18, 1906.
The Ka`u earthquake killed a number of people, mainly by a huge landslide
near Kapapala and by a tsunami that swept the coastline.
We observe tsunami awareness month during April because of the
destructive waves that killed 159 people in Hawai`i on April 1, 1946. The
tsunami was generated by a magnitude-7.8 earthquake in the Aleutian trench
south of Unimak Island. The first wave took 4.9 hours to reach Hilo and
caught many residents by surprise. Thereafter, the Seismic Sea Wave
Warning System, later called the Pacific Tsunami Warning System, was
established to provide residents with an early notification if a tsunami is
triggered by a distant Pacific basin earthquake.
The warning system is fine for tsunamis generated by distant
earthquakes, because it takes several hours for the waves to reach Hawai`i.
Large local earthquakes can also cause a tsunami, and the warning system
may not be activated in time for some people to evacuate. The great Ka`u
earthquake and the 1975 Kalapana earthquake (magnitude 7.2) both produced
waves that killed people.
The greatest danger from a locally generated tsunami is the
suddenness with which the waves can materialize. The only warning for such
an event is the strong ground shaking. If you are near the ocean when a
large earthquake occurs, head for high ground immediately; this reaction
may save your life. Campers at Halape, near the epicenter of the 1975
earthquake, had only seconds after the shaking stopped before they were
engulfed and swept away by a series of waves. The tsunami reached Hilo in
20 minutes and Kailua-Kona in 27 minutes. Many fishing boats at both
locations were severely damaged or destroyed.
Hawai`i is a geologically dynamic island with two of the most active
volcanoes in the world. Directly or indirectly, the volcanoes are the
cause of the high seismicity of the island. Monday morning's earthquake
belongs to a family of earthquakes generated by the slow crustal adjustment
to the load or weight of the volcanoes. The most recent large earthquake
from this family was the magnitude-6.2 Honomu earthquake in 1973.
When magma enters a volcano, the edifice has to make room for it, so
the flanks move outward to accommodate the new magma. This flank movement
has caused a number of large earthquakes. Recent earthquakes of this
mechanism include the magnitude-6.7 Ka`oiki fault earthquake in 1983, the
1975 Kalapana earthquake, and the magnitude-6.9 Kealakekua fault earthquake
in 1951.
Awareness of the earthquake hazard in Hawai`i is necessary for
everyone because of such a high frequency of large, destructive local
earthquakes. The hazard will not disappear or diminish, but residents can
reduce the effects of the shaking and also be prepared for the event.
Information on ways to mitigate the earthquake hazard can be obtained from
the Hawai`i County Civil Defense office (935-0031) or from the Center for
the Study of Active Volcanoes (CSAV) at the University of Hawai`i at Hilo
(974-7631). CSAV also has a web site with the necessary information (
http://www.uhh.hawaii.edu/%7Enat_haz/earthmit/eq.html).
Just as the rain in Hilo doesn't fall only in April, awareness of
natural hazards should be a year-round practice.

Eruption Update

Eruptive activity of Kilauea Volcano continued unabated at the Pu`u
`O`o vent during the past week and provided visitors with an occasional
glimpse of surface flow activity. Breakouts occur above and on Pulama
pali, in addition to the coastal flats. Lobes of two flows are slowly
advancing to the seacoast at Kamokuna and at Kupapa`u. The flow front
closest to the ocean is within 130 m (425 ft) of the shoreline in the old
Kupapa`u area near the eastern boundary of Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park.
The Monday morning earthquake was reported felt by residents of Hilo,
Papa`ikou, Pa`auilo, Kapulena, Kalopa, Waimea, Hawi, Kawaihae, Waikoloa,
Kailua-Kona, and Keauhou. The 4:18 a.m. earthquake was located near the
Pohakuloa Training Area at a depth of 31.2 km (18.7 mi) and had a magnitude
of 3.9. This was the only event reported felt during the week ending on
April 19.

This article was written by scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey's
Hawaiian Volcano Observatory.

Kamchatkan Volcanic Activity
INFORMATION RELEASE 17-01
Friday, April 20, 2001, 11:30 KDT (2230 UTC)

The following Release was received by the Alaska Volcano Observatory via
e-mail from KVERT (Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruptions Response Team). All times
are in Kamchatkan Daylight Time, 21 hours ahead of ADT.

KLYUCHEVSKAYA GROUP OF VOLCANOES
KLYUCHEVSKOY VOLCANO; 56o03'N, 160o39'E; Elevation 4,750 m.
CURRENT LEVEL OF CONCERN COLOR CODE IS GREEN.
During the past week (April 13-19), seismic activity was above background
levels. A strong earthquake (Ml~5) occurred between Klyuchvskoy and
Krestovsky volcanoes at 12:59 KDT on April 13, at a depth of ~12 km.
Aftershocks of this event (Ml greater than 4.2) continued to occur during the entire
week. Small shallow earthquakes under Klyuchvskoy volcano were registered
too. On April 16, a gas and steam plume rose 150 m above the volcano and
extended more than 3 km to the southeast. On other days the volcano was obscured
by clouds.

BEZYMIANNY VOLCANO; 55o58'N, 160o36'E; Elevation 2,895 m
CURRENT LEVEL OF CONCERN COLOR CODE IS GREEN.
On April 19, one small earthquake was registered under the volcano. On
April 16, the volcano was quiet. On other days, the volcano was obscured
by clouds.

SHEVELUCH VOLCANO; 56o38'N, 161o19'E; Elevation 2,447 m
CURRENT LEVEL OF CONCERN COLOR CODE IS YELLOW.
Seismicity was above the background levels. Shallow earthquakes (Ml greater than 2)
continued to occur. On April 13 and 16, a gas and steam plume rose 100-200
m above the volcano. On other days, the volcano was obscured by clouds.

KARYMSKY VOLCANO; 54o03'N, 159o27'E; Elevation 1,486 m
CURRENT LEVEL OF CONCERN COLOR CODE IS GREEN.
Seismic activity was at background levels.

AVACHINSKAYA GROUP OF VOLCANOES; 53o15'N, 158o51'E;
CURRENT LEVEL OF CONCERN COLOR CODE IS GREEN.
Seismicity at Avachinsky and Koryaksky volcanoes was at background levels.

MUTNOVSKAYA GROUP OF VOLCANOES:
GORELY VOLCANO; 52o33'N, 158o02'E, Elevation 1,828 m;
MUTNOVSKY VOLCANO; 52o27'N, 158o12'E, Elevation 2,324 m.
CURRENT LEVEL OF CONCERN COLOR CODE FOR BOTH VOLCANOES IS GREEN.
On April 19, both volcanoes were quiet. On other days, both volcanoes were
obscured by clouds. Seismicity was near background levels.




 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 387 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Apr 23, 2001 (15:25) * 12 lines 
 
Nicaragua Volcano Erupts, Hurts 2
The Associated Press
Apr 23 2001 11:03PM

MANAGUA, Nicaragua (AP) - A volcano erupted near the capital Monday
and rained red-hot rock over vehicles on a road below, slightly injuring
two people and shattering windows on a bus carrying American tourists.
The eruption of the 2,086-foot Santiago volcano also spewed volcanic
ash over several nearby hamlets, but there were no reports of any injury
or damage, officials said.

More... http://my.aol.com/news/news_story.psp?type=1&cat=0600&id=0104232309090612


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 388 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Apr 25, 2001 (05:51) * 55 lines 
 
***************************
Masaya Volcano, Nicaragua
***************************
From: Wilfried Strauch

Report to Volcano Network

Explosion at Masaya volcano, Nicaragua
New vent in Santiago crater

Yesterday, April 23, 2001, at 02:26 PM local
time (8:26 UT), an explosion occurred in
the crater Santiago of Masaya volcano.
This explosion formed a new vent in the bottom
of Santiago. The explosion first launched
rocks with diameters up to 60 cm which impacted
at distances up to 500 m from the crater.
Vehicles parked at the visitors platform
were damaged and one person was injured. In
the moment of the explosion about 200 persons
were present at or near the visitors platform.
In a second and third phase of the explosion
small quantities of lava and volcanic ash
were expulsed which caused bush fires near
the crater rim. The seismic recording at
the seismic station installed near the
crater shows that the explosion lasted about
2 minutes. Degassing continued stronger than
in the last weeks and months.
Episodic ash fall was reported near
Ticuantepe, Northwest of Masaya volcano and
people were affected by high concentrations
of volcanic gases. INETER volcanologists
who continuously monitored Santiago in
the afternoon and during the night
reported several smaller explosions, gas
outbreaks and minor collapses of the crater wall.

Scientists from Cambridge University/UK
who carried out gas measurements at
Santiago crater and left just one hour before
the explosion had not noticed any unusual
behavior of the volcano before the event.
Also, the seismic recordings, according
to preliminary inspection, does not
indicate unusual activity.

The authorities of the National Park of
Masaya Volcan closed public access to the
visitors platform for the next days.

The official report of INETER,
additional information and photos can be
found in our Web page
http://www.ineter.gob.ni/geofisica/vol/masaya/masaya.html


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 389 of 997: Marcia Hemming (marci) * Fri, Apr 27, 2001 (00:59) * 1 lines 
 
test 2


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 390 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Apr 27, 2001 (12:01) * 1 lines 
 
Ooh! telnet works!!!


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 391 of 997: Marcia Hemming (marci) * Sun, Apr 29, 2001 (10:03) * 1 lines 
 
Yes, but I am talking to myself in Telnet *sigh*


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 392 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Apr 30, 2001 (08:31) * 372 lines 
 
GVP/USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report 18-24 April 2001

http//www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/usgs/

New Activity/Unrest | Marapi, Indonesia | Masaya, Nicaragua |

Ongoing Activity | Batur, Indonesia | Cleveland, USA | Etna, Italy | Ijen,
Indonesia | Kilauea, USA | Mayon, Philippines | Merapi, Indonesia |
Popocatépetl, México | Semeru, Indonesia | Shiveluch, Kamchatka | Soufrière
Hills, Montserrat | Tungurahua, Ecuador |

New Activity

MARAPI Sumatra, Indonesia 0.38°S, 100.47°E; summit elev. 2,891 m
Based on information from VSI, the Darwin VAAC reported that after
increased volcanic activity occurred over the preceding two weeks VSI
raised the Alert Level at Marapi from 1 to 2. The increased activity
included an eruption on 16 April that sent an ash cloud up to 2 km above
the summit. In addition, an eruption on about 23 April produced an ash
cloud that rose up to ~6 km a.s.l. and drifted to the E.
Background. Gunung Marapi, not to be confused with the better known Merapi
volcano on Java, is Sumatra's most active volcano. Marapi is a massive
complex stratovolcano that rises 2,000 m above the Bukittinggi plain in
Sumatra's Padang Highlands. A broad summit contains multiple partially
overlapping summit craters constructed within the small 1.4-km-wide Bancah
caldera. The summit craters are located along an ENE-WSW line, along which
volcanism has migrated to the W. More than 50 eruptions, typically
consisting of small-to-moderate explosive activity, have been recorded
since the end of the 18th century; no historical lava flows outside the
summit craters have been reported.
Sources Volcanological Survey of Indonesia,
http//www.vsi.dpe.go.id/news/index.html Darwin, VAAC
http//www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/
Marapi Reports
http//www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/volcano/region06/sumatra/marapi/var.htm
from the monthly Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network

MASAYA Nicaragua 11.984°N, 86.161°W; summit elev. 635 m; All times are
local (= UTC - 6 hours)
At 1426 on 23 April a small explosion at Masaya’s Santiago crater lasted
for ~2 minutes and occurred in three phases. During the first phase
volcanic gas under high pressure was explosively released and created a new
vent in the bottom of Santiago crater. The eruption sent rock fragments up
to 60 cm in diameter as far as 500 m from the crater. Several vehicles
parked at a visitors platform near the crater were damaged by the ejecta
and one person suffered minor injuries. During the second and third phases
a mixture of hot volcanic gas, pieces of lava, and ash ignited dry
vegetation near the crater. INETER personnel who monitored the seismic
activity before the eruption and scientists from Cambridge University who
were working in the crater one hour before the eruption did not notice any
unusual activity at the volcano. INETER personnel monitored the volcano
after the eruption and found that several small explosions, gas outbreaks,
and minor collapses of the crater wall occurred. They warned that further
explosions may occur that could affect areas near the crater (within ~500 m).
Background. Masaya is one of Nicaragua's most unusual and most active
volcanoes. It is a broad, 6 x 11 km basaltic caldera with steep-sided walls
up to 300 m high that is filled on its NW end by more than a dozen vents
erupted along a circular, 4-km-wide fracture system. The twin volcanoes of
Nindiri and Masaya, the source of historical eruptions, were constructed at
the southern end of the fracture system and contain multiple summit
craters. A major basaltic plinian tephra was erupted from Masaya about
6,500 years ago. Historical lava flows cover much of the caldera floor and
have confined a lake to the far eastern end of the caldera. A lava flow
from the 1670 eruption overtopped the N caldera rim. Masaya has been
frequently active since the time of the Spanish Conquistadors, when an
active lava lake prompted several attempts to extract the volcano's molten
"gold."
Sources Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales
http//www.ineter.gob.ni/geofisica/vol/masaya/masaya.html, Associated Press
http//dailynews.yahoo.com/h/ap/20010423/wl/nicaragua_volcano_1.html
Masaya Reports
http//www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/volcano/region14/nicarag/masaya/var.htm
from the monthly Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network

Ongoing Activity

BATUR Lesser Sunda Islands, Indonesia 8.24°S, 115.37°E; summit elev. 1,717 m
VSI reported that there were no major changes visible at Batur during 9-15
April. Thin steam plumes continued to rise above the volcano’s crater.
Seismographs recorded no shallow volcanic earthquakes, two deep volcanic
earthquakes, two small explosion earthquakes, and 17 tectonic earthquakes.
The volcano remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).
Background. The historically active Batur volcano is located at the center
of two concentric calderas NW of Agung volcano in eastern Bali. The SE
side of the larger 10 x 13 km caldera contains a caldera lake. The inner
7.5-km-wide caldera, which was formed during emplacement of the Bali (or
Ubud) ignimbrite, has been dated at 23,670 and 28,500 years ago. The SE
wall of the inner caldera lies beneath Lake Batur; Batur cone has been
constructed within the inner caldera to a height above the outer caldera
rim. The Batur stratovolcano has produced vents over much of the inner
caldera, but a NE-SW fissure system has localized the Batur I, II, and III
craters along the summit ridge. Historical eruptions have been
characterized by mild-to-moderate explosive activity sometimes accompanied
by lava flows from summit and flank vents that have reached the caldera
floor and the shores of Lake Batur.
Source Volcanological Survey of Indonesia
http//www.vsi.dpe.go.id/news/index.html
Batur Reports
http//www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/volcano/region06/sunda/batur/var.htm
from the monthly Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network

CLEVELAND Aleutian Islands, USA 52.82°N, 169.95°W; summit elev. 1,730
Volcanic unrest continued at Cleveland through 20 April. A thermal anomaly
was persistently detected in satellite imagery on days when the weather was
clear to partly cloudy. Low-level pulses of volcanic tremor were detected
several times during the week by an AVO seismic network 230 km to the E of
the volcano. AVO received no reports of significant volcanic activity from
either pilots, residents, or satellite remote sensors.
Background. The symmetrical Mount Cleveland stratovolcano is situated at
the western end of the uninhabited dumbbell-shaped Chuginadak Island in the
east-central Aleutians. The 1,730-m-high stratovolcano is the highest of
the Islands of Four Mountains group and is one of the most active in the
Aleutians. Numerous large lava flows descend its flanks. It is possible
that some 18th to 19th century eruptions attributed to Carlisle (a volcano
located across the Carlisle Pass Strait to the NW) should be ascribed to
Cleveland. In 1944 Cleveland produced the only known fatality from an
Aleutian eruption. Recent eruptions from Mt. Cleveland have been
characterized by short-lived explosive ash emissions, at times accompanied
by lava fountaining and lava flows down the flanks.
Source Alaska Volcano Observatory
http//www.avo.alaska.edu/avo4/updates/updates.htm
Cleveland Reports
http//www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/volcano/region11/aleutian/cleve/var.htm
from the monthly Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network

ETNA Sicily, Italy 37.73°N, 15.00°E; summit elev. 3,315 m
Sistema Poseidon reported that during 9-15 April volcanic activity at Etna
was similar to the previous week. Strombolian activity continued at Bocca
Nuova crater, although by the end of the report period activity decreased
in comparison to previous weeks. Lava also continued to flow down the NE
flank of Southeast Crater, and degassing continued at Voragine and
Northeast craters. The Australian Broadcasting Corporation reported that on
about 22 April thirty small earthquakes occurred near Etna, but did not
cause any injuries or property damage.
Background. Mount Etna, towering above Catania, Sicily's second largest
city, has one of the world's longest documented records of historical
volcanism, dating back to 1500 BC. Historical lava flows cover much of the
surface of this massive basaltic stratovolcano, the highest and most
voluminous in Italy. Two styles of eruptive activity typically occur at
Etna. Persistent explosive eruptions, sometimes with minor lava emissions,
take place from one or more of the three prominent summit craters Central
Crater, Northeast Crater, and Southeast Crater. Flank eruptions, typically
with higher effusion rates, occur less frequently and originate from
fissures that open progressively downward from near the summit. A period
of more intense intermittent explosive eruptions from Etna’s summit craters
began in 1995.
Source Sistema Poseidon, http//www.poseidon.nti.it/ Australian
Broadcasting Corporation
http//www.abc.net.au/news/newslink/weekly/newsnat-23apr2001-19.htm
Etna Reports
http//www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/volcano/region01/italy/etna/var.htm
from the monthly Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network

IJEN eastern Java, Indonesia 8.058°S, 114.242°E; summit elev. 2,386 m
Volcanic activity at Ijen during 9-15 April was higher than normal, with a
relatively large number (nine) of shallow volcanic earthquakes.
Seismographs also recorded ten small explosion events. The volcano remained
at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).
Background. The Ijen volcano complex consists of a group of small
stratovolcanoes constructed within the large 20-km-wide Ijen (Kendeng)
caldera. The N caldera wall forms a prominent arcuate ridge, but elsewhere
the caldera rim is buried by post-caldera volcanoes, including Gunung
Merapi stratovolcano, which forms the 2,799 m high point of the Ijen
complex. Immediately W of Gunung Merapi is the renowned historically
active Kawah Ijen volcano, which contains a nearly 1-km-wide,
turquoise-colored, acid crater lake. The picturesque lake is the site of a
labor-intensive sulfur mining operation, in which sulfur-laden baskets are
hand-carried from the crater floor. A half dozen small-to-moderate
phreatic eruptions have taken place from Kawah Ijen during the 20th century.
Source Volcanological Survey of Indonesia
http//www.vsi.dpe.go.id/news/index.html
Ijen Reports
http//www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/volcano/region06/java/ijen/var.htm
from the monthly Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network

KILAUEA Hawaii, USA 19.43°N, 155.29°W; summit elev. 1,222 m
Surface lava flows were visible above the Pulama Pali and traveling down it
without reaching the coast. The lava flows were predominately pahoehoe with
minor `a`a. Generally, volcanic tremor near Pu`u `O`o cone and in Kilauea's
caldera was at low levels, although a swarm of long-period earthquakes
occurred beneath the caldera from 18 to at least 24 April. Tiltmeters in
the summit area and along the east rift zone indicated no significant
deformation.
Background. Kilauea, one of five coalescing volcanoes that comprise the
island of Hawaii, is one of the world’s most active volcanoes. Historically
its eruptions originate primarily from the summit caldera or along one of
the lengthy E and SW rift zones that extend from the caldera to the sea.
The latest Kilauea eruption began in January 1983 along the E rift zone.
The Pu`u `O`o-Kupaianaha eruption is now in its 18th year and 55th eruptive
episode. Since 1986, flows have traveled 11-12 km from the vents to the
sea, paving about 80 km2 of land on the S flank of Kilauea and building 205
hectares of new land. Intensive monitoring and field research by staff of
the US Geological Survey’s Hawaiian Volcano Observatory, established in
1912, make Kilauea one of Earth's best studied volcanoes.
Source US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory
http//hvo.wr.usgs.gov/kilauea/update/
Kilauea Reports
http//www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/volcano/region13/hawaii/kilauea/var.htm
from the monthly Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network

MAYON southeastern Luzon, Philippines 13.257°N, 123.685°E; summit elev.
2,462 m; All times are local (= UTC + 8 hours)
PHIVOLCS reported that during the week ending on 15 April there had been a
total of 60 low-frequency earthquakes and 13 high-frequency short-duration
harmonic tremors. The SO2 flux during the same period averaged 3,400 metric
tons/day, which is still significantly above the baseline value of 500
tons/day. Deformation monitoring showed that the volcano was inflated, but
the present trend revealed insignificant change. Moderate steaming was
typical. Faint incandescence was observed at the crater using a telescope
for approximately an hour on both 16 and 17 April; the incandescence was
graded as level 1 intensity. Alert Level 3 remained in effect, prohibiting
entry within the 6-km-radius permanent danger zone.
Background. The beautifully symmetrical Mayon volcano, which rises to 2,462
m above the Albay Gulf, is the Philippines' most active volcano. The
structurally simple volcano has steep upper slopes that average 35-40° and
is capped by a small summit crater. The historical eruptions of this
basaltic-andesitic volcano date back to 1616 and range from Strombolian to
basaltic Plinian. Eruptions occur predominately from the central conduit
and have also produced lava flows that travel far down the flanks.
Pyroclastic flows and mudflows have commonly swept down many of the
approximately 40 ravines that radiate from the summit and have often
devastated populated lowland areas. Mayon’s most violent eruption, in 1814,
killed more than 1,200 people and devastated several towns. Eruptions that
began in February 2000 led PHIVOLCS to recommend on 23 February the
evacuation of people within a radius of 7 km from the summit in the SE and
within a 6 km radius for the rest of the volcano.
Source Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology
http//www.phivolcs.dost.gov.ph/vmepd/vmepd.htm
Mayon Reports
http//www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/volcano/region07/luzon/mayon/var.htm
from the monthly Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network

MERAPI central Java, Indonesia 7.542°S, 110.442°E; summit elev. 2,947 m
VSI reported that during 9-15 April lava avalanches continued to fill the
upstream areas of the Sat, Senowo, Lamat, and Bebeng rivers, with a maximum
runout distance of 2 km in the Sat River. In addition, eleven pyroclastic
flows entered the Sat and Lamat rivers, reaching as far as 3 km. Avalanche
earthquakes continued to dominate the seismicity, but their amplitude and
frequency decreased in comparison to the previous week. An observer
reported that on 13 April a small amount of ash fell around the Babadan
Post Observatory ~7 km W of the volcano. Merapi remained at Alert Level 2
(on a scale of 1-4).
Background. Merapi, one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes, lies in one
of the world's most densely populated areas and dominates the landscape
immediately N of the major city of Yogyakarta. The steep-sided modern
Merapi edifice, its upper part unvegetated due to frequent eruptive
activity, was constructed to the SW of an arcuate scarp cutting the eroded
older Batulawang volcano. Pyroclastic flows and lahars accompanying growth
and collapse of the steep-sided active summit lava dome have devastated
cultivated and inhabited lands on the volcano's western-to-southern flanks
and caused many fatalities during historical time. The volcano is the
object of extensive monitoring efforts by the Merapi Volcano Observatory of
the Volcanological Survey of Indonesia.
Source Volcanological Survey of Indonesia,
http//www.vsi.dpe.go.id/news/index.html
Merapi Reports
http//www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/volcano/region06/java/merapi/var.htm
from the monthly Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network

POPOCATÉPETL México 19.02°N, 98.62°W; summit elev. 5,426 m
Small-to-moderate exhalations continued at Popocatépetl. On 17 April a
small lahar traveled down the Achupashal Gorge. The volcano remained at
Alert Level Yellow Phase III, with a restricted 12-km-radius area.
Background. Popocatépetl, whose name is the Aztec word for smoking
mountain, towers to 5,426 m 70 km SE of México City and is North America's
second highest volcano. Frequent historical eruptions have been recorded
since the beginning of the Spanish colonial era. A small eruption on 21
December 1994 ended five decades of quiescence. Since 1996 small lava domes
have incrementally been constructed within the summit crater and destroyed
by explosive eruptions. Intermittent small-to-moderate gas-and-ash
eruptions have continued, occasionally producing ashfall in neighboring
towns and villages.
Photos (CENAPRED site) http//www.cenapred.unam.mx/boletines.html
Sources Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres,
http//www.cenapred.unam.mx/boletines.html
Washington VAAC, http//www.ssd.noaa.gov/VAAC/vaac.html, Associated Press
http//dailynews.yahoo.com/h/ap/20010417/wl/mexico_volcano_1.html
Popocatépetl Reports
http//www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/volcano/region14/mexico/popo/var.html
from the monthly Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network

SEMERU Java, Indonesia 8.11°N, 112.92°E; summit elev. 3,676 m
VSI reported that during 9-15 April activity at Semeru was higher than
normal. Minor explosions that rose 300 m were observed during clear
weather. Seismographs recorded an increase in seismicity in comparison to
the previous week, with 339 explosion events, 51 avalanche events, and
three tectonic earthquakes. Semeru remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).
Background. Semeru is the highest volcano on Java and one of its most
active. The symmetical stratovolcano rises abruptly to 3,676 m above
coastal plains to the S and lies at the southern end of a volcanic massif
extending N to the Tengger caldera. Semeru has been in almost continuous
eruption since 1967. Frequent small-to-moderate Vulcanian eruptions have
accompanied intermittent lava dome extrusion, and periodic pyroclastic
flows and lahars have damaged villages below the volcano. A major secondary
lahar on 14 May 1981 caused more than 250 deaths and damaged 16 villages.
Source Volcanological Survey of Indonesia http//www.vsi.dpe.go.id/
Semeru Reports
http//volcano.si.edu/gvp/volcano/region06/java/semeru/var.htm
from the monthly Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network

SHIVELUCH Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia 56.653°N, 161.360°E; summit elev.
3,283 m
During 13-20 April seismic activity was above background levels at
Shiveluch before increasing sharply on 22 April. Heavy clouds prevented
visual observations of the volcano, but seismic data suggested that no ash
explosions occurred. Due to the high seismic activity KVERT raised the
Concern Color Code from Yellow to Orange
http//www.avo.alaska.edu/avo4/updates/kvertweekly.htm
Background. The high, isolated massif of Shiveluch volcano (also spelled
Sheveluch) rises above the lowlands NNE of the Kliuchevskaya volcano group
and forms one of Kamchatka's largest and most active volcanoes. The
currently active Molodoy Shiveluch lava-dome complex was constructed during
the Holocene within a large horseshoe-shaped caldera formed by collapse of
the massive late-Pleistocene Strary Shiveluch volcano. At least 60 large
eruptions of Shiveluch have occurred during the Holocene, making it the
most vigorous andesitic volcano of the Kuril-Kamchatka arc. Frequent
collapses of lava-dome complexes, most recently in 1964, have produced
large debris avalanches whose deposits cover much of the floor of the
breached caldera. During the 1990s, intermittent explosive eruptions took
place from a new lava dome that began growing in 1980. The largest
historical eruptions from Shiveluch occurred in 1854 and 1964.
Source Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team via the Alaska Volcano
Observatory http//www.avo.alaska.edu/avo4/updates/kvertweekly.htm
Shiveluch Reports
http//www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/volcano/region10/kamchat/shiveluc/var.htm
from the monthly Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network

SOUFRIÈRE HILLS Montserrat, West Indies 16.72°N, 62.18°W; summit elev.
1,030 m; All times are local (= UTC - 4 hours)
MVO reported that during 13-20 April volcanic activity at Soufrière Hills
remained low, with few rockfalls and little seismicity. A swarm of hybrid
earthquakes occurred primarily during 0419 to 0741 on 20 April. A very
small amount of growth occurred on the S side of the lava dome, which was
accompanied by occasional ash venting. Sulfur dioxide flux also remained low.
Background. The complex andesitic Soufrière Hills volcano occupies the
southern half of the island of Montserrat. The summit area consists
primarily of a series of lava domes emplaced along an ESE-trending zone.
Non-eruptive seismic swarms occurred at 30-year intervals in the 20th
century, but the first well-documented historical eruption on Montserrat
did not take place until 1995. Long-term small-to-moderate ash eruptions
were accompanied by lava dome growth and pyroclastic flows that forced
evacuation of the southern half of the island and ultimately destroyed the
capital city of Plymouth, causing severe social and economic disruption.
The volcano is currently in a period of new dome growth.
Source Montserrat Volcano Observatory http//www.mvomrat.com/
Soufrière Hills Reports
http//www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/volcano/region16/w_indies/soufhill/var.htm
from the monthly Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network

TUNGURAHUA Ecuador 1.47°S, 78.44°W; summit elev. 5,023 m
IG stated that during the night of 20 April incandescence was visible in
the interior of the dome and the next day a steam column rose a short
distance above the summit. IG warned that residents near the volcano should
be alert to the possibility of mud flows forming during periods of heavy
rain. Since 5 September 2000, the Alert Level has been at Yellow in the
town of Baños and at Orange for the rest of the population in the high-risk
zone.
Background. The steep-sided Tungurahua stratovolcano towers more than 3 km
above its northern base. It sits ~140 km S of Quito, Ecuador’s capital
city, and is one of Ecuador's most active volcanoes. Historical eruptions
have been restricted to the summit crater. They have been accompanied by
strong explosions and sometimes by pyroclastic flows and lava flows that
reached populated areas at the volcano's base. The last major eruption took
place from 1916 to 1918, although minor activity continued until 1925. The
latest eruption began in October 1999 and prompted the evacuation of the
town of Baños on the N side of the volcano.
Source Instituto Geofísico, http//www.epn.edu.ec/~igeo/index.html,
Washington VAAC http//www.ssd.noaa.gov/VAAC/messages.html
Tungurahua Reports
http//www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/volcano/region15/ecuador/tungurah/var.htm
from the monthly Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network



 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 393 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, May  3, 2001 (05:11) * 44 lines 
 
*********************************************
KVERT Information Release 22-01: May 1, 2001
*********************************************
From: avo-sci@usgs.gov

KVERT Information Release 22-01: May 1, 2001

Kamchatkan Volcanic Activity
INFORMATION RELEASE 22-01
Tuesday, May 1, 2001, 16:00 KDT (0300 UTC)

The following Release was received by the Alaska Volcano Observatory via
e-mail from KVERT (Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruptions Response Team). All times
are in Kamchatkan Daylight Time, 21 hours ahead of ADT.

