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Topic 6 of 11: Forgotten History

Tue, Mar 14, 2000 (13:11) | Marcia (MarciaH)
The origins of catch-phrases and such
116 responses total.

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 1 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Mar 14, 2000 (13:11) * 45 lines 
* Don't Shout Fire in a Crowded Building! *

We have all heard the saying, "you can't shout fire in a
crowded building," Does anybody know the story of the origins
of that catchphrase? The United States decided to enter the
first world war almost three years after the war began in
Europe. The public did not immediately respond to president
Wilson's call to "make the world safe for democracy." Despite
75,000 speakers, giving 750,000 speeches in more than 5,000
towns and cities, the public did not rush to sign up for the
war. So Congress instituted a draft which was the first since
the civil war. The conservative Akron Beacon Journal reported
that the country "never embarked on a more unpopular war."

Protest and rallies against the war appeared throughout the
land. The Socialist party, who opposed the war, gained strength
in cities like Chicago and Buffalo where they gained more than
30% of the popular vote. Something had to be done. The first
amendment is quite clear. "Congress shall pass no law abridging
the right of speech or of the press." So Congress passed the
Espionage Act which was aimed, despite its clever title, at
denying citizens their right to freedom of speech.

Two months after the law was passed a man named, Charles
Schenck was arrested for passing out leaflets that opposed
both the draft and the war. He was promptly tried, convicted
and sentenced to a six-month term. This sentence was upheld
by the Supreme Court. The majority opinion was written by
liberal scholar Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes who wrote:

"The most stringent protection of free speech would not
protect a man in falsely shouting fire in a theater and
causing panic." He ruled that Schenck words constituted
a clear and present danger that Congress had a right to
prevent. Over 9,000 people were arrested for the opposition
to the first world war. The law was used to prevent any
publication that was critical of the war to use the mails.
This ended the magazine The Appeal to Reason which was a
very popular publication of the time. Later Holmes upheld
the conviction of Eugene Debs, who was considered the Martin
Luther King of his generation. Debs was 66 and remained in
jail until 1921 when he was pardoned by President Warren
Harding; a republican.

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 2 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Mar 17, 2000 (13:08) * 67 lines 
Forgotten History - Friday, March 17, 2000
The Plot to Take over the United States

General Smedley Darlington Butler had twice been the recipient
of the Congressional Medal of Honor. He had spoken to the
Bonus Army in 1932 when, in the depths of the depression,
veterans had marched to Washington and demanded to be paid a
bonus that was promised to them for their service in World WarI,
but not scheduled to be paid until 1945.

In 1933, he was approached by two American Legion officials
and they wanted him to lead a rank and file revolt against
the Legion's leadership. Butler was interested but he felt
that it would be difficult for the average veteran to get to
the convention considering the state of the economy. American
Legion official Gerald MacGuire told him not to worry, that
nine wealthy businessmen had put up more than $100,000 for the
campaign and told him there was a great deal more where that
came from. MacGuire gave him a copy of a speech he was to
deliver before the convention and it called for a return to the
gold standard. Butler was suspicious and soon was visited by
Wall Street broker Robert Sterling Clark. After a brief
conversation Butler informed Clark that he should probably find
another man. They did, and the Legion adopted a plank calling
for a return to the gold standard.

Later that year, MacGuire spoke to Butler again and told he
of how he had studied the roles of veterans groups in the
formation of the Nazi party in Germany, and the Fascist party
in Italy. He felt that veterans could do the same here.
Maguire felt that an immediate change of government was needed
to save the United States from communism. He informed Butler
that he and the man Maguire represented felt that Butler could
lead a march of 500,000 veterans on Washington and then
stage a coup d'etat on the Roosevelt government.

While Butler felt this was treason; he asked for more details,
like how it would be financed. "In two or three weeks,"
Maguire told him, "you'll see it come out in the papers."
Two weeks later, the formation of the American Liberty League
was formed. Its stated purpose was to oppose radical movements
in the U.S. and its members included: Lammont du Pont,
Alfred P. Sloan-[I bet this is one The American
Experience that won't be televised]- E.F. Hutton, Goodyear,
J.C.Penny and others.

Butler knew he needed independent verification so he contacted
Paul Comly French of the Philadelphia Record. Posing as a
sympatric party, Maguire met with him at the offices of his
boss Wall Street financial Grayson Murphy. There Maguire
told French the same story. He added this information that all
arms and ammunition could be attained on credit from the
Remington Arms Company which was owned by the du Ponts.

Butler first took his story to FBI Czar J. Edgar Hoover.
Hoover did nothing. In November of 1934 Butler appeared
before what would come to be called the House on Un-American
Activities. There, French and James Van Zandt, who was
the national commander of the Veteran of Foreign Wars,
told the same story. Only Maguire was called before the
house and claimed that he had been misunderstood. No more
questions were asked and the plot has slipped out of
the official stories of American history but the record
is there for those who seek the truth.

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 3 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Mar 21, 2000 (13:12) * 63 lines 
Forgotten History - March 21, 2000

The Story of Dusan Popov

He may have been the prototype for Ian Fleming's character,
James Bond, and if the former director of the FBI J. Edgar
Hoover had listened to him, the disaster at Pearl Harbor
might have been avoided. Dusan Popov was a Yugoslav playboy
who became a double agent. His German code name was Ivan,
and his British Tricycle.

Popov came across legendary writer Ian Fleming while working
for British intelligence. Fleming was following Popov at the
time and watched him embarrass a very wealthy and loud
adversary at the Casino. Fleming was taken by this bold
Yugoslav and introduced himself to Popov after the game. Popov
went on to do various tasks for the British and was sent to
the USA in 1941 to set up a spy ring for the Germans. The
British saw the possibilities of controlling German
intelligence as they had in Europe through Popov.

Dusan was carrying a coded message from Abwehr, which carried
a request from the Japanese government asking specific
questions about the U.S. navel installation at Pearl Harbor.
J.C. Masterman, chief of the British XX (Double Cross) system,
felt the Germans were planning to attack the Americans at
Pearl Harbor urged Popov to pass along this information
to the Americans. Popov checked into the Plaza Hotel in New
York, not knowing that the FBI had followed him, and then
set up a meeting with J. Edgar Hoover. Hoover disregarded his
dispatch and immediately began to berate Popov about his
playboy ways.

Popov tried to explain that he was a double agent and that
the Germans expected him to live this lavish lifestyle.
Hoover would have none of this and dismissed Popov.
When Popov heard about the attack by the Japanese he was
sure that it had been repelled. To Popov surprise the
American fleet laid in ruins. Dusan now moved in a penthouse
on Park Avenue and Sixty-third Street, and began to renew
his affair with French actress Simone Simon. Hoover later
threatened to charge him with violating the Mann Act and
nearly cost him his cover.

Popov returned to Europe in 1942 his mission to the U.S.
a failure, but his days as a spy continued. He helped
set up a network of double agents whose deceptive tactics
were instrumental in getting the Germans to believe that the
allied invasion of Europe would come at Calais. On June 7th,
1944 the invasion did come at Normandy fooling the Germans.
Hitler wasted precious time believing that the main thrust
was still to come at Calais and the allies bought enough
time to establish a beachhead in France. Was Popov Bond,
probably not, Fleming had many influences but this suave
spy certainly was one of the many characters that influenced
him. Hoover for his part consolidated his power during the
war and when it was through used that power to provide
information for the reactionary forces that would attack the
New Deal under the guise of anti-communism.

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 4 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Mar 24, 2000 (11:19) * 50 lines 
Forgotten History - Friday, March 24, 2000
"Little known facts and overlooked history"

Origins of the Slave Trade
Everybody knows that Columbus set sail in 1492 to
find the riches in the east. He had one thing on his mind
and that was gold. "I was very attentive to them and
strove to learn if they had any gold," said Columbus. He
went on to say, "I conquered the whole of them with fifty
men and governed them as I pleased." Columbus kidnapped
some of them and took them back to Spain. When Columbus
returned to Spain the next year he landed in what is now
known as Haiti. There he demanded gold. Every man, woman,
and child would be held responsible for a certain amount
of gold. To ensure cooperation he used punishment as an
example for the natives. When an Indian committed a
perceived offense, he was brutally punished.

The usual punishment was disfigurement. Finally,
the Indians fought back but Columbus' men chased the
natives and then killed them. They then became slaves
of the Spanish. Columbus dispatched many of them to the
West Indies. Sickness, brutality and the diseases that
the Europeans brought with them led to genocide. The
men raped women and hunted the natives down for sport.
Women killed their young to protect them from the rule
of Columbus and his men. Soon whole nations began to

The Indians lived peacefully without
monarchs, or hierarchy but their peaceful way of life
was destroyed by the Spaniards who sought gold. The
decreasing Indian population now created problems for
the Spanish. New crops, such as sugarcane, needed a
large labor force but the Indians were dying.

The Spanish now turned to Africa. Inhabitants there,
because of their centuries old contact with the Europeans,
were immune from the diseases that killed the natives. Plus,
the gold the Spaniards had stolen from the New World made
some of the trade with the great African nations expendable.
After all, if you can steal gold why trade for it? The only
commodity in the newly emerging mercantile system for the
African nations was lives. The nations did not expect the
European form of slavery to be different so the Africans
were quickly sold as slaves. This was how the slave trade
started. So the next time your community celebrates Columbus
Day, it would be safe to ask why?

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 5 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Mar 28, 2000 (12:33) * 58 lines 
Forgotten History - Tuesday, March 28, 2000
"Little known facts and overlooked history"

Much has been written about the Vietnam Veteran. He has been
characterized as dangerous, isolated, guilt-ridden and
angered over the treatment that he received upon coming home.
But he has rarely though of as part of the anti-war movement.
This fact has been sadly missing from the history of the
Vietnam veteran. Veterans who fought the war in Vietnam came
home to protest that same war and their involvement proved to
be an important component to the anti-war coalition. By 1967
coffeehouses began to appear around bases across the country
but the movement didn't really take hold until the formation
of a group called the Vietnam Veterans Against the War.

The VVAW was made up of mostly combat veterans. They gained
a following over 50,000 members at one time. Their first
national action took place in Detroit, Michigan where the
VVAW conducted a war crimes hearings. Veterans came up and
testified to the atrocities they had committed or had
witnessed. Their contention was that the Mi Lai Massacre
was standard operating procedure. This was, in essence,
the Vietnam War. The national press dismissed them but they
couldn't ignore their next action, Dewey Canyon III. While
the press was slow to report the activities of anti-war
veterans the Nixon administration clearly understood their
potential power. The up-coming demonstrations in Washington
by the VVAW could be disastrous for the administration.
The VVAW was determined that their voice would be heard.
They marched down Pennsylvania Avenue to cheers. Nixon had
wanted to attack them but White House advisor Pat Buchannon
objected, "this would be a mistake" and that the last thing
Nixon needed was for Vietnam Veterans to be attacked by the
Washington police.

So the Veterans came to the steps of the Supreme Court to
stand in line, say something at the podium if they wished,
and then throw their medals away. The same medals that they
had recently gained for their valor during the Vietnam
War. One by one they spoke: "I pray that time will forgive
me and my brothers for what we did. " Paul F. Wither spoke
clearly, " Spec 4, army, retired. I'm taking in nine Purple
Hearts, Distinguished Cross, Silver Star, Bronze Star and a
lot of other shit. This is for my brothers," Withers threw
the medal away and limped off. One newsman grabbed one of the
medals but was quickly told by a veteran. "Listen, you newsmen,
we're not giving you the medals. We're turning them over to
the country." On and on they went. By the end of the day they
had caught the attention of a nation. Membership applications
skyrocketed. The veterans brought with them a moral authority
that could not be matched by the administration. Nixon sent
the FBI after the VVAW but their ranks swelled. Finally
historians did what Nixon could not do, that is write them
out of history. But their story is not forgotten. Those
of us who saw them on that spring day will never forget.

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 6 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Mar 28, 2000 (13:10) * 30 lines 
About 7,000 people speak Basque. Most of them live in a
narrow area of about 3,900 square miles in Spain and France.
Basque is not Indo-European; it is the only remnant of the
languages spoken in southwestern Europe before the region
was Romanized.

For 41 years, under the reign of the Medicis, citizens of
Florence, Italy, paid what we know as an income tax. Called
the Scala, the tax was instituted in 1451, supposedly on a
progressive scale. The tax turned into an easy type of
political blackmail, and as such it was repealed when the
court of the Medicis was overthrown in 1492.

The Apache leader (1829-1908) was known to his tribe as
Goyathlay, meaning "One Who Yawns." The nickname Geronimo
is probably a corruption of the Spanish name Jeronimo.

The four 60-foot-high likenesses, sculpted between 1925 and
1941, are meant to represent the following: George
Washington, the nation's founding; Thomas Jefferson, its
political philosophy; Abraham Lincoln, its preservation; and
Theodore Roosevelt, its expansion and conservation.

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 7 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Mar 29, 2000 (12:11) * 22 lines 
According to scholars, it took place during the thirteenth
century B.C. The Iliad, Homer's epic account of the war, is
thought to have been written in the ninth century B.C.

It was an allotment of the liquor appointed daily to the
members of the British navy. The practice, introduced in
1731, was discontinued on August 1, 1970.

Probably India. Romany, the gypsy language, is Indic; but
it is not known when or why the gypsies left India. Living
as aliens in every country, they reached Persia by A.D. 1000
and northwest Europe by the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries.

There are no fixed rules that only royalty or noted public
leaders may be interred there. The decision rests solely in
the hands of the deans of the Abbey.

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 8 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Mar 29, 2000 (12:55) * 17 lines 
Sigmund Freud had a morbid fear of ferns.

There are more plastic flamingos in America than real ones.

Lee Harvey Oswald's cadaver tag sold at an auction for $6,600 in

The three best known western names in China are Jesus Christ,
Richard Nixon, and Elvis Presley.

In 1980, a Las Vegas hospital suspended workers for betting on
when patients would die.

Thomas Edison was afraid of the dark.

And Susan Lucci is NOT the daughter of Phyllis Diller!!!

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 9 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Mar 29, 2000 (19:29) * 92 lines 
An 1898 novel by Morgan Robertson foretold the sinking of the
Titanic, 14 years before the great ship went down. In
Robertson's book, a ship full of wealthy and powerful people
is on its maiden voyage when it strikes an iceberg in the
North Atlantic on an April night and sinks. The two ships
shared many other eerie similarities. The most interesting
is the name of the ship in Robertson's book: the Titan.

Five Jell-O flavors that flopped: celery, coffee, cola,
apple, and chocolate.

One acre of hemp will produce as much paper as four acres of
trees (and can be replaced next season).

Men in the U.S. who drink alcohol receive about 7% higher
wages than do abstainers, according to data from the national
Household Survey on Drug Abuse (United States Department of
Health and Human Services). Women who drink receive about
three and one-half percent higher wages than do abstainers.

----------- Brewery Produces Alcoholic Employee ------------
SAU PAULO - Residing in the "What Were The Odds?" category,
a Brazilian court ordered Brahma Brewing Company to pay
$30,000 in damages plus a life-time pension to their former
senior brewer Bernd Naveke. Unable to work due to his
alcoholism problem, the brewer endured twenty years of tasting
where he was required to drink six to eight liters of beer
each day beginning in the morning. His daily intake was as
high as 3.1 gallons per day forcing him to retire at the age
of 40. Naveke's lawyers stressed Brahma's negligence for
failing to warn him of the risks associated with the job.
[The element of surprise must have been daunting!]

-------------- Canada Battles Cow Flatulence ---------------
CALGARY - A benchmark for both the environment and
agriculture was reached Thursday when an agreement was signed
to reduce cow flatulence which contributes to the greenhouse
effect. TransAlta power company reached a multi-million
dollar agreement with U.S. based Global Livestock Group to
produce a feed supplement that would reduce both belching
and flatulence. This additive would be sprayed on their hey
and feed with the potential to decrease methane gases equivalent
to 30 million tons of carbon dioxide. Environmental groups
question how much other pollutants will increase by producing
this additive. The cows offered no comment.
[TZ's wife may be interested in this additive.]

------------- Feds Catch Phony Plastic Surgeon -------------
MEXICO CITY - His specialty was scamming credit cards until
Roman Quinteros decided to work in the lucrative field of
plastic surgery. A school drop-out before the ninth grade,
Quinteros dabbled in other vocations such as trading stolen
U.S. cars, and falsifying documents. His most recent offense
included making women pose for nude sketches, and performing
operations that posed a huge risk for his victims. The arrest
should curb his medical career while serving as a reminder to
always check credentials.

------------- Giant Problem For Little Aussies -------------
MELBOURNE, Australia - A few weeks back we spoke about a
midget boxing match and it has taken us until now to find a
suitable "midget" follow-up story. So when this story was
discovered, we just had to bring it to you. It appears that
the Australian National Little People Anti-Defamation Society
organized a protest that featured over 1000 "little" people.
The cause that aroused the ire of the group was a movie house
concession stand sign that called small orders of soft
drinks, "midget size." The organizer of the march said, "A
thoughtless phrase like that is degrading to little people
[There's just no pleasing midgets from Australia.]

--------------- Burger King - Have It My Way ---------------
The Council on American-Islamic Relations has sent a letter
of protest, prompting the re-write of a Burger King radio
spot. The most recent bit of advertising wizardry has a
gentleman named Rashid extolling the mouth-watering virtues
of the bacon-cheddar Whopper. The problem? Rashid is a holy,
Muslim name. Muslims are forbidden from eating any bacon
or pork.

Classic Bizarre Moments from the Archives
A British government agency has issued a health warning:
don't buy sperm on the internet. The Human Fertility and
Embryology Authority warns that there is no way of ensuring
that the sperm is of good enough quality... I guess it's
just the same old candy and flowers again this year.

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 10 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Mar 30, 2000 (12:18) * 26 lines 
It depends. The Italian species of wolf spider first given
the name tarantula (from the town of Taranto) catches its
prey by pursuit. In the American Southwest, tarantulas live
in burrows; they eat anything from insects to toads and
mice. However, certain South American tarantulas do build
large webs; their diet includes small birds.

The males do. They nip each other's fins and show off their
extended gill covers and intensified colors. Their battles
are exciting enough that the Thai are have domesticated the
fish for contests.

No - some species sing on the ground. Shorebirds such as
turnstones sing from mounds called hummocks. Some species
of American field sparrows, such as the savanna sparrow of
the eastern United States, sing from the ground, as does the
wood thrush.

Why do you sometimes see large red (or orange) balls attached to power lines?
These balls are found in areas where there are low-flying
aircraft, adn they are put there to mark the wires so the pilots
won't fly into them.

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 11 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Mar 31, 2000 (13:24) * 67 lines 
Forgotten History Louisiana Purchase

The idealism emanating from the American Revolution proved
to be a spark to people all over the world. In France, the
French revolution was born. In South America, independence
movements began to take hold. However, in the United States,
that desire was muted by our slavery question. Instead the
idea of dominance of hierarchy began to take hold. Slave
owners protected by the constitution of the United States
sought to expand their territory.

In the 1790's, the island of Haiti began a revolt against
France. Whether a president owned slaves or not determined
his policy towards the revolt. Washington, a slave owner,
loaned hundreds of critical dollars from the new republic to
French planters in Haiti. This was to be used to suppress
the revolt. slaveholding politicians in the south deeply
feared a slave uprising. They had grown rich under slavery
and their ideology had became dominant throughout the young

When John Adams replaced Washington our policy changed.
Adams supported the black revolt and lent it considerable
support. When Jefferson became president all that changed.
Jefferson preferred a French colony to a black republic and
in 1801 he gave the French the go-ahead to rule Haiti.
He promised the French all the help it needed. In doing so
the U.S. was acting against its own self-interest and its

It did not worry Jefferson that if Napoleon was successful
so might his dreams of an American Empire. This empire would
challenge the young government and surround it with England
to the north, Spain to the south, and France to the west.
But planters feared that this revolt would inspire slaves
in America to revolt. It did but the revolts were crushed.
The Haitians fought back and in the process burned their
island to the ground rather than succumb to the French.
When the Haitians won their independence, the United States
refused to send representatives to the new republic.
Jefferson, fearing a black revolts throughout the Caribbean,
proposed annexing Cuba and making it a territory of the
United States.

For Napoleon and the French, who were caught up in a series
of wars in Europe, the war ended his dream of an American
Empire. It had proved too costly to maintain the empire so he
sought out his ally Jefferson. The United States then made
the most successful real estate deal of all time. It purchased
the French holdings in North America. Lewis and Clark were
sent out to survey the newly acquired land. Their exposition
proved to be crucial in the development of the United States.
Fate had smiled upon the U.S. It had acquired millions of acres
of land. Louisiana, Arkansas and Missouri became slave states
and the pressure for expansion into Kansas and other
territories became one of the reasons for the civil war.
Jefferson himself became an advocate of the expansion of
slavery into the newly acquired lands. When he died he owned
267 slaves. He had freed only three in his lifetime and many
times had them whipped and sold as punishment. Upon his
death he freed five but not any of his own children.
Washington, however, freed all his slaves at the time of his
death and the issue of slavery would divide the country and
lead to most bloody conflict in American history.

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 12 of 116: Wolf  (wolf) * Sun, Apr  2, 2000 (16:42) * 5 lines 
and they romanticized jefferson's hush-hush relationship with one of his slaves...huh!

george gave his slaves skills so when they were freed, they could make a good living. for all his generosity, the slaves still lived in poverish conditions. (saw this at mount vernon)

thanks for that louisiana purchase info....

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 13 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Apr  2, 2000 (16:59) * 1 lines 
Thanks for visiting to see what I was posting. There's all sorts of interesting "trivial" (nothing is truly trivial if it involves oneself) information out there. I try to find the most interesting and share it.

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 14 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Apr  2, 2000 (17:02) * 1 lines 
Re Thomas Jefferson - Sally is not a relative!

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 15 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Apr  3, 2000 (13:46) * 0 lines 

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 16 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Apr  3, 2000 (18:13) * 1 lines 
Apparently, I forgot...*grin*

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 17 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Apr  5, 2000 (16:09) * 56 lines 
Forgotten History THE WAR OF 1812

Does anyone know what the war of 1812 was about? Our early
textbooks describe the war in terms of British disrespect for
American shipping rights. But this doesn't seem to be the
case because, if New England held the largest shipping
populations, why were they the most opposed to the war? A
good question. The real story is much more complex and
damning to the United States. It was a war for Indian land.
They had it and we wanted it. No textbooks call the European
occupation of native soil an invasion but it was. From the
Pequot Wars of 1636 to the King Philip Wars of 1676 through
the French and Indian Wars of the 1760's. The war of 1812
was an extension of the European invasion.

The British had been aided by many of the great Indian
tribes during the American Revolution. The Iroquois nation
sided with the British and continued their fight after the
war. The British saw the Indians as a buffer zone but the
young United States saw things differently. Indian rights
of property were never respected. Think, for a second,
about the Louisiana Purchase. Whose land were the French

So the U.S. set out to conquer the Indian nation. Five
of the seven largest land battles were fought against the
Indians. The key outcome of the war was that, in return
for leaving Canada alone, the British would not support
the Indians. Without international support the Indians
were left alone. Then began the most brutal ethnic
cleansing operation of all time. The natives were driven
from their land and relocated. Sound familiar. What was
lost was the knowledge that we had gained from the
Indians. They were no longer a significant other so their
existence could be ignored. Indeed, before the War
of 1812, the term American was used to describe the
Indians. After the war it meant Europeans.

Over a 100 years later a great admirer of our
ethnic-cleansing plan emerged from war torn Europe,
Adolph Hitler. That's right, him. He often praised
American methods of extermination and used starvation
and uneven combat as his model for the extermination
of Jews and Gypsies. Was there an alternative to what
happened? Yes, but the racist ideology left the young
nation without that option. In 1778, the Delaware
Indians proposed a creation of an Indian state within
the new United States. Congress refused to even consider
the idea. If they were citizens then they would have
legal rights and the framers of the constitution did
not want this. So the genocide continued until
finally the Indians were subjugated and the European
invasion successful. That was what the war of 1812
was about.