SHEVELUCH VOLCANO; 56o 38'N, 161o 19'E; Elevation 2,447 m
CURRENT LEVEL OF CONCERN COLOR CODE IS ORANGE.

Seismic activity under Sheveluch volcano increased sharply on April 22. At
18:40 KDT on April 21, the volcano was quiet. After that, right up to April
28, clouds obscured the volcano and prevented visual observation. Seismic
activity continued to increase. In the morning on April 27, the largest
earthquake reached Ml=4. Beginning from April 28, the number and the energy
of the events began to decrease slightly. In the morning on April 28, a gas
and steam plume rose 300 m above the volcano and extended 5 km to the west.
On April 29, a gas and steam plume rose 700 m above the volcano and
extended 10 km to the west. The satellite image (AVO) from April 30 at
07:39 KDT (18:39 Z on April 29), showed a 4-pixel thermal anomaly at the
volcano. At 08:30 KDT on April 30, a gas and steam plume rose 50 m above
the volcano and extended 5 km to the east. In the evening on April 30 and
in the morning on May 1, a gas and steam plume rose 100-200 m above the
volcano. Seismic activity continues to be significantly above background
levels. The course of the present seismic activity suggests that if an
eruption occurs, it may be similar to that of April 1993.

The 1993 eruption was preceded by a significant increase in volcanic and
seismic activity. On April 1, 1993, the rate of occurrence of earthquakes
under the volcano began to increase. At 11:40 KDT on April 22, the ash
cloud rose ~ 8 km above the dome. A violent explosion occurred at 13:16
KDT. The height of the eruption column was estimated at ~18 km above the
volcano. At 18:30 KDT ash began to fall in Klyuchi town (~46 km from the
volcano). Mud flows extended from the volcano 15-20 km. During the next
few days, the gas-steam column rose 1.5-4 km above the volcano.



 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 394 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, May  6, 2001 (08:03) * 167 lines 
 
*************************
Indonesia Update No. 612
*************************
From: Dan Shackelford

For the week ending 23 April, Indonesia's Marapi volcano (Sumatra), after a
period of decreased activity in Jan - Feb, began showing increased activity
in April. B-type earthquakes began on 7 April, on 9 April continuous tremor
began, and eruptions began at 1238 on 13 April. Thick dark ash columns rose
from the summit through 15 April. Strong explosion at 0814 on 16th, being
"felt" at the Tandikat Volcano Observatory, while a black ash cloud rose 2
km and spread ash over the area. Eruptions still continuing as of 18 April.
Java's Merapi continued to send glowing lava avalanches down its flanks
while a white plume rose 500m above the summit. Api Siau (Karangetang)
showed increased level of activity. Not only did both craters loft fume
with glows at the Main Crater, but lava avalanches and a short lava flow
down the N flank also took place from the Main Crater. Semeru displayed
increased seismic and visible activity as well, continuing its recent trend
for heightened levels of activity. The volcanoes of Lokon-Empung, Inielika,
Kawak Ijen, Anak Krakatau, Soputan, Batur and Kelut, although not erupting,
do remain restless, seismically.

Following from: Suswati (suswati@VSI.dpe.go.id)
http://www.vsi.dpe.go.id/news/

Weekly Report No. 612
16-23 April 2001


MARAPI
Sumatera, Indonesia
0°22'47,72" N, 100°28'16,71"E
summit elevation 2891,3 m
All times are local (=GMT + 7 hours)

Marapi has shown its eruption activity in the year 2001. Reports from
Marapi Volcano Observatory at Bukittinggi to the Geological Hazard
Mitigation and Volcanological Survey of Indonesia described decreasing of
seismicity since January to February 2001. A-type and B-type volcanicquakes
decreased from 15 and 24 times in January to 8 and 14 times in February,
respectively. Meanwhile, gas and steam emissions were increasing from 11 to
41 times from January to February 2001.

Chronology
Marapi activity began on April 7th 2001 with the occurrences of B-type
volcanicquakes. On April 9th continuously volcanic tremor were recorded.
Eruptions started at 12:38 pm until 16:00 pm on April 13th. At 16:00 April
14th a thick dark ash plume seen from Bukittinggi 15 km northwest of Marapi
summit. The eruptions continued to occur at 13:11 pm on April 15th.
On April 16th, at 08:14 am, an explosion was heard very strong to the
radius 8 km from the summit and felt with I = II MMI scale at Tandikat
Volcano Observatory. A black volcanic ash plume rose to a height of 2000 m
above the summit and showed cauliflower shape. Red ejected materials (ash,
sand, lapili and bomb) are seen clearly from Bukittinggi and fall back to
the crater rim. Ash fall spread over villages of Sungai Puah, Air Angeh,
Andala, District X Koto, District Batipuh, District V Koto, Tanah Datar
Regency and Padang Panjang City, respectively, in the southern and
southwestern parts of the volcano. The thickness of the ash deposits is
between 2 and 3 cm, within the radius of 1-4 km from the summit.
Leading to the 16th April's explosion, a smaller scale explosion occurred
at 06:00 am with a thick black ash plume rising to the height of 700 m
above the summit. A series of explosions continuously occurred at 14:15 pm,
19:40 pm and from 21:00 pm to 22:40 pm. Explosive activity was continuing
until the 18th April 2001, and 150 times explosions were counted.
No casualty was reported and the Marapi Volcano Observatory increased
alert level from "NORMAL" (1) to "WASPADA" (2) following minor activity
that began on 13 April 2001. A recommendation has been issued by local
government to prevent the people to reach the summit area.

Background
Marapi volcano has a long history of eruptions, recorded back from 1770,
with a thick black ash plumes showing a cauliflower shape rising to more
than 1000 m above the summit, and many times accompanied by lava flows,
glowing ejected sand, lapili and volcanic bomb.
Marapi 16th April 2001 eruption seems to occurred from Verbeek crater, one
out of many craters at the summit. Historically, Marapi eruptions took
place along ENE-WSW craters aligment, 1600 m long, consisting of Kapundan
Tuo, Kebung Bungo, A-,B-,C- craters, Kapundan Bongsu, and Verbeek crater,
with diameters 175-600 m, at the summit. The event usually has few days,
weeks or months to occur.

Merapi
Central Java; 7°32.5' S, 110°26.5' E
Both of glowing lava avalanche and solfatara activity are ongoing.
Solfatara was in white thick color, low in pressure reached 500 m height
above the summit. Glowing lava avalanches flowed down to Sat, Senowo, Lamat
and Bebeng river, travelled about 2.5 km. Seismicity was still dominated
with avalanche earthquakes.
Merapi volcano is in level 2.

Lokon
North Sulawesi; 1°21.5' N, 124°47.5' E
Plume activity from Tompaluan crater is continuing hit 50-300 m height.
Seismograph recorded 2 events of deep volcanic (A) earthquake, 31 events of
tectonic and 2 events of tremor earthquake.
Lokon volcano is in level 2.

Inelika
Central Flores; 8°44' S, 120°59' E
Seismograph noted an increasing activity on Inelika volcano. Seismic record
within the week were: 5 events of deep volcanic (A), 10 events of shallow
volcanic (B), and 11 events of tectonic earthquake.
Inelika volcano is in level 2.

Karangetang
Siau island; 2°47' N, 125°29' E
White medium-grey plume from main crater hit 50-300 m height, meanwhile
white-medium plume from crater II rose 200 m above the summit. Red-colored
reflection could be observed at night, reached 25 m height. There was lava
flow activity from northern part of crater I with the distance of 50 m, and
lava avalanche often occurred from the end of lava flow, traveled about 750
m to Nanitu river. Low-medium noising sound often heard from post
observatory.
Karangetang volcano is in level 2.

Ijen
East Java;8°3.5' S, 114°14.5' E
Seismicity data showed an increasing activity which reflected from an
increasing number of shallow volcanic earthquake. Complete seismicity
records listed below: 1 event of deep volcanic (A), 10 events of shallow
volcanic (B), and 2 events of tectonic earthquake.
Ijen volcano is in level 2.

Semeru
East Java; 8°6.50' S, 112°55' E
Within the report Semeru showed an increasing activity compare to the week
before. Seismograph recorded a significant increasing in explosion
earthquake and deep volcanic earthquake. Detail data listed as follow: 8
events of deep volcanic (A) earthquake, 550 events of explosion, 149 events
of avalanche, and 10 events of tectonic earthquake. Gas explosion was in
grey color, rose 300 m above the summit.
Semeru volcano is in level 2.

Anak Krakatau
Sunda Straits, 6°6'5.8" S, 105°25'22.3" E
Number of Krakatau seismicity is still high but less than previously,
mainly in deep volcanic earthquake. During the reporting time seismograph
recorded 1 event of deep volcanic (A), 66 events of shallow volcanic (B),
and 3 events of tectonic earthquake.
Anak Krakatau is stated in level 2.

G. Soputan
North Sulawesi,124º41’12"N, 1º6’20"E
There was no major changes in Soputan activity based on visual and
instrumental monitoring. Visual observation noted 50 m height of plume.
Amplitude of tremor volcanic is about 0.5 - 3 mm. Observer reported an
increasing number of deep volcanic (A) earthquake. Complete data were: 9
events of deep volcanic (A), 30 events of tectonic, 37 events of avalanche
earthquake, and uncontinuous tremor volcanic earthquake.
Soputan is stated in level 2.

G. Batur
Bali Island
115.37° N, 8.24° E, summit elevation 1717 m
Visual observation could not be done well during the week. Data from
seismicity record listed as follow: 1 event of shallow volcanic, 2 events
of small explosion and 10 events of tectonic earthquake.
Batur volcano is in level 2.

Kelut
East Java;7°56' S, 112°18.5' E
There was no major changing showed from the volcano by visual observations.
Water lake temperature decrease than previous data. Measurement on 2 April
2001was 48.5°C and on 9 April 2001 was 48°C.
Kelut volcano is in level 2.




 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 395 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, May  6, 2001 (10:27) * 44 lines 
 
1902 was a bad year for volcanic eruptions around the world but none
more so than in the Caribbean where in the space of 2 days 2 volcanoes
killed 32,000 people.
It all began in April 1902 when Pelee on the French Dependency of
Martinique started letting of steam. Nearby was the picturesque city and
port of Saint Pierre with its 31000 people. Initially no one took any
notice of Pelee as the local government elections were getting close and
the government wanted everyone to vote. That was in early April at a time
when the occasional puff of steam rose out of the crater. Then things
started going wrong.
For the next month the volcano continued to gently steam with small
volumes of ash streaking the white steam clouds. As April drew to a close,
explosions, weak at first but growing in intensity and violence began
bracketing the volcano. A few people left but were lured back when the
government said all would be alright, and that the volcano was harmless.
So they all came back, and got on with their lives.

On nearby St Vincent, another French Dependency, the volcano of Mount
Soufriere (appropriately named in French because of the sulphurous odour
tht accompanied eruptions), was also letting of steam. The volcano had
on its flanks a thriving agricultural industry and several thousand
people lived nearby. In early May, the eruptions took a serious turn for
the worse as steam clouds were replaced by explsions and flying rocks.

Back in Saint Pierre news about worsening activity in the crater caused
the governor to travel to the town to calm the residents, in the first
of three trips in the following week. Two days later on May 2 the first
blood was drawn when two people went into the crater and were surprised
by an explosion of hot water and rocks. A few people left the city for
safer places. Earthquakes were starting to rock the city and light ash
fell occasionally, fraying nerves and prompting a government call for
calm. On May 4, a loud explosion was heard, and ash fell for an hour
with the night sky lit up by lightning and the air punched by thunder.
The following day a mudflow rushed down a river valley and straight
through a flour mill killing 100 people. Panic set in and several families
left, despite the governor making another vist. All was not well.

Meanwhile things had also turned sour on St. Vincent where heavy ash
was falling on the island making agricultural practices impossible
because every rainstorm turned the ash into mud. No one was getting any sleep
and now earthquakes were rocking the island with annoying frequency.
Soufriere would not hang on much longer.

Continued Next Post.........


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 396 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, May  6, 2001 (10:29) * 50 lines 
 
Pelee, in the meantime had started to panic the most settled residents
with frightening explosions of ash and rock, by day, by night and
everytime inbetween. On the morning of May 6 Pelee sent it's final warning:
GET OF MY PATCH NOW OR I WILL BLOW YOU TO KINGDOM COME. That night
explosions rocked the city almost hourly, thunder and lightning
reverberated through the night, ash fell leaving a sulphurous odour behind
children ran screaming from their houses. No one was laughing any
longer, the birds had gone and ships were leaving port just in case the
volcano turned rough. That day an event on St. Vincent set the tone of the
two volcanoes for the next 48 hours.

For two weeks Mount Soufriere had been steaming and snorting ash.
People were leaving but not fast enough for the volcano which now proceded
to up the ante with as we will now see, shocking results. It was a fine
day in the Caribbean and despite the ominous presence of the volcano,
people continued their lives as best as they could. Suddenly there is a
series of powerful explosions and the volcano sends pyroclastic flows
rushing down the flanks of the mountain to the sea. There is nowhere to
run, nowhere to hide. People die in their hundreds as the worst
eruptions for nearly a century shatter the fabric of life on the island. It is
May 7 1902 and the grim reaper is about to reap..............

May 7 should have seemed like any other day on Saint Pierre under
normal circumstances, but it was not. Now under siege from a volcano looming
large on its horizon, the governor decided to make his third visit to
the city that was now resemblimg something out of a horror movie.
Throughout the day explosions bracketed the volcano while earthquakes rocked
the island and frightened the citizens. Most ships had by now left and
although several returned later in the day, many would never see the
Saint Pierre their crews knew again. As night fell, the air was humid and
sticky and thunderstorms driven by both the volcano and the weather
kept most awake the whole night. Several hundred people moved to the
ridges above the city fearing the worst. Ascension Day May 8 1902. A day
that will be forever be written in blood. At 7.52AM that sunny morning,
Montagne Pelee finally lost all control and exploded. A pyroclastic flow
roared down every ravine and gully on the volcano. It filled the sky
and the horizon as people watched an incandescent dragon snuff out in 2
minutes an entire city, boats and eventually them, themselves. There was
nowhere to run and seemingly nowhere to hide as the flow went through,
over and around every building, bar the jail where Pierre Auguste, a
wanted murderer was awaiting execution. By a miracle he survived the flow
and resulting carnage to tell his story to the newspapers and he was
pardoned.
By 7.57AM it was all over. A city on fire, all bar 100 people dead or
dying, and a government trying to explain how it could still think of an
election.

THANKS, ROB... http://clubs.yahoo.com/clubs/worldvolcanism




 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 397 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, May  8, 2001 (08:19) * 85 lines 
 
http://www.usgs.gov/public/press/public_affairs/press_releases/index.html

Three Sisters Show Ground Deformation

There has been a slight swelling, or uplift, of the ground surface over a
broad area of central Oregon, centered five kilometers, or three miles,
west of the South Sister volcano in Three Sisters region of the Oregon
Cascade Range, according to scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey. The
Three Sisters region is located 35 kilometers (22 miles) west of Bend,
Ore., and 100 kilometers (60 miles) east of Eugene. The uplift, which
scientists say occurred between 1996 and 2000, covers an area about 15 to
20 kilometers (9 to 12 miles) in diameter. The maximum amount of uplift at
its center is about 10 centimeters (4 inches). It is too broad and low to
be noticed from the ground, and several close aerial inspections of the
area have revealed no unusual surface features.

The USGS scientists discovered the bulge through use of a relatively new
technique called Satellite Radar Interferometry (InSAR), which uses
satellite data to make radar images of a portion of the Earth's surface.
Through this process, images acquired at different times, but from the same
location in space, can be used to detect even minor changes a few
centimeters in the elevation of the ground. The images that reveal the
10-centimeter uplift near South Sister were obtained in 1996 and 2000. The
exact timing of the uplift, or whether it is continuing at present, is
unknown, but is being studied further.

The USGS scientists said the specific cause of the uplift is uncertain, but
because the Three Sisters region is a volcanic area, the uplift may reflect
intrusion of a small volume of magma, or molten rock, deep below the
surface; probably at a depth of about seven kilometers, or four miles.
Such a process, which keeps volcanic areas "alive" and prepares them for
future eruptions, is a common occurrence under volcanoes, but until
development of techniques such as InSAR, it has been difficult to detect.
If intrusion of magma were to continue, it could eventually lead to a
volcanic eruption; however, an eruption is unlikely without significant
precursory activity. In addition to continued or accelerating uplift,
precursors to an eruption would include earthquakes, typically swarms of
small events generated by fracturing of rock as magma moves upward, and
large emissions of volcanic gases, such as carbon dioxide, which are
released from the magma. At present, earthquake activity and gas emissions
appear to be at or near background levels. In order to be prepared to more
accurately detect possible precursors and to better understand this uplift
phenomenon, USGS plans to enhance the existing monitoring network.
Installation of one or more additional seismometers and a Global
Positioning System (GPS) receiver, resurvey of existing benchmarks and
installation of new benchmarks, and periodic airborne and ground-based
sampling of gases are currently being considered in consultation with
managers of the Willamette and Deschutes National Forests.

A number of public officials and agencies in the State of Oregon and Lane
and Deschutes counties have been briefed on these findings and they and
scientists will work together to address any questions or concerns the
public may have.

Additional information on the bulge, including maps and a volcanic-hazards
assessment, may be found on the WORLD WIDE WEB at URL:
http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/Volcanoes/Sisters/framework.html
http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/About/What/Monitor/Deformation/InSAR.html

and http://www.geophys.washington.edu/SEIS/PNSN/

Information contacts:
U.S. Geological Survey?Cascades Volcano Observatory, Vancouver, Washington
(360) 993-8900

U.S. Geological Survey?Volcano Hazards Team, Menlo Park, California
(650) 329-5227

Pacific Northwest Seismograph Network, University of Washington, Seattle,
Washington
(206) 685-2255

Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries, Portland, Oregon
(503) 731-4100

The USGS serves the nation by providing reliable scientific information to:
describe and understand the Earth; minimize loss of life and property from
natural disasters; manage water, biological, energy, and mineral resources;
and enhance and protect our quality of life.

* * * USGS * * *

This press release and in-depth information about USGS programs may be
found on the USGS home page: http://www.usgs.gov.



 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 398 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, May 10, 2001 (12:54) * 65 lines 
 
***********************
Three Sisters, Oregon
***********************

The Cascades Volcano Observatory is reporting a slight swelling/inflation
in the region of the Three Sisters volcanoes in Oregon, USA sometime
between 1996 - 2000.

Following is from:
http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/Volcanoes/Sisters/WestUplift/information_statement
_08may2001.html


Three Sisters, Oregon, Information Statement
May 8, 2001
----------------------------------------------------------------------------

USGS scientists have detected a slight swelling, or uplift, of the ground
surface over a broad area centered 5 kilometers (3 miles) west of South
Sister volcano in the Three Sisters region of the central Oregon Cascade
Range. The Three Sisters region is located 35 kilometers (22 miles) west of
Bend, Oregon, and 100 kilometers (60 miles) east of Eugene, Oregon. The
uplift, which occurred between 1996 and 2000, covers an area about 15 to 20
kilometers (9 to 12 miles) in diameter and the maximum amount of uplift at
its center is about 10 centimeters (4 inches). It is too broad and low to
be noticed from the ground, and several close aerial inspections of the
area have revealed no unusual surface features.

The relatively new technique employed by the scientists, Satellite Radar
Interferometry (or InSAR), uses satellite data to make radar images of a
portion of the Earth.s surface. Images acquired at different times, but
from the same location in space, can be used to detect even minor (a few
centimeters or one inch) changes in the elevation of the ground. The images
that reveal the 10-centimeter uplift near South Sister were obtained in
1996 and 2000. The exact timing of the uplift, or whether it is continuing
at present, is unknown, but is being studied further.

The specific cause of the uplift is uncertain. Because the Three Sisters
region is a volcanic area, the uplift may re flect intrusion of a small
volume of magma (molten rock) deep under the surface-probably at a depth of
about 7 kil ometers (4 miles). Such a process, which keeps volcanic areas
"alive" and prepares them for future eruptions, is a common occurrence
under volcanoes , but until development of techniques such as InSAR, it has
been difficult to d etect. If intrusion of magma were to continue, it could
eventually lead to a volcanic eruption; however, an eruption is unlikely
without significant precursory activity. In addition to continued or
accelerating uplift, precursors to an eruption would include earthquakes,
typically swarms of small events generated by fracturing of rock as magma
moves upward, and large emissions of volcanic gases, such as carbon
dioxide, which are released from the magma. At present, earthquake activity
appears to be at or near background level and gas emissions are low. In
order to be prepared to more accurately detect possible precursors and to
better understand this uplift phenomenon, USGS plans to enhance the
existing monitoring network. Installation of one or more additional
seismometers and a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver, resurvey of
existing benchmarks and installation of new benchmarks, and periodic
airborne and ground-based sampling of gases are currently being considered
in consultation with managers of the Willamette and Deschutes National
Forests.

A number of public officials and agencies in the State of Oregon and Lane
and Deschutes Counties have been briefed on these findings and they and
scientists will work together to address any questions or concerns the
public may have.



 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 399 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, May 11, 2001 (07:57) * 81 lines 
 
Volcano Watch - May 10, 2001

The 1950 eruption of Mauna Loa: a nightmare that could reoccur

On the night of June 1, 1950, after many residents of Ho`okena-mauka
village in South Kona had already gone to bed, Mauna Loa began to erupt.
Soon the roar of the lava fountains could be heard from Highway 11, 24 km
(15 mi) away, as molten lava poured from fissures high on the volcano's
southwest rift zone. In only three hours, an `a`a flow reached the highway
and invaded the village. The streets were lit by flames as lava consumed
several houses and the post office. Thirty-five minutes later, the flow
entered the ocean. By daybreak, lava flows had crossed Highway 11 in two
places, cutting off the only escape route. The villagers all reached
safety unharmed, but for some it was a close call.

Mauna Loa has erupted twice since 1950, with a one-day outbreak at
the summit in 1975 and a three-week eruption on the northeast rift zone in
April 1984.

Most of Mauna Loa's eruptions in the last 150 years began at vents
near the summit. About half of these summit eruptions quickly developed
into flank eruptions along one of two rift zones that extend down its
northeast and southwest slopes. A few eruptions have also originated at
isolated vents on the volcano's northern slope.

The 1984 eruption followed the typical pattern, beginning at the
summit and quickly migrating down the northeast rift zone. Lava flows came
within 6 km (4 mi) of the outskirts of Hilo before the eruption ended.
This eruption paved 41 square kilometers (16 sq mi) of land with lava in
just three weeks, whereas the ongoing eruption of Kilauea that began in
1983 took three years to cover a comparable area. Fortunately, most of the
property buried by lava in 1984 was uninhabited land owned by the state.

Eruptions on the southwest rift zone present a much greater threat to
life and property. The slopes are steep, and residential areas extend from
Highway 11 right up to the rift zone. Although the population has
increased greatly since 1950, the two-lane highway remains the only escape
route.

The good news is that our ability to monitor, and possibly forecast,
the next eruption of Mauna Loa has been greatly enhanced by better
instrumentation. Since 1984, the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory installed
two more seismometers on the southwest rift zone. In the summer of 2000,
three dilatometers, instruments that measure expansion and compression,
were cemented into boreholes 130 m (425 ft) deep on Mauna Loa's flanks.
From 1975 through 1983, measurements of ground deformation near Mauna
Loa's summit indicated slow but persistent inflation. For over a year
prior to the 1984 eruption, the number of earthquakes beneath the summit of
Mauna Loa gradually increased.
If Mauna Loa follows a similar pattern of deformation and seismicity
before the next eruption, we will have a year or so of warning. Since the
rate of inflation has slowed considerably over the past several years and
the seismicity has not increased, we don't think that the next Mauna Loa
eruption is right around the corner. But that doesn't mean we can forget
about it. It means that if we act now, residents and county officials
still have time to prepare for the inevitable.

Eruption Update

Eruptive activity of Kilauea Volcano continued unabated at the Pu`u
`O`o vent during the past week. Breakouts from the tube system occur above
Pulama pali and feed multiple flows that are usually tubed over as they
descend Pulama pali. Surface flows are seen throughout the coastal flats,
and the most active area has been beyond the eastern boundary of Hawai`i
Volcanoes National Park near Kapa`ahu. Lava reentered the ocean on May 5
in an area east of Kupapa`u. As of May 10, lava was entering the ocean at
three separate locations spanning about 450 meters (1,500 ft) of shoreline.
One earthquake was reported felt during the week ending on May 10.
Residents of South Kohala felt an earthquake at 4:33 a.m. on the morning of
May 9. The magnitude-3.5 earthquake was located 14 km (8.4 mi) southwest
of Kawaihae at a depth of 21 km (12.6 mi).

This article was written by scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey's
Hawaiian Volcano Observatory.