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 18 of 116: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Wed, Apr  5, 2000 (16:38) * 3 lines 
The United States is a racist society, in that racism is so deeply imbedded in its history, coloring much of the policy that would build the United States. It's one of the things you never learn in American History below the college level if you're an American. But they never cease to tell expound on DeTouqueville's quote that "America is good".

Another badly taught topic in American schools is the American Civil War. It is taught ad infinitum and ad naseum, but it all comes across as so boring and with so much expunged. The New York Draft Riots are rarely taught below the universtity level. Most Americans never learn that New York City wanted to break from the Union and become a free city. The purpose was financial, as a free city, New York would be free to trade with both sides and their respective supporters. Most Americans also don't know that Abraham Lincoln had no moral postition against slavery. His intent was to save the Union. He noted that if he could save the Union and keep slavery, he would do it; if he could save the Union and maintain some slavery, he would do it; if he could save the Union only by abolishing slavery he would do it. What ever means was the most effective in keeping the Union intact was the course he would follow.

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 19 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Apr  5, 2000 (17:22) * 3 lines 
The end never justifies the means. But, to know this we must learn the means with which the ends were achieved. You make very valid points, Cheryl. Thanks for the thougtful post. I hope it makes others think, as well.

The even sadder point than poor teaching below the college level is that teachers-in-training are not taught these things unless they elect them. Usually, they do not. Don't know...don't even want to know... Disgraceful!

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 20 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Apr  7, 2000 (11:46) * 58 lines 
The Seminole Wars
The Seminole Nation existed as a tri-racial society.
Native-Americans, runaway slaves, and poor whites lived
together in what was called the Seminole Nation. In the 1830's,
Indian land removal took a giant step forward under President
Andrew Jackson. Jackson's campaign of Indian removal had
left only 22,000 Creeks in Alabama, 18,000 Cherokees in
Georgia and 5,000 Seminoles in Florida. The Creeks and the
Cherokees were put on a forced march, many died of starvation
along the way. The Seminoles however choose to fight and
refused to leave Florida.

The US offered land settlements to some Seminole chiefs.
To these chiefs it was lucrative offer. They kept estates
along the coast of Florida. Others in the tribe were forced
to leave their land and go into the interior of Florida.
It was difficult to grow crops there and soon members of the
tribe began to resist. A young chief named Osceola led them.
Osceola's wife had been chained and sold into slavery by an
Indian agent named Thompson. When Thompson ordered the
Seminoles to depart, no one left. Instead, the Seminoles
declared war, and ordered a series of raids on white
settlements. They murdered white families, captured slaves
and destroyed property. Soon the US army was sent after them.
But the Seminoles resisted. On Dec 28, 1835, they attacked
an army regiment of 110 soldiers including Thompson.
Only three survived.

Congress now asked for funds to fight the Seminoles.
William Clay, a political opponent of Jackson's was the
only dissenter, and General Winfeld Scoot took command of
the expedition force. They marched handsomely off into
the Florida swamps. Only they didn't find any Seminoles.
What they found was disease and hunger. No one wanted to
go fight the Seminoles. In 1836, 103 commissioned officers
resigned leaving only forty-six left. In 1837, Major
General Jesup moved in with 10,000 men. The Seminoles faded
into the swamps of Florida to continue their guerrilla raids.
Copyright 2000 by Pulse Direct, Inc. All rights reserved.

This went on for years. The army hired other Indians
to go fight the Seminoles. That didn't work either. One
officer commented, " The adaptation of the Seminole to his
environment is only matched by the alligator and the
crane." It became an eight-year war that ended up costing
the United States 20 million dollars and 1,500 American
lives. Finally, in 1840, the Seminoles began to get tired.
They were, after all, fighting the resources of an entire
nation. They asked for a truce. When they appeared with
truce flags, they were promptly arrested and put in chains.
Chief Osceola was captured, thrown into prison, and died
there. The war was over but they had held out for eight
long years. A haven for runaway slaves was gone now
and the flight of fugitive slaves could now only lead north.
Tensions soon increased and the tri-racial society of the
Seminoles vanished from the scene.

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 21 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Apr  7, 2000 (12:36) * 45 lines 
It is considered to have been John Jacob Astor's American
Fur Company, which made him the wealthiest person in the
United States and allowed him to found the Astor Library,
one of the cornerstones of the New York Public Library.

In 1848, the Marble Dry Goods Palace opened on Broadway in
New York City. Its proprietor and developer was Alexander
Turney Stewart, formerly a schoolmaster in Ireland. By the

Many sailors used to wear gold earrings so that they could afford
a proper burial when they died.

Coffee is the second largest item of international commerce in
the world. The largest is petrol.

Custer was the youngest General in US history. He was promoted at
the age of 23.

The Seven Deadly Sins are lust, pride, anger, envy, sloth,
avarice, and gluttony.

No word in the English language rhymes with month, orange,
silver, and purple.

The word "set" has the highest number of unique definitions in
the English Language ~ 192 according to the Oxford English

The ZIP in Zip-code stands for Zoning Improvement Plan.

A Boeing 747's wingspan is longer than the Wright brother's first

The Seven Virtues are prudence, courage, temperance, justice,
faith, hope, and charity.

The world's largest alphabet is Cambodian, with 74 letters.

time of his death in 1876, the blocklong store yielded
annual earnings of $70 million.

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 22 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Apr  7, 2000 (12:39) * 9 lines 
My server got some of this mixed up:

In 1848, the Marble Dry Goods Palace opened on Broadway in
New York City. Its proprietor and developer was Alexander
Turney Stewart, formerly a schoolmaster in Ireland. By the
time of his death in 1876, the blocklong store yielded
annual earnings of $70 million.

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 23 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Apr 11, 2000 (10:55) * 49 lines 
LSD and the CIA

Back in the early 1960's the CIA developed a plan called
MK-ULTRA which was designed to use LSD as an aid for
interrogation of captured enemy agents. Its other uses were
for training purposes and to use as a way to discredit foreign
leaders, usually of a leftist slant, to quivering, deranged
morons, thereby discrediting them to the public. The CIA claims
that such use was never intended for use against domestic
targets but their history says otherwise.

The CIA gathered domestic intelligence right from its outset
although they were prohibited in doing so by their own charter.
At the height of the Vietnam War they, intercepted mail.
Coordinated operation Chaos with the CIA, worked with local
police departments, ran smear campaigns, and tapped phones.
All of this was done outside the law. Their activities were
aimed at antiwar groups, the civil rights movements, and all
of those pesky troublemakers. They even used it against each
other as guinea pigs. Other times they gave it to people
without there knowledge. This often drove people insane.

The army used this drug often on their own men. They were
called field operations. One classic example is the torture
of James Thornwell, a black American soldier stationed in
France. In 1961, Thornwell was suspected of stealing
classified documents. This and other programs were labeled as,
"Operation Third Chance." How many were given LSD without
their knowledge we will never know but we do know about Mr.

Thornwell, who was 22 at the time, was first exposed to
extreme measures. This included beatings, solitary confinement,
denial of food and water coupled with a constant stream of
steady abuse. After six long weeks of this kind of torture,
he was given a dose of LSD without his knowledge. Imagine
this. Then he was continuously verbally abused and threatened.
The interrogators threatened to extend this delusional state
indefinitely. According to army documents, they said they
would drive him into a permanent state of insanity. In the
late 1970's when CIA terror tactics became public during the
Church Committee hearings, Thornwell learned what had happened
to him back in 1961. He sued the US government for 10 million
dollars. The case was settled out of court and the House of
Representatives approved a compromise settlement of $650,000.

Copyright 2000 by Pulse Direct, Inc. All rights reserved.

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 24 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Apr 18, 2000 (18:10) * 15 lines 
Jumping Bull.

ON DECEMBER 16, 1773?
342 chests.

In Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, in 1935. Motorists paid a nickel
for a 20-foot space.

"So be it," or "Let it be."

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 25 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Apr 18, 2000 (22:59) * 7 lines 
Joseph Priestly is immortal in the history of chemistry as the
discoverer of oxygen in 1774.

Lost in the glory is the fact he also discovered soda water, and
gave the name "rubber" to that soft, bouncy stuff because it
could be used to rub out pencil marks.

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 26 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Apr 21, 2000 (16:44) * 53 lines 
The Tuskegee Experiment

In 1932, the Tuskegee Institute along with the U.S. Public
Heath Service began an experiment which promised poor black
men, who were inflicted with syphilis, free heath treatment
and a proper burial. This seemed a good idea to the afflicted.
The men, mostly poor sharecroppers, were never told that
they would become part of an experiment, which would track
the disease throughout their life. They were never given any
treatment for the disease, even after penicillin was
discovered in the 1940's, the officials just watched them,
kept charts, and documented the progression of the disease
until they died. After they died the doctors conducted
autopsies on the men and then compared their condition to
that of two hundred healthy black men. They were used as
guinea pigs.

This went on for forty years. In that time 400 men had
participated, without their knowledge, in the experiment.
In 1972, an investigative reporter named Jean Heller broke
the story for the Washington Star. Officials at first tried
to deny the allegations or sought to justify their
participation on the basis that racist views were prevalent
at the time. It is a classic example of institutional racism
and its effects. The public was outraged. Neither contrite
nor apologetic the senior physicians continued to offer
morally offensive justifications for their acts. Finally,
after much public outcry, the government appointed a panel
to investigate the forty-year program.

The study was closed in October of 1972, and a class action
suit was soon filed on behalf of the men who were involved
with the experiment the case was settled out of court for
the amount of 12 million dollars. The survivors received
$37,000 a piece. Others who were involved were given lesser
amounts. When you think of the damage done, it is a paltry
amount of money. Sexual partners of the disease were not
told; as a result many black children were born with
congenital syphilis.

This led to charges that the government program was an act
of genocide. Was it? Certainly it fits the definition and the
government had used such tactics towards Native-Americans
throughout the years. There has been much discussion within
the black community about that, and how the government has
been responsible for the introduction and spread of aids
among African- Americans. This, when coupled with accusations
against the CIA for the spread of crack, has led many in the
established media to attack as delusional those who raise
these questions. Are they delusional? The record and past
speak indicate that they are not.

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 27 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Apr 21, 2000 (18:32) * 16 lines 
Cape Disappointment, Washington. It's foggy there an average
of 2,532 hours a year - or 106 complete days.


In South America. It didn't reach Hawaii until the early nineteenth century.

The banana, apple, watermelon, orange, and cantaloupe - in
order of their greatest consumption, according to the Food
and drug Administration.

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 28 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Apr 22, 2000 (15:41) * 80 lines 
Saturnday, Sunday, Moonday
The ancient Greeks inherited the practice of astrology from the
Babylonians, but introduced many new features. For example,
where the Babylonians tended not to place the major planets in
any physically significant order, the Greeks ordinarily listed
them on horoscopes like this

Sun Moon Saturn Jupiter Mars Venus Mercury

Even though they didn't have a heliocentric model of the solar
system, they were still able to deduce the order of the planets,
beginning from Saturn as the furthest out and descending to Mercury
as the closest in, based on the their periods of their "wanderings"
across the night sky.

On this list the Sun and Moon are placed somewhat arbitrarily at
the beginning, since their apparent motions obviously aren't of the
same nature as those of the planets. It was also common for the
Greeks to place the Moon last, so that it was considered to be
even "lower" than Mercury. In addition, the Greeks could distinguish
between the "interior" planets (Venus, Mercury) and the "exterior
planets (Saturn, Jupiter, Mars) based on their apparent motions,
and they sometimes placed the Sun in the "center" between these
groups. This led to the arrangement

Saturn Jupiter Mars Sun Venus Mercury Moon

Now, each of the 24 hours (an Egyptian invention) of the day was
though to be "ruled" by one of these 7 planets, and the rulers would
cycle around in the arrangement shown above. Thus, if we denote
the planets by the symbols T,J,R,S,V,Y,M respectively, and begin
the first day with the Sun, we have

Day 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4

1 S V Y M T J R S V Y M T J R S V Y M T J R S V Y
2 M T J R S V Y M T J R S V Y M T J R S V Y M T J
3 R S V Y M T J R S V Y M T J R S V Y M T J R S V
4 Y M T J R S V Y M T J R S V Y M T J R S V Y M T
5 J R S V Y M T J R S V Y M T J R S V Y M T J R S
6 V Y M T J R S V Y M T J R S V Y M T J R S V Y M
7 T J R S V Y M T J R S V Y M T J R S V Y M T J R

After the 7th day the cycle repeats, so the 8th day is the same as
the 1st, and so on. (Fortunately, 7 if coprime to 24.) Each day
in the cycled was said to be "ruled" overall by the planet that
rules the first hour of that day, so the rulers of the seven days
were S,M,R,Y,J,V,T, which is to say

Sun Moon Mars Mercury Jupiter Venus Saturn

According to Neugebauer, this is also the arrangement of the planets
that was used most often in Hindu astronomy. From this we get the
names of the days in the week

Latin French Saxon English

Sun Dies Solis Dimanche Sun's day Sunday
Moon Dies Lunae Lundi Moon's day Monday
Mars Dies Martis Mardi Tiw's day Tuesday
Mercury Dies Mercurri Mercredi Woden's day Wednesday
Jupiter Dies Jovis Jeudi Thor's day Thursday
Venus Dies Veneris Vendredi Frigg's day Friday
Saturn Dies Saturni Samedi Seterne's day Saturday

Wodin (or Odin) was one of the principal gods in Scandinavian and
Teutonic mythology, and he seems to have somehow become identified
with the Roman Mercurius. Likewise Tiw was identified with Mars.
Frigg was the wife of Odin, and likened to Venus. The Germanic god
Thor is similar to Jupiter, in the sense of being regarded as the
"main" god in most northern European countries. This shows how
the common names for our days of the week have been influenced by
a wide range of peoples and traditions, including the Babylonians
(astrology), Egyptians (24 hour division of the day), Greeks
(arrangement of the planets), Romans (Latin names of the gods),
and Scandinavian mythology (for the Germanic names).

Tbank, Maggie. Let's hope it posts as pretty as it looks pasted in the submit box...

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 29 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Apr 24, 2000 (16:25) * 30 lines 
1800 Library of Congress Established - April 24

President John Adams approved legislation that appropriated
$5,000 to purchase "such books as may be necessary for the use
of Congress," and the Library of Congress was born. The first
books, ordered from London, arrived in 1801 and were stored in
the U.S. Capitol, the library's first home. The first library catalog,
dated April 1802, listed 964 volumes and nine maps. In 1814, the
British army invaded the city of Washington and burned the
Capitol, including the 3,000-volume Library of Congress. Former
president Thomas Jefferson, who advocated the expansion of the
library during his two terms in office, responded to the loss by
selling his personal library, the largest and finest in the country, to
Congress to "recommence" the library. The purchase of
Jefferson's 6,487 volumes was approved in the next year, and a
professional librarian, George Watterston, was hired to replace
the House clerks in the administration of the library. In 1851, a
second major fire at the library destroyed about two-thirds of its
fifty-five thousand volumes, including two-thirds of Thomas
Jefferson's library. Congress responded quickly and generously to
the disaster and within a few years the majority of the lost books
were replaced. After the Civil War, the collection was greatly
expanded, and by the twentieth century the Library of Congress
had become the de facto national library of the United States and
one of the largest in the world. Today, the collection, housed in
three enormous buildings in Washington, contains more than
seventeen million books, as well as nearly ninety-five million
maps, manuscripts, photographs, films, audio and video
recordings, prints and drawings, and other special collections.

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 30 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Apr 25, 2000 (00:26) * 14 lines 
Why is a horse race over obstacles called a steeplechase?

In the 18th century, a group of fox hunters were returning from a
fruitless hunt when one of the hunters, deciding the day should
not be a total waste of time, suggested an interesting race. He
bet he could ride straight to a steeple that was visible in the
distance and touch it with his whip before any of the other
hunters. Everyone agreed the race to the steeple had to be
straight, meaning the riders had to jump obstacles long the way.
The bet was accepted, and the first steeplechase race began.
Later, this term was used to describe overland races between
several steeples. Today, it just means an obstacle course.

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 31 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Apr 25, 2000 (13:22) * 56 lines 
Myths and Presidents

As the campaign of 2000 nears, the ad agencies are busy at
work producing mythmaking commercials about their candidate,
which will invariably describe them in the most glowing
terms. To enhance their stature George W. Bush will point to
his stint in the National Guard and congratulate himself on
his service. Al Gore will go one step further, he will
point to his tour in Vietnam, to try to upstage George.
However, neither one of them can hold a candle to the late
President Kennedy when it comes to myths. When Kennedy ran
for president the public was told he was a war hero, a scholar,
and a best-selling author. None of which is true.

President Kennedy began his war service in Washington as a
navel intelligence officer. The dashing Kennedy soon became
involved with a beautiful German woman named Inga Arvid.
They became a most talked about couple, the handsome
millionaire and the blond Nordic beauty. The problem was
that she was most likely a German spy. Their escapades soon
caught the attention of FBI czar J. Edgar Hoover who had
Kennedy followed and bugged. Hoover was close to Joe
Kennedy, the president's father, and recorded the conversations
of Jack and Inga. While no secrets were passed (they were
interested in other things) Joe decided that the young
Jack might be better off away from the night life of
Washington. So he sent him to the Pacific theatre where his
skirt chasing would be difficult.

The future president became a PT-boat commander. His duties
were minimal but he even managed to screw that up - no pun
intended. One day his boat was attacked and sunk by a
Japanese destroyer. Kennedy claims to have saved three men,
but records indicated that he saved only one, and that the
boat sank because of his own negligence. It seems that they
were caught napping - I didn't see that in the movie - and
were outmaneuvered by the destroyer. The stories about the
scholar Kennedy are not much better.

Kennedy's prize winning undergraduate thesis, While England
Slept, was based partially on research that was provided by
a friend of the Kennedy family, Arthur Krock. Kroch was a
friend of Kennedy's father and later gave the book a glowing
review in the New York Times. The Pulitzer Prize winning
book, Profiles in Courage, which helped enhance the legend
of Kennedy the scholar, followed Kennedy's thesis. It's
success however, was largely due to the organization of
Kennedy supporter Jules David, and written for the most part
by his speechwriter Theodore Sorenson. So when the mythmakers
in both parties try to explain to you why their candidate is
the stuff of legends and are more virtuous than the other,
remember Jack Kennedy and Camelot; then reach for the clicker.
Copyright 2000 by Pulse Direct, Inc. All rights reserved.

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 32 of 116: the history of spring (sprin5) * Tue, Apr 25, 2000 (17:31) * 1 lines 
Sounds a lot like the Earnest Hemingway myth, the notable difference being that Hemingway obviously wrote his own books.

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 33 of 116: Plutarch of the Spring  (MarciaH) * Tue, Apr 25, 2000 (21:30) * 1 lines 
I thought it was common knowledge that Kennedy had help with his books...

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 34 of 116: Plutarch of the Spring  (MarciaH) * Fri, Apr 28, 2000 (12:36) * 80 lines 
Before Castro

Cuba was controlled by Spain from the 16th century until
its independence after the Spanish American War. In the
1870's, Jose Marti considered the father of Cuba, helped
stage a revolt against Spain. It was finally crushed after
ten long years, but trouble soon resurfaced again in 1898
when the USS Maine was sunk under mysterious conditions.
Soon, the US was at war and the Spanish-American War
rallying cry became "Remember the Maine." The US easily won
the war, although that was not the case in the Philippines,
and replaced the Spanish in Cuba.

While Cuba was granted independence the United States,
through the Platt Amendment, reserved the right to intercede
in Cuban affairs. The US maintained economic control of the
island and by 1928 US firms controlled 75% of the sugar
cane crop. In the 1930's, Cuba challenged American
dominance and elected Ramon Grau San Martin as their
president. The socialist president promised land for the
peasants, an eight-hour workday, and a limit to foreign
investment. The US quickly backed a coup-d'etat, which was
led by Fulgencio Batista, to replace him. Batista ended
all talk of reforms and imposed a corrupt dictatorship on
the island.

By the 1950's, the US controlled two of the three oil
refineries in Cuba, 90% of the telephone and electric
facilities, and most of the tourist industry, which was run
by the mafia. The mafia set up operations in Cuba and was
given a free hand by Batista. Bastista's regime spent
little on social programs and Cuba stood at the bottom of
the list in infant mortality rates as well as illiteracy
rates. Health care was unheard of for the peasants. A small
minority benefited from the dictatorship but most of the
population suffered.

In 1959, Castro's army defeated Batista and took control of
Cuba. Castro quickly moved to lessen its island's dependence
on the US. He nationalized some industries while throwing
the mob out of Cuba. Waves of immigrants left Cuba and
settled in Miami. Who were they that left? They were the
supporters of a brutally corrupt dictatorship. Think about
it; who joined the revolution? Wasn't it the best of the
best? Remember, this was before Castro imposed a Soviet
style communist government, so the coalition included many
who were not communists but who sought justice for their
people. Opponents of Castro sided with a government that
was corrupt, provided little or no social service, and was
ruled by the mob.

One example of the many changes in Cuba was the creation
of a national film industry that became respected throughout
the world. What Castro did was take the existing pornography
industry from the mafia and then turned it over to Cubans to
make pictures that had social significance. In 1960, Castro
came to the United States and addressed the UN. He said that
the US was planning an invasion of Cuba. The American press
called him delusional, and within the year Cuba was invaded.
Castro then moved closer to the Soviet Union, cancelled
elections, and declared Cuba to be a Marxist-Leninist state.

While Castro's mistakes have been many, statistics show that
the revolution has also brought gains in education, heath
and welfare services, infant mortality rates and the arts.
While ranking at the bottom in per-capita income, Cuba has
stayed at the top in social services. Has his revolution
been successful? Yes and no. Socialist economies have been
historically good at providing social services but bad at
creating wealth. But whether Castro has been successful or
not, Cuba is better off without the corrupt dictatorship
that preceded it. As for the exile community, they have been
involved in Watergate break-in, spied on the Vietnam
Veterans Against the War, and in general made life very
difficult for African-Americans who live in Florida.
This past week they showed they did not believe in the
rule of law. Funny thing is, they never did.

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 35 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, May  2, 2000 (12:29) * 81 lines 

In the mid 1960's, the Federal Bureau of Investigation began
a program named Co-Intelpro. Its aim was to destroy, disrupt,
and discredit Black Nationalist groups. The manifesto
proclaimed, "We must prevent the rise of a black messiah."
It was first directed at Dr. King and Malcolm X, and soon
came to include Stoakley Carmichael (Kwami Ture), Fred
Hampton, Huey P. Newton, and Geronimo Pratt. The FBI, along
with the Nixon administration, soon targeted the Black Panther
Party. On December 4, 1969, it conducted a raid on the Black
Panther headquarters in Chicago. The result was the killing
of Fred Hampton and Mark Clark Hampton. During the raid, the
FBI had worked closely with local law enforcement officials.
This would become a pattern. Four days later a similar raid
occurred in Los Angles and after a long gun battle with the
police, the panthers surrendered. The target of the raid was
a man named Geronimo Pratt.

Pratt was a highly decorated Vietnam Veteran, had returned
home to the United States and settled with his sister in Los
Angles. He soon began attending classes at UCLA. There, he
met Bunchy Carter and began hanging around with the Los
Angles chapter of the Black Panther Party. This began to
attract the attention of the FBI and the Los Angles Police
department. In 1972, Caroline Olsen and her husband were
attacked by two men resulting in Caroline's death. The
husband was shown pictures of Pratt. At first he said Pratt
was not the man but later changed his testimony after
continuously being presented with Geronimo in various
line-ups, his accounts changed. The descriptions of the
two men that he had given the police were completely at
odds with Geronimo's appearance but the LAPD wanted
Pratt. The problem was Pratt was 400 miles away at a Black
Panther party meeting in Oakland.