U.S. Geological Survey
Hawaiian Volcano Observatory
PO Box 51, Hawaii National Park, HI 96718
Phone (808) 967-7328 FAX (808) 967-8890




 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 400 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, May 11, 2001 (13:21) * 4 lines 
 
The most complete volcano webcam list with links on the net (watch an eruption from the comfort of your own living room)

http://educeth.ethz.ch/stromboli/livecams/index-e.html



 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 401 of 997: Paul Terry Walhus (terry) * Mon, May 14, 2001 (09:42) * 1 lines 
 
That's such a great use of a webcam!


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 402 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, May 20, 2001 (22:44) * 353 lines 
 
Date Thu, 17 May 2001 090624 +0000
From Lisa Koenig
Subject GVP/USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 9-15 May 2001
GVP/USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report 9-15 May 2001

http//www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/usgs/

New Activity/Unrest | Erebus, Antarctica | Etna, Italy | Mayon,
Philippines | Okmok, USA | San Cristobal, Nicaragua | Suwanose-jima, Japan |

Ongoing Activity | Cleveland, USA | Kilauea, USA | Popocatépetl, México |
Shiveluch, Kamchatka | Soufrière Hills, Montserrat | Tungurahua, Ecuador |

*******************
New Activity
*******************

EREBUS Ross Island, Antarctica 77.53°S, 167.17°E; summit elev. 3,794 m

MEVO reported, “harmonic tremor increased dramatically in early 2001 in
association with ash eruptions and lava flows in the inner crater.”
Background. Mount Erebus, the world's southernmost historically active
volcano, overlooks the McMurdo research station on Ross Island. The
3,794-m-high Erebus is the largest of three major volcanoes forming the
crudely triangular Ross Island. The summit of Mount Erebus has been
modified by several generations of caldera formation. A summit plateau at
about 3,200 m altitude marks the rim of the youngest caldera, within which
the modern cone was constructed. An elliptical 500 x 600 m wide,
110-m-deep crater truncates the summit and contains an active lava lake
within a 250-m-wide, 100-m-deep inner crater. The glacier-covered volcano
was erupting when first sighted by Captain James Ross in 1841. Continuous
lava-lake activity has been documented since 1972, punctuated by occasional
Strombolian explosions that eject bombs onto the crater rim.
Source Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory,
http//www.ees.nmt.edu/Geop/Erebus/erebus.html
Mount Erebus Reports
http//www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/volcano/region19/antarct/erebus/var.htm
from the monthly Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network

ETNA Sicily, Italy 37.73°N, 15.00°E; summit elev. 3,315 m; All times are
local (= UTC + 1 hour)
The Italy’s Volcanoes website reported that after more than 8 months of
minor activity (slow lava flows, degassing, light ash emission, and
low-level Strombolian activity), a new episode of vigorous volcanic
activity began at Southeast Crater on 9 May. On 6 May active lava flows and
explosions were observed launching pyroclasts and lithics onto the
volcano’s S flank every 7-10 seconds. On 9 May an obvious increase in
activity occurred, with Strombolian bursts occurring every few seconds. By
1745 activity further increased and lava fountains rose up to 100 m above
the NNE flank fissure while a dense eruption cloud simultaneously rose
above the summit vent. Local press sources reported that air traffic was
rerouted during the activity. The high level of activity continued at
Southeast Crater through at least 14 May and strong degassing occurred at
Bocca Nuova crater.
Background. Mount Etna, towering above Catania, Sicily's second largest
city, has one of the world's longest documented records of historical
volcanism, dating back to 1500 BC. Historical lava flows cover much of the
surface of this massive basaltic stratovolcano, the highest and most
voluminous in Italy. Two styles of eruptive activity typically occur at
Etna. Persistent explosive eruptions, sometimes with minor lava emissions,
take place from one or more of the three prominent summit craters Central
Crater, Northeast Crater, and Southeast Crater. Flank eruptions, typically
with higher effusion rates, occur less frequently and originate from
fissures that open progressively downward from near the summit. A period
of more intense intermittent explosive eruptions from Etna’s summit craters
began in 1995.
Sources Italy’s Volcanoes, http//www.geo.mtu.edu/~boris/ETNA_news.html,
Charles Rivière's web site
http//perso.club-internet.fr/rivierec/mai_2001.htm
Etna Reports
from
the monthly Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network

MAYON southeastern Luzon, Philippines 13.257°N, 123.685°E; summit elev. 2,462
Volcanic activity increased at Mayon, with a lava dome collapse occurring
on 13 May. On 12 May seismographs detected a series of explosions at
Mayon’s summit crater. The following day the SE-facing portion of the lava
dome partially collapsed, leaving a V-shaped opening in the dome. The
collapse produced small lava avalanches that reached a maximum runout
distance of 300 m down the Bonga Gully. After the collapse, incandescence
was observed at the dome and lava fragments fell into the gully. Seismic
activity indicated frequent earthquakes, tremor, and explosions. On 14 May
rockfalls dominated the seismicity. On 15 May there was a lull in
activity, with no rockfalls or lava avalanches occurring. Alert Level 3
remained in effect, prohibiting entry within the 6-km-radius permanent
danger zone. PHIVOLCS warned that lava flows and/or pyroclastic flows could
be produced in the future and residents just outside of the permanent
danger zone should be prepared to evacuate at any time.
Background. The beautifully symmetrical Mayon volcano, which rises to 2,462
m above the Albay Gulf, is the Philippines' most active volcano. The
structurally simple volcano has steep upper slopes that average 35-40° and
is capped by a small summit crater. The historical eruptions of this
basaltic-andesitic volcano date back to 1616 and range from Strombolian to
basaltic Plinian. Eruptions occur predominately from the central conduit
and have also produced lava flows that travel far down the flanks.
Pyroclastic flows and mudflows have commonly swept down many of the
approximately 40 ravines that radiate from the summit and have often
devastated populated lowland areas. Mayon’s most violent eruption, in 1814,
killed more than 1,200 people and devastated several towns. Eruptions that
began in February 2000 led PHIVOLCS to recommend on 23 February the
evacuation of people within a radius of 7 km from the summit in the SE and
within a 6 km radius for the rest of the volcano.
Source Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology
http//www.phivolcs.dost.gov.ph/vmepd/vmepd.htm, Associated Press,
http//news.excite.com/news/ap/010514/10/int-philippines-volcano Agence
France Presse http//www.inq7.net/brk/2001/may/15/brkoth_7-1.htm
Mayon Reports
http//www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/volcano/region07/luzon/mayon/var.htm from
the monthly Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network

OKMOK Umnak Island, Aleutian Islands, USA, 53.42°N, 168.13°W; summit
elev. 1,073 m All times are local (= UTC - 8 hours)
During ~0800 to at least 1700 on 11 May AVO detected a small earthquake
swarm that was centered near Okmok. Earthquakes in the swarm had magnitudes
of approximately 2-3.6, but their locations could not be pinpointed because
Okmok is not monitored by a local seismic network. AVO noted that the
earthquakes may have been of volcanic origin, but earthquake swarms with
similar sizes and character are not uncommon at Aleutian arc volcanoes and
do not necessarily lead to eruptive activity.
Background. The broad, basaltic Okomok shield volcano, which forms the NE
end of Umnak Island, has a dramatically different profile than most other
Aleutian volcanoes. The summit of the low, 35-km-wide volcano is cut by
two 10-km-wide calderas formed during the Holocene. Numerous satellitic
cones and lava domes dot the flanks of the volcano down to the coast.
Dacitic ash-flow deposits that reach the coast are related to formation of
the two calderas about 8,250 and 2,400 years ago. Some of the post-caldera
cones show evidence of wave terraces; the more recent cones, some of which
have been active historically, were formed after the caldera lake
disappeared. Hot springs and fumaroles are found within the caldera and at
Hot Springs Cone, 20 km to the SW. Historical eruptions have occurred
since 1805 from cinder cones within the caldera.
Sources Alaska Volcano Observatory,
http//www.avo.alaska.edu/avo4/updates/updates.htm
Okmok Reports
http//www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/volcano/region11/aleutian/okmok/var.htm
from the monthly Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network

SAN CRISTÓBAL Nicaragua 12.702°N, 87.004°W; summit elev. 1,745 m
According to several news reports, INETER stated that beginning on 10 May
there was an increase in seismicity at San Cristóbal and that small
explosions produced plumes composed of gas and small amounts of ash. The
activity continued through at least 13 May. INETER personnel stated that
the level of seismic activity was greater than activity during the December
1999 eruption.
Background. The San Cristóbal volcanic complex, consisting of five
principal volcanic edifices, forms the NW end of the Marrabios Range. The
symmetrical 1,745-m-high youngest cone, San Cristóbal itself (also known as
El Viejo), is Nicaragua's highest volcano and is capped by a 500 x 600 m
wide crater. El Chonco, with several flank lava domes, is located 4 km to
the west of San Cristóbal; it and the eroded Moyotepe volcano, 4 km to the
NE of San Cristóbal, are of Pleistocene age. Volcan Casita, contains an
elongated summit crater and lies immediately E of San Cristóbal; Casita was
the site of a catastrophic landslide and lahar in 1998. The
Plio-Pleistocene La Pelona caldera is located at the eastern end of the San
Cristóbal complex. Historical eruptions from San Cristóbal, consisting of
small-to-moderate explosive activity, have been reported since the 16th
century. Some other 16th-century eruptions attributed to Casita volcano are
uncertain and may pertain to other Marrabios Range volcanoes.
Sources La Noticia http//www2.lanoticia.com.ni/, La Prensa
http//www.laprensa.com.ni/, El Nuevo Diario http//www.elnuevodiario.com.ni/
San Cristóbal Reports <
http//www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/volcano/region14/nicarag/sancrist/var.htm>
from the monthly Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network

SUWANOSE-JIMA Ryukyu Islands, Japan 29.53°N, 129.72°E; summit elev. 799 m;
All times are local (= GMT + 9 hours)
Beginning on the morning of 9 May volcanic activity increased at
Suwanose-jima when a tremor event commenced. The tremor increased at 1100
and became more violent at 2100. Around noon on 11 May an eruption produced
an ash cloud that rose 1-1.5 km above the crater. The Suwanose-jima Branch
of Toshima village, ~4 km NNW of the active On-take (Otake) crater,
reported that abundant ash fall was observed in the village on 11 May.
Vigorous eruptions on the evening of 12 May and the morning of 13 May
deposited up to 3 cm of ash in the village. At 0900 on 14 May the eruption
seemed to have stopped. The Sakurajima Volcano Observatory reported that
plumes associated with volcanic tremor events have been observed at
Suwanose-jima since the new crater was formed during the December 2000
eruption.
Background. The 8-km-long, spindle-shaped island of Suwanose-jima in the
northern Ryukyu Islands is occupied by a stratovolcano with two
historically active summit craters. Only about 50 persons live on the
sparsely populated island. The summit of the volcano is truncated by a
large breached crater extending to the sea on the E flank that was formed
by edifice collapse. Suwanose-jima, one of Japan's most frequently active
volcanoes, was in a state of intermittent Strombolian activity from On-take
(also called Otake), the NE summit crater, that began in 1949 and lasted
nearly a half century. The largest historical eruption took place in
1813-14, when thick scoria deposits blanketed residential areas, after
which the island was uninhabited for about 70 years. The SW crater
produced lava flows that reached the western coast in 1813, and lava flows
reached the eastern coast of the island in 1884.
Source. Volcano Research Center-Earthquake Research Institute (University
of Tokyo) http//hakone.eri.u-tokyo.ac.jp/vrc/erup/suwa.html , Tokyo VAAC
http//www.ssd.noaa.gov/VAAC/OTH/JP/messages.html
Suwanose-jima Reports
http//www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/volcano/region08/kyushu/suwanose/var.htm
from the monthly Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network

**************************
Ongoing Activity
**************************

CLEVELAND Aleutian Islands, USA 52.82°N, 169.95°W; summit elev. 1,730
Cleveland was obscured by clouds during most of the week and no thermal
anomalies were observed. AVO had received no reports of significant
volcanic activity from either pilots, residents, or satellite
remote-sensors since the last eruption on 19 March.
Background. The symmetrical Mount Cleveland stratovolcano is situated at
the western end of the uninhabited dumbbell-shaped Chuginadak Island in the
east-central Aleutians. The 1,730-m-high stratovolcano is the highest of
the Islands of Four Mountains group and is one of the most active in the
Aleutians. Numerous large lava flows descend its flanks. It is possible
that some 18th to 19th century eruptions attributed to Carlisle (a volcano
located across the Carlisle Pass Strait to the NW) should be ascribed to
Cleveland. In 1944 Cleveland produced the only known fatality from an
Aleutian eruption. Recent eruptions from Mt. Cleveland have been
characterized by short-lived explosive ash emissions, at times accompanied
by lava fountaining and lava flows down the flanks.
Source Alaska Volcano Observatory
http//www.avo.alaska.edu/avo4/updates/updates.htm
Cleveland Reports
http//www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/volcano/region11/aleutian/cleve/var.htm
from the monthly Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network

KILAUEA Hawaii, USA 19.43°N, 155.29°W; summit elev. 1,222 m
Surface lava flows were visible traveling down Pulama Pali. Three
ocean-entry benches were seen along the SE corner of the active lava flow
field. The active lava flow was 300-500 m from the nearest house in the
Royal Gardens subdivision, but the homes may be protected from the lava by
a barrier of `a`a deposited in 1983. Volcanic tremor was higher than normal
during 12 and 13 May and small earthquakes were recorded in the caldera.
Tiltmeters in the summit area and along the east rift zone indicated no
significant deformation.
Background. Kilauea, one of five coalescing volcanoes that comprise the
island of Hawaii, is one of the world’s most active volcanoes. Historically
its eruptions originate primarily from the summit caldera or along one of
the lengthy E and SW rift zones that extend from the caldera to the sea.
The latest Kilauea eruption began in January 1983 along the E rift zone.
The Pu`u `O`o-Kupaianaha eruption is now in its 18th year and 55th eruptive
episode. Since 1986, flows have traveled 11-12 km from the vents to the
sea, paving about 80 km2 of land on the S flank of Kilauea and building 205
hectares of new land. Intensive monitoring and field research by staff of
the US Geological Survey’s Hawaiian Volcano Observatory, established in
1912, make Kilauea one of Earth's best studied volcanoes.
Source US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory
http//hvo.wr.usgs.gov/kilauea/update/
Kilauea Reports
http//www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/volcano/region13/hawaii/kilauea/var.htm
from the monthly Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network

POPOCATÉPETL México 19.02°N, 98.62°W; summit elev. 5,426 m; All times are
local (= UTC 6 hours)
CENAPRED reported that at 2301 on 13 May a small explosion sent
incandescent fragments as far away as 0.5 km from the crater. At 0939 on 14
May an ash-and-steam plume rose 1.5 km above the crater.
Background. Popocatépetl, whose name is the Aztec word for smoking
mountain, towers to 5,426 m 70 km SE of México City and is North America's
second highest volcano. Frequent historical eruptions have been recorded
since the beginning of the Spanish colonial era. A small eruption on 21
December 1994 ended five decades of quiescence. Since 1996 small lava domes
have incrementally been constructed within the summit crater and destroyed
by explosive eruptions. Intermittent small-to-moderate gas-and-ash
eruptions have continued, occasionally producing ashfall in neighboring
towns and villages.
Photos (CENAPRED site) http//www.cenapred.unam.mx/boletines.html
Sources Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres,
http//www.cenapred.unam.mx/boletines.html, Washington VAAC
http//www.ssd.noaa.gov/VAAC/messages.html
Popocatépetl Reports
http//www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/volcano/region14/mexico/popo/var.html from
the monthly Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network

SHIVELUCH Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia 56.653°N, 161.360°E; summit elev.
3,283 m; All times are local (= UTC + 12 hours)
After a pyroclastic-flow producing eruption occurred at ~0958 on 7 May,
seismic activity decreased but it remained above background levels for most
of the week, a new extrusive dome formed, and the Concern Color Code was
reduced. A noticeable increase in seismic activity occurred between 1820
and 1852 on 7 May, and may have corresponded to an explosion that produced
an ash-and-gas plume. The plume was visible in satellite imagery rising up
to 4 km a.s.l. and drifting ~40 km to the WNW. A small amount of ash fell
in the town of Kliuchi, 46 km from the volcano. During 11-15 May seismic
activity continued to decrease, but remained above background levels. Many
small earthquakes occurred at the volcano’s edifice. At 0900 on 12 May a
new extrusive dome was observed from Kliuchi that was steaming intensely,
100 m high, 200 m wide at the upper part of the dome, and had a volume of
~10 million m3. Observers in Kliuchi reported that by 2140 on 13 May the
dome had grown ~50 m higher. Weak explosions produced ash-and-steam plumes
that rose up to 1 km above the new dome. On 16 May the Concern Color Code
http//www.avo.alaska.edu/avo4/updates/kvertweekly.htm
at Shiveluch was reduced from Orange to Yellow.
Background. The high, isolated massif of Shiveluch volcano (also spelled
Sheveluch) rises above the lowlands NNE of the Kliuchevskaya volcano group
and forms one of Kamchatka's largest and most active volcanoes. The
currently active Molodoy Shiveluch lava-dome complex was constructed during
the Holocene within a large horseshoe-shaped caldera formed by collapse of
the massive late-Pleistocene Strary Shiveluch volcano. At least 60 large
eruptions of Shiveluch have occurred during the Holocene, making it the
most vigorous andesitic volcano of the Kuril-Kamchatka arc. Frequent
collapses of lava-dome complexes, most recently in 1964, have produced
large debris avalanches whose deposits cover much of the floor of the
breached caldera. During the 1990s, intermittent explosive eruptions took
place from a new lava dome that began growing in 1980. The largest
historical eruptions from Shiveluch occurred in 1854 and 1964.
Source Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team via the Alaska Volcano
Observatory http//www.avo.alaska.edu/avo4/updates/kvertweekly.htm
Shiveluch Reports
http//www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/volcano/region10/kamchat/shiveluc/var.htm
from the monthly Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network

SOUFRIÈRE HILLS Montserrat, West Indies 16.72°N, 62.18°W; summit elev. 1,030 m
MVO reported that during 4-11 May volcanic activity increased slightly,
with more rockfalls and seismic activity recorded than the previous week
and a small pyroclastic flow on 9 May. The pyroclastic flow traveled ~2.5
km S of the dome down the White River. There still appeared to be a very
small amount of growth in the S side of the lava dome, and observation
flights confirmed that most rockfall activity occurred in the dome’s S
sector. Sulfur dioxide flux remained low.
Background. The complex andesitic Soufrière Hills volcano occupies the
southern half of the island of Montserrat. The summit area consists
primarily of a series of lava domes emplaced along an ESE-trending zone.
Non-eruptive seismic swarms occurred at 30-year intervals in the 20th
century, but the first well-documented historical eruption on Montserrat
did not take place until 1995. Long-term small-to-moderate ash eruptions
were accompanied by lava dome growth and pyroclastic flows that forced
evacuation of the southern half of the island and ultimately destroyed the
capital city of Plymouth, causing severe social and economic disruption.
The volcano is currently in a period of new dome growth.
Source Montserrat Volcano Observatory http//www.mvomrat.com/
Soufrière Hills Reports
http//www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/volcano/region16/w_indies/soufhill/var.htm
from the monthly Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network

TUNGURAHUA Ecuador 1.47°S, 78.44°W; summit elev. 5,023 m
Heavy rainfall in the vicinity of Tungurahua caused the remobilization of
ash deposited on the upper flanks of the volcano, producing several lahars.
Lahars traveled down the Cusúa, Basural, Mandur, Bascún, and Ulba gorges.
Lahars caused the closing of the Baños-Riobamba highway and blocked a route
to the town of Baños.
Background. The steep-sided Tungurahua stratovolcano towers more than 3 km
above its northern base. It sits ~140 km S of Quito, Ecuador’s capital
city, and is one of Ecuador's most active volcanoes. Historical eruptions
have been restricted to the summit crater. They have been accompanied by
strong explosions and sometimes by pyroclastic flows and lava flows that
reached populated areas at the volcano's base. The last major eruption took
place from 1916 to 1918, although minor activity continued until 1925. The
latest eruption began in October 1999 and prompted the evacuation of the
town of Baños on the N side of the volcano.
Source Instituto Geofísico, http//www.epn.edu.ec/~igeo/index.html
Tungurahua Reports
http//www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/volcano/region15/ecuador/tungurah/var.htm
from the monthly Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network



 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 403 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, May 21, 2001 (17:01) * 7 lines 
 



Mount Rainier at sunset by Diane Lynch
This photo is available for purchase. E-mail The Dispatch.
Eatonville, Washington



 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 404 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, May 21, 2001 (23:53) * 132 lines 
 
**********************************
Sheveluch activity, May 20-22(KDT)
**********************************
From: avo-sci@usgs.gov

KVERT Information Release 32-01: May 22, 2001

Kamchatkan Volcanic Activity
INFORMATION RELEASE 32-01
Tuesday, May 22, 2001, 04:00 KDT

The following Release was received by the Alaska Volcano Observatory via
e-mail from KVERT (Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruptions Response Team). All times
are in Kamchatkan Daylight Time, 21 hours ahead of ADT.

SHEVELUCH VOLCANO; 56o 38'N, 161o 19'E; Elevation 2,447 m
CURRENT LEVEL OF CONCERN COLOR CODE IS RED.
PREVIOUS COLOR CODE WAS RED

On May 22, at 2:09 a.m. KDT Sheveluch volcano erupted explosively producing
a mushroom ash column to a height of about 20 km (roughly 65,000 ft.) ASL
(preliminary elevation). The ash cloud is moving south-southeast to the
Pacific Ocean. The lights were observed above the volcano from the town of
Klyuchi. The ash column covered all of the volcano edifice.

KVERT continues to monitor volcano closely.

PLEASE CONTACT AVO IF YOU HAVE QUESTIONS OR COMMENTS.

Vladimir Kirianov
Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team
IVGG, Piip Blvd, 9
Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, RUSSIA
E-mail: kirianov@kcs.iks.ru
tel. (41522) 58572

Tom Murray
Alaska Volcano Observatory
4200 University Drive
Anchorage, Alaska 99508
E-mail: tlmurray@usgs.gov
907-786-7497
================================

KVERT Information Release 31-01: May 21, 2001

Kamchatkan Volcanic Activity
INFORMATION RELEASE 31-01
Monday, May 21, 2001, 10:40 KDT (2140 UTC)

The following Release was received by the Alaska Volcano Observatory via
e-mail from KVERT (Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruptions Response Team). All times
are in Kamchatkan Daylight Time, 21 hours ahead of ADT.

KLYUCHEVSKAYA GROUP OF VOLCANOES
SHEVELUCH VOLCANO; 56o 38'N, 161o 19'E; Elevation 2,447 m
CURRENT LEVEL OF CONCERN COLOR CODE IS RED.
PREVIOUS COLOR CODE WAS YELLOW.

On May 21, at 07:13 KDT (at 18:13 UTC on May 20) an explosion at Sheveluch
sent an ash column to an estimated height of 35,000 to 40,000 ft. (10 to 12
km) ASL. A satellite image (via AVO) at 07:50 KDT (18:50 UTC on May 20)
shows a small plume around 15 km long situated above the volcano. A
satellite image at 10:32 KDT (21:32 UTC) shows the plume beginning to move
to the north or northeast. Seismic activity remains above background
levels.

A large thermal anomaly was observed at Sheveluch in satellite images at
18:02 KDT (0502 UTC), and at 18:14 KDT (0514 UTC) on May 20. The first
images has 10 pixels between 30 and 49 dg C, of which 6 pixels are at or
near saturation, the second has 8 pixels between 30 and 40 dg C of which 5
are at or near saturation. Background temperature is 15 dg C for both At
19:25 KDT (06:25 UTC) and at 20:14 KDT (07:14 UTC) on May 20 two explosions
sent an ash column to an estimated height of ~ 15,000 to 16,000 feet (~ 4.7
to 5.0 km) ASL.

KVERT continues to monitor the volcano closely.

PLEASE CONTACT AVO IF YOU HAVE QUESTIONS OR COMMENTS.

Olga Chubarova
Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team
IVGG, Piip Blvd, 9
Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, RUSSIA
E-mail: ochubarova@emsd.iks.ru
tel. (41522) 58572

Tom Murray
Alaska Volcano Observatory
4200 University Drive
Anchorage, Alaska 99508
E-mail: tlmurray@usgs.gov
907-786-7497
================================

KVERT Information Release 30-01: May 20, 2001

Kamchatkan Volcanic Activity
INFORMATION RELEASE 30-01
Sunday, May 20, 2001, 12:20 KDT (0020 UTC)

The following Release was received by the Alaska Volcano Observatory via
e-mail from KVERT (Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruptions Response Team).
All times are in Kamchatkan Daylight Time, 21 hours ahead of ADT.

KLYUCHEVSKAYA GROUP OF VOLCANOES
SHEVELUCH VOLCANO; 56o 38'N, 161o 19'E; Elevation 2,447 m
CURRENT LEVEL OF CONCERN COLOR CODE IS YELLOW.
PREVIOUS COLOR CODE WAS RED

On May 19, at 04:56 UTC Sheveluch volcano erupted explosively producing an
ash cloud to a height of 33,000 ft. (10 km) ASL. The eruption duration
was about 40 minutes. The ash plume moved to the northeast. The volcano is
now quiet.

KVERT continues to monitor the volcano closely.

PLEASE CONTACT AVO IF YOU HAVE QUESTIONS OR COMMENTS.

Vladimir Kirianov
Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team
IVGG, Piip Blvd, 9
Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, RUSSIA
E-mail: kirianov@kcs.iks.ru
tel. (41522) 58572

Tom Murray
Alaska Volcano Observatory
4200 University Drive
Anchorage, Alaska 99508
E-mail: tlmurray@usgs.gov
907-786-7497


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 405 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, May 23, 2001 (15:27) * 12 lines 
 

ETNA UPDATE

The eruptive activity, which probably attracted the missing Spanish tourist, is continuing without significant variations. Lava is flowing incessantly from one or more vents on the lower NNE flank of the SE Crater cone, at times accompanied by mild spattering. On 15 May, a cluster of three hornitos was observed by Charles Rivière and others, but the next day these had collapsed, leaving a large hollow. On that day lava was issuing from a vent at the base of what remained of the hornitos. While Rivière and his companions were observing and filming the activity, the effusion rate increased, and a new effusive vent became active about 10 m further downslope from the former, yielding a vigorous new flow that was directed NE. The observers also noted an increase in the degassing activity at the main (summit) vent of the SE Crater.
On the same afternoon, Boris Behncke (Dipartimento di Scienze Geologiche of the University of Catania) and three geologists from the Consiglio Nazionale di Ricerca (Rome, Italy) and from Canada approached the effusive vent area from the SE, but was forced to remain at a distance of about 100 m due to a gale-force wind that drove the gas plume from the summit vent of the SE Crater across the ground and thus reduced visibility to a minimum. Loud degassing noises and sporadic explosions were audible in spite of the relentless wind. After descending, the group drove to the village of Fornazzo on the E side of Etna, from where visibility was excellent, especially after nightfall. The active lava flow was perfectly visible, extending in at least three lobes to the NE and E. More impressively, the summit vent of the SE Crater produced Strombolian explosions that sent incandescent bombs up to 100 m into the sky, and some fell onto the flanks of the cone. These explosions appeared to be clustered, there would be a r
latively quiet period lasting up to 15 minutes, after which a series of explosions occurred in the course of about 10 minutes. The strongest burst was observed at about 2100 h, which was directed obliquely to the S or SE and dropped a significant amount of glowing pyroclastics on the upper SE flank of the cone.