Wesley Swaeringen was a veteran FBI agent who had performed,
by his own admission, over fifty illegal break-ins for the
bureau He was assigned to the LA office at the time and
overheard one of his fellow agents exclaim, "The sonava bitch
was in Oakland." Later on wiretaps of the meeting would be
discovered only to find the days where Pratt had been in
Oakland were mysteriously missing. During the trial an FBI
informant named Julio Butler appeared. He testified that
Pratt had written him a confession, which he passed the
information over to Sgt. Rice who was instructed to open the
letter only if something happened to Butler. The FBI
approached Rice and asked him for the letter but Rice was an
honest cop who then refused the FBI's
request. How did the feds know it was a letter? Because,
they wrote it.

After a long trial Pratt was sentenced to life in prison.
The death penalty was not in effect in California at the
time so Pratt escaped the chair. He protested his innocence
throughout the trial and upon his conviction was thrown in
solitary confinement for seven years. For over twenty-five
years Pratt languished in prison with many people, convinced
of his innocence (as I was). I met Pratt in a San Quentin
prison where we interviewed him for a documentary named The
FBI's War On Black America that I was co-producing at the
time. There, I learned of his tale of injustice. I wrote
Pratt from time to time but like so many others, I drifted

In 1995, new evidence revealed that Butler repeatedly lied
on the witness stand. That, when coupled with former juror
Jeanne Kilpatrick's and FBI agent Wesley Swearingen's
statements, caused Superior Court Judge Everett Dickey, a
Ronald Reagan appointee, to rule for a new trial. He stated
that the credibility of prosecution witness could have
been undermined if the jury had known Butler was an ex-felon
and FBI informant. Two years later, District Attorney Gil
Garcetti announced he would not try to bring Pratt to trial
again. Pratt then sued the government, and on April 27th
the federal government and the city of Los Angles agreed
to a 4.5 million dollar settlement. Sometimes, history has
a happy ending. Geronimo now lives in Morgan City, La.,
where he is working to convert his former school into a
youth center.

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 36 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, May  3, 2000 (16:41) * 20 lines 
It travels 90,000 miles a second - almost half the speed of
light. (186,000 miles a second).

365 days, 5 hours, 48 minutes, and 46 seconds.

The cigarette commercial.

Brooklyn Dodger great Jackie Robinson, was given the award
in 1947. Forty years later, it was officially renamed the
Jackie Robinson Award, although it's still widely called
Rookie of the Year.

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 37 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, May  4, 2000 (18:24) * 15 lines 

Comedian George Carlin, on October 10, 1975.

In 153 B.C., by the Romans. Previously, New Year's Day was in March.

Boston, in 1924. The league was organized in 1917 with
Canadian teams.

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 38 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, May  5, 2000 (14:20) * 66 lines 
Bacon's Rebellion

One of the first cash crops of the new continent was
tobacco. It's value, and its labor-intensive nature,
required a need for workers in the new world.

So many indentured servants were sent to Virginia. They
were considered the dregs of the continent. Many came
from Ireland where they were picked up and often sent,
against their will, across the Atlantic to the new world.
The English would pick up those that they saw as
troublemakers, and send them on a boat. The conditions of
the newly arrived servants were appalling. They were often
beaten, made to wear shackles, treated unfairly and taken
advantage of by the upper classes. In the beginning, they
worked with slaves in the field often side by side. Their
fraternization and mixing began to cause alarm within the
ruling elite. Soon the commonwealth began to take action to
separate the races.

What the planters feared most was what they called,
"the giddy multitude." They feared class anger amongst
servants. The slaves had a longer degree of
servitude than the whites so they became more valuable
to the tobacco growers. So why did the planters prefer
servants to slaves, even while using slave labor was
more profitable? Why did the change occur? Bacon's
Rebellion is the answer.

Bacon was a member of the Virginia council. Seeking
to protect the settlers from the natives and
increase his own lot, he set out to raise a militia.
Bacon felt that this would serve a dual purpose. It would
re-direct anger towards the Indians and eliminate a foe.
Bacon's action shocked the Virginia council. They were
afraid of what they described as, "the armed rabble."
He had unleashed a class anger that threatened the very
foundation of the Virginia government. Bacon soon became
ill and died but his followers marched on Jamestown and
burnt it to the ground. The British returned with armed
ships to crush the rebellion. Finally, the whites and
blacks laid down their arms except for a contingent of
eighty blacks and twenty whites.

The Virginia elite were faced with a problem. They could
share their wealth and provide better conditions for the
servants or they could use more slave labor. They chose
slave labor because the gentry could control them easier.
This would serve another purpose as well. They would
employ many of the white settlers as slave hands. The
planter class could be more effectively controlled by
state power the slaves rather than their white counterparts.
It was also easier to enact laws that denied certain
rights based on the color of one's skin. Blacks were made
subordinate to white rule. This was not the case for
the white servants. To prohibit any mixing of the races,
white women were targeted. Any mulatto child would be
categorized as black and the mother fined 15 pounds. The
legislature denied blacks the right to vote, own land
or testify in court. A racist culture was born. Laws
legitimized racism and the brutal treatment of blacks.
For the next three hundred years we would pay a price for
this decision.

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 39 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, May  5, 2000 (16:13) * 14 lines 
Lake Nicaragua, in Nicaragua.

The linear distance between the crests of two successive waves.

Perry Masonry.

Attila the Hun, in A.D. 453.

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 40 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, May  7, 2000 (20:56) * 43 lines 
The Iceland Man Cometh?
LOS ANGELES (Reuters) - Iceland embarked on a mission to melt the
hearts and minds of hard-bitten Hollywood on Thursday and turn its ancient
sagas into the stuff that movie makers' dreams are made of.
President Olafur Ragnar Grimsson, making his first visit to Los Angeles,
launched a week-long festival of Icelandic culture, food and music as part of
celebrations marking the 1,000th anniversary of the discovery of America not
by Christopher Columbus, but by Icelander Leif Ericsson.
Columbus was acclaimed for centuries as the man who discovered America
in 1492 when he sailed the ocean blue. But in recent decades, more evidence
has come to light showing that Ericsson and the Vikings were the first
Europeans to set foot on the American continent in the year 1,000.
Ericsson's voyage was reported in the epic poems known as the Icelandic
sagas and Grimsson visited several Hollywood studios in a bid to encourage
writers and producers to turn those adventures into movie material.
``The Icelanders have always been a nation of great storytellers, starting with
the Icelandic sagas. The movie business is always looking for a great story to
tell and we have for more than 1,000 years preserved some of the greatest
stories in Europe,'' Grimsson told Reuters in an interview.
``I think there is a new interest in Hollywood in the international aspect of
movie-making. I sense they are now looking to other countries for creative
talent, good stories, and movie-making possibilities. Therefore I think we in
Iceland can contribute a lot because we have unique stories to tell and a
unique landscape,'' Grimsson added.
Iceland, a nation of just 270,000 people, is also bringing its own movies to
Hollywood with a retrospective of its leading director Fridrik Thor Fridriksson
and a slate of new films.
Icelandic cuisine heavy on fish but also including lamb is on the menu at the
Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel for a week and the nation's pop music gets a
showcase on Friday in a concert featuring GusGus and Icelandic hip-hop
band Quarashi.
An exhibition on the Vikings and North America will travel across the United
States in the next two years celebrating their long, and mostly forgotten, links
between America and Europe.
Grimsson, elected in 1996 with a pledge to promote Iceland on the world
stage, said the exhibition and his visit are not simply aimed at celebrating the
past but also at looking to the future.
``In many ways the 21st century will be a century of discoverers, in genetics,
in science and in outer space,'' he said.
``Do we enter the 21st century without the culture of discovery to sustain us
or do we go back into our own heritage and try to understand what it was that
made people great adventurers 1,000 years ago?''

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 41 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, May  9, 2000 (11:57) * 58 lines 
The Myth of Education

Recent polls report that Americans believe our children
are poorly educated. Some reflect on a golden age of
education that assimilated non-English speaking immigrants
into American culture. Schools were supposedly so effective
that it didn't matter what ethnic background they were from,
or what their native language was, the school would teach
them. People are somewhat vague about when this enlightened
period existed, but most concede it was in the early part of
the 20th century. When my grandfather came to this country
he didn't speak any English, but he managed without the
inclusion programs they have today. Did this golden age ever
really exist? What were our schools like during this period?

In the early part of the century, the school system was
divided into the public and private sectors. The private
sector provided education for the elite and the public
schools were meant for the rest of us. Well, what was
left for the rest of us was not good. In fact, it was
awful. Studies show that most students attending schools in
Chicago, New York, Boston, Detroit, and Philadelphia could
not read, write or do arithmetic in spite of what some
people claim. The schools that existed were largely

One example of the schools utter failure was the drop out
rate. In the 1920's and 1930's, a federal study showed that
only 56% graduated high school. In New York, where these
mythic schools passed people along a generation to the
American dream, only 40% finished high school. Philadelphia
was worse. Here, only 19% of those who entered high school
graduated. Keeping those dismal figures in mind, lets go
back to those days and examine what a classroom in New York
City might look like. Is it the classroom of neatly scrubbed
children sitting behind their wooden desks in a tidy row?

What we would really find is squalor that would be equal to
the conditions that the young immigrants came from. First,
it would be difficult to keep them in school due to the
financial strains that forced many to find jobs. This robbed
many of their youth, their lives, and their future. Next, we
would find the schools to be tremendously overcrowded with
standard essentials in short supply. The stench would be
overpowering. The schools, like the neighborhood , were infested
with rats. It would be quite common to see a rat run across
the room. Furthermore, the schools were so dimly lit, that
it would be difficult to read the textbooks, even if enough
of them could be found. This is why reformers of the period,
John Dewey, Jacob Riis, and many others made public education
such a priority. The schools were grossly substandard or
didn't exist. In the 1890's, the federal government reported,
that only about half of the children even entered school. So
the next time you hear some politician lament about the golden
era, remember it never existed.

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 42 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, May 12, 2000 (17:17) * 73 lines 
The Story of Gregorio Cortez

Gregorio Cortez was a farmer who lived with his brother
Romuldo. Romuldo owned two sorrel mares. One was lame and the
other was fit. A local Texas rancher kept pressuring him to
sell one of his mares, but Romuldo refused. This angered his
neighbor and when Romuldo rejected his overtures, the white
Texan took this as an insult. Mexicans should know their place.
However, Romuldo decided to trick him. He would trade him the
lame mare instead of the healthy one. The Texan was furious
at being taken in a horse trade and demanded that the sheriff
do something about it. The sheriff disregarded the protest but
went to the Cortez ranch to ask them about a reported horse

Gregorio asked his brother to go see what the sheriff wanted
and Romuldo told Gregorio that someone wished to speak with
him. One of the posse, a man called Choate, mistranslated what
Romuldo said to Gregorio. He thought Romuldo said, "You are
wanted." Choate then asked Gregorio if he had recently acquired
a horse. Gregorio said no. He had just gotten a mare, but a
mare was not a horse to Gregorio; it was a mare. Sheriff Morris
then informed Gregorio that he was under arrest. Again, a
mistranslation occurred, Morris thought he said, "no white man
is going to take me alive." What Gregorio really said was,
"you can't arrest me for doing nothing." Morris drew his
weapon as Romuldo charged him. He fired and the bullet went
right through his mouth. Morris then turned and fired at
Gregorio, he missed. Gregorio shot back and hit the sheriff.
Morris crawled to the nearby bushes and eventually bled to
death. Choate fled the seen and described the incident as an
attack by the "Cortez Gang." This began the chase of Gregorio

The newspapers reported that Cortez had headed for the border
but Gregorio had gone north instead. He dropped off his
brother and friends and continued north. A posse headed by
Sheriff Robert Glover soon found the family and proceeded to
torture them until somebody talked. The posse numbered over
fifty men and when they finally reached his friend's house,
they were drunk. Glover charged the building with his guns
blazing. Cortez fired and shot Glover right off his horse.
He then hurried into the brushes. Deputy Swift now entered
the house and began firing. The posse heard shots coming from
the house and fired into the house. In the confusion, the posse
began to shoot at each other. Two of the men died and they
now grabbed 13 year-old Encarnacion and hung him from a tree
until he finally talked.

When they arrived back in town. The posse informed the
newspapers that they had found ten Winchester rifles and a
bucket of ammunition. None of this was true. Cortez now turned
his attention south. He rode and rode, eluding the chasing
posse. The posse now grew to over 800 men. Still they could
not find Cortez. Once he walked right by them. The posse
complained to the press that his gang was supplying Cortez
with fresh horses so he had an advantage. All across Texas
any crime that happened was blamed on the "Cortez Gang."
The San Antonio press reported, "The only hope was to fill
up the whole country with men and search every avenue for
escape." Finally, Cortez was captured. The trial and the
appeals process lasted 12 long years. Cortez protested his
innocence. He was convicted for the killing one of the posse,
who was actually killed by one of his own men, and later
Glover. He was convicted in the Glover case. Finally, after
years of appeals, the Governor of Texas pardoned him. All
Gregorio Cortez had ever asked for was justice. He died at
his wedding at the age of 41. Some say he was poisoned but
no one knows for sure. What we are sure of is, that Gregorio
gave them one heck of a chase.

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 43 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, May 16, 2000 (15:05) * 62 lines 
The Trail of Tears

In the beginning, the Cherokee believed that the earth was
covered with water and that beavers came from the sky to drag
the mud from the oceans bottom and bring it to the top. The
beavers attached it to the sky and created the land. The
"great buzzard" then flew to the ground where he flapped his
wings and the valleys and mountains were formed. It was on
one of these flights that the "great buzzard" created the
land on which the Cherokees lived.

The Cherokee's had taken to the white man's ways. They were
farmers who cultivated the land while living peacefully with
those around them. But this was not good enough for some, who
envied their land, and others like President Andrew Jackson,
whose racial hatred towards the natives drove them to
rationalize any excess. In 1829, the Georgia legislature passed
laws that would extend its authority over the land of the
Cherokees. The Indians were given a choice either the Cherokees
could leave the state or they could succumb to white rule.

Chief John Ross protested against this unjust policy. He
went to President Jackson and asked for federal protection.
The Cherokees had signed a treaty with the U.S. government
that promised them protection but their protest fell on deaf
ears. Jackson not only refused their request but the old Indian
hater, who once carried a pouch made from a squaws breast,
sent his Secretary of War, Lewis Cass to negotiate a new
treaty with a minority faction of the tribe who favored removal.
The removal faction was granted $3,000,000 in payment. The
treaty had to be ratified by the whole nation so Cass
proclaimed that only the pro-removal faction would be eligible
to vote. The vote was a sham with only about 4% of the
Cherokee nation approving of the treaty. Congress, despite
protests from Chief Ross, quickly passed the accord.

This set off a tidal wave of land grabbers who plundered the
new land often killing the natives in the process. Most of
the Cherokees refuse to leave and federal troops under the
command of General Winfield Scott were sent in to remove the
natives. Their tactics could only be described as genocide.
The Cherokees were given no time in which to gather their
belongs before they were ordered on a forced march in which
25% of the tribe would perish. Their homes were ransacked as
plunderers stole their belongings and then sold them right
in front of their eyes. The sellers and the buyers conspired
to cheat the Cherokee.

The march took place in the middle of the winter as one of
the exiles commented: "Looks like maybe all will be dead
before we get to new Indian country." The removal took them
from their sacred home where the "great buzzard" had come and
left them in a land that they knew nothing about. Their land
went to speculators and slave owners. The Cherokee were left
alone for a while but white settlers would again take their
land in the Oklahoma land rush at the end of the century.
This injustice haunts our history, reparations have never
been made to the Cherokee, maybe it is time they should?

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 44 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, May 19, 2000 (18:44) * 14 lines 
Why is extorting money called "blackmail?"

When the English owned the majority of the farmland in
Scotland, they charged the Scottish farmers rent called
"mail," from a Scottish word meaning rent or taxes.
Payments were normally made in silver, and this was called
"white mail."

When a farmer could not make his payments, the payment had
to be made in produce, and this was called "black mail."
During the threat of eviction, some landlords demanded more
produce than was actually needed to cover rent, which coined
the term "blackmail" in its present negative connotation.

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 45 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, May 19, 2000 (19:51) * 11 lines 
Why is something in your area of specialty called "right down your alley?"

This expression origninally came from the American game of
baseball. In baseball, an alley is one of several paths a
ball can take into the outfield which makes the ball
difficult to catch. A player who feels his (or her)
specialty is hitting a ball down a particular "alley" might
promise to hit one 'right down my alley.' This phrase
eventually was generalized to refer to any sort of

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 46 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, May 19, 2000 (21:17) * 59 lines 
The Forgotten Helen Keller

Helen Keller is one of the most misunderstood women in
history. While we are familiar with her story about how a
deaf and blind girl overcame these handicaps through the
force of will. Her adult life remains largely forgotten.
She is held up to school children across the country as an
example of what one can do if they put their mind to it.
Patty Duke won an academy award for her portrayal of Helen
Keller in "The Miracle Worker." But much is left out. What
schools don't speak about is her politics. She was a radical
with a firm belief in social justice. One of the most
effective forms of censorship is to omit what one finds
troublesome. The story of Helen Keller demands a more
truthful telling.

Helen Keller was a radical socialist. She joined the party
in 1909, but she had come to her radicalism before then. Her
blindness, and work with the blind, taught her that blindness
was not distributed equally throughout the population.
Industrial accidents and poor conditions were the main cause.
"I have visited sweatshops, factories, crowded slums. If I
could not see it, I could smell it." When Keller became a
socialist she already was one of the best-known women in the
world. Her convictions created a hailstorm of controversy. Once
admired by the press, she now was attacked and her handicaps
blamed for her beliefs. The Brooklyn Eagle commented, "mistakes
spring out of manifest limitations of her development." To
which Keller replied, "Oh ridiculous Brooklyn Eagle!
Socially blind and deaf, it defends an intolerable system,
a system that is the cause of physical blindness and deafness
that we are trying to prevent."

Helen Keller devoted her life to change. She helped found
the American Civil Liberties Union. As a white woman,
who grew up in the south during the time when three black
people were being lynched a week, she supported the NAACP.
Helen Keller spoke out against the First World War and
supported Eugene Debs in each of his campaigns for president.
She wrote essays on the women's movement.

In 1929, at the age of 49, she wrote her book Midstream. In
it she described her philosophy, about how she had visited
mill towns and met with strikers. She wrote of how she once
believed that if one threw themselves into life's struggles,
they could overcome anything. She now said that she did
not believe that anymore, "I learned that the power to rise
in the world is not within the reach of everyone." Helen
Keller's story is too often told as if her life stopped as a
child. We are not presented with the adult Helen Keller, and
quite interestingly, we drain the life out of her story.
She becomes an icon without meaning. Her humanity is covered
up, and she is treated like a child. The real Helen Keller was
much more complex and insightful. "Conclusions are not always
pleasant," she once said. Sadly, neither are the losses to
humanity from omissions of history.

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 47 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, May 22, 2000 (22:36) * 8 lines 
Why is a white flag used as a symbol of a truce or to give up?

The white flag represents untouched purity, and the color white
has long been used in religious ceremonies over the world as a
sign of innocence and goodwill. due to this image, the color
white has almost universally become acknowledged as a symbol of
peace and is, as a result, a natural symbol for a flag of truce.

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 48 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, May 25, 2000 (12:05) * 62 lines 
Port Chicago

Joe Small joined the navy in 1943. He was stationed at Great
Lakes navel station, just outside of Chicago. Small was then
assigned to Port Chicago, California. Port Chicago was an
ammunition depot throughout the Second World War. All of its
petty officers were white and the munitions handlers were
black. Their main job was to take the boxes of ammunition from
the train and pack them onto the ships, which were then sent
to the Pacific for the war effort.

Joe Small learned that the work was hard and dangerous with
each division being pitted against one another. The navy
refused to employ union stove handlers because the union men
would demand safety precautions, with the black sailors; the
navy would not have to worry about that. The officers bet
against each other on who would win, punishing the losers,
rewarding the winners. Any complaints about the conditions
were met with threats of KP or extra duty. When a boxcar came
in it would be filled to the top. Someone would have to crawl
up, build a ramp, and then slide the ammunition down the ramp.
The navy assured them that, because the bombs lack detonation
devices, there was nothing to worry about. Still the men
worried, many going AWOL, with one sailor even going so far
as to fake a section 8. This meant he was mentally unsound.

On July 17, 1944, Joe Small was awakened by a tremendous blast
that could be heard all the way to the Berkeley Hills. Some
320 sailors were killed, the base destroyed and the town of
Port Chicago, over 1 1/2 miles away, was heavily damaged. The
scene was horrendous with arms and legs scattered everywhere.
At first the men who survived did nothing. But they were very
afraid and with good reasons for after ten days they were sent
back to work. They were given no indication that any safety
precautions had been taken.

The men held a vote and Joe Small was elected as their
representative. He gathered petitions and it was decided that
the men would not go back. They refused the order and over
300 of them were thrown into the brig. The marines showered
racial slurs and threats at them and many fights broke out.
Fifty of the men, including Joe Small, were charged with mutiny.
The military trial was a sham. They were found guilty and
sentenced to 15 years of hard labor, but their case was taken
up by future Supreme Court Justice, Thurgood Marshall, who
had observed the case.

The case had aroused the ire of the black community. Walter
White, who was then chairmen of the NAACP, and Marshall,
raised a public outcry until the navy was forced to rescind
the sentence and give the men dishonorable discharges. The
discharges were later up-graded to discharges under honorable
conditions. This meant that they would receive no benefits,
no insurance and would not be able to partake in the up coming
GI bill. It was the largest mutiny trial in the history of the
United States and one of the greatest miscarriages of justice
in military history. Joe Small, however, considered himself
lucky. He had survived.

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 49 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, May 25, 2000 (18:28) * 0 lines 

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 50 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, May 25, 2000 (18:34) * 83 lines 
Most people got married in June because they took
their yearly bath in May and were still smelling pretty
good by June. However, they were starting to smell,
so brides carried a bouquet of flowers to hide the body odor.
Baths equaled a big tub filled with hot water. The man
of the house had the privilege of the nice clean water,
then all the other sons and men, then the women and
finally the children. Last of all the babies. By then the
water was so dirty you could actually loose someone in it. Hence the saying,
"Don't throw the baby out with the bath water".
Houses had thatched roofs. Thick straw, piled high,
with no wood underneath. It was the only place for
animals to get warm, so all the pets..dogs, cats and
other small animals, mice, rats, bugs lived in the roof.
When it rained it became slippery and sometimes the
animals would slip and fall off the roof.
Hence the saying, "It's raining cats and dogs."
There was nothing to stop things from falling into the
house. This posed a real problem in the bedroom where
bugs and other dropping could really mess up your nice
clean bed. So, they found if they made beds with big posts
and hung a sheet over the top, it addressed that problem.
Hence those beautiful big 4 poster beds with canopies.
The floor was dirt. Only the wealthy had something other
than dirt. Hence the saying "dirt poor".
The wealthy had slate floors which would get slippery in
the winter when wet. So they spread thresh on the floor to
help keep their footing. As the winter wore on they kept
adding more thresh until when you opened the door it would
all start slipping outside. A piece of wood was placed at the
entry way, hence a "thresh hold."
They cooked in the kitchen with a big kettle that always
hung over the fire. Every day they lit the fire and added
things to the pot. They mostly ate vegetables and not
much meat. They would eat the stew for dinner leaving
leftovers in the pot to get cold overnight and then start
over the next day. Sometimes the stew had food in it
that had been in there for a month. Hence the rhyme:
Pease porridge hot, peas porridge cold, peas porridge
in the pot nine days old."
Sometimes they could obtain pork and they feel really
special when that happened. When company came over,
they would bring out some bacon and hang it to show it off.
It was a sign of wealth and that a man "could really bring
home the bacon." They would cut off a little to share with
guests and would all sit around and "chew the fat."
Most people didn't have pewter plates, but had trenchers:
a piece of wood with the middle scooped out like a bowl.
Trencher were never washed and a lot of times worms got
into the wood. After eating off wormy trenchers, they would
get "trench mouth." (Oh my)
Bread was divided according to status. Workers got the
burnt bottom of the loaf, the family got the middle, and
guests got the top, or the "upper crust."
Lead cups were used to drink ale or whiskey. The combination
would sometimes knock them out for a couple of days.
Someone walking along the road would take them for dead
and prepare them for burial. They were laid out on the kitchen
table for a couple of days and the family would gather around
and eat and drink and wait and see if they would wake up.
Hence the custom of holding a "wake".
England is old and small and they started running out of
places to bury people. So, they would dig up coffins and
would take their bones to a house and reuse the grave.
In reopening thee coffins, one out of 25 were found
to have scratch marks on the inside and they realized they
had been burying people alive. So they thought they would
tie a string on their wrist and lead it through the coffin and
up through the ground and tie it to a bell. Some one would
have to sit out in the graveyard all night to listen for the bell.
Hence on the "graveyard shift" they would know that
someone was "saved by the bell" or he was a "dead ringer".