18 May 2001 update. NOTE: There will be no updates on this page until 26 May due to a week-long excursion to Etna organized by the Open University Geological Society
The Spanish tourist from Madrid, Beatriz Caldevilla Lebena, who had disappeared on Etna four days ago, is presumed dead after remains of her tent were found on 18 May near the rim of the Bocca Nuova, one of the four summit craters of Etna. Press sources cite rescue team members who found footprints leading from the tent to the rim of one of the two active pits within that crater, but no footprints leading back from there. It is possible that the woman went to look into the pit on the evening of her arrival at the summit and fell into it when a portion of its rim broke loose.
Meanwhile the effusion of lava from the vent (or vents) on the NNE flank of the SE Crater cone is continuing. The active lava was well visible during the night of 17-18 May, and possibly there was also weak Strombolian activity at the summit vent of the SE Crater. The active lava flow advanced in several branches, the longest of which was almost 2 km long (information from Giuseppe Scarpinati).




 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 406 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, May 24, 2001 (22:59) * 112 lines 
 
******************
Japanese updates
******************

Based on information from
http://hakone.eri.u-tokyo.ac.jp/vrc/erup/erup.html, maintained by S.
Nakada of the University of Tokyo. The caldera-forming collapse at
Miyakejima apparently ended in Sept. 2000. The last eruptive event known
was that of 19 March 2001 (small ash eruption from the new caldera).
However, observations on 5 May 2001 show gas plumes rising continuously to
2,000m with very high SO2 rates of 33,000 - 46,000 metric tons/day.
Earthquake swarm on 7 May 2001. Meanwhile, Fuji's high rate of seismicity
ended in January of 2001, although 30 April did see 67 earthquakes,
centered NE of the summit. And the island volcano of Suwanosezima continues
to erupt from the craters formed in December, with eruptions on 9-13 May
with ash clouds to 1,000 - 1,500 m above the crater with local ash falls,
volcanic tremor and audible effects.

*******************************************************************

The following Miyakejima report is from:
http://hakone.eri.u-tokyo.ac.jp/vrc/erup/miyake.html

MIYAKEJIMA VOLCANO, South of Tokyo
(Oyama 813 m, 34o04'43"N, 139o31'46"E)
(05/11/01)

According to JMA's Weekly Reports and Volcano Observation Reports on the
volcanic activity on Miyakejima, a plume of steam including abundant SO2
had been continuously emitted from the summit caldera as high as 500 to
2,000 m above the rim. Gray-colored cloud had not been observed since the
19 March morning, when a small-scale eruption probably took place, being
associated with tremor events and following acoustic signals of the
previous night. GPS of JMA showed steady continuous shrinkage of the
volcano, though the rate was lower than before last September.

Though a low level of seismicity had continued in Miyakejima, the quake
with M2.8 occurred at 02:18 on 7 May. No any other manifestation of the
activity was observed before and after the quake. Four
hundred-and-forty-six of small low-frequency earthquakes occurred on May 5.
COSPEC analysis by JMA indicated still continuous emission of SO2 as
abundant as 33,000 to 46,000 ton a day.

Geologists of universities and Geological Survey of Japan had continued the
air inspection, three times a week, who are flying from Tokyo. Very small
collapses of the caldera rims occurred rarely, but the caldera scale had
hardly increased since last September.

*******************************************************************

The following Fujiyama report is from:
http://hakone.eri.u-tokyo.ac.jp/vrc/erup/fuji.html

FUJI VOLCANO, central Japan
(3,776m, 35o21'27"N, 138o43'50"E)

(May 11, 2001)

According to JMA, the daily number of earthquakes in Mt. Fuji was 67 on 30
April; highest since 18 December 2000 (53 times), though the seismic
activity had been relatively low since January. The weekly number of
earthquakes (May 3-9) was as high as 130. Most of these earthquakes were of
low-frequency type, which took places at about 15 km-depth just northeast
of the summit. The monitoring system of National Research Institute for
Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED) had not detected any other
anomalous signs in this volcano.

*******************************************************************


The following Suwanosezima report is from:
http://hakone.eri.u-tokyo.ac.jp/vrc/erup/suwa.html

SUWANOSE-JIMA VOLCANO, SW Islands, Kyushu
(29o52'38"N, 128o13'28"E)

(May 14, 2001)

According to the Suwanose-jima Branch of Toshima-Village, whose main office
is in a different island, reported that falling of abundant ash was
observed around 08:45 on 11 May in the village about 4 km NNW of the active
crater (Otake), such that cars could not run without dusting the front
windows. The eruptions that occurred during the 12 May evening to the 13
May morning were vigorous, and ash deposition was as thick as 3 cm in the
village. At 06:30 on 13 May, still erupting but neither sound nor
vibration. It seemed not to be erupted at 09:00 on 14 May, and cleaning of
ash deposits from the roads started in the village.

Information contact: JMA; n-uchida@met.kishou.go.jp, and VRC:
nakada@eri.u-tokyo.ac.jp

(May 11, 2001)

According to Sakurajima Volcano Research Center (Sakurajima Volcano
Observatory) of Disaster Prevention Research Institute, Kyoto University,
eruption plumes had been observed in Suwanosejima volcano, being associated
with volcanic tremor events, since the eruption of last December that
formed new craters. A tremor event started on the May 9 morning, and the
number of events increased since 11 a.m. The events moved into more violent
activity associated with acoustic signals around 9 p.m. Such the activity
is first since June 1999. Compared with a highly active period before 1995,
the amplitude of acoustic signals and the number of occurrence are small.
SVRC was calling people's attention to the volcanic activity that may
become more explosive.

JMA issued the Volcano Observation Reports #3 and #4 on this volcano on 10
and 11 May, respectively. They include the reports from the Toshima Village
officials; the height of gray-colored eruption column was rising about
1,000 to 1,500 m above the crater around the 11 May noon, and ash falling
was observed. No felt earthquake reported.




 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 407 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, May 25, 2001 (13:40) * 49 lines 
 
Kamchatkan Volcanic Activity

Thursday, May 24, 2001, 13:00 KDT (0000 UTC)

The following Release was received by the Alaska Volcano Observatory
via e-mail from KVERT (Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruptions Response Team).
All times are in Kamchatkan Daylight Time, 21 hours ahead of ADT.

SHEVELUCH VOLCANO; 56o 38'N, 161o 19'E; Elevation 2,447 m
CURRENT LEVEL OF CONCERN COLOR CODE IS ORANGE.
PREVIOUS COLOR CODE WAS RED

On May 22, at 2:09 a.m. KDT (13:09 UTC on May 21) Sheveluch volcano
erupted explosively producing a mushroom-shaped ash column to a height
more than 10 km (more than 33,000 ft.) ASL. The ash cloud moved to the
south-southeast, and lights were observed above the volcano from the
town of Klyuchi (45 km south of the volcano). At 3:36 KDT an
asymmetrical fan-like ash cloud moved slowly east. At 8:30 KDT on May
22, a gas emission to a height of 2000 m above the dome was observed.
According to the report from the town of Klyuchi, the new dome (first
observed on May 12) and the western part of old dome were destroyed.
According to GMS satellite imagery at 14:32 KDT (0132 UTC) on May 22,
the eruption cloud from the 1309 UTC explosion
continued to diffuse over the Kliuchevskoi Group (near the center of
the Kamchatka Peninsula). The estimated size of the plume was
approximately 50,000 km^2. The high-pressure system over northern
Kamchatka caused the plume to remain fairly stationary over the
region.

At 16:30 KDT (03:30 UTC) on May 22 ash-gas explosions to a height up
to 1500 m above the dome were observed. On May 23, a gas and steam
plume rose 400-800 m. A large thermal anomaly was observed at
Sheveluch in satellite images at 16:55 KDT (0355 UTC) and 17:39 KDT
(04:39 UTC) on May 23. The images show approximately 10 pixels ranging
from 30 to 49 degrees Celsius, with 2 pixels at or near saturation.
The shape of the anomaly is elongate to the south and may represent a
pyroclastic flow from the dome area.

On the morning of May 24, a gas and steam plume was observed rising
1200 m above the dome. Seismic activity remains above background
levels. Earthquakes with a magnitude Ml=2-3 and many small earthquakes
within the volcano's edifice were recorded. Since May 20, earthquakes
located at depths near 5 km have begun to be registered again for the
first time since May 11.

KVERT continues to monitor volcano closely.





 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 408 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, May 25, 2001 (13:42) * 84 lines 
 
************************
Kilauea Eruption Update
************************

Volcano Watch - May 24, 2001

An exciting couple of weeks at Kilauea

The last couple of weeks have been exciting ones to be studying
active volcanism in Hawai'i. To start with, after several months of fairly
constant effusion of lava and gas, emissions of sulfur dioxide gas (SO2)
doubled, seemingly overnight, then tripled over the next few days. The SO2
that is eventually released from Kilauea is dissolved in the magma--like
gas bubbles dissolved in champagne. Increased gas emissions from the magma
are usually associated with an increased supply of magma to the eruption.
Sure enough, the increased gas emissions observed over the past weeks were
accompanied by renewed pond activity within Pu'u 'O'o's crater for the
first time in months, indicating that more magma was moving through the
system.
Last Sunday evening, several of the staff from HVO and the National
Park had an impromptu gathering at the observatory to puzzle over Kilauea's
latest developments. It had been an exciting afternoon; within a little
over an hour-much less time than even a Kilauea heartbeat-- a tiltmeter at
the summit of the volcano near HVO suggested that a volume of up to four
million cubic meters (mcm), (five million cubic yards (mcy)) of excess
magma had entered and inflated the summit magma reservoir of the volcano.
For perspective, a ready-mix truck holds about seven cubic meters (nine
cubic yards) of concrete.
About 20 minutes later, Pu'u 'O'o cone also began swelling in a
similar manner. While this was happening, the magnitude of seismic tremor
(very low-level ground shaking associated with magma movement) beneath the
summit and Pu'u 'O'o increased as well. We were impressed by the four mcm
(five mcy) of magma, because this is a typical amount supplied to the
eruption over the course of ten days-- not an hour! Among our several
questions was: "If this much excess magma was intruding the summit
reservoir and not being erupted, where would it go within the volcano, and
what would happen next?"
In nearly as short a time period as the inflation had occurred, one
of our questions was answered. The summit tilt reversed, and a few hours
later, instruments located on the rim of Pu'u 'O'o indicated that new lava
was pouring onto its crater floor. Inflation and tremor at the cone and
beneath Kilauea's summit subsided thereafter, and the HVO staff decided to
go home and get some sleep. The pressure was literally off, or at least
relieved.
By the next day (Monday), eruptive activity and gas emissions from
the east rift seemed to be returning to normal. On Tuesday, however, no
lava was visible except that draining from tubes at the coast, and we
thought the eruption might be heading into a pause. This turned out to be
only a temporary slow-down, not a stoppage. By Wednesday morning, lava had
reappeared on Pulama pali, and by the afternoon, field crews reported
vigorous breakouts of lava above the pali between the 2,300 - to 2,200-
foot elevations.
This is hardly the end of even this episode of the story. As of this
writing, Thursday afternoon, one of our original questions of last Sunday
night remains: Where did the four million cubic meters (five mcy) of excess
magma go? Although we did see increased lava effusion at Pu'u 'O'o and on
the flow field, we are confident that the amount of lava erupted over the
last week was much less than this. And so, if you happen upon an extra
several million cubic meters of magma (several million cubic yards), it
should still be hot, so don't touch it, but please return it to Kilauea.
Some of us are still looking for it. But most likely, you won't find it,
because it is probably stored below Pu'u 'O'o in space made available as
the south side of Kilauea moves away from the rest of the volcano.

Eruption Update

As mentioned above, eruptive activity of Kilauea Volcano fluctuated
during the past week, and the volume of lava entering the ocean east of
Kupapa`u reflected this fluctuation. The surge in lava production on
Wednesday overwhelmed the tube system and resulted in three major
breakouts. Surface flows provide visitors at the end of the Chain of
Craters road in Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park a great display of lava
cascading down Pulama pali.
One earthquake was reported felt during the week ending on May 24. A
resident of Pahala felt an earthquake at 4:26 p.m. on May 24. The
magnitude-3.2 earthquake was located 4 km (2.4 mi) east of Pahala at a
depth of 10.7 km (6.4 mi).

This article was written by scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey's
Hawaiian Volcano Observatory.

U.S. Geological Survey
Hawaiian Volcano Observatory
PO Box 51, Hawaii National Park, HI 96718


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 409 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, May 28, 2001 (23:40) * 3 lines 
 
Test for Pyrocastic flow - Rob this one's for you!




 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 410 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, May 29, 2001 (20:15) * 52 lines 
 
*********************************
AVO Weekly Update: May 25, 2001
*********************************
From: avo-sci@usgs.gov

ALASKA VOLCANO OBSERVATORY
Weekly Update
Friday, May 25, 2001 10:30 AM AST (1830 UTC)

CLEVELAND VOLCANO (CAVW #1101-24)
52o49'N 169o57'W Summit Elevation 5,674 ft (1,730 m)

No further eruptive activity has been reported or detected at Cleveland
Volcano, and no thermal anomalies have been observed at the volcano over
the past 6 weeks. As such, AVO will stop detailing activity at Cleveland
in these updates unless new activity is detected or reported.

OKMOK VOLCANO (CAVW # 1102-29)
53o24'N 168o10'W Caldera rim elevation 3520 ft (1,073 m)

The earthquake swarm centered near Okmok Volcano, first detected on May 11,
has ended. No additional earthquakes have been detected in the region for
the past 10 days. As such, AVO will stop detailing activity at Okmok in
these updates unless new activity is detected or reported.

OTHER ALASKA VOLCANOES

Seismic activity is monitored in real time at 22 volcanoes in Alaska.
Satellite images of all Alaskan volcanoes are analyzed daily for evidence
of ash plumes and elevated surface temperatures. Some volcanoes may
currently display anomalous behavior without being considered to be at a
dangerous level of unrest.

Spurr, Redoubt, Iliamna, Augustine, Snowy, Griggs, Katmai, Novarupta,
Trident, Mageik, Martin, Aniakchak, Pavlof, Dutton, Isanotski, Shishaldin,
Fisher, Westdahl, Akutan, Makushin, Great Sitkin, and Kanaga volcanoes are
all at or near normal levels of background seismicity. AVO did not detect
ash plumes or significant elevated surface temperatures in the vicinity of
any volcano.

Abbreviated Color Code Key (contact AVO for complete description):
GREEN volcano is dormant; normal seismicity and fumarolic activity
occurring
YELLOW volcano is restless; eruption may occur
ORANGE volcano is in eruption or eruption may occur at any time
RED significant eruption is occurring or explosive eruption expected
at any time

Volcano information on the internet: http://www.avo.alaska.edu
Recording of the status of Alaska's volcanoes (907) 786-7478




 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 411 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, May 31, 2001 (00:06) * 113 lines 
 
*************************************************
Origins, Emissions and Impacts of Volcanic Gases
*************************************************
From: Clive Oppenheimer
Origins, emissions and impacts of volcanic gases
A Flagship meeting of the Geological Society of London, held in memory of
Peter Francis
Thursday 25th and Friday 26th October, 2001
The Geological Society, Burlington House, London
Rationale for the meeting

Volcanoes emit gases both during and between eruptions. Their impacts on
the atmosphere, climate and environment are strongly controlled by fluxes
and emission altitudes of halogens, and SO2, which forms sulfate aerosol.
Episodic explosive eruptions are the principal perturbation to
stratospheric aerosol. In the troposphere, the picture is less clear but
recent analyses suggest that up to 40% of the global tropospheric sulfate
burden may be volcanogenic. Sulfate aerosol influences the Earth's
radiation budget by scattering and absorption of shortwave and longwave
radiation, and by seeding or modifying clouds. When they are deposited at
the Earth's surface, volcanic sulfur and halogens can result in profound
environmental impacts.

Surveillance of gas composition and flux is also essential for
interpretation of volcanic activity, since the nature of degassing exerts a
strong control on eruption style, and is closely associated with volcano
seismicity and ground deformation. Unfortunately, the modelling frameworks
for interpretation of geochemical data are only poorly developed, limiting
the application of such data in hazard assessment. The aims of this
discussion meeting are to bring together experts in several fields to
examine critical issues in the observation and modelling of volcanic
degassing and its atmospheric and environmental consequences.
Specifically, it aims to:
* Explore the development and validation of comprehensive physico-chemical
models for volcanic degassing by integrating results from experiments on
synthetic and natural melts, analysis of dissolved volatiles preserved in
melt inclusions, and observed volcanic gas geochemistry.
* Consider how such models can be applied to integrated geophysical,
geodetic and geochemical monitoring data to support eruption forecasting.
* Explore the development of quantitative models for the transport and
chemistry of volcanic plumes, and to consider the potential impacts of
future large magnitude eruptions on the atmospheric and terrestrial
environments (including urban and rural environment).

Speaker programme
Patrick Allard, CEA-CNRS, Gif
Magma degassing processes at Stromboli and Etna: constraints from melt
inclusions and volatiles fluxes
Mike Carroll, Universitá di Camerino
Behaviour of halogens during magma ascent and eruption
Pierre Delmelle, Université catholique de Louvain
Atmospheric dispersion, subsequent deposition and environmental effects
associated with the low-altitude gas plume emitted from Masaya volcano,
Nicaragua
Terry Gerlach, US Geological Survey
CO2 degassing at K+lauea Volcano: implications for primary magma, summit
reservoir dynamics and magma supply monitoring.
Don Grainger, University of Oxford
Atmospheric effects of volcanic eruptions
Hans Graf, Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg
Simulating volcanic plumes: From micro to large scales
Lisa Horrocks, Met Office, UK
Compositional variation in tropospheric volcanic gas plumes: evidence from
ground-based remote sensing
Paolo Papale, Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Pisa
Physical modelling of volatile solubility in magmas, and applications to
degassing and eruption dynamics
Bruno Scaillet, ISTO, Orleans
Experimental constraints on H2O and sulfur abundances in arc magmas and
implications for degassing processes
Steve Self, The Open University
Fissure and flood basalt eruptions: potential impact on the atmosphere and
climate
Steve Sparks, University of Bristol
Coupling of eruption dynamics and degassing at the Soufriere Hills Volcano,
Montserrat

Call for papers
We encourage poster contributions on any aspect of volcanic degassing, but
especially on:
* The integration and interpretation of geophysical, geodetic and
geochemical data.
* The potential for combining experimental, theoretical and empirical
approaches to generic models for volcanic degassing.
* The atmospheric transport, chemistry, radiative effects, deposition, and
ultimate environmental impacts of volcanic gases and aerosols (including ash).
The deadline for abstracts (which may be forwarded electronically to any
member of the scientific committee listed below) is 31st May 2001. It is
hoped that publication of a Special Memoir of the Geological Society will
arise from this meeting. Please indicate if you wish to contribute a
manuscript - the deadline for submission of full manuscripts will be the
26th October, 2001.

Further details are available at:
http://www.geolsoc.org.uk/template.cfm?name=VMSGFrancisMemorial

For registration details, please contact the Conference Office of The
Geological Society, helen.wilson@geolsoc.org.uk or
jennifer.last@geolsoc.org.uk
Scientific committee
Clive Oppenheimer
Department of Geography, University of Cambridge, Downing Place, Cambridge
CB2 3EN, UK
co200@cam.ac.uk
Jenni Barclay
School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4
7TJ, UK
J.Barclay@uea.ac.uk
David Pyle
Department of Earth Sciences, University of Cambridge, Downing Street,
Cambridge CB2 3EQ, UK
dmp11@esc.cam.ac.uk



 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 412 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, May 31, 2001 (18:13) * 28 lines 
 
Recent Volcanic Ash Eruptions:

Ash data is summarized from the weekly GVN/USGS report
http://www.nmnh.si.edu/gvp/usgs/index.htm
All ash elevations are in km above sea level.
Ash elevations of 5 mi/8 km are highlighted in red.

United States, Hawaii, KILAUEA, summit elev. 1222 m
Lava entering the ocean on 23 May
Mexico, POPOCATEPETL, summit elev. 5426 m
Small-to-moderate sized exhalations, on 26 May steam-and-ash to 7 km
Nicaragua, MASAYA, summit elev. 635 m
on 23 May volcanic "smoke" and steam.
Montserrat, West Indies, SOUFRIÈRE HILLS, summit elev. 1052 m
during 19 to 21 May convective ash clouds to less than 2 km
Ecuador,
TUNGURAHUA, summit elev. 5023 m
on 26 May ash to 7 km, on 30 May ash to 8.2 km
GUAGUA PICHINCHA, summit elev. 4784 m
on 25 May steam-and-ash to 8.5 km
Russia, Kamchatka, SHIVELUCH, summit elevation 3283 m; (data revision)
On 22 May eruption to 10 km, then several small eruptions with ash-and-gas to 2 km
Japan, MIYAKE-JIMA Izu Islands, summit elev. 815 m
steam plumes continuously to 1.3-2.8 km
Philippines, MAYON, summit elev. 2462 m
On 28 May an ash puff
Italy, Sicily, ETNA, summit elev. 3315 m
through 25 May mild Strombolian activity


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 413 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Jun  1, 2001 (16:16) * 51 lines 
 
Analytical, Computational and Experimental (ACE) Studies in Earth Sciences

*******************************
Marie Curie ACE Training Site
*******************************
From: Patrice Hornibrook

Analytical, Computational and Experimental (ACE) Studies in Earth Sciences

Are you working on your Ph.D.? Would your Ph.D. research benefit from
resources unavailable to you at your home university? Did you know you
could be paid to travel to and work at a Marie Curie Training Site on
aspects of your Ph.D.? ACE Bristol (http://mcts.gly.bris.ac.uk) may be the
programme for you!

Applications are invited from Ph.D. students from EU member and Associated
States* (excluding UK) for research training at the ACE Earth Sciences
Training Site. The Site is hosted by the University of Bristol and funded
by the European Commission program 'Improving Human Research Potential and
the Socio-economic Knowledge Base'. Training is available in modern
analytical, computational and experimental methodologies in four core areas
of Earth Sciences:

Geochemistry
Experimental and theoretical studies of the earth's interior
Volcanology and geological fluid dynamics
Palaeontology

Students undertaking studies in one of the above disciplines will be
supervised and trained in their respective fields by experienced staff
including Professors M.J. Benton, D.E.G. Briggs, C.J. Hawkesworth, R.S.J.
Sparks and B.J. Wood. Students may also (as required) be enrolled in
specialist courses in their field of research and in communication skills.
The goal for visitors will be to submit a manuscript in English to an
international Earth Science journal by the end of their stay. Visitors
will have full access to departmental student resources including excellent
libraries and to the analytical facilities which are contained in the EU
Geochemical Facility: electron probe microanalysis, ICP-MS, Laser Ablation
ICP-MS, ICP-AES, TIMS, Mössbauer (Fe3+/Fe2+), FTIR (CO2 & H2O), LECO (bulk
C & S), XRF, XRD, NMR, SEM-EDS. UNIX workstations are available for a wide
range of statistical and modelling studies.

Between 5 and 7 students per year will benefit under this scheme. Visits
can last between 3 months and one academic year. The host will provide
travel and subsistence expenses. Applicants are strongly advised to discuss
their requirements with Bristol staff prior to sending in their
applications. The next deadline for applications is 30th June 2001. Further
information, eligibility criteria and application forms can be downloaded
from:

http://mcts.gly.bris.ac.uk


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 414 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Jun  1, 2001 (18:50) * 47 lines 
 
*****************************
Canadian volcanology website
*****************************
From: "Stasiuk, Mark"

Announcing the launch of volcanocanada.com, a website about Canadian
volcanology and the young volcanoes of Canada. The site was built and will
be maintained by the Geological Survey of Canada, Pacific Division
(Vancouver), and can also be reached via the GSC website on earth sciences:
http://www.nrcan.gc.ca/gsc/pacific/vancouver/earthsci/index_e.htm
(follow the link on the side bar for volcanoes)

The site was initially launched last week and is a "beta" version. It is
currently being translated to French and being looked over for errors and
navigational glitches. The translation could take some time as there are
more than 600 html files! The site includes a number of general sections on
volcanology and volcanic hazards, information on what we do at the GSC, a
section for students on how to become a volcanologist, a list of links to
related sites, and a large section giving specific information on more than
250 Canadian volcanoes and volcanic features. The specific information comes
in two forms: a simple html catalogue, and interactive maps which allow you
to reach shaded-topography DEM images of most of the volcanoes.

The site will undergo significant additions on an approximately 6-month
frequency.

I hope you'll take a few minutes and check it out. Feel free to provide me
with suggestions for changes and additions - for example if you want us to
add a link to your site. Also, where relevant please add a link to us from
your site. Email me either at mstasiuk@nrcan.gc.ca, or volcano@nrcan.gc.ca

Dr. Mark V. Stasiuk
Volcanologist
volcanocanada.com

Natural Resources Canada
Geological Survey of Canada, Pacific Division www.nrcan.gc.ca/gsc
101 - 605 Robson Street, Vancouver, B.C., Canada, V6B 5J3
tel. (604) 666-0529 (reception), (604) 666-2997 (direct)
fax (604) 666-1124, email mstasiuk@nrcan.gc.ca









 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 415 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Jun  2, 2001 (16:05) * 6 lines 
 
To the Kraffts and the rest who lie beneath the pyrocasts of Unzen, Aloha!







 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 416 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Jun  2, 2001 (18:37) * 6 lines 
 
And, thanks for letting me borrow your photo, Rob... it is splendid of Unzen!
This is the eruption that claimed so many geologists and volcanologists. Has it been 10 years?!






 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 417 of 997: Rob Glennie  (AotearoaKiwi) * Sun, Jun  3, 2001 (02:39) * 6 lines 
 
Hi

Ten years ago today, part of the lava dome on the summit of the Japanese volcano Unzen collapsed. The resulting pyroclastic flow which was unusually large, poured down a valley in which journalists, volcanologists and local people were watching the volcanic activity, and killed them. The Japanese army, I think, pulled 38 corpses out after that eruption and 5 more out a couple days later when another flow caught more people by surprise.
Three volcanologists (Maurice + Katia Krafft, plus Harry Glicken)were killed in the deadly June 3 event, now world famous for the footage of the man and the vehicle fleeing the volcano.

Rob


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 418 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Jun  3, 2001 (13:56) * 8 lines 
 
Rob, I am still looking for the stills from that video, if they exist, to post. Meanwhile, here is a totally different view of the pyroclastic flow from http://www.iaag.geo.uni-muenchen.de/sammlung/Unzen.html









 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 419 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Jun  4, 2001 (17:23) * 45 lines 
 
Since he did not post it here, I am going to borrow Rob's comments and risk his wrath since I did not get his permission. I am good about doing this but in this case it is so timely it needs to be posted now.

Today is the tenth anniversary of the 1991 Unzen-dake eruption. Unzen
awoke in late 1990 with small quakes underneath the dome that started
rising toward the summit. Despite the earthquakes and plumes of steam
rising of the dacitic dome, the volcano did not appear all that
threatening. However anyone who knows the volcano knows that in 1792 there was a
debris slide and tsunami that killed 15,000 people.

Maurice and Katia Krafft went to Japan after Maurice picked up a phone
call from Japan about the volcano awakening. He phoned a friend, saying
"we are about to Japan to zee a volcano that is "very" interesting."
This was the last that anyone outside of Japan heard of them. It would
appear that they reached the volcano and chose a spot away from where the
pyroclastic flows that Mount Unzen was letting of, were going. But
sometime on the morning of June 3, 1991 there was a deafening bang
(survivors report - source unknown)and part of the dome collapsed. A large
pyroclastic flow rushed down the valley (it covered the entire valley floor
and the slopes on both sides). The Kraffts had initially appeared to
have escaped the flow as it surged past them, but the survivors say there
was a shift in the wind direction. The flow turned straight toward the
Kraffts position from which there was no way out. The rest is history.
See Savage Earth (National Geographic documentary)for more. No mention
of Harry Glicken. So I do not know if he tried to run or was caught off
guard. Large pyroclastic flows continued the following day and
throughout the rest of the month of June. A 44th victim was added to
the fatality list on June 23 1991.

ROBS ADVICE:
Lava domes earn my highest respect because of the instantaneous
chemical reaction between the gas filled magma underneath and the air. The
explosions of these domes are some of the deadliest in the world and even
if there is no steam rising off a lava dome on an active volcano, if
the dome is steeper than 42 degrees, get out fast. Do not stop for
anything least of all photo shots, if you don't want to die on a volcano.


Rob

from http://clubs.yahoo.com/clubs/worldvolcanism



Maurice and Katia Krafft



 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 420 of 997: Rob Glennie  (AotearoaKiwi) * Mon, Jun  4, 2001 (18:54) * 7 lines 
 
Hi

My e-mail is called lava.dome because although it is very rare I do occasionally let fly with a pyroclastic flow in there. But no explosions, dome collapses or anything like that when they are unwarranted, though I would hope the very mention of a pyroclastic flow in this message will encourage better acknowledgement. The worst I can do is unleash an explosion - to do that you have to push me over the edge by ignoring the many warnings I will issue.

Hugs Rob

(you are not in trouble unless you stop acknowledging material you use that I made up)


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 421 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Jun  5, 2001 (13:52) * 1 lines 
 
Rob, Luv, I always give credit and cite sources. It is not only the scientific thing to do, it protects your intellectual output. Besides, you said it so much better than I could have. Your piece is a great tribute to those who became part of the volcano in one earth-changing instant. I trust and will try ever so hard not ever to cause anything but smiles and thoughtful comments from you. *Hugs*


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 422 of 997: Neil Hodgins  (ThinkingManNeil) * Tue, Jun  5, 2001 (19:54) * 70 lines 
 
Sometime ago, I read in a tourist guide to the interior of British Columbia that the town of Rossland is built in the crater of an ancient volcano. I was fascinated by this, but could find little else to corroborate it other than the town's own website, http://www.rossland.com , which reiterated the claim. Marcia was kind enough to point me to a new website for Canadian Volcanoes; so I sent an inquiry into the alleged volcanic history of the Rossland area, and this was the reply I got:

hello Neil,
thanks for your message.

Rossland's most definitely not built in the crater or caldera of an ancient
volcano. It's geology is fairly old by active volcano standards, with the
youngest rocks being about 40 million years old. Those rocks are indeed
volcanic, and form a thick pile just west of Rossland (e.g. OK Mountain,
Roberts Mtn.) which runs sort of north-west. The pile is cut by faults and
deeply incised by erosion, so it's original extent and full relations --
which would have allowed me to say much more about it's volcanic history --
are largely hidden. The next oldest rocks go back to the 60 to 200 million
year period, and are dominantly granites. These are the sorts of rocks that
Rossland is built on. They are cut by "thrust" faults that formed in
response to tectonic forces ramming in from the west, pushing up the
Rockies. The granites represent magma chambers that might have been the
source zones for volcanoes in the 100 to 200 million year range but have
since been completed removed by erosion. Granites don't always act as root
zones for volcanoes, sometimes they intrude the crust and never produce
eruptions.

The ~40 million year old volcanic rocks are lava deposits called andesite
that are typical of tectonic subduction zone volcanoes. They were erupted
when the coastline was further east than now. As the western parts of BC
have been added to, the coast has stepped westward and so has the line of
active volcanoes. The volcanic rocks left behind, to the east of the coast,
got eroded and faulted with time.

There's no clear definition of an extinct volcano, but generally it's one
that shows no signs of activity now or historic time, it's last eruption was
hundreds of thousands or more years ago, and it is no longer in an area of
active tectonics that could produce magma to feed future eruptions. The
definition is problematic because some dormant volcanoes show few signs of
activity, erupt very infrequently, and some apparently "tectonically dead"
regions get very infrequent and poorly understood eruptions. In the case of
the Rossland volcanics, however, the great age and tectonic location, plus
the lack of volcanic-related hotsprings or seismic activity, indicate the
area's volcano is very much extinct.

best regards,
Mark Stasiuk
----------
From: Main Web Server[SMTP:webserve@nrn1.NRCan.gc.ca]
Sent: Saturday, June 02, 2001 6:17 PM
To: volcano@nrcan.gc.ca
Subject: Other: Sat. June 02, 2001
Neil Hodgins
neil_hodgins@hotmail.com
Hello;

I've had an interest in volcanoes for many years, and I'm glad to
finally see a site that\'s dedicated to the Canadian aspect of the field.
I had a question about an extinct (?) volcano that doesn't appear on your
map of BC. I've read that the town of Rossland, BC, is built in the
crater (caldera?) of an ancient volcano (the town's website,
http://www.rossland.com even makes mention of it). I've looked for more
information on this volcano, but have found no mention of it. Could you
tell me a little more about the geology and eruptive history of this site,
if it is indeed a volcano? Also, by what criteria is a volcano considered
to be extinct? Is it based solely on time between eruptions, or is there a
physical aspect such as erosion of the magma chamber?

Thanks,

Neil H.

PS. Very nice site you have here--well laid out and very informative. Info
on the T'seax eruption was especially interesting.



 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 423 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Jun  5, 2001 (20:00) * 1 lines 
 
Thanks Rob and *Hugs* for going to all that trouble. You got more than just a polite brush off answer. Too bad the Rossland site guys did not do their own homework! Fascinating. I wonder what the source of the incorrect information was. Makes one wonder about cross checking anything I post. As always, it i more important for me to get the correct information out than to be "right" all the time. Input is vital and I appreciate each and every comment and correction.


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 424 of 997: Neil Hodgins  (ThinkingManNeil) * Tue, Jun  5, 2001 (20:01) * 70 lines 
 
Sometime ago, I read in a tourist guide to the interior of British Columbia that the town of Rossland is built in the crater of an ancient volcano. I was fascinated by this, but could find little else to corroborate it other than the town's own website, http://www.rossland.com , which reiterated the claim. Marcia was kind enough to point me to a new website for Canadian Volcanoes; so I sent an inquiry into the alleged volcanic history of the Rossland area, and this was the reply I got:

hello Neil,
thanks for your message.

Rossland's most definitely not built in the crater or caldera of an ancient
volcano. It's geology is fairly old by active volcano standards, with the
youngest rocks being about 40 million years old. Those rocks are indeed
volcanic, and form a thick pile just west of Rossland (e.g. OK Mountain,
Roberts Mtn.) which runs sort of north-west. The pile is cut by faults and
deeply incised by erosion, so it's original extent and full relations --
which would have allowed me to say much more about it's volcanic history --
are largely hidden. The next oldest rocks go back to the 60 to 200 million
year period, and are dominantly granites. These are the sorts of rocks that
Rossland is built on. They are cut by "thrust" faults that formed in
response to tectonic forces ramming in from the west, pushing up the
Rockies. The granites represent magma chambers that might have been the
source zones for volcanoes in the 100 to 200 million year range but have
since been completed removed by erosion. Granites don't always act as root
zones for volcanoes, sometimes they intrude the crust and never produce
eruptions.

The ~40 million year old volcanic rocks are lava deposits called andesite
that are typical of tectonic subduction zone volcanoes. They were erupted
when the coastline was further east than now. As the western parts of BC
have been added to, the coast has stepped westward and so has the line of
active volcanoes. The volcanic rocks left behind, to the east of the coast,
got eroded and faulted with time.

There's no clear definition of an extinct volcano, but generally it's one
that shows no signs of activity now or historic time, it's last eruption was
hundreds of thousands or more years ago, and it is no longer in an area of
active tectonics that could produce magma to feed future eruptions. The
definition is problematic because some dormant volcanoes show few signs of
activity, erupt very infrequently, and some apparently "tectonically dead"
regions get very infrequent and poorly understood eruptions. In the case of
the Rossland volcanics, however, the great age and tectonic location, plus
the lack of volcanic-related hotsprings or seismic activity, indicate the
area's volcano is very much extinct.

best regards,
Mark Stasiuk
----------
From: Main Web Server[SMTP:webserve@nrn1.NRCan.gc.ca]
Sent: Saturday, June 02, 2001 6:17 PM
To: volcano@nrcan.gc.ca
Subject: Other: Sat. June 02, 2001
Neil Hodgins
neil_hodgins@hotmail.com
Hello;

I've had an interest in volcanoes for many years, and I'm glad to
finally see a site that\'s dedicated to the Canadian aspect of the field.
I had a question about an extinct (?) volcano that doesn't appear on your
map of BC. I've read that the town of Rossland, BC, is built in the
crater (caldera?) of an ancient volcano (the town's website,
http://www.rossland.com even makes mention of it). I've looked for more
information on this volcano, but have found no mention of it. Could you
tell me a little more about the geology and eruptive history of this site,
if it is indeed a volcano? Also, by what criteria is a volcano considered
to be extinct? Is it based solely on time between eruptions, or is there a
physical aspect such as erosion of the magma chamber?

Thanks,

Neil H.

PS. Very nice site you have here--well laid out and very informative. Info
on the T'seax eruption was especially interesting.



 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 425 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Jun  5, 2001 (20:55) * 117 lines 
 
******************************************
Alaska Volcano Observatory Weekly Update,
6-01-2001
******************************************
From: avo-sci@usgs.gov

ALASKA VOLCANO OBSERVATORY
Weekly Update
Friday, June 1, 2001 12:00 PM AST (2000 UTC)

MAKUSHIN VOLCANO (CAVW # 1101-31)
53o53'N 166o56'W
Elevation 5905 ft (1,800 m)

Since July of 2000 AVO has detected a slight increase in the number of
small earthquakes beneath Makushin Volcano located 25 km west of the city
of Unalaska/Dutch Harbor in the eastern Aleutian Islands. Hypocenters of
these earthquakes generally range between 0 and 8 km depth. These events
are too small to be felt by humans and are between magnitude 0.0 and 1.5.
The current activity at Makushin is not thought to be an immediate
precursor to eruptive activity. Similar fluctuations in earthquake
activity have been observed at a number of Aleutian volcanoes that did not
result in an eruption. The most recent eruption of Makushin occurred on
January 30, 1995 and consisted of a small explosion and ash plume that
reached heights of 10,000 ft (ASL). The level of concern color code for
Makushin Volcano remains at green.

OTHER ALASKA VOLCANOES

Seismic activity is monitored in real time at 22 volcanoes in Alaska.
Satellite images of all Alaskan volcanoes are analyzed daily for evidence
of ash plumes and elevated surface temperatures. Some volcanoes may
currently display anomalous behavior without being considered to be at a
dangerous level of unrest.

Spurr, Redoubt, Iliamna, Augustine, Snowy, Griggs, Katmai, Novarupta,
Trident, Mageik, Martin, Aniakchak, Pavlof, Dutton, Isanotski, Shishaldin,
Fisher, Westdahl, Akutan, Makushin, Great Sitkin, and Kanaga volcanoes are
all at or near normal levels of background seismicity. AVO did not detect
ash plumes or significant elevated surface temperatures in the vicinity of
any volcano.

Abbreviated color code key (contact AVO for complete description):
GREEN volcano is dormant; normal seismicity and fumarolic activity
occurring
YELLOW volcano is restless; eruption may occur
ORANGE volcano is in eruption or eruption may occur at any time
RED significant eruption is occurring or explosive eruption expected
at any time

Volcano information on the internet: http://www.avo.alaska.edu
Recording of the status of Alaska's volcanoes (907) 786-7478
CONTACT INFORMATION:

Tom Murray, Scientist-in-Charge, USGS
tlmurray@usgs.gov (907) 786-7497

John Eichelberger, Coordinating Scientist, UAF-GI
eich@giseis.alaska.edu (907) 474-5530

The Alaska Volcano Observatory is a cooperative program of the U.S.
Geological Survey, the University of Alaska Fairbanks Geophysical
Institute, and the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys.

*********************************
KVERT Information Release 35-01:
May 30, 2001 KDT
*********************************
From: avo-sci@usgs.gov

Kamchatkan Volcanic Activity
INFORMATION RELEASE 35-01
Wednesday, May 30, 2001, 11:50 KDT (2250 UTC)

The following Release was received by the Alaska Volcano Observatory via
e-mail from KVERT (Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruptions Response Team). All times
are in Kamchatkan Daylight Time, 21 hours ahead of ADT.

SHEVELUCH VOLCANO; 56o 38'N, 161o 19'E; Elevation 2,447 m
CURRENT LEVEL OF CONCERN COLOR CODE IS YELLOW.
PREVIOUS LEVEL OF CONCERN COLOR CODE WAS ORANGE.

On the morning of May 24, a gas and steam plume was observed rising 1200 m
above the dome. The last satellite images at 16:27 KDT (04:27 UTC) and
18:11 KDT (05:11 UTC) on May 24, show a 4-6 pixel linear anomaly trailing
down the south-southwest flank of volcano. Maximum temperature is 38.9-50
degrees C. Further visual observations were absent until May 29 because of
poor weather.

On the morning of May 29, a gas and steam plume rose 1200 m above the new
dome. Gas and energetic steaming rose up to 300 m above the large area to
the right of the old dome. At 22:00 KDT (09:00 UTC) on May 29, a gas and
steam plume also rose 1200 m. On the morning of May 30, the volcano was
obscured by clouds.

Seismic activity has decreased, but remains above background levels.
Earthquakes of magnitude Ml=2 and many small earthquakes within the
volcano's edifice were recorded.

PLEASE CONTACT AVO IF YOU HAVE QUESTIONS OR COMMENTS.

Olga Chubarova
Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team
IVGG, Piip Blvd, 9
Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006
RUSSIA
E-mail: ochubarova@emsd.iks.ru
tel. (41522) 59385

Tom Murray
Alaska Volcano Observatory
4200 University Drive
Anchorage, Alaska 99508
USA
E-mail: tlmurray@usgs.gov
907-786-7497



 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 426 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Jun  5, 2001 (20:56) * 72 lines 
 
******************
Colima, Mexico
******************
From: Juan Carlos Gavilanes

Volcan de Colima. New dome.

On March 17th 2001, Nick Varley and Juan Carlos Gavilanes made an ascent to
the Volcán de Colima crater. Circumnavigating the main crater, they recorded
the tracks and marked several waypoints simultaneously with 3 GPS navigation
receivers. Subsequent processing of the data allowed them to map the current
outer crater, which has a maximum diameter of 261 m and a minimum of 230 m.
The maximum depth was 40 m and the minimum was 15 m, giving an estimated
volume of approximately 1,400,000 m3. The same day they observed a new
crater located inside the northern sector of the outer crater, assumed to be
formed by the Feb 22th, 2001 explosion. The diameter of the inner crater was
estimated to be 127 m, its depth 15 m, and its volume 190,000 m3. This makes
it the biggest crater of Volcán de Colima since the early 1960's. In the NE
sector of the inner crater an inflated surface affected by fractures was
observed, which was interpreted by Varley and Gavilanes as a result of an
intrusive episode initiated sometime after the Feb 22 explosion.

On May 26th 2001, another ascent was made to the crater, discovering a new
lava dome. Its estimated dimensions were a diameter of 115 m at its base and
57 m at the top. Its height was estimated to be 30 m, giving a volume of
150,000 m3. Assuming that the extrusion started on May 8th, 2001, the
resulting growth rate would be 0.096 m3 s-1 (until May 26th 2001= 19 days).
During the 3 hours of work performed in the crater region (including gas
sampling), only a small rockfall was heard. From observations the new dome
is not composed by large dark-coloured blocks (as observed for the effusive
events that occurred during the last 40 years), but mainly by blocks of a
smaller size and light gray colour. In comparision to the previous crater
ascent, new and stronger fumarolic zones surrounding the new dome were
observed, mainly to its N, NE, and E. This is the first evidence of effusive
activity since the Nov 1998-Feb 1999 effusive episode.

Juan Carlos Gavilanes and Nick Varley. UNIVERSIDAD DE COLIMA.

*********************
Popocatepetl, Mexico
*********************
From: Dan Shackelford

Increased activity at Popocatepetl

Increased activity at Popocatepetl with a moderate explosive event at 2136
on 31 May sending glowing tephra onto the NE flank for up to 2-3km from
crater. Similar but smaller eruption at 0804 on 1 June. Five hours of
harmonic tremor followed the 31 May event.

From "Reportes Anteriores" (June 1) link on:
http://www.cenapred.unam.mx/cgi-bin/popo/mvolcan.cgi

Photo of eruption on 31 May at:
http://www.cenapred.unam.mx/popo/2001/may/p0601011.jpg

JUNE 1 11:00 h (16:00 h GMT):

In the last 24 hours, the Popocatepetl activity has shown an increase.
There were 4 small exhalations of low intensity of gas, steam and some
times carrying small amounts of ash. Yesterdeay at 21:36 there was an
explosion of moderate intensity. The event lasted one minute in its intense
phase. Incandescent material was sent on the North-east flank at distances
between 2 and 3 km from the crater (see image). It is possible that there
was a small ash plume, but it could not be confirmed. After a minute and a
half, episodes of harmonic tremor started. Their amplitude was small to
regular and they lasted about 5 hours. Today at 08:04, there was another
explosion, similar to the one from yesterday, but much smaller in size.
At the moment of this report, the summit of the volcano is covered by snow
and we can see a steam plume to the South-west.




 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 427 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Jun  7, 2001 (23:18) * 22 lines 
 
By Rob on http://clubs.yahoo.com/clubs/worldvolcanism

On June 6 1912 on an island in the Aleutians the Alaskan volcano Katmai
began erupting through its vent called Novarupta. Novarupta is part of
a caldera volcano and has a dome of rhyolitic(?) lava plugging the
vent. Not much is known about the actual course of events because the
eruption was so far from civilisation but it is generally recognised to be
the largest eruption of the 20th
Century. As far as size goes nothing between 1900-1999 came anywhere
near the 32km3 of material blown clear across the northern Pacific
covering fishing boats, sea and land alike with a thick layer of pyroclasts.
On land the depth of the huge deposits ranges anywhere between 2cm and
200m thick with valley forming impromptu geothermal wonderlands (Valley
of 10,000 smokes).
Certainly Pinatubo in 1991 matched it for raw power and provided a
spectacle not seen before by Western people but this little volcano in
Alaska showed why the Aleutians geology makes the place such a dynamic area
to live in. Because of the position relatively close to the North Pole
it is doubtful that the volcano had any real affect on the climate of
the world except the northern polar regions.




 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 428 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Jun  7, 2001 (23:19) * 55 lines 
 
Also by Rob on http://clubs.yahoo.com/clubs/worldvolcanism

In 1945 Mount Ruapehu erupted from it's crater lake emptying the
contents of the lake over the summit and down the Whangaehu river. When the
lake emptied the volcano built an andesitic lava dome in it's place. It
did not last long and within months had been blown to pieces showering
the central North Island with ash. However bad the ash was something
many times more dangerous and destructive was building. As the eruption
ceased an ash and debris dam formed above the Whangaehu outlet (an ice
tunnel through weak material)plugging the outlet).
On December 24 1953New Zealand learnt the definition of Whangaehu the
hard way. The rivers name is translated as "weeping waters" a name that
would soon become frighteningly appropriate. About 7.30PM water began
seeping through the sodden dam and quickly began carving out a gully
through which lake water began to pour. Downstream the Christmas rail
express with 285 passengers on board was merrily making it's way from
Wellington to Auckland for the holiday. It reached Waiouru and turned
westward. By now a lahar of mud consisting of water soaked-ash, boulders and
river sediment was crunching downhill from the lake at speed with a
peak flow of 900 cubic metres per second. It reached Tangiwai at 9PM and
clean bowled the rail bridge a few hundred metres away. A man named
Ellis was
driving home when he noticed a vast volume of water pouring over the
road bridge just down stream from the rail bridge, and realised there was
no way across after grabbing his torch to look. Then to his utter
horror he heard a toot. The train with it's 285 passengers on board was
approaching. So he raced up the bank with his torch frantically signalling
the train which could not even begin slowing down in the little time it
had left. It sailed into the air and came down on the other side in the
river. He smashed a window in the sixth carriage which was still
teetering on the bridge and started hauling injured passengers out while the
uninjured scrambled out, then the carriage fell in the raging torrent.
He ordered everyone out the broken window and scrambled out himself. He
saved 49 people from certain death and earned a Queens bravery medal
for his efforts. But the toll the lahar took was unreal. 151 dead. So
when the 1995 eruption sequence began in similar fashion to 1945, there
was an air of "oh no, here we go again" among some. The phreato-magmatic
eruptions of steam, mud and ash were spectacular to watch on television
and lahars left the pristine white slopes looking like they had ribbons
of set chocolate sauce on them. Unfortunately the cycle is almost
complete..................

It is now 2001 and the Government has just rejected a plan to bulldoze
a channel through the ash dam that has accumulated once more in the
entrance to the ice tunnel. It wants a warning system to give 2 hours
warning of an impending lahar (expected within 18 months)pouring down the
Whangaehu river. Although both ideas are sound, the local Maori do not
want bulldozers or anything else for that matter on the volcano because
of spiritual values. And the government thinks that conservation is
more important than risk REMOVAL approach. So it opted for risk REDUCTION.
Whatever happens, there is no denying the lahar risk. There is no
denying that there is a risk to human life and property and there is no
denying it WILL COME.

They have 18 months by my guess.


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 429 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Jun  7, 2001 (23:23) * 32 lines 
 
The latest HazardWatch is now online: http://www.hazardwatch.co.nz

A new publication is now available for sale. QMAP Wellington.
This full colour, large format geological map illustrates the geology of the
greater Wellington area and northeastern Marlborough (southern North Island and
northeastern South Island, New Zealand) at a scale of 1:250 000.
http://www.gns.cri.nz/news/publications/index.html#Wellington

A new conference is announced. The ILP (International Lithosphere Programme) .We
now offer the earthquake geology community, including the students, the final
opportunity under the auspices of ILP II-5 to present current research and
review papers for oral and poster presentation reflecting the ILP project II-5
theme of establishing large earthquake recurrence in pre-historic time using
paleoseismological methods.
http://www.gns.cri.nz/news/conferences/kai/index.html

A new vacancy at GNS, for a Geonet Admin Coordinator.
http://www.gns.cri.nz/news/vacancies/index.html

A new vacancy at GNS, for a Geonet Systems Developer.
http://www.gns.cri.nz/news/vacancies/index.html

A new vacancy at GNS, for a Geonet Systems Administrator.
http://www.gns.cri.nz/news/vacancies/index.html

A new vacancy at GNS, for a Geonet Operations Technican.
http://www.gns.cri.nz/news/vacancies/index.html

A new vacancy at GNS, for a Geodesist/Geophysicist.
http://www.gns.cri.nz/news/vacancies/index.html




 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 430 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Jun  8, 2001 (13:32) * 5 lines 
 
It occurred to me that posting Rob's writings from his club was patently unfair since does not encourage people to join him and read his great articles there.
I encourage anyone who is even slightly interested in Volcanology to visit his WorldVolcanology at http://clubs.yahoo.com/clubs/worldvolcanism

Rob also has an impressive array of photographs and I am about to put one in there, as well. Join us there. We are discussing disaster preparedness. How well are you prepared to come through your next disaster? Flood? Earthquake?
Volcanic erutpion? Is anyone interested in discussing this subject here? If so I will create a new topic just for that. It is important and I can add a bunch of suggestions to help you survive your next cataclysm. Thinking they won't happen is foolish. Expecting the government agencies to dig you out is foolish. They are no better off than you are!


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 431 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Jun  8, 2001 (15:41) * 177 lines 
 
USGS VOLCANO NEWS

Volcano Watch - June 7, 2001

Diving deeply into Kilauea's early history

Kilauea wasn't always like it is today. Two hundred thousand years and the
change from a seamount to an island can do a lot to a volcano. The trick is
to determine what those changes were.

You can't do it on land. No erosion has bitten deeply enough into Kilauea
to expose its pre-island days. You have to look in deep bore holes or on
the sea floor to see back to Kilauea's early history. Even then it isn't
easy.

Recently a breakthrough was made. For the first time, the deep sea floor
south of Kilauea and east of the submarine volcano, Lo`ihi, was explored
and sampled by submersibles. The dives, some manned and some with a
remotely operated vehicle, took place in 1998 and 1999, supported by the
Japan Marine Science and Technology Center (JAMSTEC). The sea-floor
observations and samples have been analyzed and interpreted in a startling
scientific paper recently published by Pete Lipman (former HVO staff
member), his USGS colleague Tom Sisson, and two Japanese scientists,
Tadahide Ui and Jiro Naka in the December issue of the research journal,
Geology.

The deepest dive went 5 km (3 miles) down to the old sea floor on which the
island is built. Most of the dives were along a steep scarp or underwater
pali 20-40 km (12-24 miles) offshore. The scarp faces away from the island
at depths between about 3 km and 4.5 km (1.8 and 2.7 miles). Before the
dives, the scarp was hypothesized to contain lava flows erupted from Mauna
Loa and Kilauea, perhaps carried away from the island by a large underwater
slump.

Not true! Every rock sampled from the scarp, and all views of the scarp,
show that it consists of sandstone and broken rocks, not lava flows!
Imagine a pali 1,500 m (5,000 feet) high in Hawai`i consisting only of sand
and broken rocks. Nothing like that exists above sea level anywhere in the
islands.

What's going on?

That's what Lipman and colleagues wondered. So, they determined the
chemical compositions of the sand and broken rocks and found many of them
to be unlike anything found above sea level on either Kilauea or Mauna Loa.
Many of the samples are exceptionally rich in sodium and potassium
(alkalies). One of the rocks is even so alkalic that it contains the
mineral mica. Some of the chemical compositions resemble those found on
Lo`ihi, but the range of compositions is much greater. The data provide
solid evidence that Kilauea started out by erupting diverse alkalic rocks.

They also found evidence for a range of eruption depths by looking at the
amount of sulfur in glassy samples. High amounts (more than 800 ppm)
indicate eruption underwater; low amounts mean that the sulfur boiled off
and suggest very shallow or on-land eruptions.

Putting all this together, Lipman and colleagues suggest that early Kilauea
was a large submarine volcano, at times growing to or above sea level. It
was made of alkalic lava flows and was subject to numerous slope failures,
such as landslides. The slides broke up the lava flows and, with marine
currents, carried the debris onto the flanks of the volcano and beyond.

Eventually the compositions changed to the more common basalt (tholeiite)
found today, and pillowed basalt flows encroached on, and covered, the
flanks of the early volcano. Such flows occur on a large bench between the
top of the scarp and the island. The old alkalic volcano can be inferred
today only from its eroded debris exposed in the scarp; nearer the island,
it is covered completely by the tholeiitic flows.

The early history of Kilauea starts to come into focus. For greater
clarity, though, it needs a lot more sampling, geophysical profiling, and
thinking. But the general picture is there, thanks to the JAMSTEC dives and
the work by Lipman and colleagues.

Eruption Update
Eruptive activity of Kilauea Volcano persisted at the Pu`u `O`o vent during
the past week. Lava moves away from the vent area toward the ocean in a
network of tubes and descends Pulama pali in two separate areas. The
eastern flow near the Royal Gardens subdivision continues to be active and
supplies the ocean entry east of Kupapa`u. Another flow travels down the
pali about 1.5 km (0.9 mi) to the west of the boundary of Hawai`i Volcanoes
National Park. Lava from this western flow is now ponding in the coastal
flats and not going into the ocean. The ocean entry observed west of
Kamokuna last week stopped during the weekend.