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 51 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, May 25, 2000 (23:32) * 15 lines 
Why are playing cards made up of hearts, spades, clubs, and

Although playing cards were invented in China centuries ago, in
their present form they only go back to 14th century France. It
has been speculated the four standard suits represent the four
major classes of 14th century Frencn society.
Hearts, shaped like a shield, represented the nobility and the
church. Spades, shaped like a spear tip, represented the
military. Clubs, shaped like a clover, represented the rural
peasant. Diamonds, shaped like the tiles associated with
merchants' shope, represented the middle class.

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 52 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, May 25, 2000 (23:34) * 9 lines 
Why is doing something thoroughly or all the way called "going whole hog?"

A definition of "hog" is a young sheep not yet shorn. Many moons
ago (that means a long time ago), many farmers chose not to shear
their hogs completely because the fleece was very short and
difficult to get to. Other farmers, thinking differently, chose
to "go whole hog" and shar the entire sheep. According to many
popular theories, this is where we got the expression.

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 53 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, May 26, 2000 (14:08) * 62 lines 
Woodrow Wilson

When asked about President Woodrow Wilson, the answer
usually is that he led the country quite reluctantly, into
World War One, and that he was the former President of
Princeton University. He is thought of as an idealist who
after "the Great War" led a courageous attempt to get the
U.S. Senate to ratify his vision for a "League of Nations."
The rejection of Wilson's polices in the 1920 election is
reflected as a reaction to Wilson's idealism. We were tired
of the reforms of the so-called progressive era and the
electorate longed for a return to a simpler time. What is
left out is that it was also a reaction against Wilson's
racism, reactionary domestic activities, foreign
intervention and lies.

Under President Wilson the United States intervened in Latin
America more than at any other time in its history. In fact,
after Wilson's term the U.S. sought better relations with
Mexico under the guise of a good neighbor policy. During his
term we landed troops in Cuba, Haiti, Panama, the Dominican
Republic and ten times in Mexico. Both sides condemned
Wilson's intervention in Mexico in the Mexican Revolution.
Wilson may have said that he believed in self-determination
but his actions tell another story. In Haiti, U.S. marines
invaded and forced the legislature to install our
candidate as President. Later when the Haitians refused to
declare war on Germany, we got ride of the Haitian
legislature. It is not that Wilson failed to bring democracy
to Haiti. The problem was that he never tried.

On the domestic front, we have Wilson to thank for creating
segregation within the Federal government. When Congress
refused to pass his racist legislation, Wilson went ahead
and refused to appoint blacks to federal offices; even the
jobs that had historically gone to African-Americans. He
used his power to segregate the Federal government and when
blacks in the government protested, he had them fired. In
1914, D.W. Griffith made his ode to the Ku Klux Klan,
"Birth of a Nation." It was screened at the White House
afterwards Wilson said, "It was like writing history with

Woodrow Wilson campaigned as a peace candidate in the 1916
elections, and by 1917 we were at war. During the war,
President Wilson attacked all those who opposed him. He
passed into law the Espionage Act in 1917 and the Sedition
Act of 1918. This gave Wilson the mandate to arrest anyone
who spoke out against the war. It went to absurd lengths.
Once a filmmaker was arrested for making a film about the
American Revolution. In it, the British were accurately
portrayed as the enemy, but this logic did not faze
Wilson's justice department who said that it was anti-British
and therefore in violation of the Sedition Act. The court
upheld the decision. Wilson's government refused to mail
publications that were critical of his policies, he jailed
suffragettes when they asked for the vote, and his justice
department broke into the homes of citizens across the
country. By the 1920's many were tired of Wilson and he was
hated in his time so why do we revere him. Beats me?

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 54 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, May 30, 2000 (13:32) * 66 lines 
The Panic of 1873

Jay Cooke was a banker. He had made over three million
dollars in commissions for selling U.S. government bonds
during the civil war, and was a friend of President Grant. The
closing of his banking houses in 1873, which took place while
Grant slept at his house, set off a wave of panic throughout
the country. People could not pay their loans or mortgages
and 5,000 businesses closed their doors leaving workers out
on the streets. The depression lasted through the 1870's.
In 1874, 90,000 people had to sleep in police stations in
New York. They were limited to two days a month in any one
police station so they had to move around. In Chicago, twenty
thousand people marched in the streets demanding clothing and
bread. Police attacked workers in New York when they
attempted to march to city hall in New York. Strikes were
called throughout the country. Employers reacted by bringing
in new immigrants to break the strikes.

In the summer of 1877, with the country in the depths of
the depression, the New York Times wrote: "Already the cry
of dying children begins to be heard." Soon, to judge from
the past, there will be a thousand deaths of infants per
week in the city." In Baltimore, with sewage in the streets,
139 babies died. 1877 also saw a labor war begin in the
United States that would be more violent than anywhere in
the world. It would last until the late 1930's and thousands
would lay dead in its wake. It began with cuts in wages to
railroad workers. They received only $1.75 per day while
working twelve hours a day and the work was dangerous.
Men were crushed between trains and often lost limbs.

In West Virginia, workers stopped the rails from moving and
the Governor asked President Hayes for help. Hayes had just
become president and the nation had no money allocated to
send federal troops but J.P. Morgan offered to foot the bill
and the strike was broken. People became aware that the army
was being used against them. In Baltimore, they surrounded
the National Guard armory. The guard had been called out to
protect B&O Railroad and the soldiers came out firing. Ten
men were killed. Half of the troops quit and an enraged crowd
attacked the other half. The rebellion spread across the
country. In Pittsburgh troops were called in and a pitched
battle resulted in ten dead. Now the whole city rose up in
anger and another battle began; this time 29 people were
killed, including four soldiers. Police attacked crowds in
Chicago firing into them and killing four people. The next
day an armed crowd fought the police resulting in three more

Karl Marx felt that while the strikes will "Naturally be
suppressed, but can very well form the origin of an earnest
workers party." When the strikes of 1877 were finally over,
a hundred people had died. The railroads made some
concessions but a pattern had been established. The labor
struggle in America would be a long and bloody conflict. The
major political parties had reached an agreement in 1877.
They would not protect blacks or workers. Whether the
Democrats or Republicans were in control made no difference,
national policy would be the same. During this time, the
fortunes of Rockefeller, Carnegie and Morgan increased while
the country suffered. The fight by American workers for
dignity is a struggle filled with bravery and drama and
one of histories forgotten stories.

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 55 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, May 30, 2000 (21:50) * 12 lines 
Is there anyone who does not know...?

Where did the phrase "Peeping Tom" come from?

Before Lady Godiva made her infamous ride through the streets of
Coventry, England, she issued an order that all of the
townspeople remain indoors and keep their shutters closed during
her ride. Everyone complied with this request except for Tom,
the tailor. Mr. Tom bored a small hole through his shutter so he
could take a peek; ever since that day has been known as Peeping
Tom of Coventry.

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 56 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Jun  2, 2000 (12:40) * 81 lines 
Who Was HUAC?

George Reedy covered the House On Un-American Activities for
UPI and once called the members of HUAC, "The worst collection
of people that have ever been assembled in the entire history
of American politics."

The House On Un-American Activities began in 1938. Its chief
function was to investigate subversive activities in the
United States, starting with pro-German groups like the
German-Bund. Its secondary function was to look at other
groups who could be categorized as anti-American. This
included the communist party and the socialist-workers party.

Martin Dies was its first chairmen, and his narrow-minded
views would shape the agenda for the committee for the next
twenty years. Dies was a racist, anti-New Deal, pro-German,
Democratic congressmen from Texas. As chairmen of HUAC, he
turned the committee into an anti-Roosevelt investigative
agency. He attacked New Deal programs such as: the Federal
Theatre project, which employed artists and brought theatre
to sections of the United States that had never seen a live
play, the Federal Writers project which, among other things,
recorded the oral history of former slaves, and other
Roosevelt programs.

Dies attacks on the Roosevelt administration set the tone
for HUAC. Parnell Thomas, who later spent time in prison
for corruption, followed him. Thomas was a crude man who
allegedly joined the Ku Klux Klan in 1922. Thomas was a
bitterly partisan, vulgar leader who brought to the
committee his own narrow prejudices. Other Republican
members included John McDowell, a former newspaper owner
with a deep hatred of the New Deal, and Richard Nixon.

Nixon was a first term congressmen from California who
defeated incumbent Jerry Voorhis in a very bitter election.
Nixon, as newly released Watergate tapes clearly reveal,
was a mean-spirited, bigoted anti-Semite, who had waged
a vicious and disgusting campaign in 1946. His campaign
produced a widely distributed newsletter which said that
"the Jews" were supporting Voorhis and that he was a
spokesperson for an international Jewish conspiracy, "the
subversive Jews and the interests of
international Jews, [aimed] to destroy Christian America."

Nixon attacked Voorhis for pushing what he called pro-
Russian issues. These included the G.I. Bill, school lunch
programs, abolition of the poll tax, opposition to higher
oil prices and two veteran housing bills.

On the democratic side stood John Rankin of Mississippi.
Rankin was a deeply prejudiced man who opposed anti-lynching
laws and the GI Bill (because it would include African-
Americans). During the hearings, he would search through a
scurrilous book called, Who's Who in American Jewry, to see
if any of the witnesses were Jewish. Sitting next to Rankin
was John Wood of Georgia. Wood was an active member of the
Ku Klux Klan who saw proponents of justice for blacks as

So what did these members of HUAC find? Basically nothing.
The idea that the communists were about to take over the
United States was ludicrous. There was never any threat to
take over the government of the United States. By 1956,
over half of the members who belonged to the depleted
communist party were FBI informants. It was easy to be
catorgorized as a fellow traveler. If you signed a petition
calling for anti-lynching laws, you were branded a subversive.

Of the nearly 2.5 million federal employees investigated only
270 of them were fired and out of that 270, none were proven
to be communists. The hysteria created by the committee
retarded the growth of the civil rights movement and paved
the way for the debacle in Vietnam. So the next time someone
steps up to denounce someone else as being un-American, it
might be a good idea to investigate the person doing the
accusation. You know what they say, "people in glass houses
shouldn't throw stones."

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 57 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Jun  2, 2000 (13:52) * 17 lines 
As late as the 1700's, barbers served not only as giving haircuts
and shaves (and they certainly don't give shaves these days) but
also pulled teeth, performed minor surgery, and performed
bloodletting. During the bloodletting, patients were instructed
to hold on to a pole in such a way as to cause the veins in their
arms to swell and the blood to flow freely. This pole was
typically painted red in order to hide the blood spatters, and
when not in use, it was left outside to air out.

Around the pole white bandages were usually wrapped around it
which were used to allegedly put out air. This red and white
combination soon came to symbolize barber shops. After barbers
no longer performed blood letting, someone got the bright idea of
using painted red and white poles as the barber's symbol. The
color blue was added to poles in america around 1900, more likely
than not to match the colors of the flag.

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 58 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Jun  2, 2000 (16:11) * 13 lines 
Robin Hood (Or Robyn Hode) Lives!

Historians trying to discover the real Robin Hood have
concluded that he did indeed exist, although his exact
identity and date remain uncertain. The first ballads
acknowledging Robyn Hode appear in written form around
1500, although they were probably heard in oral form for
200 years prior to that date. This would probably place his
life and activities in the early to middle 1200s. Also, he
was originally linked to Barnsdale, not Nottinghamshire. So
if you're a fan of the legend, take heart, because at least
some parts of it are undoubtedly true.

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 59 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Jun  2, 2000 (19:57) * 6 lines 
Although botanically speaking a fruit, in 1893 the U.S. Supreme Court
unanimously ruled that tomatoes are a vegetable (and thus taxable under
the Tariff Act of 1883) because of the way they are usually served.

ref: Smithsonian, August, 1990.

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 60 of 116: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Sat, Jun  3, 2000 (11:46) * 1 lines 
The word "fruit" can be defined as meaning the ripened ovary of a plant. So yes, botanically tomatoes are fruits, but so are eggplants, okra, and peppers, both sweet and hot.

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 61 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Jun  3, 2000 (14:30) * 1 lines 
Indeed they are! I can remember the guys' reaction in beginning Botany in college when this little bit of information was presented to them. I had no idea they were so squeamish!

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 62 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Jun  4, 2000 (21:36) * 8 lines 
Remembering John Burnett's comments on John Brown, this quotation came to mind:

The spirit of resistance to government is so valuable on
certain occasions that I wish it to be always kept alive.
It will often be exercised when wrong, but better so than
not to be exercised at all.
--Thomas Jefferson

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 63 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Jun  4, 2000 (22:40) * 21 lines 
June is: National Candy Month and National Pest Control Month

1893 - The Ford Theater collapsed in Washington, D.C., killing twenty-two
people. This was the theater where John Wilkes Booth assassinated
President Lincoln 28 years earlier.

1934 - Walt Disney created a new cartoon character, the irascible Donald

1980 - Comedian and actor Richard Pryor suffered almost fatal burns at his
San Fernando Valley, California home when a mixture of "free-base" cocaine
exploded and set him on fire. Near death, he convalesced at Sherman Oaks
Community Hospital Burn Center.

2000 - The "junior" Useless-Infomaster will graduate from Saucon Valley
High School in Hellertown, Pennsylvania. Credited with the insult that
started this web site - young Joe is attending Drexel University in the
Fall to study Computer Sciences. His father - The Professor of
Uselessology - looks at this as way to get a new programmer - for just the
outrageous cost of a college education.

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 64 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Jun  9, 2000 (21:22) * 84 lines 
Fannie Lu Hamer

Fannie Lu Hamer was 47 years old, married, the mother of two
children, had spent her life as a sharecropper. Once she went
to a meeting and was moved by the words of James Forman.
Forman was part of a group of young civil rights activists
called, The Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC).

When Fannie Lu Hamer went to register to vote her landlord
promptly evicted her from the plantation where she had lived
for many years. Two days later sixteen bullets riddled the
house where a friend was letting her stay. No one was hurt.

Once when Mrs. Hamer was returning from Greenville she was
stopped and arrested for no apparent reason. While in jail
she was beaten severely by a black prisoner who was following
the orders of Mississippi state troopers. He beat her with
a blackjack all over her body. From that point on Fannie Lu
Hamer never looked back, she was now part of the civil rights

Mrs. Hamer became a field secretary for the Student Non-
Violent Co-Coordinating Committee (SNCC). SNCC workers and
the residents of Mississippi were a people whose bravery is
one of the highlights of American History. They withstood
threats, beatings, and bombings yet still stayed in the
movement. They received no help or protection from the
Kennedy Justice department or the FBI. The 14th and 15th
amendment had clearly protected the rights of citizens and
the right to vote but the laws were never been enforced.
Once Mrs. Hamer told an FBI agent, "If I get to heaven and
see you there, I will tell St. Peter to sent me back to

In 1964, she went to the Democratic convention as part of
the Mississippi Freedom Party. The MFD were there to challenge
the right of the regular democratic party of Mississippi to
be seated at the convention. Mrs. Hamer appeared before the
Credentials Committee and gave a moving account of what she
had seen. President Johnson did not want to alienate southern
democrats. He felt he needed their support in the upcoming
election so he sought to keep the public from hearing Mrs.
Hamer's testimony.

Johnson called a press conference and the networks switched
from Mrs. Hamer. Hubert Humphrey wanted very much to be
vice-president but first he would have to do Johnson's dirty
work. LBJ sent Humphrey to see if he could reach a compromise
between the regulars and the MFD. The insurgents refused. The
deal would leave them with only two seats in the delegation
and they felt that they deserved more. Humphrey and his aid
Walter Mondale pressured them and the UAW but the MFD would
not compromise.

Fannie Lu Hamer spoke out angrily against the proposed
settlement and the delegation moved by her words rejected
the offer. They voted 64-4 against sharing seats with the
all-white Mississippi regulars. Mrs. Hamer's argument was
plain and simple. James Whitten, her representative in the
second district, had excluded blacks from the voting rolls.
While the district was over 50% black. Only 2.9% of eligible
blacks were able to vote. Mrs. Hamer went through the whole
state district by district and told them about the
intimidation, beatings and murders that African-Americans
suffered when they tried to register to vote in Mississippi.

The next forty days saw blacks all over the state of
Mississippi attempt to register to vote. Armed with over one
hundred lawyers, who volunteered their time and energy, the
tide turned. But it was a costly victory for the movement.
Many people had lost their lives for the right to vote even
though the 15th amendment, passed in 1870, already guaranteed
the right to vote.

In 1965, the voting rights act was finally enacted. The
battle in the south was not won with the aid of the federal
government. They were an obstacle. It was people like Fannie
Lu Hamer who had risked their lives who were the real heroes.
They forced a nation to pay attention to their struggle and
once again proved that people can change history. That is a
lesson we should remember.

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 65 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Jun 13, 2000 (13:16) * 81 lines 
America Before Columbus

When Columbus came to America in 1492, there were over 75
million people, twenty-five million living in North America,
inhabiting the land he supposedly discovered. Columbus called
them Indians believing he had reached the east by going west.

The natives had migrated across the Bering Straits and settled
into warmer areas of the continent. The Hopi Indians were
building cliff dwellings, farming and creating villages about
a thousand years before Christ in what is now New Mexico.

When Julius Caesar was conquering the Western world an Indian
culture called the Moundbuilders, who lived in the Ohio
Valley, were making huge structures out of earth. One of them
was said to be over three miles long and the area served as
a trading post. Indians came from the west, the Gulf of Mexico
and the Midwest to trade and exchange goods. So you can see a
system of trade and commerce existed before Columbus arrived.

In what is now called Pennsylvania and upper state New York
lived the Iroquois. The Iroquois lived in villages and had a
very sophisticated social system which was in many ways
superior to the European culture. The land was worked in
common and was owned by the whole nation.

Women held a much higher place in the Iroquois culture versus
the European. For instance, family names were tied to the
women not the men. When a man married, he joined the family
of his wife. Women farmed the land while the men hunted for
fish and game. Men and women shared power and the European
model of male dominance was conspicuously absent in Iroquois
culture. Children were not punished harshly and taught
equality in possessions. This is contrasted with the severity
of the Puritans who believed in harsh punishment.




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What did the culture of the Europeans bring to the new world?
The Europeans were a society of both rich and poor, controlled
by priests, governors and male heads of families. The Iroquois
society had no laws, sheriffs, judges or juries, however
boundaries of behavior existed. If someone stole food or shamed
their family, they were banished until they had morally atoned
for their actions.

So this was the land Columbus "found." There was no written
language but their history was passed on by an oral culture
that was far superior to the Europeans. They told their
history through songs and fables. They paid attention to
the development of an individual's personality. This kind of
community lasted among natives long after the Indians were
conquered. John Collier who lived with the tribes of the
American Southwest said of the spirit of the natives, "if
we could make it our own, there would be an eternally
inexhaustible earth and a forever lasting peace."

Perhaps this is myth-making. But these ideas have been
repeated in European journals. What can we learn from this?
First, we can see that hierarchy leads to divisions in all
societies and this stratification of power leads to dominance
by a few to the cost of many. This is true of all European
systems whether it be capitalism or communism. Secondly, mere
laws and punishment do not lead to a peaceful society. Maybe
we should study other cultures in our schools and incorporate
some of their beliefs into our own violent society.

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 66 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Jun 15, 2000 (00:01) * 9 lines 
Why do people say "mush" to make their sled dogs move?

Canadian sled drivers actually were trying to say "marchons,"
which means 'let us march' in French. Early French-Canadians
used this command to make their sled dogs go forward. When
English-speaking sled drivers attempted to copy this expression,
it was mispronounced to "mushon" and subsequently abbreviated to
plain old "mush."

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 67 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Jun 29, 2000 (12:51) * 71 lines 
Have you ever wondered what happened to the 56 men who
signed the Declaration of Independence?

Five signers were captured by the British as traitors, and
tortured before they died.

Twelve had their homes ransacked and burned. Two lost their
sons serving in the Revolutionary Army; another had two sons

Nine of the 56 fought and died from wounds or hardships of the
Revolutionary War.

They signed and they pledged their lives, their fortunes, and
their sacred honor.

What kind of men were they?

Twenty-four were lawyers and jurists. Eleven were merchants,
nine were farmers and large plantation owners; men of means,
well educated. But they signed the Declaration of Independence
knowing full well that the penalty would be death if they were

Carter Braxton of Virginia, a wealthy planter and trader, saw
his ships swept from the seas by the British Navy. He sold his
home and properties to pay his debts, and died in rags.

Thomas McKeam was so hounded by the British that he was
forced to move his family almost constantly. He served in the
Congress without pay, and his family was kept in hiding. His
possessions were taken from him, and poverty was his reward.

Vandals or soldiers looted the properties of Dillery, Hall,
Clymer,Walton,Gwinnett,Heyward,Ruttledge, and Middleton.

At the battle of Yorktown, Thomas Nelson Jr, noted that the
British General Cornwallis had taken over the Nelson home for
his headquarters. He quietly urged General George Washington
to open fire. The home was destroyed, and Nelson died bankrupt.

Francis Lewis had his home and properties destroyed. The enemy
jailed his wife, and she died within a few months.

John Hart was driven from his wife's bedside as she was dying.
Their 13 children fled for their lives. His fields and his gristmill
were laid to waste. For more than a year he lived in forests
and caves, returning home to find his wife dead and his children
vanished. A few weeks later he died from exhaustion and a broken

Norris and Livingston suffered similar fates.

Such were the stories and sacrifices of the American Revolution.
These were not wild-eyed, rabble-rousing ruffians. They were
soft-spoken men of means and education. They had security, but
they valued liberty more. Standing tall, straight, and unwavering,
they pledged: "For the support of this declaration, with firm reliance
on the protection of the divine providence, we mutually pledge to
each other, our lives, our fortunes, and our sacred honor."

They gave you and me a free and independent America. The history
books never told you a lot about what happened in the Revolutionary
War. We didn't fight just the British.

We were British subjects at that time and we fought our own
government! Some of us take these liberties so much for granted,
but we shouldn't. So, take a few minutes while enjoying your 4th
of July holiday and silently thank these patriots. It's not much to
ask for the price they paid. Remember: Freedom is Never Free!

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 68 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Jul  2, 2000 (20:21) * 0 lines 

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 69 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Jul 11, 2000 (15:19) * 73 lines 
The Baseball Spy

During his highly undistinguished thirteen year baseball
career, catcher Moe Berg only achieved a .243 batting
average. Berg grew up in Newark, New Jersey where
after graduating from high school, he attended Princeton
University and became a linguistic scholar. Berg’s baseball
exploits earned him a $5,000 bonus for signing with the
Brooklyn Dodgers and he used that money to study at the
famous Sorbonne University in Paris. It was here that
Berg learned to speak twelve different languages which
he would later use to become one of the most important
spies of WWII.

Berg’s entrance into the world of espionage began in 1934,
when he visited Tokyo as part of the traveling all-star team
that included Babe Ruth and Lou Gehrig. His ability to
speak fluent Japanese was the main reason that he was
included on the team. While there, he secretly filmed the
landscape of Tokyo from the tallest building in the city.
Jimmy Doolittle's pilots later used this valuable
information for their bombing run in 1942.