One earthquake was reported felt during the week ending on June 7. A
resident of Hawaiian Ocean View Estates subdivision felt an earthquake at
8:16 p.m. on June 1. The magnitude-3.8 earthquake was located 6 km (3.6
mi) northeast of Pahala at a depth of 10.95 km (6.6 mi).

This article was written by scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey's
Hawaiian Volcano Observatory.

ALASKA VOLCANO OBSERVATORY
weekly Update
Friday, June 8, 2001 11:00 AM ADT (1900 UTC)

ALASKA VOLCANOES

Seismic activity is monitored in real time at 22 volcanoes in Alaska.
Satellite images of all Alaskan volcanoes are analyzed daily for evidence
of ash plumes and elevated surface temperatures. Some volcanoes may
currently display anomalous behavior without being considered to be at a
dangerous level of unrest.

Spurr, Redoubt, Iliamna, Augustine, Snowy, Griggs, Katmai, Novarupta,
Trident, Mageik, Martin, Aniakchak, Pavlof, Dutton, Isanotski, Shishaldin,
Fisher, Westdahl, Akutan, Makushin, Great Sitkin, and Kanaga volcanoes are
all at or near normal levels of background seismicity. AVO did not detect
ash plumes or significant elevated surface temperatures in the vicinity of
any volcano.

The following Release was received by the Alaska Volcano Observatory via
e-mail from KVERT (Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruptions Response Team). All times
are Kamchatkan Daylight Time, 21 hours ahead of ADT.

SHEVELUCH VOLCANO; 56o 38'N, 161o 19'E; Elevation 2,447 m
CURRENT LEVEL OF CONCERN COLOR CODE IS YELLOW.
During the past week (June 1-7), seismic activity was above background
levels. One MI=2 earthquake, many small earthquakes within the volcano's
edifice, and episodes of weak spasmodic volcanic tremor were recorded. On
June 5, a gas and steam plume rose 450-1200 m and extended 3-5 km to the W.
On June 7, a gas and steam plume rose 150 m and extended 5 km to the W.
According to reports from the town of Klyuchi, at 16:30 KDT (0330 UTC) on
June 7, an ash-gas plume rose 600 m above the dome and extended to the W.
At 16:50 KDT (3:50 UTC) a short-lived explosion sent an ash-gas plume 1500
m above the volcano accompanied by 3- and 2-minute-long, shallow seismic
events. On other days, clouds obscured the volcano. A thermal anomaly was
observed in satellite images at 18:09 KDT (05:09 UTC) on June 6, at 07:56
KDT (18:56 UTC) on June 6, and at 17:45 KDT (04:45 UTC) on June 7. The
first image has 2 saturated pixels (49C) in a background of 15-25C, the
second has 1 pixel at 49.3C in a background of near 4C, the third has three
pixels near saturation (44-45C) in a background of 15-25C, with a steam/ash
plume extending to the NW about 33 km.

KLYUCHEVSKOY VOLCANO; 56o 03'N, 160o 39'E; Elevation 4,750 m.
CURRENT LEVEL OF CONCERN COLOR CODE IS GREEN.
Seismic activity was at background levels. On June 5-6, gas and steam
plumes rose 50-100 m above the volcano. On June 7, a gas and steam plume
rose 1500 m above the volcano and extended More than 10 km N. On other days, clouds
obscured the volcano.

BEZYMIANNY VOLCANO; 55o 58'N, 160o 36'E; Elevation 2,895 m
CURRENT LEVEL OF CONCERN COLOR CODE IS GREEN.
No seismicity was registered under the volcano. On June 6 and 7, gas and
steam plumes rose 100 m above the volcano and extended 10-15 km S and SW.
In the evening of June 7, a gas and steam plume rose 400 m and extended 10
km N. On other days, clouds obscured the volcano.

KARYMSKY VOLCANO; 54o 03'N, 159o 27'E; Elevation 1,486 m
CURRENT LEVEL OF CONCERN COLOR CODE IS GREEN.
Seismic activity was at background levels.

AVACHINSKY VOLCANO; 53o 15'N, 158o 50'E; Elevation 2,751 m.
KORYAKSKY VOLCANO; 53o19'N, 158o 41'E; Elevation 3,456 m.
CURRENT LEVEL OF CONCERN COLOR CODE IS GREEN.
Seismicity at Avachinsky and Koryaksky volcanoes was at background levels.

GORELY VOLCANO; 52o 33'N, 158o 02'E, Elevation 1,828 m;
MUTNOVSKY VOLCANO; 52o 27'N, 158o 12'E, Elevation 2,324 m.
CURRENT LEVEL OF CONCERN COLOR CODE FOR BOTH VOLCANOES IS GREEN.
On June 5-6, gas and steam plumes rose 300-400 m above Mutnovsky Volcano.
On other days, clouds obscured the volcano. Gorely Volcano was obscured by
clouds the entire week. Seismic activity was at background levels. Since
June 3, episodes of weak spasmodic volcanic tremor were registered.

abbreviated color code key (contact AVO for complete description):
GREEN volcano is dormant; normal seismicity and fumarolic activity
occurring
YELLOW volcano is restless; eruption may occur
ORANGE volcano is in eruption or eruption may occur at any time
RED significant eruption is occurring or explosive eruption expected
at any time






 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 432 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Jun  8, 2001 (16:02) * 12 lines 
 
NEW ZEALAND volcano cams are back in action:

http://www.cybercorp.co.nz/ruapehu/

North Island, New Zealand
39.27S 175.58E
Summit Elevation 2796m
Local Time = GMT+12hrs (GMT+13hrs in NZ summer, effective October 1)
North Island's highest summit, 13 km SSW of Ngauruhoe, is marked by an acidic crater lake of highly variable
temperature. This has been the site of more historic eruptions than any other crater lake in the world.




 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 433 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Jun  8, 2001 (16:21) * 75 lines 
 
********************************************
Satellite image, 4 June Sheveluch eruption
********************************************
From: Dan Shackelford

http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/images/earth/volcano/volcano_caption.html


*********************************
KVERT Information Release 37-01
June 7, 2001
*********************************
From: avo-sci@usgs.gov

Kamchatkan Volcanic Activity
INFORMATION RELEASE 37-01
Thursday, June 7, 2001, 22:10 KDT (09:10 UTC)

The following Release was received by the Alaska Volcano Observatory via
e-mail from KVERT (Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruptions Response Team). All times
are Kamchatkan Daylight Time, 21 hours ahead of ADT.

SHEVELUCH VOLCANO; 56o 38'N, 161o 19'E; Elevation 2,447 m
CURRENT LEVEL OF CONCERN COLOR CODE IS YELLOW.
During the past week (June 1-7), seismic activity was above background
levels. One MI=2 earthquake, many small earthquakes within the volcano's
edifice, and episodes of weak spasmodic volcanic tremor were recorded. On
June 5, a gas and steam plume rose 450-1200 m and extended 3-5 km to the W.
On June 7, a gas and steam plume rose 150 m and extended 5 km to the W.
According to reports from the town of Klyuchi, at 16:30 KDT (0330 UTC) on
June 7, an ash-gas plume rose 600 m above the dome and extended to the W.
At 16:50 KDT (3:50 UTC) a short-lived explosion sent an ash-gas plume 1500
m above the volcano accompanied by 3- and 2-minute-long, shallow seismic
events. On other days, clouds obscured the volcano. A thermal anomaly was
observed in satellite images at 18:09 KDT (05:09 UTC) on June 6, at 07:56
KDT (18:56 UTC) on June 6, and at 17:45 KDT (04:45 UTC) on June 7. The
first image has 2 saturated pixels (49C) in a background of 15-25C, the
second has 1 pixel at 49.3C in a background of near 4C, the third has three
pixels near saturation (44-45C) in a background of 15-25C, with a steam/ash
plume extending to the NW about 33 km.

KLYUCHEVSKOY VOLCANO; 56o 03'N, 160o 39'E; Elevation 4,750 m.
CURRENT LEVEL OF CONCERN COLOR CODE IS GREEN.
Seismic activity was at background levels. On June 5-6, gas and steam
plumes rose 50-100 m above the volcano. On June 7, a gas and steam plume
rose 1500 m above the volcano and extended ">"10 km N. On other days, clouds
obscured the volcano.

BEZYMIANNY VOLCANO; 55o 58'N, 160o 36'E; Elevation 2,895 m
CURRENT LEVEL OF CONCERN COLOR CODE IS GREEN.
No seismicity was registered under the volcano. On June 6 and 7, gas and
steam plumes rose 100 m above the volcano and extended 10-15 km S and SW.
In the evening of June 7, a gas and steam plume rose 400 m and extended 10
km N. On other days, clouds obscured the volcano.

KARYMSKY VOLCANO; 54o 03'N, 159o 27'E; Elevation 1,486 m
CURRENT LEVEL OF CONCERN COLOR CODE IS GREEN.
Seismic activity was at background levels.

AVACHINSKY VOLCANO; 53o 15'N, 158o 50'E; Elevation 2,751 m.
KORYAKSKY VOLCANO; 53o19'N, 158o 41'E; Elevation 3,456 m.
CURRENT LEVEL OF CONCERN COLOR CODE IS GREEN.
Seismicity at Avachinsky and Koryaksky volcanoes was at background levels.

GORELY VOLCANO; 52o 33'N, 158o 02'E, Elevation 1,828 m;
MUTNOVSKY VOLCANO; 52o 27'N, 158o 12'E, Elevation 2,324 m.
CURRENT LEVEL OF CONCERN COLOR CODE FOR BOTH VOLCANOES IS GREEN.
On June 5-6, gas and steam plumes rose 300-400 m above Mutnovsky Volcano.
On other days, clouds obscured the volcano. Gorely Volcano was obscured by
clouds the entire week. Seismic activity was at background levels. Since
June 3, episodes of weak spasmodic volcanic tremor were registered.

PLEASE CONTACT AVO IF YOU HAVE QUESTIONS OR COMMENTS




 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 434 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Jun  8, 2001 (16:31) * 295 lines 
 
GVP/USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report 30 May-5 June 2001

http://www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/usgs/

New Activity/Unrest: | Azuma, Japan | Colima, Mexico | Makushin, USA |

Ongoing Activity: | Etna, Italy | Kilauea, USA | Mayon, Philippines |
Popocatépetl, México | Shiveluch, Russia | Soufrière Hills, Montserrat |
Tungurahua, Ecuador


New Activity

AZUMA Honshu, Japan 37.73°N, 140.25°E; summit elev. 2,024 m

On 29 May the Fukushima Local Meteorological Observatory reported that
seismic activity increased slightly beneath Azuma during May. The
Coordinating Committee for the Prediction of Volcanic Eruptions’ seismic
network detected 51 small-magnitude volcanic earthquakes during 21 and 22
May and 39 on 21 May (the most recorded in one day since November 1998).
During March four low-frequency tremor events were recorded, while 40 were
detected in April.

Background. The Azuma volcanic group consists of a cluster of
stratovolcanoes, shield volcanoes, lava domes, and pyroclastic cones. The
complex was constructed in two E-W rows above a relatively high basement of
Tertiary sedimentary rocks and granodiorites W of Fukushima city. Volcanic
activity has migrated to the E, with the Higashi-Azuma volcano group being
the youngest. The symmetrical Azuma-Kofuji crater and a nearby fumarolic
area on the flank of Issaikyo volcano are popular tourist destinations. The
Azuma complex contains several crater lakes, including Goshiki-numa and
Oke-numa. Historical eruptions, mostly small phreatic explosions, have been
restricted to Issaikyo volcano at the northern end of the Higashi-yama group.
Source: Japan Times
http://www.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/getarticle.pl5?nn20010530b6.htm
Azuma Reports
http://www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/volcano/region08/honshu/azuma/var.htm from
the monthly Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network

COLIMA western México 19.514°N,103.62°W; summit elev. ~3,850 m
During an excursion to Colima on 17 March by personnel from the Universidad
de Colima a new crater was observed that was assumed to have been formed
during the 22 February 2001 eruption. The crater was ~190,000 m3 in volume,
making it the largest crater to form at Colima since the 1960s. On 26 May
scientists discovered that a new lava dome that was ~150,000 m3 in volume
had formed in the crater. They also noted that fumarolic activity was
stronger in May than in March and fumaroles were active around the new dome
mainly to the N, NE, and E. The new lava dome was the first evidence of
effusive volcanic activity since the November 1998-February 1999 effusive
episode.
Background. The Colima volcanic complex is the most prominent volcanic
center of the western Mexican Volcanic Belt. It consists of two
southward-younging volcanoes, Nevado de Colima (the 4,320 m high point of
the complex) on the N and the historically active Volcan de Colima at the
S. Volcan de Colima (also known as Volcan Fuego) is a youthful
stratovolcano constructed within a 5-km-wide caldera, breached to the S,
that has been the source of large debris avalanches. Major slope failures
have occurred repetitively from both the Nevado and Fuego cones, and have
produced a thick apron of debris-avalanche deposits on three sides of the
complex. Frequent historical eruptions have mostly originated from Colima's
summit crater. The current eruptive episode began in November 1998 and has
included summit lava dome growth to feed three SW-flank lava flows,
pyroclastic flows, and intermittent explosive activity.
Sources: Universidad de Colima via Volcano Listserv
http://www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/gvn/volclist/vla00141.htm
Colima Reports
http://www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/volcano/region14/mexico/colima/var.htm from
the monthly Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network


MAKUSHIN Aleutian Islands, USA 53.90°N, 166.93°W; summit elev. 2,036 m
Since July 2000 AVO has detected a slight increase in the number of small
earthquakes beneath Makushin. The earthquakes generally ranged in depth
between 0 and 8 km and were too small to be felt by humans (M0-1.5). The
seismic activity was not considered to be an immediate precursor to
eruptive activity. Similar fluctuations in earthquake activity have been
observed at a number of Aleutian volcanoes that did not result in an
eruption. The Concern Color Code
http://www.avo.alaska.edu/avo4/updates/kvertweekly.htm remained at Green.
Background. The ice-covered, 2036-m-high Makushin volcano on northern
Unalaska Island is capped by a 2.5-km-wide caldera. The broad, domical
structure of Makushin contrasts with the steep-sided profiles of most other
Aleutian stratovolcanoes. Much of the volcano was formed during the, but
the caldera, Sugarloaf cone on the ENE flank, and a cluster of about a
dozen explosion pits and cinder cones at Point Kadin on the WNW flank, are
of Holocene age. A broad band of NE-SW-trending satellitic vents cuts
across the volcano, and a geothermal resource underlies the eastern
flank. Small-to-moderate explosive eruptions have been recorded at
Makushin since 1786.
Source: Alaska Volcano Observatory
http://www.avo.alaska.edu/avo4/updates/updates.htm
Makushin Reports
http://www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/volcano/region11/aleutian/makushin/var.htm
from the monthly Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network

Ongoing Activity

ETNA Sicily, Italy 37.73°N, 15.00°E; summit elev. 3,315 m
According to the Italy’s Volcanoes website, volcanic activity was at
similar levels as it has been during the previous few weeks. Lava continued
to travel from a vent on the NNE flank of the Southeast Crater cone, and
mild, discontinuous Strombolian activity continued at the Southeast
Crater’s summit vent. Scientists determined that the lava effusion rate was
approximately 5-10 cubic meters per second, which is high for Etna. On 31
May mountain guides reported that pressure waves, which were caused by
explosions, were observed approximately every 10 minutes and that volcanic
bombs were thrown ~100 m above the crater rim. Degassing was observed at
Southeast Crater and occurred to a lesser extent at Bocca Nuova crater, but
increased at Northeast Crater.
Background. Mount Etna, towering above Catania, Sicily's second largest
city, has one of the world's longest documented records of historical
volcanism, dating back to 1500 BC. Historical lava flows cover much of the
surface of this massive basaltic stratovolcano, the highest and most
voluminous in Italy. Two styles of eruptive activity typically occur at
Etna. Persistent explosive eruptions, sometimes with minor lava emissions,
take place from one or more of the three prominent summit craters: Central
Crater, Northeast Crater, and Southeast Crater. Flank eruptions, typically
with higher effusion rates, occur less frequently and originate from
fissures that open progressively downward from near the summit. A period
of more intense intermittent explosive eruptions from Etna’s summit craters
began in 1995.
Source: Italy’s Volcanoes, http://www.geo.mtu.edu/~boris/ETNA_news.html
Etna Reports
http://www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/volcano/region01/italy/etna/var.htm from
the monthly Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network

KILAUEA Hawaii, USA 19.43°N, 155.29°W; summit elev. 1,222 m
During the beginning of the week lava flowed down Pulama pali and entered
the ocean at two areas. By 3 June there were few surface flows with most of
the lava traveling in lava tubes and entering the ocean sporadically. On 3
June a pause in volcanic activity may have begun at about 0900 with slow
deflation (~2.6 microradians) occurring at the tiltmeter closest to HVO.
The inflation ended around 2400 and on 4 June at 0125 rapid inflation (~2.7
microradians) began, most occurred in about 55 minutes. On 3 June at 1015
slow deflation (0.9 microradians) began at Pu`u `O`o and ended at about
2200. Slow inflation occurred at least until 4 June. Background volcanic
tremor at Kilauea`s summit gradually increased on 3 June starting at
mid-morning, after the deflation had begun. There was no significant change
in the tremor at Pu`u `O`o.
Background. Kilauea, one of five coalescing volcanoes that comprise the
island of Hawaii, is one of the world’s most active volcanoes. Historically
its eruptions originate primarily from the summit caldera or along one of
the lengthy E and SW rift zones that extend from the caldera to the sea.
The latest Kilauea eruption began in January 1983 along the E rift zone.
The Pu`u `O`o-Kupaianaha eruption is now in its 18th year and 55th eruptive
episode. Since 1986, flows have traveled 11-12 km from the vents to the
sea, paving about 80 km2 of land on the S flank of Kilauea and building 205
hectares of new land. Intensive monitoring and field research by staff of
the US Geological Survey’s Hawaiian Volcano Observatory, established in
1912, make Kilauea one of Earth's best studied volcanoes.
Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory
http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/kilauea/update/
Kilauea Reports
http://www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/volcano/region13/hawaii/kilauea/var.htm
from the monthly Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network

MAYON southeastern Luzon, Philippines 13.257°N, 123.685°E; summit elev.
2,462 m
During the week a large amount of high-frequency short-duration harmonic
tremor occurred at Mayon. The tremor was associated with the intermittent
descent of small lava avalanches and incandescent volcanic material down
the Bonga Gully on the SE flank of the volcano. Moderate amounts of steam
were observed rising from the summit crater where incandescence was
occasionally observed. SO2 emission (up to 2,900 metric tons/day) was above
the baseline value of 500 tons/day. Alert Level 3 remained in effect,
prohibiting entry within the 6-km-radius permanent danger zone. PHIVOLCS
warned that residents around the volcano, especially those staying in areas
facing the Bonga Gully and the SE sector, should be vigilant and prepared
to evacuate at any time.
Background. The beautifully symmetrical Mayon volcano, which rises to 2,462
m above the Albay Gulf, is the Philippines' most active volcano. The
structurally simple volcano has steep upper slopes that average 35-40° and
is capped by a small summit crater. The historical eruptions of this
basaltic-andesitic volcano date back to 1616 and range from Strombolian to
basaltic Plinian. Eruptions occur predominately from the central conduit
and have also produced lava flows that travel far down the flanks.
Pyroclastic flows and mudflows have commonly swept down many of the
approximately 40 ravines that radiate from the summit and have often
devastated populated lowland areas. Mayon’s most violent eruption, in 1814,
killed more than 1,200 people and devastated several towns. Eruptions that
began in February 2000 led PHIVOLCS to recommend on 23 February the
evacuation of people within a radius of 7 km from the summit in the SE and
within a 6 km radius for the rest of the volcano.
Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology
http://www.phivolcs.dost.gov.ph/vmepd/vmepd.htm, Associated Press
http://news.24.com/News24/World/Australasia/0,1113,2-10-36_1032428,00.html
Mayon Reports
http://www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/volcano/region07/luzon/mayon/var.htm from
the monthly Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network

POPOCATÉPETL México 19.02°N, 98.62°W; summit elev. 5,426 m; All times are
local (= UTC 5 hours)
CENAPRED reported that on 31 May at 2136 a moderate-sized eruption began
with the most intense phase lasting ~1 minute. Incandescent material
traveled 2-3 km down the NE flank of the volcano. According to the Mexico
City MWO a steam-and-ash cloud was observed rising up to 7.6 km a.s.l. and
drifting to the W. A smaller eruption occurred on 1 June at 0804 that sent
a steam-and-ash cloud up to 7 km a.s.l.
Background. Popocatépetl, whose name is the Aztec word for smoking
mountain, towers to 5,426 m 70 km SE of México City and is North America's
second highest volcano. Frequent historical eruptions have been recorded
since the beginning of the Spanish colonial era. A small eruption on 21
December 1994 ended five decades of quiescence. Since 1996 small lava domes
have incrementally been constructed within the summit crater and destroyed
by explosive eruptions. Intermittent small-to-moderate gas-and-ash
eruptions have continued, occasionally producing ashfall in neighboring
towns and villages.
Photos (CENAPRED site): http://www.cenapred.unam.mx/boletines.html
Source: Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de
Desastreshttp://www.cenapred.unam.mx/boletines.html, Washington VAAC
http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/VAAC/messages.html
Popocatépetl Reports
http://www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/volcano/region14/mexico/popo/var.html from
the monthly Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network

SHIVELUCH Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia 56.653°N, 161.360°E; summit elev.
3,283 m
Volcanic activity decreased following the 22 May eruption, therefore, on 30
May the Concern Color Code
was further
reduced from Orange to Yellow. During the week several small eruptions
produced gas-and-steam plumes that rose up to 1.2 km above the old lava
dome. Seismic activity decreased in comparison to the previous week, but
remained above background levels.
Background. The high, isolated massif of Shiveluch volcano (also spelled
Sheveluch) rises above the lowlands NNE of the Kliuchevskaya volcano group
and forms one of Kamchatka's largest and most active volcanoes. The
currently active Molodoy Shiveluch lava-dome complex was constructed during
the Holocene within a large horseshoe-shaped caldera formed by collapse of
the massive late-Pleistocene Strary Shiveluch volcano. At least 60 large
eruptions of Shiveluch have occurred during the Holocene, making it the
most vigorous andesitic volcano of the Kuril-Kamchatka arc. Frequent
collapses of lava-dome complexes, most recently in 1964, have produced
large debris avalanches whose deposits cover much of the floor of the
breached caldera. During the 1990s, intermittent explosive eruptions took
place from a new lava dome that began growing in 1980. The largest
historical eruptions from Shiveluch occurred in 1854 and 1964.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team via the Alaska Volcano
Observatory http://www.avo.alaska.edu/avo4/updates/kvertweekly.htm
Shiveluch Reports
http://www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/volcano/region10/kamchat/shiveluc/var.htm
from the monthly Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network

SOUFRIÈRE HILLS Montserrat, West Indies 16.72°N, 62.18°W; summit elev. 1,030 m
MVO reported that during 25 May-1 June volcanic activity remained at high
levels. There was a significant increase in long-period earthquakes,
although most were small. MVO personnel observed an area of new growth in
the S sector of the lava dome. Sulfur dioxide flux varied, but was
generally lower than the previous week. The daytime entry zone remained
closed.
Background. The complex andesitic Soufrière Hills volcano occupies the
southern half of the island of Montserrat. The summit area consists
primarily of a series of lava domes emplaced along an ESE-trending zone.
Non-eruptive seismic swarms occurred at 30-year intervals in the 20th
century, but the first well-documented historical eruption on Montserrat
did not take place until 1995. Long-term small-to-moderate ash eruptions
were accompanied by lava dome growth and pyroclastic flows that forced
evacuation of the southern half of the island and ultimately destroyed the
capital city of Plymouth, causing severe social and economic disruption.
The volcano is currently in a period of new dome growth.
Source: Montserrat Volcano Observatory http://www.mvomrat.com/
Soufrière Hills
Reports
http://www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/volcano/region16/w_indies/soufhill/var.htm
from the monthly Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network

TUNGURAHUA Ecuador 1.47°S, 78.44°W; summit elev. 5,023 m; All times are
local (= UTC 5 hours)
Volcanic activity increased at Tungurahua. A large number of long-period
earthquakes accompanied several small eruptions and near-continuous
gas-and-ash emission. The IG reported that an eruption on 31 May at 2120
produced an ash cloud that rose up to ~7.9 km a.s.l. and drifted to the W.
Incandescent blocks were ejected during the eruption, and an acoustic wave
that sounded like a cannon shot was heard several km away from the volcano.
Eruptions also occurred on 29 May at 2012 that sent ash to a height of ~8.2
km a.s.l., on 30 May at 1211 (ash plume to an unknown height), and on 2
June at 1709 with an ash plume to ~7.9 km. Incandescent material was
visible in the crater, and IG warned that heavy rain could remobilize ash
and generate lahars.
Background. The steep-sided Tungurahua stratovolcano towers more than 3 km
above its northern base. It sits ~140 km S of Quito, Ecuador’s capital
city, and is one of Ecuador's most active volcanoes. Historical eruptions
have been restricted to the summit crater. They have been accompanied by
strong explosions and sometimes by pyroclastic flows and lava flows that
reached populated areas at the volcano's base. The last major eruption took
place from 1916 to 1918, although minor activity continued until 1925. The
latest eruption began in October 1999 and prompted an initial evacuation of
the town of Baños on the N side of the volcano.
Source: Instituto Geofísico, http://www.epn.edu.ec/~igeo/index.html,
Washington VAAC http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/VAAC/messages.html
Tungurahua Reports
http://www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/volcano/region15/ecuador/tungurah/var.htm
from the monthly Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network




 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 435 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Jun  9, 2001 (17:37) * 10 lines 
 
I wonder if this will work... This is Kilauea's fume cloud, a picture I took
on my birthday. It has a rather nasty bromine brown color to it especially at
sunset (as this was) and is quite voluminous. This is the cloud stream that
goes more than 200 miles to Honolulu and makes their heads ache and skies hazy.
In fact, if you see the movie "Pearl Harbor" You can see it as a brownish
smog-looking layer on the distant horizon shots. That's from Kilauea!!!






 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 436 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Jun  9, 2001 (17:38) * 1 lines 
 
Thanks for enabling, Rob! It works. I cannot yet FTP to the hard drive at Spring yet, and I did want to put this picture on Geo. Hugs and all sorts of good things!


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 437 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Jun  9, 2001 (17:45) * 4 lines 
 
You have to drive though that cloud to get to where we were and back home again.
No matter how well you close up the car and vents, you can taste that for ages afterward and when you lick your lips later, it tastes just like a reagent bottle. Actually, if it were not choking, it is a very exciting fragrance to me because it is of volcanic origin. Once you have smelled it, straight from the vent, you never forget. I am smiling just thinking of it. We did cough impressivly for a while, as did the entire group waiting to go see the activity.

There is now an "Hawaiian Breeze" scented room fragrance being advertized on the telly. Each time I see it I wonder if it is fumarole or floral.


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 438 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Jun  9, 2001 (19:46) * 40 lines 
 
So much for that.. it does not work either. I guess the new server better allow my ftp again before I can post images.

Thanks for this, Rob

Plan to control Ruapehu landslide dropped
08 JUNE 2001
By TRACY WATKINS
Conservation authorities have dropped a plan for a trench on Mt Ruapehu to prevent a massive mudslide
expected as early as next year.

They say Maori opposition was part of the reason.

Police and other emergency response groups have been meeting for months over plans to close the Desert Road and rail
bridges when the lahar comes, after reports showed the danger was imminent.

It had been suggested a trench be built at the overflow point of the crater lake on Ruapehu to prevent a lahar, but the
proposal has been dropped.