Berg retired from baseball in 1939 and soon began a new
career as a spy for the United States. In September of
1939, the Second World War began when Germany attacked
and quickly overran Poland. Hitler then turned his
attention to Western Europe, and in 1940, France was
defeated. Hitler’s bombing of Great Britain and his
invasion of the Soviet Union showed the world his callous
disregard for human life. On December 7, 1941, Japan
attacked the United States and it quickly joined the war
for the survival of humanity.

The OSS, a forerunner of the CIA, recruited Berg. His
first assignment was to assess the situation in war
torn Yugoslavia. Impressed by Berg, OSS director "Wild
Bill" Donovan sent him to Zurich, Switzerland on what
could be considered the most important spy mission of
World War II.

Berg arrived in Zurich in December of 1944, armed with a
handgun, a suicide pill and a mission of utmost importance.
What the allies feared most was that Nazi Germany would
unlock the secrets of the atomic bomb before they could.
Their fears were well justified. Phillip Morresy, a scientist
who worked on the development of the American weapon at Los
Alamos, even kept a short wave radio tuned into a London
station so that he could monitor each morning if they were
still broadcasting and had not been wiped off the face of
the planet by a German A-bomb.

Berg's assignment was to go to a lecture, led by Germany’s
leading physicist Werner Heisenberg, and determine if Nazi
Germany was close to building an atomic bomb. If they were,
he was to kill Heisenberg on the spot. Berg carefully
listened to Heisenberg's lecture and decided that Germany
was not close to building the bomb. President Roosevelt and
the scientists working on the Manhattan Project were briefed
on Berg’s report. Heartened by the news, Roosevelt
commented, "Fine, just fine. Let us pray that Heisenberg is
right. And give my regards to the catcher."

Berg was one of our most trusted and effective spies of the
war, however, he had a difficult time after the conflict.
He lived with his relatives and remained in obscurity,
showing up occasionally at Mets and Yankee games. In May of
1972, Berg died at the age of 70, after suffering a fall
while working at his New Jersey home. Few people knew of his
exploits, and his secret mission, or that Berg was willing
to give his own life to save humanity. He is a forgotten
hero and a common man that displayed uncommon bravery.

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 70 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Jul 12, 2000 (17:15) * 21 lines 
When was money first used?


If money is a physical object traded as standard tokens of value,
then the first money was being used by 9,000 BC in the middle east
and Africa, where cattle and measures of grain were exchanged as
standard units for other items like food, raw materials, land, or

Among the first objects specially created as value tokens were coils
of cast silver "ring money" that were used in Mesopotamia as early as
2,500 BC. These bits of silver were weighed in shekels, the world's
first standard units of measure.

The first coins were circulated in Lydia in 687 BC, according to
Herodotus. Although the Chinese may have used paper money for a
short time in the same century, the first western use of paper money
was not until the 18th century, by the French.

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 71 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Jul 17, 2000 (23:57) * 72 lines 
The Plague of America

William Langer wrote that the Bubonic Plague was "the worst
disaster that had ever befallen upon mankind." During the
14th century, about 30% of the European population died from
its effects. The Europeans believed that the horror was
caused by God punishing them for their sins. We now know
that it was rats and fleas that carried the disease coupled
with the hygienic shortcomings of the time.

There is another plague that is barely spoken of, that is
the spread of disease to native-Americans which was carried
by the settlers of the New World. This plague caused 90% of
the population to die and was refereed to by the governor of
the Massachusetts colony John Winthrop as "an act of god."
Winthrop wrote to a friend in England, "So as God hath
thereby cleared our title to our place, those who remain
in these parts, not being more than fifty, have put
themselves under our protection."

The Europeans brought with them diseases that the native
people were incapable of handling. Europeans refused to
bathe, believing it to be unhealthy, and they never took
their clothes off. In fact, the natives complained that they
smelled and tried to get the settlers to bathe but had
little success. Furthermore, the Pilgrims brought with them
animals that carried diseases such as cows and chickens. The
results proved disastrous as only one in every twenty people
survived the invasion from Europe.

Although medical science has proven otherwise, the Europeans
of the time still held steadfastly to the belief that this
was an act of God being held out in their behalf. One
settler proclaimed while speaking about the deaths of Native-
Americans, "their enterprise failed, for it pleased God to
effect these Indians with such a deadly sickness, that out
of every 1000, over 950 of them had died, and many of them
lay rotting above the ground for lack of burial." On the
West Coast the devastation was similar. In 1769, it was
estimated that there were 300,000 people living in
California and by the end of the gold rush in 1849 only
30,000 remained.

These cataclysmic events are treated in our textbooks as an
example of American exceptionalism. "This great opportunity
for a great social and political experiment may never come
again," says the American Pageant. Another textbook states,
"The American people have created a unique nation." What on
earth is so unique? What did the natives do to deserve
such a fate? The gracious acts of the indigenous people
are quite remarkable. They told them how to grow corn,
where to fish and where to hunt. This allowed the
settlers to survive, however, they neglected to thank the

What can we learn from this? First, one must be very careful
when any group says that their exploitation is an act of
God. Second that America was conquered without regard for
the people who lived there. It is estimated that over 14
million people lived in what we call the United States, but
by 1900, fewer than one million remained. Today, we would
describe this as ethnic cleansing. If anyone out there
deserves reparations, it is Native-Americans. I pray that
some day they get it.

Sources for Article: Gary Nash, Red, White and Black
Almon W. Lauber, Indian Slavery in
Colonial Times Francis Jennings, The
Invasion of America James Loewen, Lies
My Teacher told Me

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 72 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Jul 18, 2000 (18:54) * 81 lines 
The CIA and Art

In 1947, a war-torn Europe was suffering from the worst
winter in memory. As the country lay in ruins, the alliance
between the allies was beginning to crumble. A cold war had
developed between the United States and the Soviet Union,
during which time the U.S. instituted what was called
the Marshall Plan. Named after General George C. Marshall,
the plan poured millions of dollars into the economies of
the Western European countries along with defeated Germany,
which was now divided into occupied zones. This, more than
anything, stopped the advance of communism.

But the cold war had another dimension. It was a cultural
war as well. The mission of the CIA was to draw the
intelligentsia of Western Europe away from its enchantment
with Marxism and communism. To do this the U.S. would have
to lure intellectuals into excepting an American way of
life. Before the war, American culture was held in low
regard in Europe and was considered an effective economic
machine with a second rate intellectual culture. With the
help of the CIA, this was soon to change.

What the CIA sought to achieve was a non-communist left,
headed by people like Tom Brandon and Arthur Schlesinger,
that would persuade Europe to look at America in a
different light. To accomplish this, the CIA requited
people from the old OAS. The OAS was the forerunner of the
CIA and its membership included intellectuals from Ivy
League schools who had worked for the agency during the
Second World War.

Aided by money from the Marshall Plan, they set-up new
foundations and passed money through old ones, all in the
name of discrediting communism. To do this, books were
funded which questioned communism and its right to be
considered the wave of the future. Many of those who now
attacked communism were themselves former communists and
sympathizers who had grown wary of the Soviet Union after
the purge trials of the 1930’s and the Hitler-Stalin pact
of 1939.

The Federal Arts Project of the 1930’s was widely criticized
by the republicans and conservative democrats as New Deal
propaganda. But it gave work to unemployed artists
throughout the country, including the great American painter
Jackson Pollack. What abstract-impressionism represented was
a radical artistic movement that broke with the conventions
of social realism. Criticized by both the Soviet Union and
American conservatives, it seemed like the perfect choice
to represent American interests. This is not to say that the
movement itself, born out of Surrealism and Cubism, was not
a legitimate artistic movement. It certainly was- Jackson
Pollack happens to be one of my favorite painters- but it
was the perfect choice because of its radical break in
form to illustrate the artistic freedom of the United

The problem was Congress, led by Republican George Dondero,
who attacked the new movement. "All modern art is Communistic.
Cubism aims to distort by designed disorder. Futurism aims to
destroy by the machine myth. Dadaism aims to destroy by
ridicule. Abstractism aims to destroy by means of brain-
storms." So the agency was faced with a problem of what to
do about its own Congress which was clearly undermining its
own efforts. The answer was to draw on its old OSS ties.
Nelson Rockefeller, former OSS operative during World War II,
put the resources of the Museum for Modern Art (MOMA) behind
the project and the work of Jackson Pollack.

Pollack himself was an old left-winger who had been involved
with Communist work shops of the Mexican muralist David
Alfalo Siquireros. Pollack was the perfect choice. Born on a
sheep ranch in Wyoming, Pollack was a hard drinking American
artist whose work was exceptional. Through Rockefeller, MOMA
helped support various exhibitions throughout Europe and
New York replaced Paris as the center of the art world.
Abstract Expressionism most likely would have become a
major force anyway but there is no question that the CIA
aided it. But was that a bad thing?

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 73 of 116: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Tue, Jul 18, 2000 (19:14) * 3 lines 
As you noted, Abstract Expressionism would have become the prevailing mode in post war art anyway. Cubism and Surrealism are not necessarily born out of Marxism and socialism. They have their roots in Post-Impressionism. There is indeed, and always has been political art. In reality, Cubism was prompted by scientific theories concerning how the human eye "sees" in three dimensions. As for Surrealism, its roots lie in psychology and the analysis of dreams. Another artistic movement of roughly the same time was Dadaism, which is best described as "a response to that cosmic bad joke known as World War I". The quote comes from Robert Hughes, I believe. I could be wrong.

As to whether or not the CIA aiding the influence of Abstract-Expressionism was a bad thing. That's a matter of taste, on some level, isn't it? It depends on whether you like Abstract-Expressionism, or not? Or even what your view of the CIA may be.

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 74 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Jul 18, 2000 (19:22) * 1 lines 
I was hoping with your background, you would pick up on this post and comment on it. Interesting conjecture there at the end of your comments. I agree!

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 75 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Jul 21, 2000 (13:36) * 87 lines 
John Peter Altgeld

John Peter Altgeld was the most hated man of his generation.
Nearly every newspaper in the country attacked him at one
time or another. To others, he was a man of conscience and
morals, who saw injustice and acted despite its consequences
to his career. He was just an infant his parents brought him
to America from Germany in 1848. A young Altgeld followed
the Civil War closely and tried to enlist at the age of
sixteen, however, was rejected because of his young age.

In 1875, he arrived in Chicago, which at that time was a
growing and bustling city. Altgeld became wealthy through
some astute real estate investments and developed a keen
interest in politics. In 1886, he was elected judge and
proved to be an open supporter of labor. He also was
extremely critical of a justice system that many times
jailed young offenders for no apparent reason. His reforms
improved the justice system and Altgefd started to win
statewide recognition as a defender of the common man.

Altgeld was elected governor of Illinois in 1892. His first
public act was to condemn the lynching of a black man in
Decatur, Illinois. This created a stir across the nation but
nothing compared with what would soon follow. On June 26,
1892, he issued a pardon to three of the Haymarket
anarchists. The Haymarket riot occurred when a bomb was
thrown into a peaceful crowd of people who were holding a
demonstration in support of the eight-hour day. Altgeld
carefully studied the evidence and came to the conclusion
that the defendants were innocent. They had been tried and
convicted because of their political beliefs and not because
of anything they had done.

Altgeld carefully examined every page of the record that
proved that it was police Captain Bonfield's sadistic
behavior that had caused the riot. Because juries were not
picked by lot at this time, Judge Gary packed the jury with
opponents of labor and falsified the evidence. The defendants
were innocent but to pardon them would be an act of political
suicide. Altgeld pardoned them anyway and was accused
of being an an anarchist by the Chicago Tribune.

In 1894, Altgeld would be tested again. When George Pullman,
with the support of his chief stockholder Marshall Field,
cut workers pay by a 25%, the workers went on strike. The
strike quickly developed into a test of strength between the
railroad union and Pullman. The union appeared close to
victory when Federal troops, against the will of Altgeld,
were sent into Chicago to break the strike. The government
said that the railroad union was in violation of the
Sherman Anti-Trust Act. Although the act had been set up
to guard against the creation of monopolies by corporations,
like so many other court decisions in American history, it
was turned against the people. This intervention by federal
troops quickly resulted in severe rioting and several
deaths. Altgeld began to speak out against the malpractices
of these corporations.

Altgeld's attack was probably the most devastating attack
ever made by a public official at that time. He said the
danger came to the country "from the corruption, usurpation,
insolence, and oppression that go hand in hand with vast
accumulation of wealth, wielded by unscrupulous men." In
1896, Altgeld helped William Jennings Bryan, receive the
nomination of the Democratic Party. The party now rejected
the pro business policies of standing President Grover
Cleveland. Two years earlier, Altgeld had stood alone
against Cleveland, howver, now the whole Democratic Party
was behind him. Altgeld was again attacked by the press
and red baited by Theodore Roosevelt, who called him a
dangerous man. The New York Tribune said that Bryan was
puppet in the hands of the "anarchist Altgeld." Even though
Bryan was defeated and Altgeld lost a very close election
for governor, he still can be viewed as a beacon of light
in an era of corruption and darkness. Many of his proposed
reforms were passed during the Progressive era, which would
follow a decade later. On March 11, 1902, after a fatiguing
day in court defending a union against a strike injunction,
Altgeld died from a stroke. Clarence Darrow, his former
law partner said, " he died as he has lived, fighting for

Sources. Critic and Crusaders, Charles Madison, 1947, Henry

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 76 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Jul 26, 2000 (17:17) * 77 lines 
Red Summer

The summer of 1919 is remembered as the beginning of the Red
Scare, a term civil rights leader James Weldon Johnson coined
to describe the racial riots that bloodied the streets of
America during that season. While federal agents were
arresting political radicals, riots broke out in Chicago,
Washington, East St. Louis and twenty other towns and cities
in the U.S. The riots were a result of white fears and a
growing hatred toward immigrants and blacks across the

The movie "Birth of a Nation" and its subsequent success had
much to do with the revival of the Ku Klux Klan. President
Woodrow Wilson described the film as, "history written with
lighting," which adveritsers used to promote the movie.
The movie characterized African-Americans as clowns, corrupt
and incapable of self-government. In reality, they were no
more corrupt than the public officials in other parts of the
United States. This was after all the Gilded Age, and for
the most part, they were an improvement over their colleagues
elsewhere. Even such scholars as President Wilson of
Princeton University and John Rhodes of Columbia University,
for whom the prestigious Rhodes scholarship is named, bought
into this southern fable and later wrote about it as if it
was true.

During World War I, African-Americans were forced to live
in substandard housing and were confined to only certain
areas of the cities. One report written for the Associated
Charities of Detroit told a typical story. "There was not
a single vacant house or tenement in the several Negro
sections of the city. The majority of Negroes are living
under such crowded conditions that three or four families
in an apartment are the rule rather than the exception."

When African-American soldiers returned from the war and
demanded respect, they were met with discrimination,
segregation and increased lynchings. As blacks sought to
break out of the ghettos and try to achieve a better life,
they were attacked. The worst riot occurred in Chicago on
July 27, after a group of white bathers stoned a black boy
named Eugene Williams. The boy had drifted near them and
subsequently drowned to death in panic. The riots raged on
for nearly four days. One of the white groups that was
heavily implicated in the disturbance was the Hamburg Club,
where future Mayor of Chicago, Richard J. Daley presided.

Meanwhile, black men, who were to be called "Bolshevik
Agents," fought back in Washington and elsewhere. Claude
McKay wrote of the resistance, "If we must die, let us nobly
die, so that our precious blood may not be shed in vain."
The system of white superiority had been challenged and
whites had reacted with a determination to reaffirm its
status. But this never could have happened if those in the
ivory towers of our best schools had not spread the lie
regarding re-construction. Racism had become a national
ideology and not just a regional one.

People such as Eric and Phillip Foner, Kenneth Stamp, W.E.B.
Du Bois and the federal writers project of the 1930's have
discredited the writings about the failure of re-construction
and, in turn, have painted quite a different picture. What can
we learn from this? One thing we can learn is that whoever
writes about history is subject to their own prejudices and
just because they come with lofty credentials doesn't
mean that they don't lie. So next time you hear some media
designated expert on TV spew their rhetoric, question them.

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 77 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Jul 31, 2000 (13:58) * 15 lines 
What does “Annuit Coeptis” and "Novus Ordo Seclorum" on the back
of a United States one-dollar bill mean? What is the significance
of the pyramid in the design being split into two parts with an
eye in between?

Annuit Coeptis is Latin for “He has favored our undertakings.”
Novus Ordo Seclorum is Latin for "new order of the ages."

The eye represents the eye of Providence and the shining light
around it illustrates "spiritual above material."

The pyramid is split to indicate it is unfinished, signifying the
United States, too, is continually growing and building but never

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 78 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Aug  1, 2000 (20:01) * 63 lines 
Irish Women in America

The economic struggle in Ireland had a particularly negative
effect on Irish women. Farmers began to stop the practice of
dividing the land upon their death amongst their sons in
1825. The reasoning was there was not enough land for all
the men so it would be better that the oldest would inherit
the land and get something. Women weren't even considered
worthy of receiving inheritances. Marriage rates declined
and over one-third of all women between the ages of 26-35
were single. One women stated, "There is no fun in Ireland
at all..times are one is getting married."

Many women saw the new world as a place of hope and came in
droves. The majority of them became domestic servants where
the pay was better than at the factory but left them with
no time for themselves. Guidebooks recruited servants,
offering them more money than they could have ever dreamed
of in Ireland. One women wrote, "Here in America we marry
for love and work for riches."

So they cooked and cleaned for the upper classes. Women
were forced to wear caps and aprons, which served as remind-
ers of their servitude. The nature of this servitude left
women feeling exploited, forced to serve their bosses some-
times for twenty-four hours a day. Many of them left and
sought work in the textile mills of New England. The work
was noisy and often dangerous with an average life expedi-
ency of twenty-four. In 1860, eighty-eight women died in a
fire in Lowell's Pennington Mill when they were unable to
reach safety after a roof had collapsed upon them.
Some of the earliest strikes in America took place at some
of these mills. All across New England, women struck against
appalling working conditions that were imposed on them. A
succession of strikes near Pittsburgh saw women, armed with
pitchforks, invade and many times close the mills. Reformist
Catharine Beecher wrote: "I was there in the winter and
every morning I was awakened at five by the bells calling
to labor. The time allowed for dressing and breakfast was
too short, as many had told me, that both were performed
hurriedly. The work at the mill begun by lamplight and con-
tinued without remission till twelve. This was all done
standing up."
Despite the hardships, America represented hope for many
women. It was not just jobs and wages they sought, but a
kind of self-sufficiency from fathers and husbands that they
could not find in Ireland. Many said they would never go
back to Ireland. "Any man or women without a family are fools
that would not venture and come to this plentiful country."
As women became more middle class, they began to dominate
such professions as teaching and other fields that had been
closed to them in the past. Women became a force in the
abolitionist movement and which later led to the women's
movement. It would be a long struggle, but through their
own efforts they would change their lives and the lives of
those who would come after these brave pioneers.

Sources: Howard Zinn, A People's History of the United
States, Harper/Collins
Ronald Takaki, A Different Mirror, Little Brown
and Company

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 79 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Aug  4, 2000 (20:50) * 78 lines 
Forgotten History - Beginning of the Vietnam War

On September 2, 1945, representatives from the Emperor of Ja-
pan signed surrender papers ending World War II. On that same
day a declaration of independence was signed by Ho Chi Minh
and the Democratic Republic of Vietnam was born. The procla-
mations said, "All men are created equal. They are endowed
by their Creator with certain inalienable rights, among those
are, Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness."

Now, if this sounds a lot like our own Declaration of Inde-
pendence, that's because it is. Minh studied history while
attending school in the United States. In 1919, Minh tried
to convince President Wilson to endorse Vietnamese independ-
ence, but Wilson refused to meet with him. During World War
II, Minh was an ally of the United States and the Americans
had given him money and weapons so he could fight the Japan-
ese. Minh was certain that this would be rewarded by the
United States, and in return, they would support Vietnamese
independence after the war. We didn't. Instead we supported
a return of the French.

At first, Ho Chi Minh tried to negotiate with the French.
However, after talks collapsed, a war of independence broke
out in Vietnam. From 1946 to 1954, we poured millions of doll-
ars into coffers for the French military, so in effect we arm-
ed both sides. In 1954, the unthinkable happened. The French
were defeated at Dien Bien Phu. Many people in the Eisenhower
administration wanted to go to war and replace the French but
President Eisenhower, who had just negotiated a perilous peace
in Korea, was in no mood to send American boys to Vietnam. But
others in the administration had different ideas, including
Secretary of State Charles Foster Dulles. "I do not believe
that in this contingency, the United States would simply say
'too bad we're licked and that is the end of it.' We can raise
hell and the Communists will find it just as expensive to
resist as we are now finding it."
So we set out to raise some hell. One of the first things we
did was to create a government that we could call our own.
Ngo Dinh Diem was installed as the ruler of South Vietnam.
Vietnam had been separated at the 17th parallel, with Ho Chi
Minh's forces ruling the north and the newly created Diem
government in the south. Both sides had agreed to elections
in 1956, but the U.S. had no intention in keeping their end
of the bargain.
Diem had no support. He had no army. He had no popular appeal.
Diem needed the American CIA to survive so the Saigon Mili-
tary Mission was born. First, they paid off many of Diem's
opponents in the south. Next they used physiological warfare
to scare the largely but not exclusively Catholic refugees by
transporting a million North Vietnamese refugees and turning
them loose in the south. The effects of this influx of refu-
gees had devastating effects on the south. Many of the dis-
placed people became the early Viet Cong.
Diem had spent most of his time out of the country and had no
knowledge of the inner workings of Vietnam. Because of this,
he made two other tragic mistakes, which seemed logical at
the time, but would prove to be a devastating for the Viet-
namese. First, he ordered the French to leave, which removed
any kind of government in South Vietnam. Next, because he sus-
pected they were communists, Diem ordered the Chinese out of
the country. This destroyed the commerce of South Vietnam be-
cause the Chinese were the middle men in Vietnam's economy.
Now, when rice farmers brought their crops to market to ex-
change them for necessary goods, no one was there to trade
with them.
The invaders from the north soon took land from the peasants,
with the support of the American CIA, and refugees from the
north increasingly dominated the Vietnam government. In the
name of anti-communism, the seeds of a war that would take
the lives of two million Vietnamese and 58,000 Americans, was
born. We weren't trying to save Vietnam we were, in the words
of Charles Foster Dulles, "raising some hell."

Sources: The Pentagon Papers, Daniel Ellsberg
JFK, The Cia, Vietnam and the Plot to Assassinate
John F. Kennedy, L. Fletcher Prouty.
Interview with Noam Chomsky

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 80 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Aug  7, 2000 (13:44) * 22 lines 
The national anthem of Greece has 158 verses.

The World Trade Center's twin towers in New York City have two
zip codes, 10047 and 10048 - one for each building.

Mozart never went to school.

Smokey the Bear's original name was "Hot Foot Teddy."

Queen Elizabeth was an eighteen year old mechanic in the English military.

The watch pocket in pants is also known as the "fob."

In ancient China, doctors received payment only if their patients
were kept healthy. If their health failed, the doctor sometimes
paid the patient.

Six people can eat on one scrambled ostrich egg.

The dot over the letter "i" is called a tittle.

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 81 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sun, Aug 20, 2000 (13:28) * 63 lines 
James A. Farley/Strikebreaker

James A. Farley was known as the "King of the Strikebreakers."
During the 1880's, as the cry of the eight-hour workday and
other labor reforms grew, so did the growth of private detect-
ive agencies dedicated to breaking strikes. The 1890's were
not the gay nineties to working people. To them it was a time
of poverty and desperation as the strikes became increasingly
violent. American industry was determined to keep unions out.
To do this, they would often hire detective agencies to pro-
vide the force necessary to cross picket lines. The depress-
ion of the 1890's left them with an ample labor supply of
drifters, grifters and other questionable characters. These
characters were ready to provide services and started private
detective agencies. One such character was James A. Farley.
Farley saw an opportunity and he proved himself to be a ruth-
less ally to the business community. By 1904, he had already
crushed over twenty strikes. Farley used to brag about his
success saying, "I have my own staff of personal representa-
tives, and in some corner of the country one of my clients is
always enjoying my services." Violence often followed his
visits. He advertised in papers and recruited his little army.
Many quit when they learned they would be used as scabs but
an equal numbers stayed. Farley's methods were ruthless. In
Chicago's teamster strike of 1904, his actions could be cate-
gorized as "putting gasoline on the fire."

Farley sent his chief lieutenant into an already explosive
situation who announced: "I want no police, they only get in
the way. Give me plenty of men and plenty of clubs." He then
took 300 men, armed them with razors, guns and knives and set
out after the strikers. The strikers drove them back after a
particularly bloody day and Farley still earned $50,000 for
his efforts. It is interesting to compare that salary with
the $3 dollars a day in wages the strikers were asking for.
His tactics made him a celebrity. The New York Herald called
him "the best hated man in this country."

In the San Francisco streetcar strike of 1907, Farley agreed
to bring 400 strikebreakers from the east to break the strike.
The strikers were asking for three dollars a day and after on-
ly the second day of the strike Patrick Calhoun, President of
United Railways, brought the scabs in. Protesters surrounded
the trains and tried to prevent them from leaving the barn.
Farley's men fired shots into the crowd and which left 25 men
either dead or seriously injured.

The people of San Francisco were outraged and even though 1,000
or more separate injuries resulted from the strikebreakers'
negligence in operating the streetcars, the strike continued.
The strikers' lost their battle and Farley went home to enjoy
his riches, which were ample considering he was paid more than
$10 million for his services during the decade. On September
11, 1915, he died of tuberculosis. There would be others to
follow him, but Farley was the first in a long list of strike-
breakers. The fight for economic justice would be a hard and
protracted struggle in America as long as companies were will-
ing to use the service of unsavory characters like James Far-

Sources: Labor Heritage, Robert M. Smith

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 82 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Aug 24, 2000 (00:38) * 82 lines 
The John Lennon Files

John Lennon was the heart and soul of "The Beatles." It was
Lennon that gave the group their edge and he will be forever
linked with the rebellious youth culture of the 1960's. Lenn-
on was the political Beatle and for this he became a target
of the FBI, the CIA, and President Nixon. Nixon went after
Lennon, J. Edgar Hoover called him a dangerous subversive
and the CIA was willing to break the law, and its own chart-
er, in their pursuit of this former Beatle.

Lennon had been very critical of the U.S. involvement in Viet-
nam and after the break up of the Beatles he became increas-
ingly interested in radical politics. This caught the atten-
tion of FBI czar J. Edgar Hoover. Hoover's FBI had investi-
gated artists for years and kept files on writers such as Nel-
son Algren, John Steinbeck, William Faulkner and many others.
Through the use of informants, the FBI found that Lennon was
planning to fuse his music with new left politics. What real-
ly caught the eye of the bureau was a plan to go to the GOP
convention and do a series of concerts to protest the war in
Vietnam. Nothing illegal you say, it doesn't matter.

On December 10th, 1971, John Lennon gave a concert that was
intended to raise money for jailed political activist John
Sinclair. Sinclair was arrested for possession of two sticks
of marijuana and then sentenced to ten years in prison. For
the concert Lennon wrote the song "Free John Sinclair." Sinclair
was the former manager of the rock group "MC5." The Five, as
their fans called them, were punk rockers before punk became
fashionable. They played all out rock and roll with a polit-
ical edge, perhaps the most exciting band I have ever seen.
This, when coupled with Sinclair's politics, made John a tar-
get for the local police.

This event was the beginning of a year long investigation of
Lennon by the FBI. So what did they find? Basically, they
found that Lennon believed in non-violence and expressed no
interest in joining any protest where there might be violence.
They could have just listened to his songs to learn that, but
this would be too simple. So they bugged him, followed him
and reported his every move. Nixon also sought FBI support to
deport Lennon while the CIA, in violation of its own charter
which forbids domestic spying, also kept close tabs on him. In
the end the FBI stopped, but only after one of their own in-
formants told them that John and his wife Yoko Ono had no
real interest in American politics.

In 1980, Lennon was brutally murdered on the streets of New
York. Soon after Jon Wiener, a professor of history at
the University of California, Irvine, made a Freedom of Infor-
mation Act (FOIA) request to see Lennon's FBI files. The FOIA
was created after the revelations of FBI and CIA abuses of pow-
er. The newly elected Reagan administration fought the request
tooth and nail.

Years passed and still the government dragged it's feet. In
1988, George Bush was elected president. Bush, a former CIA
director, was not eager to co-operate with FOIA requests. A
successful corporate attorney named Kenneth Starr, who would
later head the investigations of Bill Clinton, was put in
charge of the Lennon case. Starr fought hard against the dis-
closures, saying among other things, that compliance would be
too costly for the government. This is, of course, the same
man that spent 40 million dollars on the Whitewater case.

In the end the documents were released due to the relaxation
of the rules by the Clinton administration. John Lennon had
broken no law. It is not against the law to hold a benefit
concert or to oppose anyone's election but the Justice Depart-
ment spent hundreds of thousands of dollars, first on surveil-
lance and then against release of the documents. All John Len-
non asked the government for was to "Gimme some truth."

Sources: Jan Wiener, Gimme Some Truth:
The John Lennon FBI Files.

Herbert Mitgang, Dangerous Dossiers:
Exposing the Secret war Against America's Greatest

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 83 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Aug 25, 2000 (12:41) * 81 lines 
The Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)

They changed the world, as we know it. They are indeed an im-
pressive lot, whose ranks include Marian Wright Edelman, Jul-
ian Bond, Congressmen John Lewis, Bob Moses, Alice Walker and
Howard Zinn. It was 1960 and the sit-ins had just begun. Stu-
dents throughout the South became energized by the Greensboro
incident where four students sat in at a lunch counter and sou-
ght to break the stranglehold of segregation in the South. Am-
erica was at the time living a lie. On the one hand we were
telling the world to reject communism yet an apartheid system
controlled the South, which made a mockery of our democracy.
So a group of mostly young black people decided to take action
into their own hands.

Many were influenced by a group of people known as the exist-
entialists, whose philosophy was to take direct action and
whose belief was that an individual had the power and the re-
sponsibility to change things. The existentialists sought out
to confront the South's particular institution by challenging
segregation at theater's, libraries by conducting sit-ins and
demanding their rights. The Student Non-Violent Coordinating
Committee (SNCC) energized the long budding fervor of discon-
tent in the South. They came from all over; Bob Moses from
Boston, Stokely Charmicheal from Howard University, Cortland
Cox from the Bronx and Diane Nash from Chicago. Their courage
caught the attention of a nation and some of their activities
included freedom rides and voter registration drives. In each
case they were met by violence.

During the freedom rides the group de-segregated buses trav-
eling throughout the South. When they stopped at places like
Birmingham Alabama, they were attacked and beaten as the FBI
and the Kennedy Justice Department just watched and did noth-
ing. In fact, JFK described them as "sons of bitches" but the
nation watched and admired their willingness too stand-up for
what they believed. Soon white kids from the North, who saw
them as heroes and role models, joined them. This was a new
time in America and SNCC was at the heart of it. What must be
remembered is that they were so young, teenagers really, and
they organized sharecroppers, domestic maids and others th-
roughout the South. The elders fed them, opened up their homes
to the young people, and then went out and risked their lives
for the right to vote. It was uncommon courage displayed by
common ordinary folk. This is how things are changed.

In Mississippi they faced the ultimate challenge. It is hard
to explain to people now what Mississippi was like back then.
The disgusting movie "Mississippi Burning" portrayed the FBI
as being heroes, which was a lot like praising the Gestapo in
the Anne Frank Story. In 1964, Bob Moses organized, along with
other members of SNCC, Mississippi Summer. Here they would
directly challenge the apartheid system. All they asked for
was the right to vote and for this they were shot, beaten,
jailed and killed. Finally, the ultimate horror came as three
young students; James Chaney, Andrew Goodman and Michael Sch-
werner were arrested, released and then murdered. Now the fed-
eral government had to do something so eventually the voting
rights bill was passed.

The price had been high, but the young people and the brave
common folk of the South had won. We remember Dr. Martin Luth-
er King but often the story of SNCC is forgotten, which is a
mistake because the story of SNCC is just as important. Many
of the writers of history constantly search for leaders, so
they single out Dr. King but neglect to tell the real history
of America and the struggle for a decent life by regular people
like you and me. The changes that have occurred have been
because of groups like SNCC and people like Sam Block, James
Foreman, Oscar Chase, Ella Baker, Gloria Richardson, Cleve-
land Sellers and so many others that I can't mention here. It
really is an impressive history, isn't it?

Sources: A Peoples History of the United States. Howard Zinn
You Can't Be Neutral On a Moving Train. Howard Zinn
Parting the Waters. Taylor Branch
Conversations with: Marian Wright Edelman, Stokely
Charmicheal (Kwame Ture),
Cleveland Sellers, Cortland Cox, and Bob Moses.

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 84 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Aug 29, 2000 (14:42) * 67 lines 

Media, Prejudice and Zoot Suits

Every wave of immigration the US has experienced was accompan-
ied by racial prejudice and poverty for the immigrating eth-
nic group. Far from being a land of open arms to free oppress-
ed people from all over the world, too often economic imper-
atives have made it necessary for the US to let the "people
in." Such was (and still is) the case for the Mexican-American
immigration scene. But US need for immigration is for another
day. Today we look at the media, which has always contributed
to a one dimensional view of these new immigrants. These im-
ages have contributed to creating a climate of hate. The Mex-
ican-American image today owes much of that image to fashion.

In the 1940's, a particular style of fashion, known as the
Zoot Suit, became popular among young people in the Mexican
community. Because of their unified taste in clothing, the
media began to call this group of Mexicans gang members. This
was, at best, incorrect. Although some of the "Zoot Suiters"
were gang members, most were just out to have a good time and
look good. The Mexican-Americans in 1941 were for the most part
were poor and left out of the American dream. Their average
income was $792 dollars a year. Poverty and its hand maiden,
discrimination, were the root causes for the way they were
treated and viewed as a group.

The Office of War Information described the living conditions
of the Mexican-Americans in a classified report in 1942: "These
people do not live, they exist. Malnutrition, sickness and
disease are prevalent among them. Their housing, both in and
out of cities, is the worst in the nation. The schools they
attend are frequently segregated and generally inferior."
The problems described in the report had already begun to take
its toll in Los Angles. The police in Los Angles were corrupt,
brutal and racist. Police Captain Edward Duran Ayres stated,
"Mexicans generally preferred to kill, or at least let a per-
son bleed. Their propensity for violence could be traced to
the predominance of Indian blood in their racial composition."
The media generally went along with these racist descriptions
and denounced the "Zoot Suiters" as unpatriotic threats to

On June 3, 1943, after fights between soldiers and Zoot Suit-
ers developed, hundreds of servicemen began to go on a ramp-
age. They invaded movie theaters and often removed the cloth-
ing off those who looked like Zoot Suiters. The marines wield-
ed clubs, belts and iron pipes. A twelve year old, who had re-
ceived a broken jaw, described the scene, "Who the hell are
they fighting, the Japs or us?" Another young man said, "Hell
man, this is a street in Germany tonight." The police stood
by and watched, often praising the attackers, as did the media.
A Los Angles Times headline story stated: ZOOT SUITERS LEARN

The city council of Los Angles, blamed the victims of the
attacks and passed a resolution saying: "Now, therefore, be
it resolved, that the City Council finds that the wearing of
Zoot Suits constitutes a public nuisance and does hereby
instruct the City Attorney to prepare an ordinance to prohib-
it the wearing of Zoot Suits." The Zoot Suit riots remain an
important lesson for all Americans about how racial and eth-
nic differences, strengthened by bias in the press, can lead
to violence and misunderstandings.

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 85 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Aug 30, 2000 (14:27) * 41 lines 
+--------------- Bizarre National Holidays ----------------+

September is... Be Kind To Editors and Writers Month

September is... National Bed Check Month

September is... National Chicken Month

September is... National Mind Mapping Month

September is... National Papaya Month

September 1 is... Emma M. Nutt Day

September 2 is... National Beheading Day

September 5 is... Be Late For Something Day

September 11 is... No News Is Good News Day

September 12 is... National Chocolate Milkshake Day

September 13 is... Defy Superstition Day

September 15 is... Felt Hat Day

September 16 is... Stay Away From Seattle Day

September 18 is... National Play-doh Day

September 22 is... Hobbit Day and Dear Diary Day

September 23 is... Checkers Day and Dogs In Politics Day

September 28 is... Ask A Stupid Question Day

September 29 is... Poisoned Blackberries Day

September 30 is... National Mud Pack Day

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 86 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Sep  1, 2000 (18:15) * 69 lines 
Lincoln and Slavery

While most people know of Lincoln’s Gettysburg address, few
are aware of his Inaugural Address of 1864. It was a masterful
speech, perhaps one of the greatest in American History in
that it specifically identified slavery as the great issue of
the Civil War. Strange as it may seem, some think that the war
was a battle over state's rights. This is an erroneous opinion,
which flies into the face of logic.

The Supreme Court was applauded in the South when it decided
in 1857 that all slaves, regardless of their own wishes or
laws in the North, must be returned to the slaveholding states.
The court ruled that blacks had no rights that must be
respected. What did the slave states say to this? Did they
talk about state's rights? No, they didn't. In fact, they
urged President Buchanan to use his federal powers to enforce
the law. It was only after they lost the election of 1860 and
control of Congress did they begin to champion state's rights.
So much for state's rights.

The Democrats in the North ran a racist campaign appealing
to the worst instincts of the population, however, Lincoln
prevailed. It is popular now to say that Lincoln was only
concerned with saving the Union, but listen to what Lincoln
says: "Fondly do we hope, fervently do we pray, that this
mighty scourge of war may speedily pass away, Yet, if God
wills that it continue until all the wealth piled by the
bondsman’s two hundred and fifty years of unrequited toil
shall be sunk, and every drop of blood drawn with the lash
shall be paid by another drawn with the sward."

Lincoln’s action spurred anti-racist feelings in the North
and especially the Border States. In Maryland, a slave state,
the abolitionists brought the issue to the forefront while
the citizens forced the issue of slavery to a vote. The
tally went against the forces of freedom until large numbers
of absentee ballots turned the tide. These were soldiers from
Maryland who caste their lot with the anti-slavery forces
while they risked death.

The ideas of Lincoln had the opposite effect on the South. On
their way to Gettysburg, southern forces captured blacks and
sent them back to slavery. However, the African-Americans
revolted and joined the Union army in droves, dispelling the
notion of happy slaves. While armed guerrilla attacks plagued
the South, many soldiers from the South switched sides or
deserted. In fact, about two-thirds of the army that opposed
General Sherman disappeared. By 1865, the Confederate army
was disbanding on a massive scale. "The zeal of the people is
failing," said Jefferson Davis.

The failure of textbooks and schools to relay the truth has
been one of the great mistakes of American history. While
racism has existed in the United States, and still does, this
is the birthplace of anti-racism as well. This struggle has
led to many different kinds of social movements. The women’s
movement owes its energy to the cause of civil rights, while
one of the heroes of Tiananmen Square was Lincoln. In East
Germany, citizens sang "We Shall Overcome." Unfortunately,
here in America, we have refused to honor the abolitionists
as heroes and have in many ways turned our backs on our own
glorious history. We shouldn’t, because much of our history
is one that we should be quite proud of.

Sources: Lies My Teacher Told Me. James W. Loewen

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 87 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Sep  5, 2000 (13:59) * 92 lines 
Atomic Veterans

When the United States dropped the atomic bomb on Hiroshima
and Nagasaki, scientists had little idea about the effects
of radiation on human beings. They were startled by what they
saw and decided to study the effects of radiation further.
But who would be tested and how would it be done? It was
decided that American servicemen would become subjects to
tests. So they were sent to the islands of the Pacific,
protected their eyes, and watched the show. The blasts from
the bomb rippled through everything and the fallout became
ingested and imbedded in their skin and bodies.

At first, after the blast, the effects didn't appear to be
too bad. In fact, the amount of radiation was less than one
would receive from an ordinary chest X-ray. But while they
watched and monitored the results, the amount doubled and
then doubled again. Soon it exceeded all safety levels and
contaminated everything in sight. The dust from the blast
began to fall and resembled a snowstorm. The troops often
wrapped themselves in bed sheets to protect themselves from
the dust. These were the lucky ones. In other tests, soldiers
walked to ground zero and became exposed to the deadly dust
sometimes without any protection at all.

It is estimated that 380,000 men participated in the
experiment and over 200,000 were exposed to nuclear radiation.
Many have suffered a variety of maladies, the most common
being cancer. The Veterans Administration has persistently
fought medical claims and has prohibited servicemen from
suing the government which has left them with few options.
In Great Britain, it has been worse. The British government
has refused to provide any compensation at all. Former British
Prime Minister Anthony Eden stated, "It’s a pity but we can’t
help it." We can only imagine the toll this had on former
soldiers of the old Soviet Union.



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In August of 1979, the late Orville Kelley formed the
National Association of Atomic Veterans. It took seven
years of Kelley’s life and most of his savings to receive
any compensation from the United States government. When he
finally achieved justice it was, in the end, too late for
Kelley. He died seven months later from Lymphoma. But the
organization that he formed continues to fight for the
abused veterans although only 460 men have received any
compensation to date. Congress has apologized but the
Veterans Administration has continuously dragged their
feet on the matter.

This is an outrage but the military continues with this kind
of behavior. In the Gulf War, U.S. and United Nation troops
became exposed to U-235, which is more commonly known as
depleted uranium. The armor piercing shells that destroyed
Iraq tanks with such ease now threaten the lives of those
who were exposed to its deadly effects. Now, much like what
happened to the first atomic veterans, men are coming down
with strange illnesses but our government and the British
government refuse to acknowledge its effects. They say, much
like before, that that the men were not put in any danger.
The evidence is overwhelming that they are incorrect. One
only has to look at the high rates of cancer among the
population of Iraq to see that this is another cover-up.
Veterans risk their lives for their country and they
deserve better in return.

Sources: National Association of Atomic Veterans
In the Shadow of the Cloud, John Lerager, Karl
Morgan, Susan Lambert

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 88 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Sep  8, 2000 (21:23) * 81 lines 
The International Workers of the World (Wobblies)

In June of 1906, the International Workers of the World were
born in Chicago. The Wobblies, as they came to be known,
believed in organizing all workers regardless of race, color
or skills into "One Big Union." They were fearless. Hounded
by government throughout their history, they were tarred,
feathered and often run out of town. However, this did not
phase them. When arrested for giving speeches, other members
followed them, often filling the jails until they were allowed
to speak. They were lead by a charismatic labor leader named
Big Bill Haywood. Haywood was a giant of a man who, at their
inaugural meeting in Chicago, stood on a box cart and
proclaimed: "The capitalist class and the working class have
nothing in common."

The Wobblies were anarchists-syndicalists, meaning that
they believed in co-operatives, rather than a vanguard like
the communists. Working conditions at the turn of the century
were horrible. The depression of the 1890’s and the
consolidation of corporations had left labor at the mercy of
the industrialists. In 1911, a fire swept through the Triangle
Shirt Company, killing 146 people, mostly women. They were
crushed in their attempts to escape the illegally locked doors.
Some jumped from the buildings and plunged to their deaths.

The next year the American Woolen Company decided to cut the
wages of their women workers in four of the their plants. The
women, who could not adequately feed their families before the
wage cut, were enraged and decided to go out on strike. The
average wage before the strike was $8.76 a week. The work
was dangerous and many died at very young age. Dr Elizabeth
Shapleigh wrote: "A considerable number of the boys and girls
die within the first two or three years after beginning work.
...Thirty-six out of every 100 men and women who work in the
mill die before they are twenty-five years of age."

The IWW organized soup kitchens to feed 50,000 people, which
consisted over 50% of the population of Lawrence, Massachusetts.
The Wobblies organized parades and held rallies while the mayor
called out the local militia to combat the strike. When police
attacked the marchers, a riot developed, and one person was
killed. Even though witnesses said the police had shot a woman
named Anna Lopizzo, the leaders of the strike were arrested
for the crime. Neither, Joseph Ettor or poet Arturo Giovanntti,
was near the incident but that did not stop the authorities in
their quest to squash the strike. So the IWW sent for "Big"
Bill Haywood.

The strikers set up mass pickets defying the law. But they
faced what seemed to be an insurmountable problem, what to
do with the children. The New York Call, a Socialist paper,
proposed sending the children off to sympathetic families.
So they went to places like Barre, Vermont, New York City
and Philadelphia. The police clubbed the women who brought
their children to the train station and one pregnant woman
and here-unborn child died as a result.

Finally, the American Woolen Company decided to settle the
strike. The workers received a 11% raise and jury found Etter
and Giovanntti innocent of the murder charge. The strike
inspired singer-union organizer Joe Hill, who in honor of the
women and Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, wrote the song Rebel Girl:

There are women of many descriptions
In this queer world, as everyone knows
Some are living in beautiful mansions
And are wearing the finest clothes
There are blue-blooded queens and princesses
Who have charms made of diamonds and pearls
But the only and Thoroughbred Lady Is the Rebel Girl.

Hill was framed in Salt Lake City, Utah for the killing of a
grocer. He was convicted and executed and upon his death asked
for his ashes to be sent to every state in the union except
Utah saying, "I wouldn’t be caught dead in Utah."

Sources: A Peoples History of the United States, Howard Zinn
The Autobiography of Big Bill Haywood

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 89 of 116: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Sat, Sep  9, 2000 (09:46) * 3 lines 
Given the current protests at recent international conferences and national polictal conventions, it would appear that anarchy as a practiced political philosophy is coming back as an option.

It always surprised me that many people are completely ignorant to the fact that during the first half of the twentieth century many Americans, who were very proud that the were Americans, were in fact members of the Socialist Party. They were very often the people that immigrated to the United States, found a hard life, but a better life than they had had. Although life in the U.S. was quite often hard for them, they found it could be a good life, both rewarding and worthwhile. They simply wanted better working condtitions. Socialism, communism, and anarchism are all part of American History, and not necessarily bad or degenerate parts.

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 90 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Sep 13, 2000 (14:34) * 67 lines 
The Cold War and Atomic Waste

During the 1940's and 1950's, the United States began
producing huge quantities of atomic weapons. To do this, the
US hired hundreds of private companies for the dangerous job
of producing and handling atomic waste. According to recent
de-classified files, this left a legacy of poisoned workers
and contaminated communities. Thousands of workers were
exposed to dangerous levels of radiation, often hundreds of
times stronger than what was considered acceptable limits.
This was all done in secrecy, with neither the government
nor private industry explaining the risk to American

The United States, in its haste to build nuclear weapons,
ignored the safety of its own citizens while American
industries, in their quest for profits, turned their backs
on their own employees. The risks were known, however,
companies such as the Simonds Saw and Steel Company in New
York, unloaded railroad cars containing uranium and thorium
to the factory. In 1948, workers at the Saw and Steel plant
were told they would be rolling a new type of metal. The
shipments arrived with armed guards who stayed until the job
was completed. Most of the workers had no idea of the risked
they were taking but were happy to have a job after enduring
hardships throughout the "Great Depression."

The workers were told that there would be no danger to their
health. We now know that this was a lie. Workers were told
in a 1947 memo that they may hear the word "radiation" while
they worked on the job, but that the levels would be so small
that instruments would be needed to show any exposure. This
was not the case. In fact, when private companies violated
minimum safety standards, the government ignored their
violations. In a 1947 memo, Bernard Wolf, medical director in
the Commissions office stated, "Hazards to public health of
ABC operations has been given inadequate consideration." The
agency did nothing fearing exposure and dependent on the
private companies.