The Government has opted instead for an acoustic early warning system, which will give at least 45 minutes' alert of the
lahar reaching the Desert Road and two hours' warning for Tangiwai.

National MP and former conservation minister Nick Smith said yesterday that the Government had decided against the
trench because of opposition from Maori and environmental groups. He feared a disaster similar to the 1953 mudslide
that wiped out a rail bridge at Tangiwai, killing 151 people.

"(Conservation Minister Sandra Lee) is allowing political correctness over Maori spiritual values on Mt Ruapehu and
environmental sensitivities to prevent minor earthworks that are necessary for public safety."

Trampers would be at risk and there would be millions of dollars of damage done to the highway, railway and national
electricity grid, he said.

Ms Lee dismissed Mr Smith's claims as "recklessly alarmist".

"Once the (early warning) system is installed, there will be no chance of a repeat of the situation that led to the 1953
Tangiwai rail disaster where the lahar was unexpected as no warning system was in place."

Conservation Department spokesman Harry Keys confirmed that the lahar could come as early as summer next year.


more... http://www.stuff.co.nz/inl/index/0,1008,822145a11,FF.html


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 439 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Jun  9, 2001 (20:20) * 3 lines 
 
Rob's excellent series on Mt Pinatubo began today. I will make you go there to read it if you are interested. There is also a most valuable discussion on disaster preparedness that I would think all should be interested in. I would start such a topic here but I write on his club, so in the interest of fairness, please join us there as well as here. No sense duplicating such vlauable information unless it is to inform as many people as possible.

http://clubs.yahoo.com/clubs/worldvolcanism/bbsfrp?action=r&tid=worldvolcanism&sid=1600083236&mid=220


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 440 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Jun  9, 2001 (20:24) * 3 lines 
 
http://clubs.yahoo.com/clubs/worldvolcanism

Do youself a favor and join if you have something pertinent to add. We tolerate no off-topic discussions there, so leave that here. Rob is excellent. He runs a tight ship and I am his right hand person (not man, actually!)


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 441 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Jun  9, 2001 (20:35) * 12 lines 
 
Submarine eruption: http://www.nmnh.si.edu/gvp/gvn/world/gvn00047.htm

Subject: Explosive swarm near Supply Reef
From: "Rick Wunderman"
Date: Fri, 08 Jun 2001 14:43:26 -0400

A short explosive episode of submarine volcanism was recorded 24 april
2001 by our seismic station PMO on Rangiroa atoll, Tuamotu Archipelago. this episode began at 11:10 UTC, and ended at 19:00 UTC, with more than 40 explosive T waves at a fairly uniform rate. The wave form was
similar to those of december 1989, and suggested an explosive source in
the Marianna Islands. We have identified these explosive events on some other IRIS stations and Freesia stations, and computed a well constrained location at 20.34N, 145.02E, with an error of 15 km, near Supply Reef.




 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 442 of 997: Rob Glennie  (AotearoaKiwi) * Sun, Jun 10, 2001 (05:11) * 5 lines 
 
Hi

It is recommended that you join, as this club is growing and has a resident seismologist, several geology students, a research writer/amateur volcanologist/civil defence member, and a geologist. At least two people have survived damaging earthquakes and the aim of the club to inform/prepare/educate people about volcanoes. The same thing can be said of World Seismicity for earthquakes.

Rob


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 443 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Jun 10, 2001 (16:40) * 0 lines 
 


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 444 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Jun 10, 2001 (16:44) * 7 lines 
 
Indeed, Rob! I have created the disaster topic here, not to borrow from yours, but to amplify and extend its range,
perhaps. The more people we edify the fewer we have to extract from the ruins. Ideas tend to increase their efficiency
when exchanged with fellow thinkers. Join

http://clubs.yahoo.com/clubs/worldvolcanism

http://clubs.yahoo.com/clubs/worldseismicity


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 445 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Jun 11, 2001 (16:50) * 3 lines 
 
Great NASA images from waaaaaay up there of this eruption

http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/releases/2001/volcano0607.html


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 446 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Jun 13, 2001 (13:12) * 38 lines 
 

********************************
Piton de la Fournaise, Reunion
********************************
From: Thomas Staudacher

Piton de la Fournaise June 11, 2001

After continuous extensometer and inclinometer variations since begin of
April and increased seismic activity since end of Mai, a short seismic
crisis started at Piton de la Fournaise volcano on 11 June 2001 at 13h27
local time. During this crisis we recorded 126 seismic events.

At 13h50 a new eruption started on the ESE flank of Piton de la Fournaise,
as suggested by the observed extensometer variations, with several fissures
en echelon. Upper fissures started at about 2500 altitude on the south
flank, 200 m below the Dolomieu summit caldera. Final ones were located
between 2000 and 1800 m altitude on the east flank of PDF at the southern
base of crater « Signal de l'Enclos » and north of the « Ducrot crater ».
Several lava flows went down into the Grand Brûlé but their progression is
very slow. At 17h the front of the lava flow was still located at an
altitude of 1450 m.

In the morning of June 12, only the lower fissure at 1800 m altitude was
still active on about 200 m length, with several lava fountains of 20 to 30
m high. The lava flow followed the northern border of the March 27 eruption
and reached about 400 m altitude in the « Grand Brûlé ». Eruption still
goes on.

The last eruption on Piton de la Fournaise occurred on 27 March 2001, and
the different fissures of the present eruption are located in the same area.

Thomas Staudacher
Georges Boudon
Observatoire du Piton de la Fournaise
Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris




 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 447 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Jun 14, 2001 (23:51) * 15 lines 
 
*********************************
Satellite images of Lopevi ash plume
*********************************

from: Brad Scott [B.Scott@gns.cri.nz]

LOPEVI Central Islands, Vanuatu 16.507°S, 168.346°E; summit elev. 1,413 m;
All times are local (= UTC + 11 hours)

Further to the recent posting on Lopevi, and contra to the reports from the
Darwin VAAC, satellite images of the ash plume were available shortly after the
eruption started on Friday from the NOAA site, see Vanuatu at
http://www.osei.noaa.gov/Events/Volcano/




 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 448 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Jun 15, 2001 (16:07) * 11 lines 
 
Keeping the pulse of New Zealand's volcanoes http://www.gns.cri.nz/earthact/volcanoes/index.html

Current alert status of NZ's volcanoes

The two most recently active volcanoes in New Zealand are Mount Ruapehu and White Island.

The alert level for,
White Island is currently: Alert level 1
Mt Ruapehu is currently: Alert level 1
All other volcanoes are at: Alert level 0



 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 449 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Jun 15, 2001 (20:34) * 20 lines 
 
***************************************
Update on Satellite Images of Lopevi Ash Plume
***************************************

From: Andrew Tupper [andrewt@bom.gov.au]

Please note an error was made in the weekly report. Gari has already kindly
corrected the web version at
http://www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/usgs/#lopevi .

A loop with GMS-5 visible, IR, and enhanced IR images is at:

http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/images.shtml

Also note that Wellington VAAC continues to issue advisories on this event,
messages are on the web at
http://www.bom.gov.au/products/Volc_ash_latest.shtml or
http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/VAAC/OTH/NZ/messages.html




 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 450 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Jun 15, 2001 (20:45) * 47 lines 
 
******************************
MVO weekly report, 15 June 2001
******************************

From: Gill Norton [Gill@mvo.ms]

Montserrat Volcano Observatory
Montserrat, W.I.
Report for the period midday, 8 June 2001 to midday, 15 June 2001

Activity at Soufrière Hills Volcano increased over the past week. The
seismograph network recorded 373 rockfall signals, 169 long periods, 35
long period rockfalls, 71 hybrids and no volcanotectonic earthquakes.
The number of rockfalls has increased since last week, as have the
number of both hybrid and long period earthquakes. In particular, there
was an increase in all types of activity from 12 June onwards.

Some views of the dome were possible earlier in the week, although
visibility was not great. There had been substantial new growth in the
southern sector, and it appeared that the summit of the new lobe over
Galway's was now the highest point on the dome. The dome was active over
a wide area from the southern side of Chances Peak to the southern side
of Tar River valley. Although there have been no large pyroclastic
flows, there has been a substantial accumulation of new dome material in
the upper reaches of the White River.

Sulphur dioxide fluxes increased markedly this week, with average daily
fluxes of 770 tonnes per day on 11 June and 1410 tonnes per day on 14
June. The latter value is the highest flux measured since early March
this year.

The daytime entry zone has been open for limited periods this week,
although the activity could increase again quite suddenly, with a
dangerous situation developing very quickly. Ash masks should be worn in
ashy conditions. In the event of heavy rain, the Belham Valley should be
avoided during and after the rainfall due to the possibility of mudflow
activity.

Residents of Montserrat and visitors to the island are advised to tune
into ZJB Radio for up-to-date information on the volcano. Access to
Plymouth, Bramble airport and beyond is prohibited. There is a maritime
exclusion zone around the southern part of the island that extends two
miles beyond the coastline from Trant's Bay in the east to Garibaldi
Hill on the west coast.

12 noon, Friday, 15 June 2001



 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 451 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Jun 15, 2001 (20:46) * 48 lines 
 
********************************
AVO Weekly Update: June 15, 2001
********************************

From: avo-sci@usgs.gov

ALASKA VOLCANO OBSERVATORY
Weekly Update
Friday, June 15, 2001 09:00 AM ADT (1700 UTC)

ALASKA VOLCANOES

Seismic activity is monitored in real time at 22 volcanoes in Alaska.
Satellite images of all Alaskan volcanoes are analyzed daily for evidence
of ash plumes and elevated surface temperatures. Some volcanoes may
currently display anomalous behavior without being considered to be at a
dangerous level of unrest.

Spurr, Redoubt, Iliamna, Augustine, Snowy, Griggs, Katmai, Novarupta,
Trident, Mageik, Martin, Aniakchak, Pavlof, Dutton, Isanotski, Shishaldin,
Fisher, Westdahl, Akutan, Makushin, Great Sitkin, and Kanaga volcanoes are
all at or near normal levels of background seismicity. AVO did not detect
ash plumes or significant elevated surface temperatures in the vicinity of
any volcano.

Abbreviated color code key (contact AVO for complete description):
GREEN volcano is dormant; normal seismicity and fumarolic activity
occurring
YELLOW volcano is restless; eruption may occur
ORANGE volcano is in eruption or eruption may occur at any time
RED significant eruption is occurring or explosive eruption expected
at any time

Volcano information on the internet: http://www.avo.alaska.edu
Recording of the status of Alaska's volcanoes (907) 786-7478

CONTACT INFORMATION:

Tom Murray, Scientist-in-Charge, USGS
tlmurray@usgs.gov (907) 786-7497

John Eichelberger, Coordinating Scientist
eich@giseis.alaska.edu (907) 474-5530

The Alaska Volcano Observatory is a cooperative program of the U.S.
Geological Survey, the University of Alaska Fairbanks Geophysical
Institute, and the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys.



 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 452 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Jun 15, 2001 (20:58) * 79 lines 
 
************************************
KVERT Information Release 38-01:
June 15, 2001 KDT
************************************

From: avo-sci@usgs.gov

Kamchatkan Volcanic Activity
INFORMATION RELEASE 38-01
Thursday, June 15, 2001, 12:20 KDT (23:20 UTC)

The following Release was received by the Alaska Volcano Observatory via
e-mail from KVERT (Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruptions Response Team). All times
are Kamchatkan Daylight Time, 21 hours ahead of ADT.

SHEVELUCH VOLCANO; 56o 38'N, 161o 19'E; Elevation 2,447 m
CURRENT LEVEL OF CONCERN COLOR CODE IS YELLOW.
During the past week (June 8-14), seismic activity was above background
levels. Eleven MI>=2 earthquake, many small earthquakes within the
volcano's edifice, local seismic signals (explosions, avalanches,
collapses), and episodes of weak spasmodic volcanic tremor were recorded.
According to seismic data, at 3:35 on June 8 (14:35 UTC on June 07), a
possible ash-gas explosion to a height of 2000 m above the dome (4500 ASL)
occurred, a 3-minute-long shallow seismic event was registered. According
to reports from the town of Klyuchi, at 8:22 KDT on June 13 (19:22 UTC on
June 12) a short-lived explosion sent an ash-gas plume to a height of 1000
m above the dome (3500 ASL) accompanied by 5-minute-long series of shallow
seismic events. On June 8-14, gas and steam plumes rose 1000-2000 m above
the dome and extended >10-20 km E and SE on June 8-9,11-12. On June 10 and
14, plumes extended 5-10 km W.
A thermal anomaly was observed in satellite images at 07:34 KDT (05:09 UTC)
on June 8, at 07:10 KDT (18:10 UTC) and 17:37 (04:37) on June 9, at 18:16
KDT (03:16 UTC) on June 10. First image has 4 pixels (19-38 dg C) in a
background of 8 C dg, the second has 2 pixels at 23.4 dg C in a background
of near 6 dg C, the third anomaly near SW flank of the volcano has 3 pixels
at 47.9 dg C in a background near 19 dg C, the forth linear anomaly
trending due south down the SW flank of the volcano and has 3 pixel at 44.9
dg C in a background near 18 dg C. Low altitude steam plume was observed in
image at 17:23 KDT (04:23 UTC) on June 8. The plume extended approximately
40 km SE of the volcano. A plume was observed in image at 17:30 KDT (04:30
UTC) on June 12 and extended to 35 km SE of the volcano.

KLYUCHEVSKOY VOLCANO; 56o 03'N, 160o 39'E; Elevation 4,750 m.
CURRENT LEVEL OF CONCERN COLOR CODE IS GREEN.
During the most part of the week, seismic activity was at background
levels. Since June 9, weak spasmodic volcanic tremor began to be
registered. At 18:07 KDT on June 14, a 12-minute-long series of strong
(Ml>=2) and small shallow earthquakes was registered. On June 8 and 11, gas
and steam plumes rose 1000 m above the volcano and extended >10 km NW on
June 8. On June 9-10, gas and steam plumes rose 1500-2000 m above the
volcano and extended 3-10 km E, NNE and NNW. On June 12-14, gas and steam
plumes rose 150-200 m above the volcano and extended 3-5 km SE and SW. On
other days, clouds obscured the volcano.

BEZYMIANNY VOLCANO; 55o 58'N, 160o 36'E; Elevation 2,895 m
CURRENT LEVEL OF CONCERN COLOR CODE IS GREEN.
One small shallow earthquakes was registered under the volcano on June 8.
No seismicity was registered under the volcano during the rest of the week.
On June 8, a gas and steam plume rose 1500 m above the volcano and extended
E. On June 9, 11-12, and 14, gas and steam plumes rose 300-600 m and
extended 5-20 km N and S. On other days, clouds obscured the volcano.

KARYMSKY VOLCANO; 54o 03'N, 159o 27'E; Elevation 1,486 m
CURRENT LEVEL OF CONCERN COLOR CODE IS GREEN.
Seismic activity was at background levels.

AVACHINSKY VOLCANO; 53o 15'N, 158o 50'E; Elevation 2,751 m.
KORYAKSKY VOLCANO; 53o19'N, 158o 41'E; Elevation 3,456 m.
CURRENT LEVEL OF CONCERN COLOR CODE IS GREEN.
Seismicity at Avachinsky and Koryaksky volcanoes was at background levels.

GORELY VOLCANO; 52o 33'N, 158o 02'E, Elevation 1,828 m;
MUTNOVSKY VOLCANO; 52o 27'N, 158o 12'E, Elevation 2,324 m.
CURRENT LEVEL OF CONCERN COLOR CODE FOR BOTH VOLCANOES IS GREEN.
Clouds obscured the volcanoes the entire week. Seismic activity was at
background levels. Weak spasmodic volcanic tremor was registered.





 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 453 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Jun 16, 2001 (16:49) * 29 lines 
 
Thanks Hardin http://clubs.yahoo.com/clubs/worldvolcanism

Vanuatu Volcano Spews Ash, Smoke in South Pacific
PORT VILA, Vanuatu (Reuters) - A volcano on the uninhabited Vanuatu
island of Lopevi has been spewing ash and smoke since last Friday and has
caused cracks in the tiny South Pacific island, local media reported on
Wednesday.

More at http://clubs.yahoo.com/clubs/worldvolcanism
Ash and smoke had destroyed crops and contaminated water supplies on
nearby Paama Island, which had been evacuated, said the Port Vila Press
magazine.
Vulcanologist Douglas Charley, who is monitoring the volcano, said the
activity had subsided since Friday, but it may take months for the
volcanic activity on Lopevi to end.
The archipelago is made up of 13 large islands and 70 islets and has a
number of active volcanoes. The volcano on Tanna Island in the south of
the chain is a major tourist attraction.
Vanuatu, in the south west Pacific, has a population around 180,000,
of which only about 15 percent live in urban areas. An Australian navy
ship visiting the Vanuatu capital Port Vila, 90 miles south of Lopevi,
sailed to the active volcano on Sunday and Monday to conduct an aerial
reconnaissance and land three vulcanologists on nearby Paama. The HMAS
Kanimbla landing ship also delivered 22,000 gallons of fresh water to
Paama.
An Australian defense spokesman said Kanimbla would remain in the area
and be available for further aid relief.




 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 454 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Jun 16, 2001 (19:12) * 70 lines 
 
Hawaii’s volcanoes are fed by hot spot deep in the Earth


U.S. Geological Survey
Hawaiian Volcano Observatory.

The hot-spot theory is the well-known modern explanation for the origin of the Hawaiian island chain.
In it, the Pacific plate drifts northwestward over a relatively fixed hot spot. Magma generated by the heat then
penetrates the plate and rises to the surface, leaving a string of volcanoes. The active volcanoes Kilauea,
Mauna Loa and adjacent submarine Lo'ihi are the Hawaiian hot spot's latest children.
Confusion commonly surrounds the distinction between the site of the hot spot and the site where magma is
generated, judging from the questions we receive. Let's start with the source of heat, which has two basic
causes.
Primordial heat was created when the planet first coalesced from cosmic debris. Additional heat has been
created by the decay of radioactive elements in the earth. The earth is cooling as this second source of heat
slowly diminishes.
Many geophysicists believe that hot spots originate as perturbations in a zone between the earth's core and
overlying mantle.
This zone, which lies about 1,700 miles deep, might develop a small bump that protrudes slightly outward into
the mantle from the core. The bump transmits the intense heat of the core into adjacent mantle, which in turn
is surrounded by cooler mantle.
Although solid, the hotter mantle material will rise because of its greater heat.
Convection is the process by which heated material rises and cooler material sinks. We see convection every
day; for example, the currents that swirl in a pot of liquid on a stove, or the warm air that rises over the
surface of sun-heated lava.
Solid materials also convect, although at considerably slower rates -- perhaps only a few centimeters per year
in the case of the mantle. Within the earth, heated blobs of mobile yet solid mantle rise within a solid cooler
mantle. Though heat is being transferred by these rising blobs, no magma is created because nothing has
melted.
Individual blobs probably don't traverse the entire mantle. As each one stalls, its heat is transferred to
adjacent rock, provoking continued convection. It's a "Pony Express" in which the horses will traverse only
one part of the mantle yet the message, the heat, continues through.
Heated rocks remain solid at the great pressures deep in the mantle. Perhaps about 60 to 70 miles deep,
however, the pressure is sufficiently low that melting can take place. Beads of magma sweat from the rocks
and rise.
Our convection system now comprises liquid rising within a solid mesh. The beads coalesce to create a
braided stream that penetrates the crust of the Pacific plate.
This intricate column of magma is broad enough to fuel Kilauea, Mauna Loa and Lo'ihi. Ultimately the magma
accumulates in complex reservoirs lying two to three miles beneath each active volcano.
In summary, a hot spot originates at relatively great depth, the magma at relatively shallow depth. The hot
spot is merely an anomalous concentration of the heat that is constantly being transferred from the earth's
interior to its surface.
In our current thinking, a spot begins as a perturbation at the core-mantle boundary, deep within the earth. If
the perturbation is sufficiently large, it takes on a life of its own, feeding a thermal plume that may last at least
80 million years, as in the case of the Hawaiian-Emperor volcanic chain. Heat is transferred upward by
convecting solids.
Magma forms when relatively shallow, solid mantle is torched by this heat. Lava is magma after it reaches the
earth's surface.

This article was written by scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey's Hawaiian Volcano Observatory. Contact
the observatory at P.O. Box 51, Hawaii National Park, HI 96718; or call (808) 967-7328. "Volcano
Watch" runs every Saturday.



[UPDATE]

Pu'u 'O'o vent continually
producing lava

Eruptive activity of Kilauea Volcano persisted at the Pu'u 'O'o vent during the past week.
Lava moves away from the vent area toward the ocean in a network of tubes. Small breakouts occur from
the tube system above Pulama pali, but most of the lava descends the pali in two separate flows.
The small eastern flow, near the Royal Gardens subdivision, continues to be weakly active. A tube in the
western flow carries lava down Pulama pali and then turns southeastward across the coastal flat, eventually
feeding the active ocean entry a quarter- to half-mile northeast of Kupapau. A more westerly stream in the
western flow travels down the pali and breaks out from the tube system at several places between the pali
and the shoreline, 2-1/2 to three miles from the end of Chain of Craters Road. Lava from this part of the flow
is not entering the ocean.



 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 455 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Jun 17, 2001 (18:45) * 18 lines 
 
Thanks Hardin http://clubs.yahoo.com/clubs/worldvolcanism

On June 15, 1991, Mt. Pinatubo blew its top in one of the most
violent volcanic events of the century. Residents of island
of Luzon in the Philippines continue to live with the effects
of this massive eruption that dumped tons of debris on the
volcano's flanks. During monsoon rains, this debris can be
turned into rivers, or lahars, of corrosive ash that strip the
land of vegetation and harden into concrete-like structures.

Images using data from NASA's airborne imaging radar
instrument AIRSAR show the volcano's western side where most
of these pyroclastic flows occurred and how the landscape has
changed between 1996 and 2000.

They are available at
http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/images/earth/volcano/



 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 456 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Jun 22, 2001 (15:17) * 82 lines 
 
Kilauea Volcano Watch - June 21, 2001

Volcano Watch - June 21, 2001

Acid rain, opal, and vegetation contrasts-thanks to Halemaumau

Few landscape changes are as extreme as that between the windward and
leeward sides of Kilauea's caldera. Simply drive from the Visitor Center in
Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park to the Southwest Rift pullout along Crater
Rim Drive. In a road distance of 7 km (4 miles) and straight-line distance
of 5 km (3 miles), one goes from a lush tree fern (hapu`u)-`ohi`a forest to
a nearly barren surface. Why? The volcano, mainly.
Precipitation drops rapidly in that distance, from a yearly average
of about 280-300 cm (110-120 inches) on the windward side to about 150-180
cm (60-70 inches) at HVO and somewhat less at the Southwest Rift pullout.
Such a drop certainly has an effect on the degree of vegetation. Still,
plenty of rain falls, no matter what side of the caldera you're on.
You might guess that the difference in cover is due to different ages
of volcanic deposits. But, that's not right. Most of the lava flows on
either side of the caldera were erupted from the shield volcano that once
formed the summit of Kilauea before it collapsed to form the caldera. These
flows were erupted mainly during the 14th century. That's plenty of time
for thick vegetation to grow-witness the marvelous forest from the park
entrance to Kilauea Iki.
Thick deposits of several explosive eruptions between about A.D. 1500
and 1790 cover the lava flows on both sides of the caldera. This tends to
slow the return of vegetation. A deposit of volcanic ejecta has fewer
cracks than does the surface of a lava flow, which shrinks as it cools and
fractures thoroughly. Cracks are where vegetation often gets started-for
example, note the ferns and `ohi`a in cracks of the Mauna Ulu flows along
Chain of Craters Road. So, it often takes longer for vegetation to return
to a surface blanketed by ash than to one underlain by cracked pahoehoe and
`a`a.
An important factor affecting vegetation is the grain size of the
surface explosive deposits. Those on the windward side tend to be
fine-grained material that holds water and quickly weathers to release
nutrients favorable for plant growth. The surface deposits on the leeward
side are coarse, commonly gravel in size, don't hold water, and don't
weather nearly as fast. Other things being equal, the fine volcanic ash
would therefore be a more favorable substrate than the coarse gravel.
There's a more important distinction between the windward and leeward
sides, though. Acid rain. Thanks to Halemaumau and its surroundings, about
100 tons of sulfur dioxide are emitted into the air daily. Trade winds blow
this gas into the Ka`u Desert. When it rains, the water combines with the
sulfur dioxide to form dilute sulfuric acid. Acid rain results.
Several measurements of the acidity just below the ground surface
have been made downwind of Halemaumau, in the Sand Hill area. Many of the
measurements show a soil pH (a measure of how acid the soil is) of about
3.5. That's about like dilute vinegar. Few plants like such acid
conditions.

The acid rain has another effect. As water percolates into the
ground, it dissolves silicon dioxide from volcanic glass in the explosive
deposits. Chemically, silicon dioxide makes up about half of the deposits,
so there's a lot available. If the ground water then encounters air, such
as at the ground surface, it evaporates, leaving the silicon dioxide behind
as a form of the mineral, opal. This mineral is what forms the hard crust
(hardpan) on much of the ground surface southwest of the caldera.
Vegetation doesn't like hardpan.
Acid rain, opal crust, gravelly deposits, reduced precipitation-these
factors are mostly responsible for making the leeward side of Kilauea's
caldera more barren than its lush upwind side.

Eruption Update

Eruptive activity of Kilauea Volcano continued unabated at the Pu`u
`O`o vent during the past week. Lava moves away from the vent area toward
the ocean in a network of tubes and descends Pulama pali in two separate
areas. The coastal flats tube system has developed and matured to a stage
where breakouts with surface flows are now seldom seen. The decrease of
surface breakouts may also be attributed to a possible decline in the
volume of lava in the tube system. Lava continued to enter the ocean in
the area east of Kupapa`u throughout the week.
There were no earthquakes reported felt during the week ending on
June 21

This article was written by scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey's
Hawaiian Volcano Observatory.