The Cold War was at a fever pitch at this time. Politicians
such as Richard Nixon, Joseph McCarthy and many others were
busy making careers out of the cold war. Officials at the
Atomic Energy Commission tried to reduce the risks but the
White House, Congress and the boys at the Pentagon demanded
that production be carried out with wartime urgency. What is
so repugnant about these operations is that the government
cared more about possible insurance claims that could be filed
against private industry, than it did its own citizens. They
said that disclosure would cause, "an increase in insurance
claims, increased difficulty in labor relations and adverse
public sentiment." One could safely categorize their response
as "class warfare.' What we have today is many people coming
down with unusually high cancer rates and communities left
with the task of cleaning up the toxic mess. The public, as
so often is the case, is left unaware of how much health or
environmental damage may have been done to their communities
and while the Clinton administration has pursued cleanups more
forcefully than previously, federal laws right now say nothing
about those contaminated in private industry. So their fate
remains in question. It is a national disgrace and a reminder
to all of us to question both corporations and government when
it comes to our health.

Sources: Records of the Atomic Energy Commission

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 91 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Sep 13, 2000 (14:38) * 1 lines 
Good points Cheryl. Before I posted those articles on the labor movement and such here I ran it past John Burnett, a man I consider an intellectual giant and one who will give me straight answers as unbiased as he possibly can. He suggested I post it and added his own personal views at the bottom. Unfortunately, it is sometimes necessary to destroy the old before anything new can be created for the better good. It is a treacherous path to tread, but if wisdom and the good prevail you end up with the American War for Independence (Revolution?!) If not, you end up with death and anarchy and we all lose.

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 92 of 116: Cheryl  (CherylB) * Thu, Sep 14, 2000 (19:32) * 1 lines 
We have come back, in a sense, to the conundrum of John Brown. A great, but problemic American.

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 93 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Sep 16, 2000 (19:55) * 75 lines 
Ah yes, somwhere back in this topic John Brown's rebellion was addressed most eloquently by John Burnett and, with his permission, I posted it. Worth another read, surely!

The Spanish Civil War

What Spain meant to the world has been largely forgotten. The
Spanish Civil War was the signature event of the 1930's and
for many, the most important experience of their lives. The
war now seems lost in time, but in retrospect, it helped forge
an alliance that would stop the forces of Fascism and thus
save the world. For two-and-a-half years the civil war raged
on, people from all over the world joined the fight on their
own, and sometimes in defiance of their respective governments.
Spain, long considered a peripheral country in Europe, was
thrown into world politics in 1931 when a loose coalition of
liberals took control of the government from the monarchy.

In 1933, the conservatives regained control of the Spanish
government. Social forces on the left fought to regain control
and elected a small majority to the new Spanish parliament.
The right was furious and the army revolted. Soon Spain was
in flames and in the abyss of a modern war.

The Catholic Church in Spain had been aligned with the most
reactionary segments within Spanish society and citizens took
their vengeance out on their perceived enemy. In some cases
clerics were removed from their churches and had their land
confiscated. The Spanish Civil war saw the first anarchist
society in Barcelona. Here, the working class formed Co-
operatives and currency was abolished. Life in Barcelona saw
endless discussions regarding tactics, and citizens existing
and being governed in communities without interference from above.

Led by Spanish General Francisco Franco, and aided by
Mussolini and Hitler, the army bombed civilians in Madrid and
Barcelona. To aid the beleaguered government, citizens of the
world went to Spain to fight the Fascists. They included
10,000 French, 5,000 Germans and Austrians, 3,350 Italians,
2,800 from the United States and over 5,000 others from the
continent. They went to fight for a cause and many would
never come back. They would be the first causalities second
world war. The British poet, W.H. Auden wrote:

On that table-land scored by rivers, our thoughts have bodies;
The menacing shapes of our fever, are precise and alive.

Finally, Spain was lost. The western democracies tried to
stay out of the war but in doing so aided the Fascists. The
defeat was total. Several hundred thousand lay dead with an
equal number of refugees seeking asylum from war-torn Spain.
Almost all of the artists and intellectuals were supporters
of the republic so they left Spain in droves. But the
alliances between, liberals, socialists and the communists
who would defeat Nazi Germany were born. They would forget
their differences and join forces against Hitler. The Second
World War was a struggle for a better society. This is why
a popular front, that included communists and nationalists,
could be forged. After the war nobody dreamed of going back
to 1939 or even to 1928.

The Spanish Civil war was lost but the common thread that
held, Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin together along with
socialists, French Communists, would have been impossible
without the struggle in Spain. In the United States, the
members of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade, which fought in Spain
would be labeled as premature Fascists during the cold war.
They would later lose their jobs and be black listed as
friends of the communists even though many had become
disenchanted with communism during the Spanish Civil War.
The irony of this is that some who hounded these men of
conscience had no conscience at all, some had even been
pro-Hitler before the war, but that's the way it often is.

Sources: The Age of Extremes, Eric Hobsbawm
The Spanish Civil War, Hugh Thomas

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 94 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Sep 20, 2000 (00:04) * 64 lines 
The Fighting 24th and San Juan Hill

During the Civil War, 179,000 black soldiers fought for the
union and the war could not have been won without them. At
the time of General Lee's surrender, over 125,000 soldiers
remained in uniform and no one quite knew what to do with
these soldiers. Neither the South or the North wanted them
there, so many units were disbanded and those that remained
were sent to the West. In the West, they distinguished
themselves admirably and were called the "Buffalo Soldiers."

When the Spanish-American War broke out, the all-black 24th
division was sent to Tampa to await further orders. The
conditions that they faced were terrible. The locals in Tampa
discriminated against the soldiers who were members of the
United States army. It was an insulting time for the 24th.
Soon they were sent to Santiago, the black soldiers were
forced to be in the bottom of the boat on the ride, while the
rest rode on top with the intention of capturing Cuba's
second largest city.

The operation in Cuba could be described as ill thought, at
best. It was the hottest and rainiest time of the year in
Cuba, which made the military campaign all the more difficult.
Three units led the assault and were soon pinned down in high
grass that covered the soldiers. For over three hours they
laid there while bullets whistled through the grass, and the
event later became known as the "bloody angle" because of the
high rate of casualties that were sustained. Knowing that they
couldn't stay there in the grass, the troops attacked. The
fighting 24th led the way and soon raised their arms in victory
as they took control of Kettle Hill. To the left, a columnist
took notice of a young Colonial named Theodore Roosevelt
charging up the Hill. While the young Teddy was a dashing
figure on horseback, everyone there praised the twenty-fourth

They were on top Kettle Hill when General Summer ordered a
New York regiment to advance towards San Juan Hill. They were
routed and Summer turned to the troops that he could trust.
That was the fighting 24th and they did not disappoint him.
The black soldiers fearlessly charged "like a pack of wild
demons." The hill was taken and only after the 24th succeeded
did Teddy Roosevelt come, huffing and puffing as his dismounted
regiment joined the 24th. The black countries reward was to
return to the rear where they faced malaria and exhaustion.

The reward the black soldiers received from the future
president was one of scorn. He said that while they had
performed admirably, if it wasn't for him, the black soldiers
would have run. He blamed this on, "the superstition and fear
of the darkey, natural in those but one generation removed
from slavery and but a few generations removed from the
wildest savagery." So not only did Roosevelt not lead the
charge up San Juan Hill, he racially insulted those proud
Americans who did. The regiment returned to the United States
disillusioned and angered. History recorded Roosevelt's ride
up San Juan Hill. That too is a lie since the incident was
actually filmed by Thomas Edison's company in New Jersey.
This is the real story of San Juan Hill.

Sources: Big Trouble, J. Anthony Lukas

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 95 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Sep 29, 2000 (13:20) * 64 lines 
The Transcontinental Railroad

It's hard to understand just how important the building of
the transcontinental railroad was. It was built mostly by
Irish and Chinese men who suffered great hardships but still
managed to complete one of the most amazing feats of the 19th
century. The two competing companies who built the railroad
were the Central Pacific and the Union Pacific. While they
worked together to complete the line, there existed a
competition among them that captured the attention of the
American public.

In 1868, the Union Pacific laid down four and one half miles
of track in one day. Charles Crocker, who was in charge of
the Central Pacific, became angered at his rivals bragging
about the feat. So he got together with his construction
boss, James Strobridge, and urged him to beat the Union
Pacific mark. They did this by laying down six miles to top
the Central Pacific. Now, it was the Union Pacific's turn to

The Union Pacific didn't back down from this challenge. By
the end of the year the Union Pacific broke the record by
laying down an amazing eight and a half miles of track.
Crocker was determined to beat this mark and said, "Now. We
must take off our coats, but we must not beat them until we
get so close that there is not enough room for them to turn
around and outdo us." So he made a bet that the Central
Pacific could lay ten miles of track in one day.

Crocker calculated that ten miles could be done if everything
was organized properly. So he laid plans for the challenge.
When the sun arose, the Chinese men were ready. They worked
like they had never worked before. The Chinese became cohesive
track laying machines. When a loaded cart came to the end of
the track, Irish workers would grab the rails with their
tongs and drop them when the foreman cried, "Down!"

What these crews accomplished should not be forgotten,
because even the fact that they were underpaid and working
in dangerous conditions did not stop them. They did it
for the sake of pride. The three thousand Chinese, African-
Americans and Irish working men as well as Mexicans of Indian
blood, worked at a demonic pace. One reporter described the
efforts of the workers as, "The scene was an animated one.
From the first pioneer to the last tamper, perhaps two miles,
there is a thin line advancing a mile an hour."

By noon, they had laid six miles of tracks and at the end of
the day they had reached their goal of ten miles. To
demonstrate that the track had been laid successfully, Jim
Campbell ran his locomotive on the track at forty miles an
hour. They had done it. When the golden spike was driven into
the ground, it marked a new era for the United States. General
Lee had been defeated only four years earlier and the country,
after years of blood and hardship, had something to cheer
about. While corruption was rampant between the railroads and
their treatment of the men was appalling, the feat that these
workers performed that day ushered the United States into the
modern age. No one can take that away from them.

Sources: American Heritage, October 2000

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 96 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Mon, Oct  2, 2000 (00:08) * 71 lines 
Subject: Extreme Accidental Magic - Monday Morning Memo 10-2-00
X-UIDL: mUQ!!U\8"!iC##!-"S!!

Extreme Accidental Magic

A Monday Morning Memo for the Friends of the Wizard of Ads

The Associated Press may own the copyright, but I own the actual
photograph. I'm not really sure why I bought it, though. You can't even
see the faces of the six people in it. I'm told their names were Ira,
Mike, Franklin, Harlon, Rene and John, but that's not really important.
Ultimately, it's just a photograph of six people doing something that
people do every day.

But for them to do it that day was crazy. The photographer who took the
photo was crazy and I was crazy to buy it. I do crazy things sometimes.
I'll bet you do, too. And like me, you probably have no better
explanation than "It seemed like the right thing to do at the time."
Fortunately, Pennie tolerates my irresponsible behavior. Maybe she even
loves me for it. That's one of the many advantages of marrying your
best friend.

But I really do like this photo. It's special, somehow. Beyond the fact
that three of the six people in it died shortly after the
photographer's shutter went "click," the photo is unique because
everything about it was an accident and Accidental Magic is the theme
of my collection. This particular accident happened when a photographer
named Joe Rosenthal heard a noise and swinging his camera toward it,
pressed his finger on the camera's shutter unintentionally and captured
a millisecond of history by accident. The millisecond happened on Feb.
23, 1945. The photo is called Raising the Flag Over Iwo Jima.

I bought the photo, through a broker, from the estate of John Faber,
the man who became the official historian for the National Press
Photographers Association in 1956. Faber kept the job until the day he
died. John Faber obtained the photo from Joe Rosenthal, the Associated
Press photographer that actually snapped it. In the preface of his 1977
book, Great News Photos and The Stories Behind Them, Faber writes,
"Assembling this book has been a series of unforgettable experiences
for me. I listened again to my tape recording of Joe Rosenthal
describing, in his humble way, the day he made the Iwo Jima Flag Raising

Gosh I wish I could find that tape.

I really do hope that you'll come to visit us sometime and take a long,
hard look at this picture. It's a photo that speaks of all the best in
us - heroism, sacrifice, principles and honor. But it also speaks of
the worst - anger, violence, killing and war. Yes, there are two ways
of looking at this photo. There are two ways of looking at everything.
Wisdom is often found in the ability to look at a thing from both sides
and not feel like you have to choose between them. It is perhaps that
very tension that makes the photo a profound and powerful millisecond
of history.

In his book, Flags of Our Fathers, James Bradley opens with a quote
from a Japanese man, Yoshikani Taki, who said, "Mothers should
negotiate between nations. The mothers of the fighting countries would
agree: Stop this killing now. Stop it now." What makes James Bradley's
use of this quote particularly interesting is that the man in the
center of the Iwo Jima photograph was James Bradley's father, John, and
it was the ancestors of Yoshikani Taki that John Bradley had been sent
to Iwo Jima to kill.

Our spinning world is an interesting place, but you've got to hang on

Roy H. Williams

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 97 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Oct  3, 2000 (14:20) * 68 lines 
The Salem Witch Trials

Abigail William's had been acting very peculiar. It was a
cold winter in 1692, but that didn't explain why she was
flapping her arms like a bird around the house and screaming
that a witch was trying to get her. Her neighbors were shocked
by her behavior and soon other children were acting in a
similar fashion, claiming that they were possessed by witches.
This began one of the infamous incidents in American history,
and by the time it was all over 19 men and women plus two dogs
were executed for witchcraft. The mass hysteria caused another
55 people to repent their sins and an additional 130 people
awaited trial for witchcraft before the whole thing was over.

The incident started when Abigail, and her nine year old
cousin Elizabeth, read a book about witches by Cotton Mather.
The two girls blamed their slave Tituba, who hailed from
Barbados, for the whole thing. Tituba believed the only way
she could avoid hanging was to plead guilty to the charges.
She spoke about an encounter with a thin white man who showed
her a book with the names of nine Salem witches in it. This
impossible story led to the witch hunt that followed.

Tales of witches were not new. In the 14 century, several
thousands of people had been executed because of their
suspected witchcraft. Witches had appeared in European
folklore, including the old bard William Shakespeare,
throughout the 15th century. Ten people had been hanged for
witchcraft in England in 1600, so the idea of witches was not
that strange in 1692. But the actions of children who came
to understand that they could accuse anyone of witchcraft was
quite different.

The witch hunts moved forward and no one was safe. Critics
of the hunt complained that all of those who were accused
had some previous dispute with the children or their families.
The whole thing took on a bizarre life of its own as people
started to confess to the charges so that they could avoid
the hangmen's noose. The trials began on June 2 and the newly
appointed judges soon became part of the hysteria. Race became
part of the proceedings as one accuser claimed that a woman
named Goody Nurse had brought a black man with her claiming
he was there to cause her to "tempt god."

The judges and the jury ignored all defense evidence even if
the evidence proved the defendants innocence. When a few
people were acquitted the children began to scream again and
the judges soon ordered new trials where they were soon found
guilty. The hangings began on July 19th while the jails of
Salem became so full that suspected witches had to be
transferred to other towns.

The trial became an outrage to many but the last straw was
when the children accused the governor's wife of witchcraft.
The governor was furious and a special grand jury was convened
to deal with the situation. They quickly threw out more than a
hundred charges of witchcraft. The court system was overhauled
and drastically improved, as it would have been hard to be any
worse, and the testimony of children began to be suspected.
America would see many witch hunts in the future. They would
take on different forms, but that mob mentality became a part
of American culture. The McCarthy/Nixon era of the 1950's
would be worse, but our history is full of stories of irrational
mass behavior. This was only the beginning.

Source: Infamous Trials - Bruce Chadwick

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 98 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Wed, Oct 25, 2000 (19:24) * 72 lines 
Lawrence of Arabia and the First Multi-Media Exhibit

Most people think that multi-media presentations are a new
phenomena. Certainly their popularity has increased during
the past two decades, but its origins go way back and can
be credited to Lowell Thomas. As a child, Thomas moved to
Cripple Creek, Colorado where he saw, among other things,
the strike by the Western Minors Association. Later he
became a reporter for the Chicago Evening Journal and by
1917, he convinced President Wilson to send him to Europe
as an unofficial historian for the war. In July of 1917,
Thomas raised $100,000 and formed Thomas Travelogues. Soon
Thomas and his trusted cameraman, Harry Chase, were off to
the great war. What they found was a trench warfare, and
its brutal combat made it quite difficult to present the
war from a positive point of view.

Looking for heroes in a war that provided none left Thomas
without the images he needed. When Thomas learned that the
famous British cavalry general Edmund Allenby was given
command of the British forces in Palestine, he quickly left
for the holy land. Soon he was introduced to T.E. Lawrence.
Lawrence had become something of a legend while in Arabia.
He became the friend and advisor to Prince Feisel. Lawrence
was sympathetic to the Arab cause and had become the
unofficial King of Arabia, at least in the eyes of the
British. Thomas did not think much of the 5'2'' Lawrence,
but learned more about his exploits anyhow.

Thomas asked permission to follow Lawrence. "In the weeks
that followed, I slowly came to learn the story of Lawrence's
astonishing desert campaign," wrote Thomas. Lawrence
introduced him to the charismatic Feisel who allowed Thomas
to film him and soon, Thomas had one of the best stories of
the year. He learned of Lawrence's activities and he
embellished the stories by making them first hand accounts
of the Arabian struggle.

In April of 1918, Thomas left for Europe to cover the rest
of the war, which ended November 11 of that same year. After
18 months overseas, Thomas returned to America and found a
country that wanted to forget about the war. In March, Thomas
found some investors who were willing to sponsor his talks
in exchange for 40% of the profits. Thomas found that the
audiences were only interested in the charismatic Lawrence.
Thomas' innovative cameraman Chase started projecting three
separate images while Thomas lectured about the dramatic
adventures in the Holy Land.

The reaction of the audience was enthusiastic. The show was
a success as audiences began to flock to see this first
multi-media presentation. The show soon went to England where
it was a huge hit and more than a million people went to the
program, including Queen Mary. Lawrence himself was unim-
pressed and called the Thomas show "vulgar." But Lawrence was
supportive of the Arab cause for self-determination, so he
toned his criticism down.

Lawrence had problems with his new found fame, as well as
the lingering side effects suffered during his brief capture
in 1917, where he was beaten and raped by the Turks. He died
in a motorcycle accident in 1935. Thomas had no such problems
with his new found fame. He went on to become a world famous
broadcaster and author. But the story of Lawrence of Arabia
always fascinated him and the public as well. In 1962, David
Lean made his epic film "Lawrence of Arabia." Thomas once
asked Lawrence if a story he was told was true. Lawrence
replied, "Use it if it fits your needs."

Sources: Joel Hodson. The American Historian.

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 99 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Oct 27, 2000 (13:09) * 70 lines 
History - is it objective? And, is it repeating itself?


Richard Nixon's rise in American politics had been meteoric.
In 1946, Nixon was only thirty-three when he defeated Jerry
Voorhis for Congress. By the age of 37 he was elected Senator
of California. Despite his success, Nixon was a controversial
figure. His campaign against Jerry Voorhis was a no holds
barred attack on a man who was known for his integrity. Nixon
even said so himself, "I knew that Jerry Voorhis was not a
communist...I suppose there was scarcely ever a man with
higher ideals...but I had to win." His success in the Hiss
case had made him a national figure and in 1952, and General
Dwight David Eisenhower picked him to be his running mate.
But Nixon had a shady past as well.

Nixon's supporters had set him up with a slush fund that he
could use for personal expenses and the story broke during
the 1952 election. Nixon immediately denied the story but
years later Murray Confiner confirmed the allegations. Nixon
continued to use the money throughout his political career
and in return provide favors for those who greased his palms.
They were mostly real estate magnates and the oil companies.

This practice began early in Nixon's sordid career. A classic
example of this kind of corruption can be found in the case
of oil men Taylor Woodward and William Anderson. Woodward and
Anderson had tried for years to get clearance for some off
shore drilling on land which was owned by the federal
government. They had been unsuccessful until Nixon was elected
to the Senate. Nixon, upon taking his seat in the Senate,
cleared the way for the oil drilling. Dana Smith, who helped
set up the slush fund, was having tax problems with the IRS,
who claimed he owed the government $500,000. Once Nixon
got in office, he wrote a letter to the IRS and Smith's
problems disappeared. Howard Hughes had given a loan to
Nixon's brother, Donald, but some of the money was earmarked
for a new house in Washington for Senator Nixon.

These were some of the charges that Nixon faced before facing
the nation in what was to be known as the "Checkers Speech."
Nixon was masterful in that he avoided all the charges and
instead concentrated on his things such as his wife Pat's
coat, which he claimed was a fine Republican cloth coat. Nixon
went through his financial holdings piece by piece, and by
the time he finished there was not a dry eye in the house.
He finished his soap opera by describing how he was given one
gift and that was his dog, Checkers. General Eisenhower
called his running mate Nixon, "my boy" and the crisis was
over. The press swallowed the explanation, like the good lap
dogs they are, without investigating whether the allegations
were true. Eisenhower was elected President by a landslide
and Nixon became vice-president at the age of forty.

Nixon's illegal activities continued. He took money from
Hughes, participated in insider trading when he abandoned
the gold standard as president, took money from mob boss
Meyer Lanky thru his friend Babe Rebozo. All of this can
be seen in Anthony Summers' amazing book "The Arrogance of
Power". Summers has been criticized for deviling in Nixon
alleged wife beating but that is only a small portion of the
book. What Summers should be credited for is allowing us to
see how corrupt the system really is, but the press has not
commented on that. Are you surprised?

Source: Milhouse, a film by Emil de Antonio
The Arrogance of Power, Anthony Summers

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 100 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Thu, Nov  2, 2000 (22:15) * 43 lines 
Was the Taj Mahal simply a labor of love, or was there more
to the story?

The Taj Mahal in India, Shah Jahan's divinely elaborate
tribute to his 17th century sweetie, is one of the world's
wonders. Yes, Jahan was madly in love with Mumtaz, one of
his four wives (what did he build for the other three, condos
in Miami Beach?) Yet what do we know about her? What was
she like to merit such architectural affection?

She was baaaad! Intolerant to an extreme, she insisted
that her hubby persecute the country's small settlement of
Christians. Mumtaz personally supervised their sale into
slavery and had their priests stomped to death by elephants.

Poor Jahan, looking for love in all the wrong places.
Maybe he should have erected something more appropriate to
memorialize Mumtaz -- a high-rise dungeon or a parking garage
for elephants. What would Donald Trump have done?

(Source: JUST CURIOUS, JEEVES by Jack Mingo and Erin Barrett)



Most of us are familiar with old medical cures that have
fallen into disrepute. For example, at one time a common
treatment for many ailments was bleeding the patient. Now
that's practiced only by HMO's when they send you their bill.

Another old cure fallen by the wayside was called the lettice
cap (probably from the same root as the word "lattice"). It
was something like a hair net filled with medicinal herbs. It
worked pretty well, actually, until some fool mistook
"lettice" for a similar word and thought he could make it a
more powerful cure by pouring Thousand Island dressing over
it. He was sued, bringing the whole approach into disrepute.

Compare the price of this book, toys, electronics, gifts & more:

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 101 of 116: the history of spring (sprin5) * Fri, Nov  3, 2000 (07:03) * 1 lines 
She was bad to the bone.

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 102 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Nov  7, 2000 (20:36) * 70 lines 
The Middle East

Theodor Herzl is considered the father of Zionism. He felt
that Jews across the world would always be susceptible to
anti-Semitism as long as there was no Jewish state. Arab
nationalism was a simple idea, which consisted of a search
for a long lost Arab identity. For hundreds of years, the
Arabs had been under the leadership of the Ottoman Empire.
At the early part of the 20th century, there was a possibility
for these two movements to co-exist. This is a story of that
lost opportunity.