 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 457 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Jun 22, 2001 (19:17) * 34 lines 
 
******************************************************
Montserrat Volcano Observatory
Montserrat, W.I.
Report for the period midday, 15 June 2001 to midday, 22 June 2001
******************************************************
Activity at Soufrière Hills Volcano has remained at about the same level
over the past week. The seismograph network recorded 462 rockfall
signals, 77 long periods, 43 long period rockfalls, 11 hybrids and 1
volcanotectonic earthquake. The number of rockfalls has increased since
last week, although numbers of other types of seismic events have
generally decreased. Towards the end of the week, the number of
rockfalls also decreased slightly.
Views of the dome were limited during the week due to low cloud and ashy
conditions, but it was confirmed that the growth is still concentrated
in the southern sector of the dome above Galway's. Near-continuous
rockfall activity was occurring in the upper part of White River,
although most of the events were small.
Sulphur dioxide flux decreased slightly this week, with average daily
fluxes of 460 tonnes per day on 15 June and 630 tonnes per day on 21
June.
The daytime entry zone has been open for limited periods this week,
although the activity could increase again quite suddenly, with a
dangerous situation developing very quickly. Ash masks should be worn in
ashy conditions. In the event of heavy rain, the Belham Valley should be
avoided during and after the rainfall due to the possibility of mudflow
activity.
Residents of Montserrat and visitors to the island are advised to tune
into ZJB Radio for up-to-date information on the volcano. Access to
Plymouth, Bramble airport and beyond is prohibited. There is a maritime
exclusion zone around the southern part of the island that extends two
miles beyond the coastline from Trant's Bay in the east to Garibaldi
Hill on the west coast.
12 noon, Friday, 22 June 2001



 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 458 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Jun 22, 2001 (19:30) * 263 lines 
 
****************************************
GVP/USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report
13-19 June 2001
****************************************

New Activity/Unrest | Lopevi, Vanatua | Piton de la Fournaise, Réunion
Island |

Ongoing Activity | Etna, Italy | Kilauea, USA | Mayon, Philippines |
Popocatépetl, México | Shiveluch, Russia | Soufrière Hills, Montserrat |
Tungurahua, Ecuador |

New Activity

LOPEVI Central Islands, Vanuatu 16.507°S, 168.346°E; summit elev. 1,413 m;
All times are local (= UTC + 11 hours)
Based on a pilot report, the Wellington VAAC issued an ash advisory stating
that at 0302 on 14 June a small eruption produced an ash cloud that rose up
to ~1.8 km a.s.l. The cloud expanded towards the N over the islands of
Paama and Ambrym.
Background. The small 7-km-wide conical island of Lopevi is one of Vanuatu's
most active volcanoes. A small summit crater containing a cinder cone is
breached to the NW and tops an older cone that is rimmed by the remnant of
a larger crater. The basaltic-to-andesitic volcano has been active during
historical time at both summit and flank vents, primarily on the NW and SE
sides, producing moderate explosive eruptions and lava flows that reached
the coast. Historical eruptions at the 1,413-m-high volcano date back to
the mid-19th century. The island was evacuated following eruptions in 1939
and 1960. The latter eruption, from a NW-flank fissure vent, produced a
pyroclastic flow that swept to the sea and a lava flow that formed a new
peninsula on the western coast.
Source Wellington VAAC, http//www.ssd.noaa.gov/VAAC/OTH/NZ/messages.html
http//www.ssd.noaa.gov/VAAC/OTH/NZ/messages.html
Lopevi Reports
http//www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/volcano/region05/vanuatu/lopevi/var.htm
http//www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/volcano/region05/vanuatu/lopevi/var.htm
from the monthly Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network

PITON DE LA FOURNAISE Réunion Island, Indian Ocean 21.23°S, 55.71°E; summit
elev. 2,631 m
Tremor associated with an eruption that began on 11 June had weakened by 16
June. The same day a fissure located on the E flank at the S base of crater
Signal de l'Enclos at 1,800 m altitude was intensely active. In an area
near the active fissure a cone began to form and lava fountains rose up to
30 m above the surface.
Background. The massive Piton de la Fournaise shield volcano on the island
of Réunion is one of the world's most active volcanoes. Most historical
eruptions have originated from the summit and flanks of Dolomieu, a
400-m-high lava shield that has grown within the youngest of three large
calderas. This latter caldera is 8 km wide and is breached to below sea
level on the eastern side. More than 150 eruptions, most of which have
produced fluid basaltic lava flows within the caldera, have been documented
since the 17th century.
Sources Thomas Staudacher and Georges Boudon, Observatoire du Piton de la
Fournaise Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris,
http//volcano.ipgp.jussieu.fr8080/reunion/Eruptions.htm
http//volcano.ipgp.jussieu.fr8080/reunion/Eruptions.htm
Piton de la Fournaise Reports
http//www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/volcano/region03/indian_w/pdlf/var.htm
http//www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/volcano/region03/indian_w/pdlf/var.htm
from the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network

Ongoing Activity

ETNA Sicily, Italy 37.73°N, 15.00°E; summit elev. 3,315 m
The Italy's Volcanoes website reported that on 13 June, after ~44 hours of
low activity, the fourth eruptive episode within in a week began at
Southeast Crater. The episode lasted longer and was more intense than the
previous three episodes. Lava flowed from a vent on the NNE flank of
Southeast Crater cone. During the most intense phase of the eruption lava
fountains rose 150-200 m above the NNE flank vent. Strombolian bursts
occurred so frequently that they eventually blended into one continuous
pulsating fountain that rose up to 400 m. Also bursts periodically sent
bombs up to 500 m above the crater rim. A small amount of ash was emitted
with many of the stronger bursts. On 15 June another eruptive episode
occurred with activity similar to the 13 June episode.
Background. Mount Etna, towering above Catania, Sicily's second largest
city, has one of the world's longest documented records of historical
volcanism, dating back to 1500 BC. Historical lava flows cover much of the
surface of this massive basaltic stratovolcano, the highest and most
voluminous in Italy. Two styles of eruptive activity typically occur at
Etna. Persistent explosive eruptions, sometimes with minor lava emissions,
take place from one or more of the three prominent summit craters Central
Crater, Northeast Crater, and Southeast Crater. Flank eruptions, typically
with higher effusion rates, occur less frequently and originate from
fissures that open progressively downward from near the summit. A period
of more intense intermittent explosive eruptions from Etna's summit craters
began in 1995.
Source Italy's Volcanoes, http//www.geo.mtu.edu/~boris/ETNA_news.html
Etna Reports
http//www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/volcano/region01/italy/etna/var.htm
http//www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/volcano/region01/italy/etna/var.htm
from the monthly Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network

KILAUEA Hawaii, USA 19.43°N, 155.29°W; summit elev. 1,222 m
Small surface pahoehoe lava flows were visible on the W end of the flow
field. Lava entered the sea at the E Kupapa`u ocean entry. Generally, weak,
steady tremor and related long-period earthquakes continued beneath
Kilauea's caldera. On 18 June for several hours there was a slight increase
in long-period earthquakes near the caldera. Tremor remained weak to
moderate near Pu`u `O`o and seismicity was at normal levels elsewhere.
Tiltmeters in the summit area and along the east rift zone indicated no
significant deformation.
Background. Kilauea, one of five coalescing volcanoes that comprise the
island of Hawaii, is one of the world's most active volcanoes. Historically
its eruptions originate primarily from the summit caldera or along one of
the lengthy E and SW rift zones that extend from the caldera to the sea.
The latest Kilauea eruption began in January 1983 along the E rift zone.
The Pu`u `O`o-Kupaianaha eruption is now in its 18th year and 55th eruptive
episode. Since 1986, flows have traveled 11-12 km from the vents to the
sea, paving about 80 km2 of land on the S flank of Kilauea and building 205
hectares of new land. Intensive monitoring and field research by staff of
the US Geological Survey's Hawaiian Volcano Observatory, established in
1912, make Kilauea one of Earth's best studied volcanoes.
Source US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory
http//hvo.wr.usgs.gov/kilauea/update/
http//hvo.wr.usgs.gov/kilauea/update/
Kilauea Reports
http//www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/volcano/region13/hawaii/kilauea/var.htmhttp//www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/volcano/region13/hawaii/kilauea/var.htm
from the monthly Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network

MAYON southeastern Luzon, Philippines 13.257°N, 123.685°E; summit elev. 2,462 m
A high level of high-frequency low-duration harmonic tremor was detected on
Mayon that was associated with near-continuous detachment of hot rock
fragments from the summit lava dome. In addition, moderate amounts of steam
emanated from the crater, crater glow was fair-to-bright, and SO2 emission
(average of ~2,700 metric tons per day) was well above the baseline value
of 500 metric tons per day. Alert Level 3 remained in effect, prohibiting
entry within the 6-km-radius permanent danger zone.
Background. The beautifully symmetrical Mayon volcano, which rises to 2,462
m above the Albay Gulf, is the Philippines' most active volcano. The
structurally simple volcano has steep upper slopes that average 35-40° and
is capped by a small summit crater. The historical eruptions of this
basaltic-andesitic volcano date back to 1616 and range from Strombolian to
basaltic Plinian. Eruptions occur predominately from the central conduit
and have also produced lava flows that travel far down the flanks.
Pyroclastic flows and mudflows have commonly swept down many of the
approximately 40 ravines that radiate from the summit and have often
devastated populated lowland areas. Mayon's most violent eruption, in 1814,
killed more than 1,200 people and devastated several towns. Eruptions that
began in February 2000 led PHIVOLCS to recommend on 23 February the
evacuation of people within a radius of 7 km from the summit in the SE and
within a 6 km radius for the rest of the volcano.
Source Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology
http//www.phivolcs.dost.gov.ph/vmepd/vmepd.htm
http//www.phivolcs.dost.gov.ph/vmepd/vmepd.htm,
Mayon Reports
http//www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/volcano/region07/luzon/mayon/var.htm
http//www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/volcano/region07/luzon/mayon/var.htm
from the monthly Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network

POPOCATÉPETL México 19.02°N, 98.62°W; summit elev. 5,426 m
Volcanic activity at Popocatépetl remained at normal levels, with several
small exhalations of steam, gas, and small amounts of ash. The volcano
remained at Alert Level Yellow Phase III, with a restricted 12-km-radius area.
Background. Popocatépetl, whose name is the Aztec word for smoking
mountain, towers to 5,426 m 70 km SE of México City and is North America's
second highest volcano. Frequent historical eruptions have been recorded
since the beginning of the Spanish colonial era. A small eruption on 21
December 1994 ended five decades of quiescence. Since 1996 small lava domes
have incrementally been constructed within the summit crater and destroyed
by explosive eruptions. Intermittent small-to-moderate gas-and-ash
eruptions have continued, occasionally producing ashfall in neighboring
towns and villages.
Photos (CENAPRED site) http//www.cenapred.unam.mx/boletines.html
http//www.cenapred.unam.mx/boletines.html
Source Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de
Desastreshttp//www.cenapred.unam.mx/boletines.html,
Popocatépetl Reports
http//www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/volcano/region14/mexico/popo/var.html
http//www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/volcano/region14/mexico/popo/var.html
from the monthly Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network

SHIVELUCH Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia 56.653°N, 161.360°E; summit elev. 3,283 m
During 8-14 June seismic activity was above background level at Shiveluch.
Many small earthquakes occurred within the volcano's edifice and local
seismic signals accompanied explosions, avalanches, and collapses. There
were several ash-and-gas eruptions, with the highest eruption cloud
reaching up to 2 km above the lava dome. A thermal anomaly was observed on
satellite imagery on 8,9, and 10 June. The level of Concern Color Code
http//www.avo.alaska.edu/avo4/updates/kvertweekly.htm
http//www.avo.alaska.edu/avo4/updates/kvertweekly.htm
remained at Yellow.
Background. The high, isolated massif of Shiveluch volcano (also spelled
Sheveluch) rises above the lowlands NNE of the Kliuchevskaya volcano group
and forms one of Kamchatka's largest and most active volcanoes. The
currently active Molodoy Shiveluch lava-dome complex was constructed during
the Holocene within a large horseshoe-shaped caldera formed by collapse of
the massive late-Pleistocene Strary Shiveluch volcano. At least 60 large
eruptions of Shiveluch have occurred during the Holocene, making it the
most vigorous andesitic volcano of the Kuril-Kamchatka arc. Frequent
collapses of lava-dome complexes, most recently in 1964, have produced
large debris avalanches whose deposits cover much of the floor of the
breached caldera. During the 1990s, intermittent explosive eruptions took
place from a new lava dome that began growing in 1980. The largest
historical eruptions from Shiveluch occurred in 1854 and 1964.
Source Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team via the Alaska Volcano
Observatory http//www.avo.alaska.edu/avo4/updates/kvertweekly.htm
http//www.avo.alaska.edu/avo4/updates/kvertweekly.htm,
Shiveluch Reports
http//www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/volcano/region10/kamchat/shiveluc/var.htm
http//www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/volcano/region10/kamchat/shiveluc/var.htm
from the monthly Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network

SOUFRIÈRE HILLS Montserrat, West Indies 16.72°N, 62.18°W; summit elev.
1,030 m; All times are local (= UTC 4 hours)
From 12 June to at least 15 June volcanic activity increased at Soufrière
Hills in comparison to the previous week. There was a larger number of
rockfalls, and hybrid and long-period earthquakes. Sulfur dioxide flux
markedly increased (770 metric tons on 11 June and 1410 metric tons on 14
June). New growth was substantial in the southern sector of the lava dome
and there was a large accumulation of new dome material SW of the dome in
the upper reaches of the White River. The daytime entry zone was open for
limited periods during the week. The Washington VAAC reported that at 0510
on 14 June a small ash cloud rose 3-4.5 km a.s.l. and drifted to the W and
that low-level ash was emitted throughout the week. In addition, moderate
rockfall activity produced ash to ~2 km a.s.l. and a hot spot was
occasionally visible on satellite imagery.
Background. The complex andesitic Soufrière Hills volcano occupies the
southern half of the island of Montserrat. The summit area consists
primarily of a series of lava domes emplaced along an ESE-trending zone.
Non-eruptive seismic swarms occurred at 30-year intervals in the 20th
century, but the first well-documented historical eruption on Montserrat
did not take place until 1995. Long-term small-to-moderate ash eruptions
were accompanied by lava dome growth and pyroclastic flows that forced
evacuation of the southern half of the island and ultimately destroyed the
capital city of Plymouth, causing severe social and economic disruption.
The volcano is currently in a period of new dome growth.
Sources Montserrat Volcano Observatory http//www.mvomrat.com/
http//www.mvomrat.com/, Washington
VAAC, http//www.ssd.noaa.gov/VAAC/messages.html
http//www.ssd.noaa.gov/VAAC/messages.html
Soufrière Hills
Reports
http//www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/volcano/region16/w_indies/soufhill/var.htm
http//www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/volcano/region16/w_indies/soufhill/var.htm
from the monthly Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network

TUNGURAHUA Ecuador 1.47°S, 78.44°W; summit elev. 5,023 m
Several small eruptions produced ash clouds that rose to a maximum height
of ~9.7 km. The IG reported that the number of long-period earthquakes and
the emission of gas and ash had increased since the end of April. They
warned that heavy rain could remobilize ash on the flanks of the volcano,
generating dangerous lahars.
Background. The steep-sided Tungurahua stratovolcano towers more than 3 km
above its northern base. It sits ~140 km S of Quito, Ecuador's capital
city, and is one of Ecuador's most active volcanoes. Historical eruptions
have been restricted to the summit crater. They have been accompanied by
strong explosions and sometimes by pyroclastic flows and lava flows that
reached populated areas at the volcano's base. The last major eruption took
place from 1916 to 1918, although minor activity continued until 1925. The
latest eruption began in October 1999 and prompted an initial evacuation of
the town of Baños on the N side of the volcano.
Sources Instituto Geofísico, http//www.epn.edu.ec/~igeo/index.html
http//www.epn.edu.ec/~igeo/index.html,
Washington VAAC http//www.ssd.noaa.gov/VAAC/messages.html
http//www.ssd.noaa.gov/VAAC/messages.html
Tungurahua Reports
http//www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/volcano/region15/ecuador/tungurah/var.htm
http//www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/volcano/region15/ecuador/tungurah/var.htm
from the monthly Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network




 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 459 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Jun 22, 2001 (19:36) * 53 lines 
 
*****************************************************
Kamchatkan Volcanic Activity
INFORMATION RELEASE 39-01
Thursday, June 22, 2001, 11:30 KDT (22:30 UTC)
*****************************************************

The following Release was received by the Alaska Volcano Observatory via
e-mail from KVERT (Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruptions Response Team). All times
are Kamchatkan Daylight Time, 21 hours ahead of ADT.

SHEVELUCH VOLCANO; 56o 38'N, 161o 19'E; Elevation 2,447 m
CURRENT LEVEL OF CONCERN COLOR CODE IS YELLOW.
During the past week (June 15-21), seismic activity was above background
levels. On June 18-19, five MI>=2 earthquakes occurred. Many small
earthquakes within the volcano's edifice, local seismic signals
(explosions, avalanches, collapses), and episodes of weak spasmodic
volcanic tremor were recorded. According to seismic data, at 20:57 on June
18 (07:57 UTC), and at 04:31 on June 20 (15:31 UTC on June 19), possible
weak ash-gas explosions occurred, and 20-minute-long and 3-minute-long
shallow seismic events were registered. In the evening of June 15, a gas
and steam plume rose 800 m above the dome. At other times, clouds obscured
the volcano. A steam plume was observed in a satellite image at 16:51 KDT
(03:51 UTC) on June 18. The plume extended approximately 40 km N of the
volcano.

KLYUCHEVSKOY VOLCANO; 56o 03'N, 160o 39'E; Elevation 4,750 m.
CURRENT LEVEL OF CONCERN COLOR CODE IS GREEN.
During most of the week, seismic activity was at background levels. On June
20, four strong (MI>=2) shallow earthquakes were registered. Clouds
obscured the volcano the entire week.

BEZYMIANNY VOLCANO; 55o 58'N, 160o 36'E; Elevation 2,895 m
CURRENT LEVEL OF CONCERN COLOR CODE IS GREEN.
No seismicity was registered under the volcano. Clouds obscured the
volcano the entire week.

KARYMSKY VOLCANO; 54o 03'N, 159o 27'E; Elevation 1,486 m
CURRENT LEVEL OF CONCERN COLOR CODE IS GREEN.
Seismic activity was at background levels.

AVACHINSKY VOLCANO; 53o 15'N, 158o 50'E; Elevation 2,751 m.
KORYAKSKY VOLCANO; 53o19'N, 158o 41'E; Elevation 3,456 m.
CURRENT LEVEL OF CONCERN COLOR CODE IS GREEN.
Seismicity at Avachinsky and Koryaksky volcanoes was at background levels.

GORELY VOLCANO; 52o 33'N, 158o 02'E, Elevation 1,828 m;
MUTNOVSKY VOLCANO; 52o 27'N, 158o 12'E, Elevation 2,324 m.
CURRENT LEVEL OF CONCERN COLOR CODE FOR BOTH VOLCANOES IS GREEN.
Clouds obscured the volcanoes the entire week. Seismic activity was at
background levels. Weak spasmodic volcanic tremor was registered.





 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 460 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Jun 22, 2001 (19:57) * 70 lines 
 
Rob's eloquesnt tribute to David A. Johnston
http://clubs.yahoo.com/clubs/worldvolcanism

I thought given we recognized the Mount St Helens anniversary this
year, it would not do to go without recognising the efforts of the United
States Geological Survey in predicting the first eruption on the
continental 48 states for 63 years. Before we continue however now is a good
time to say thanks to all the geologists who risked life and limb to get
the data about the volcano, and in particular a man who gave everything
to his work and finally it cost him his life.

David Johnston - his fate is debatable. Some say the shock wave from
the blast killed him, others say the lateral blast vapourised him like it
did 25 others whose bodies were never seen again. What is certain is
his certainty that the volcano would blow, doubtlessly meant his warning
"the mountain is a powder keg", was taken seriously.
He was the only man with personal experience on a dangerous volcano.
Sure others had flown over one or climbed into the crater, but they had
not survived pyroclastic flows hurling lava bombs before them, as he had
in Alaska at Augustine during his research prior to Mount St Helens.
Because of this David could appreciate a stratovolcano's ability to
explode - something those that had spent their time in Hawaii studying lava
flows and fountains and who now found themselves facing, could not. He
could also appreciate the ability of pyroclastic flows to mushroom
outwards and was justfiably scared when the bulge became apparent to all
with eyes to see, knowing that the bulge represented an overload of gas
filled magma.

On May 17, 1980 - a day which seemed like any of the 56 preceding days
in the volcano crisis, Johnston was asked if he could stand in for
Glicken, while he saw of a German student. Johnston initially said no for
the reasons already listed but Don Swanson, who was responsible for them
persisted. Finally David relented, and Swanson said he would see that
Johnston was relieved in the afternoon of the following day. As the sun
set over Mount St Helens that night, the volcano was putting the
finishing touches to a grand plan that would shake Washington State to the
core.

The sun rose the following morning at 5.37AM with the mountain still
looking relatively drowsy. Johnston got up in the cool dawn sunshine and
promptly radioed the Vancouver observatory to report measurements that
he had been making. It was a brilliantly clear and calm day with no
hint whatsoever of the horror that would shortly explode across the
landscape with a violence that would leave the United States stunned.

At 8.28 Johnston was back on the radio to the Vancouver observatory, to
update the USGS on the measurements he was doing. Two minutes later
there was a earthquake - M5.1 less than a kilometre below the summit. On
the outside it appeared nothing had happened. Johnston could not see the
rocks sliding into the crater or the cracks opening on the summit.
Then in 30 mind-numbing, shock inspiring seconds his whole world
changed.

VANCOUVER!!! VANCOUVER!!! THIS IS IT!!! And the world never heard nor
saw David A. Johnston alive again.

A blast bigger and uglier than anything ever imagined in the minds of
anyone monitoring the volcano had just blown down 150 square miles of
pristine forest. At least a dozen people were already dead, incinerated
by the lateral blast, blown to pieces as Johnston probably was, or
simply vanished in the maelstrom. And all this time a huge Plinian column
punched through one segment after the other of the atmosphere. But David
Johnston would never have known any of this for he was the first
volcanologist in the twentieth century to die on a volcano in the United
States.

Rob





 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 461 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Jun 23, 2001 (22:20) * 23 lines 
 
Mayon erutpts

Philippine Volcano Spews Lava, Big Blast Feared
Reuters
Jun 23 2001 10:21AM

LEGAZPI, Philippines (Reuters) - A Philippine volcano hurled out
fountains of lava Saturday in what could be a prelude to a major eruption,
forcing thousands of villagers to flee their homes, officials said.
There were no immediate reports of casualties, they said.
The Philippine Institute of Vulcanology and Seismology said "the
explosive discharge of lava" reached heights of at least 160 feet and sent
flaming rocks and gases tumbling down the slopes of the 8,000-foot
Mayon volcano.
The institute said it had raised the alert level around the volcano from
three to four, meaning "a hazardous, explosive eruption is possible within
hours to days."

More...
http://my.aol.com/news/news_story.psp?type=1&cat=0200&id=0106231022342821





 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 462 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Jun 24, 2001 (18:34) * 83 lines 
 
Philippine Volcano Spews Truck-Sized Boulders
Reuters
Jun 24 2001 11:39AM

LEGAZPI, Philippines (Reuters) - Tens of thousands of villagers fled their
homes as the Philippines' Mayon volcano unleashed a series of
thunderous eruptions on Sunday.

Scientists said Mayon was spitting out flaming ash and boulders as big
as trucks.

There were no casualties directly as a result of the eruptions, but one
man trying to flee on a bicycle was knocked down and killed by a truck.

Witnesses said deafening booms rang out and giant cauliflower-shaped
clouds of dust, ash and smoke shot up to six miles into the sky,
darkening this provincial capital of 120,000 people as well as
surrounding towns.

The blasts prompted the Philippine Institute of Vulcanology and
Seismology (Phivolcs) to raise the alert level around the volcano to a
maximum five, meaning "a hazardous eruption is in progress."

Officials said about 23,000 villagers fled their homes as the series of
explosions, which began on Saturday night, intensified on Sunday and
shook villages as far as 12 km (eight miles) away.

"The rocks coming down are as big as trucks," vulcanologist Alex Baloloy
said just before the first big blast at noon.

A more powerful blast two hours later showered villages with ash --
so-called black rain -- and sent mothers scurrying out of their homes
clutching their babies in their arms.

"Leave, let us all leave," one mother cried as the mountain heaved and
the ground under her shook.

Residents of the capital Legazpi, 7.5 miles from Mayon's summit,
watched with fear and awe as the 8,000-foot-high mountain released its
fury.

RIVERS OF FIRE

"I heard what seemed like a huge thunder and I saw dark clouds ... then
more boom-boom sounds," local journalist Rhaydz Barcia said.

Moments later, fiery rocks and gas thundered down the volcano's slopes
at speeds estimated at 60 mph.

Phivolcs chief Raymundo Punongbayan said the "rivers of fire" bore
temperatures of 900 degrees Centigrade, hot enough to incinerate
anything in their path.

The eruption might last one or two weeks, he said.

Army trucks and police cars sped out of Legazpi to threatened villages in
a massive evacuation effort. Some villagers fled on carts driven by
carabaos (water buffaloes).

In the panic, one woman collapsed with a heart attack while a pregnant
mother prematurely gave birth, rescue officials said.

One villager fleeing on a bicycle was killed when a speeding van carrying
rescue teams struck him, officials said. Another truck full of evacuees fell
into a canal, injuring some of them.

In Daraga town, soldiers rushing to evacuate villagers ran into gunfire
from communist rebels, triggering a 10-minute gunbattle. No-one was
reported killed.

Priests tolled church bells and village chiefs sounded sirens to rouse
sleeping residents and order them to flee.

In Matanag village, reporters saw parents shaking with terror as they
hastily packed up their possessions while clusters of children, oblivious
of danger, watched fountains of lava shooting up from the crater.

"It's just like Christmas," some of the children chanted.

Mayon, located in Albay province, 205 miles southeast of Manila and one
of the Philippines' 22 active volcanoes, has a history of 45 violent
eruptions since its first recorded blast in 1616. The deadliest occurred in
1814 when it buried a town under mud and rocks and killed 1,200 people.


 Topic 2 of 99 [Geo]: Vulcanism
 Response 463 of 997: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Jun 25, 2001 (19:02) * 106 lines 
 
********************
Mayon, Philippines
********************
From: Dan Shackelford

At 0405 on 19 June 2001 a significant change in Mayon's activity began.
Accompanied by bright glow from the summit dome, a lava flow began to
extend down from the dome, accompanied by tremor. By early 20 June the
glowing lava flow was some 500m below the dome. This means that hotter and
gas-rich lava has now been intruded into Mayon and reached the surface. SO2
increased abruptly from 1700 metric tons/day to 6,000 tons/day with the
arrival of this new lava extrusion. Increased inflation of the edifice is
also occurring.
-----
Following up on the report of a change in character in Mayon's activity
several days ago as hotter, gas-rich lava had broached the surface, on 24
June a rather spectacular eruption developed, with an ash plume 15 km
a.s.l. and pyroclastic flows down the SE flank. This was preceded by
increasing explosive activity and warnings were issued before this event.
-----
Significant eruptions at Mayon from 1444 - 1541 on 24 June, with strong
explosions, multiple pyroclastic flows down SE flank, lava flowage down SE
flank, and moderate to heavy ashfalls to NE. This has been followed by
weaker ash emissions but lava flowage continues as of 25 June.
From:
http://www.phivolcs.dost.gov.ph/vmepd/mayon_bulletin.htm
http://www.phivolcs.dost.gov.ph/Volcanoes/Mayon/MayonIndex.html
http://www.cnn.com/2001/WORLD/asiapcf/southeast/06/24/phil.volcano/index.html

-------------------------
Mayon Volcano Bulletin
10:00 AM 20 June 2001
A significant change in the pace of unrest was indicated by appearance of
tremor at about 4:05 AM yesterday. The tremor meant that lava extrusion
hastened and formed a lava flow. A brief cloudbreak from 10:08 PM to 1:52
AM showed intense glow emitted by the dome and conspicuous incandescence
from the margins of a newly emplaced lava flow, which now extends to about
500 meters below the summit dome (about 1,800-1,900 meters elevation).

The tremor, which dominated the seismic records, meant that discrete
rockfall counts were fewer and that is why only 76 rockfall-related tremors
were registered although activity had actually increased through the
formation of a lava flow. The lava flow signifies that hotter, more fluid
and more voluminous lavas are being extruded. The newly extruded lavas
possibly contain more volcanic gases, as indicated by the sudden increase
of sulfur dioxide emissions from the average 1,700 tonnes per day (t/d)
last week to nearly 6,000 t/d yesterday. Other more subtle but notable
physical changes are also occurring. The volcanic edifice has slightly
inflated as shown by Electronic Distance Meter (EDM) measurements.
Tiltmeters at the Buang-Mayon Resthouse stations also report accelerating
ground deformation towards additional inflation or swelling of the volcano
edifice.

The appearance of a tongue of lava extending from the summit lava dome is
significant, for it signifies acceleration in the overall activity of the
volcano. The high gas content of newly extruded lavas also suggests that
more explosions can be expected. An explosion