In the beginning of the 20th century, about a half million
Arabs lived in Palestine along with about 50,000 Jews. The
budding discontent within the Ottoman Empire provided the new
Zionist movement with its first real choice. Should they work
with the Arabs against the Turks and join the upcoming revolt
or should they try to acquire an international charter for a
Jewish homeland? Unfortunately, the early Zionists sided with
the Turks, but a small minority advocated working with the Arabs.

The Arab leaders faced a dilemma of their own. Should they
work with the new settlers or oppose them? This is not as
unusual as it sounds today. The early deputies of Palestine
spoke of the common Semitic heritage among the two people.
But Jewish leaders felt that getting along with the Arabs
was secondary to the establishing of a Jewish homeland. What
they needed was the help of a European state to help them
establish a charter. At first, Herzl went to the Sultan but
the conversations went nowhere. Then, he approached Kaiser
Wilhelm who considered the idea briefly but the Kaiser was
rigid anti-Semite and eventually sided with the Turks.
Finally, Herzl turned to the British, who liked the idea
because it was a way to extend the British control and
protect the Suez canal.

Nothing happened until the outbreak of the first world war,
which opened the doors of opportunity for the Jewish state.
In November of 1917, the Zionists achieved their aim with the
Balfour Declaration. There were many reasons for the British
decision, including an effort to engage the United States in
the war, the fear of Bolshevik revolution and those who saw
this as a way to maintain a foothold in the Middle East.

The leader of the Arabs was Emir Faisel. Faisel was fighting
the Turks with the hopes of creating a great Arab kingdom and
was aided in this by T.E. Lawrence, who was a British agent
in Cairo. Lawrence was extremely anti-French and saw the Arab
Nationalist movement as a way to cheat the French and extend
British control over the area. Faisel, for his part, was
sympatric with the aims of a Jewish state. He felt it should
be part of his great kingdom. In a letter to Felix Frankfurter
he stated: "We know the Arabs and Jews are racial relatives.
We shall do everything we can, as far as it depends on us,
to assist the Zionist proposals by the Peace Conference, and
we shall welcome the Jews with all our hearts on their return

This was no idle boost. Two months earlier Faisel and
Welzmann, who was now the leader of the Zionist movement,
had drawn up such a plan under the guidance of Lawrence. The
agreement never happened, as the French invaded Damascus and
drove Faisel out of Syria. The Zionists were rewarded by the
British and talk of a great Semite state disappeared. But the
possibilities were still there and it was a defining moment
that was missed which the people of the Middle East have
paid for ever since.

Sources: Israel Without Zionism, Uri Avnery

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 103 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Nov 10, 2000 (13:04) * 57 lines 
Standard Oil and the Nazis

William Teagle was a giant of a man, standing 6'3" tall and
weighing over 260 pounds. Teagle had risen quickly through
the ranks of John D. Rockefeller's Chase Manhattan and later
moved on to Standard Oil. There he avoided scandal after
scandal of price fixing schemes. Teagle enjoyed Cuban cigars
and Nazi politics and was a major contributor to the Nazi
party along with Dutch Shell. Teagle also established early
relations with I.G. Farben.

I.G. Farben was the German industrial giant who had become
rich by arming the Nazi war machine and would soon become
a business partner. Teagle's business interests with I.G.
Farben caused him to visit Berlin frequently. It was at this
time he hired Ivy Lee, the father of public relations, to
help him gain information regarding the United States
government's reaction to the Nazi military build up.

When Hitler came to power, Teagle made sure that Standard Oil
maintained its ties with Germany. Goring's planes could not
fly without the lead additive tetraethyl so Standard, DuPont
and General Motors made sure that he had it. In fact, during
the Battle of Britain, Great Britain actually had to pay
royalty rights to Standard through the French while Goring's
planes bombed London. Because of the bad publicity, Teagle
turned the account over to the Paris office and made sure
their tankers were using a Nazi crew.

Before the United States entered the war, Standard Oil would
ship their oil tankers through Vichy, North Africa. An
example of this can be found in an incident where British
ships seized a oil tanker headed for Casablanca. Cordell Hull
demanded that the vessel be released and when it was, the
ship went on to Africa, soon followed by six additional
freighters. Summer Welles, a State Department official,
accused Standard refueling stations in Mexico and South
America with supplying the Nazi's. In Nicaragua, Standard was
caught delivering Nazi propaganda.

The list goes on and on. On June 15, 1943 Joseph Flick sent
Cordell an astonishing list of oil sales showing Standard
subsidiary firms shipping fuel to Aruba. The list was then
sent to Fascist Spain and later on to Germany. Standard then
sued the United States government for seizing synthetic rubber
patents and using them to aid the Nazi's who were developing
different synthetic products. Judge Charles E. Wyzanski gave
his verdict, which reflected that he had decided against
Standard. The final word came when Standard appealed the case.
Judge Charles Clark words were quite harsh: "Standard Oil can
be considered a national enemy in view of its relationship
with I.G. Farben after the United States and Germany had
become active enemies." Oil companies have no loyalty.

Sources: Trading With the Enemy, Charles Higham

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 104 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Nov 14, 2000 (11:38) * 80 lines 
The Election of 1876

While we sit and ponder who will be the next president of the
United States, it might be useful to look at the last time an
election was this close. It was in 1876, the centennial year
of the United States, and it pitted Samuel Tilden against
Rutherford B. Hayes. The states of things at this time was
not good for the country was in a severe depression. Also,
the corruption of the Grant administration caused many to
feel that it was time to end Republican rule.

The South had never accepted the emancipation of black people
and had fought it tooth and nail during reconstruction. It was
during this time that the Ku Klux Klan was born and black
voter's, along with their Republican supporters, were attacked
throughout the South. It was only the presence of federal
troops that kept Republicans in power. The election of 1876
was so close that it was impossible to tell who had won and
to make matters worse, Louisiana, South Carolina and Florida
each had different two different sets of results. The Klan
had attacked black voters and their white supporters during
the election and ballot boxes were stuffed throughout the
region, so when all the dust cleared, it was still impossible
to see who had won.

Early returns had seen Tilden gain the lead but as the
counting continued, Hayes closed the gap and appeared to have
won. When it was all over, Hayes had gained 185 electoral
votes, which was enough to win the election, but Tilden had
won the popular vote. Republican officials had invalidated
many of the Democratic votes in the South because of the
violence and the Democrats challenged the result. There was
even talk about another civil war, and the headline "Tilden
or War" appeared on more than one democratic newspaper. This
was definitely a crisis and despite the rhetoric, neither
side had the stomach for another war. Tilden was a man who
feared disorder and seemed to resign himself to defeat.

Grant didn’t help matters at all. He felt that the 15th
amendment had been a mistake and had done little or nothing to
stop the terror of black people in recent years. He felt, as
many Republicans did, that the party would be better served if
it sought the aid of former members of the Whig Party rather
than black people and their white supporters in the South.
Something had to be done so a commission to solve the matter
was established, consisting of 15 members, five from the
House, five from the Senate and five Supreme Court justices.
The split was even between Republicans and Democrats except
for the Supreme Court members where the GOP had an advantage
of one vote. What the South wanted more than the election of
Tilden was home rule in their states, so a deal was made
whereby Hayes would win the election and in return federal
troops were to be removed from the South. In an 8 to 7 vote,
Hayes was elected president.

While Hayes himself pledged loyalty to black voters and
promised to protect them, Congress refused to appropriate
any money for the troops. In the South, the Democrats now
cut government programs drastically, and in addition, schools,
hospitals and other government services were closed. By 1890,
black people had lost their right to vote and an apartheid
system took over in the South that would not be removed until
the 1960’s. While Hayes would not send troops to the South,
he would send federal troops to break the strike of 1877.

The election was an overall disaster for the United States.
To win, the Republicans had forsaken the rights of black
people and spit on the bravery of those who had fought and
died for the Union cause. The Democrats established a rule
of terror in the South and the idea of democracy in the
United States became a hypocritical joke. Things have changed
in the United States since then. Whoever wins this election
will not face the possibilities of another civil war. It is
a testament to the strength of our democracy that people like
you and I can make jokes about the election. However, in 1876,
it was no joke.

Sources: Reconstruction, Eric Foner
Rutherford B. Hayes, Ari Hoogenbrook

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 105 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Nov 21, 2000 (15:54) * 70 lines 
Hugh Thompson, American Hero

Hugh Thompson was the son of an electrical worker and a
military man. His father served in the army and later, for
thirty years, in the navel reserve. Thompson's parents
taught him to stand up for other people and once he defended
a physically handicapped boy from a group of young bullies
who made fun of the unfortunate youngster. After high school,
he joined the navy for three years, but later switched to the
army and entered officer school. He became a helicopter pilot
and was sent to Vietnam in 1967. On March 16, 1968, Thompson
was sent to cover American troops advancing on the village of
My Lai. He saw no hostile fire from the ground so he went back
to the base to refuel. But on the ground something horrible
had begun, the infamous massacre at My Lai. Many of the men
would not follow the orders of the Commanding Officer
Lieutenant Calley. In fact, one man shot himself in the foot
rather than carry out the orders to kill. When Thompson
returned, he was shocked to see what was happening on the

"We started noticing all those bodies everywhere," said
Thompson. "Your thinking, 'What happened here?' This little
thing in your mind is saying what happened, but you don't
want to believe it because it looks bad...I can remember
thinking, 'Dammit, isn't this what the Nazi's did?'" Thompson
saw a young girl rolling along the ground, obviously in great
pain, and radioed for help. During this time a soldier walked
up to the girl and executed her. Lieutenant Calley was goading
his men to open fire. He had driven the villagers into a
ditch, and with the help of Paul Meadlo, began to slaughter
the Vietnamese. Blood and body parts flew everywhere and when
it was all over, fifty Vietnamese men, woman and children
lay dead on the ground.

Thompson knew it was time to act. He flew down and gathered
help from some of the soldiers on the ground. They sought to
protect another group of villagers who had been thrown into
a ditch by the Americans and awaited a similar fate. Thompson
had seen enough and when a group of American soldiers
approached an elderly couple and a small child fearfully
hiding from the crazed Americans, Thompson's humanity told
him not to let this madness continue. "I was going to save
them. I set the aircraft down this time between the civilians
and the Americans and told my people if they open up, you
open up." The soldiers, who had followed Calley's orders,
felt a sigh of relief since they would not be forced to kill

News of the massacre spread among the troops. In fact,
Thompson's heroism most likely saved other lives, because the
Mi Lai massacre was part of a larger search and destroy
operation designed to clear out suspected communist hamlets.
When he landed, Thompson angrily reported what he had seen to
his superiors. The army conducted an investigation of its own
which was led by Colon Powell. Powell tried to whitewash the
whole thing, denying that the massacre occurred, but the army
and Powell were unsuccessful in their cover-up.

Twenty-five men were tried for murder and rape at My Lai but
only Calley was convicted and was later pardoned by Richard
Nixon. Two years ago, Thompson received the Soldiers Medal,
which is awarded for actions on the battlefield not related
to combat with the enemy. Hugh Thompson now goes around the
country speaking about that horrible day. He is an American
hero who knew what the right thing to do was, and did it.

Sources: Lecture by Hugh Thompson

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 106 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Nov 24, 2000 (11:40) * 89 lines 
George Seldes: Tell the Truth and Run.

George Seldes lived to the ripe old age of 104 and is
considered to be the link between the muckrakers and the
current alternative press. Seldes was a lifetime critic of
the press who often attacked the "prostitution of the press."
He took on all the powers of his age, including the Tobacco
companies in the 1940's, Mussolini and his American supporters
in the 1920's, Charles Randolph Hearst, J. Edgar Hoover,
Joseph McCarthy and the Communist Party. Seldes never backed
away from a fight and, in fact his book "Tell the Truth and
Run" aptly describes his incredible life.

George Seldes was born in 1890 and grew up with his Jewish
immigrant family in a cooperative farming community in New
Jersey. Seldes came of age in the era of the muckrakers,
which was also a time when journalists reported on and exposed
the injustices of the American system. George got a job at
the Pittsburgh Leader, at the age of 18, for the grand
salary of $3.50 a week. But the era of muckraking was short-
lived as the rich bought the magazines that published these
writers and expansion of advertising caused a self imposed
censorship by the major papers. News was now big business
and there was no room for those who were critical of the

Seldes found himself a job as a war correspondent for the
Chicago Tribune where he reported back on the war, however
the close censorship by the army disturbed him. Once, after
the armistice, he reported favorably on the defeated German
army for he saw them as people and humanized their situation.
This action brought down the wrath of General John Pershing
who threatened to court martial him. Seldes was also one of
the first journalists to be allowed inside the Soviet Union.
He wrote about what he saw, which did not sit well him with
the Communist Party of the new Soviet Union and they soon
asked him to leave their country.

When Seldes was assigned to Italy to report on the newly
created Fascist government of Benito Mussolini, he immediately
reopened the story about the assassination of the Socialist
opposition leader. This angered Mussolini and he began to exert
pressure on Seldes. The newspapers back home supported El
Duce's government while the liberal New York Times compared
him favorably with Jefferson and Adams. Mussolini's corporate
state appealed to publisher's like Hearst and asked him to
write columns for his papers.

Seldes was finally kicked out of Italy so he returned to the
US to write about the disputes between the United States and
Mexico regarding oil. Seldes had the nerve to tell both sides
of the story for which he was promptly fired by the Chicago

At the age of forty, he began to publish his newsletter called
"In Fact." Seldes refused advertising money for his publication
to show that he would not be beholden to the whims of those
advertisers who sought to censor the news. He took on the
Tobacco companies in the early 1940's, long before anyone else
would. Seldes reported studies about the dangers of tobacco
while newspapers and magazine's took tobacco's money and
refused to report findings of the medical community. The
mainstream press had the same information that Seldes had but
they didn't have his integrity.

The same thing went for the FBI. Seldes wrote about the
bureau abuses while the mainstream press lionized the corrupt
FBI Czar. When the hateful demagogue Senator Joseph McCarthy
began his red-baiting campaign. Seldes accurately stated that
the "press chains have made McCarthy a hero." While reporters
knew that McCarthy's allegations about communists were suspect,
their editors were on McCarthy's side. George Seldes was only
interested in the truth. Seldes understood that the attacks
were aimed, not at the communists, but at the New Deal.

Finally, Seldes was forced to close his publication and
started having difficulties in getting his books published.
But he had influenced people like I.F. Stone, Ralph Nadar,
Howard Zinn and many others. At the age of 90, he appeared in
the film "Reds" where he spoke about radical journalist Jack
Reed. George Seldes was one the rare people who criticized the
press and also exposed their prejudices and destroyed their
lies about objectivity. When George Seldes died, the press
lost one its most harshest critics and the public lost one of
its most honest defenders.

Sources: Film Documentary, Tell the Truth and Run

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 107 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Sat, Dec  2, 2000 (12:59) * 63 lines 
A Brief History of the early Drug Trade

The Opium Trade began in 1500, when Portuguese merchants
first introduced the practice of smoking opium. Opium in its
early days was used as a painkiller and for recreation. The
Chinese believed that smoking opium was barbaric and soon
banned its use. In the 1600's, the drug was introduced to the
people of Persia and was later imported to England by Queen
Elizabeth's trading company. It was distributed throughout
England by the crown, making the historic queen of England
the first renown drug dealer, which is how the empire acquired
most of its fortune.

The Dutch then introduced the blending of tobacco and opium
in its quest to gain a foothold in the emerging drug trade.
However, the British East India Company cut them off quickly
by controlling the growing process in Bengal to assume
control of the trade. The Chinese tried to stop importation,
as the drug epidemic soon reached staggering proportions, but
by that time the British had achieved a monopoly on the drug.
In India, growers were forbidden to sell opium to anyone
other than the British East India Company, giving the British
government a free hand on the drug commission.

While the Chinese sought to ban the drug, the crown sought
other avenues of distribution and soon opium was being grown
for importation into the United States and Europe. Some
Americans, like John Cushing, invested heavily in the trade.
In fact, one of the most famous families of America, the
Astors' of New York, bought tons of the drug which was then
sent to England for sale. This is one of the ways they
acquired their fortune and in effect became a part of the
drug cartel. Considering today's laws, maybe we should
confiscate their property which was, in part, gained through
the sale of opium.

The Chinese tried to fight back but the drug lords, under the
guise of the British government, soon declared war on China
and the Opium Wars began. By 1841, the Chinese were defeated
and were forced to pay a large indemnity to the crown and
surrendered possession of the city of Hong Kong to the British.
Now, the British sought to increase their markets and their
profits and by the end of the second Opium War in 1856, the
Chinese are forced to legalize opium while the addiction rates
in China skyrocketed.

Efforts were begun at this time to limit its use. The effects
of opium were so devastating that laws were soon passed in
the United States and Britain to regulate its use and to
prohibit importation. Finally, after 150 years of failed
attempts to rid its country of the drug, the Chinese were
successful in forcing the British to stop the importation of
opium to China. However, the damage was already done and many
lives were wrecked by the British search for wealth. The
monarchy of England stands today as a beneficiary of the drug
trade. The profits were enormous for the crown and today
hardly anyone remembers them as the drug traders they were.
So next time you see all that pomp and circumstance remember
who they are, the descendants of drug lords, and try not to
be impressed.

Sources: The Corporation of Public Broadcasting

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 108 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Dec 12, 2000 (13:43) * 70 lines 
The Plague

When people speak of the "Black Death," they are usually
referring to the 14th century calamity which killed about 30
percent of the population of Europe. The Europeans believed
they were being punished by God and that the plague was a
sign of the Apocalypse. We know now that it was caused by
a lack of adequate health precautions and ignorance. Because
people feared that the end of the world was near, farmers
refused to plant crops, alcoholism rose and civil disruption
resulted in many deaths. Althought this was catastrophic,
another plague occurred when the Europeans settled in the
new world and has been misunderstood over the years.

The warmer climates of Africa, Asia and Northern Europe have
always been the breeding ground for disease, so people moved
to colder climates to avoid them. As people migrated across
the then drained Bering Straits, the crossing served as a
kind of incubator so the first immigrants of America may have
been the most healthy people ever to live on the planet. Many
of the diseases, tuberculosis, cholera, small pox that come
from animals did not exist in the new world because there
were no cows, horses, pigs or chickens, because they had not
been brought over.

This when coupled with the superior hygiene practices by the
regions habitants made the natives a remarkably healthy race.
They lived largely in villages as opposed to the densely
populated areas like London, where raw sewage flowed through
the streets. But the health of the natives in the new world
ironically proved to be their Achilles heel. They had not
built up a resistance to the diseases that were brought from
Europe and Africa. In 1617, a couple of years before the
pilgrims landed on Plymouth Rock, fishermen landed on the
Massachusetts coast and came upon the natives of the new
world. This contact would result in the worst health
catastrophe in the history of the world, for within three
years, the plague wiped out ninety percent of the coastal
population. Those that did survive fled the area, so when
the pilgrims arrived, all they saw were empty villages.

Robert Cushman, a British eyewitness, said that only about
one in twenty survived the plague. The ground was covered
with the bones and skulls of the natives because there was no
one left to bury them. The Europeans took this as a sign of
God while the natives, much like the survivors of the plague
in Europe, felt that their Gods had abandoned them. Robert
Cushman reported, "those that are left, have their courage
much abated, and their countenance is dejected, and they seem
as a people afraid."

This scenario was repeated again and again when natives came
across Europeans and contributed to the Aztecs succumbing to
the Spaniards. Disease traveled across the entire new world
and many populations were destroyed. It is estimated, on the
high end, that 100 million people lived in the new world at
the time of Columbus, while others claim there were only 20
million living at the time. When you consider that George
Catlin estimated that in 1840 only two million out of 14
million remained, you can see the results of the epidemics that
plagued the people of the new world. By 1880, because of war
and disease, only 250,000 natives had survived. The numbers
are astounding. What can we learn form all of this? One thing
we should learn is that it was disease, and not a superior
culture, that was the dominant factor in the conquering of
the new world.

Sources: Lies My Teacher Told Me, Loewen

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 109 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Dec 26, 2000 (16:56) * 77 lines 
Sidney Reilly: Ace of Spies

The strange story of Sidney Reilly began in Odessa, Russia.
Reilly was born on March 24, 1874 as Georgi Rosenblum, and
later became a linguist who learned to speak seven different
languages. This ability served him well throughout his years
as a spy. He soon was recruited by M16 and assumed the name
of Sidney Reilly. Reilly began his work for the British in
the Russo/Japanese wars and later was assigned to help with
the creation of British petroleum.

With the outbreak of World War I, Reilly became the Czar
of Russia's arms agent. At that time, Russia was a huge,
but very backwards power, whose industrial capacities were
not strong enough to fight a modern war. During these years,
Reilly earned commissions of over one million dollars. He
also shiped inferior munitions to the Russians while his
cost cutting schemes earned him millions more. His activities
created suspicion, however, the evidence of any wrong doing
was destroyed in the "Black Tom" explosion of 1916. Did Reilly
have anything to do with the tragedy in New Jersey that killed
hundreds of people? He certainly had the motive.

With the Bolshevik victory in Russia, Reilly was sent to help
foster and counter revolution. In additon, he worked to
assassinate Lenin with the help of British representative
Bruce Lockhart. Under the urging of Winston Churchill,
working as first lord of the Admiralty, the allies invaded
the new Soviet regime. They hoped to work with anti-bolshevik
forces and forced the collapse of Lenin's government.

It was at this time Lenin formed the Checa under the
leadership of Felix Dzerzhinsky. The plans of the British
were soon exposed by Dzerzhinsky, which destroyed their hopes
for a counter revolution for the time being. The question still
remained, was Reilly a spy? If he was working for the British,
his efforts would be a disaster. However, if he is working for
the Russians, as some have suggested, then Reilly was the most
clever double agent in history. The arrest of Boris Savinkoff
provided an interesting opportunity to look at this question
as to whether Reilly was indeed a double agent.

Boris Savinkoff was a long time anti-czarist terrorist who
became part of the British attempts to overthrow the Russian
Revolution. Reilly was working with Savinkoff at the time he
was arrested by the Russian secret police and Savinkoff was
given a very public trial. There, he spilled the beans about
the British efforts and the names of everyone involved, except
for Reilly. In the trial, Savinkoff was not asked, nor did he
volunteer, any information about Reilly. The question then
became why nobody asked about Reilly?

It is believed that Reilly was captured and executed by the
Trust, a large deception operation run by the secret police
of Felix Dzerzhinsky, when he entered Russia in 1925. But
bank records of Reilly's provided quite a different scenario.
Reilly had been transferring money to Swiss banks in early
1924 and now, the amounts stood in the millions. Could Reilly
have offered his services to the new regime and promised them
contacts with other business people willing to do business with
the Russians?

The Soviets were desperately strapped for cash. It is unlikely
that they would have killed a man who had access to millions
and could deliver millions more for any business willing to
work with the Bolsheviks. Could Reilly have become the middle
man for the Russians and, in fact, become a Soviet agent?
Robin Lockhart, son of Bruce Lockhart, thought so. He contends
that Reilly went to work for the Russian secret police and
was the infamous first man who recruited famous double agent
Kim Philby. We will never know, however, we do know that when
Ian Fleming was in Russia in 1930, he asked questions about
Reilly. Years later, Fleming created the character James Bond.
Coincidence; I think not!
Interviews with John Long and Richard Spence.

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 110 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Tue, Jan  2, 2001 (14:18) * 21 lines 
Just what is a Yankee Doodle?

So "Yankee-Doodle went to town." And just why should anyone
care? Why would anyone ever sing such goofus-like lyrics?
"Stuck a feather in his cap and called it macaroni." Really?
You must be kidding!

In fact it's ironic that Americans proudly sing a song that
originally mocked them and their notion that they should be
free and independent. It originated as a 14th century
nonsense song in Holland about a silly character named
"Yankee-Doodle." English school children adopted it to make
fun of Oliver Cromwell. In the same spirit the British
troops fighting against the colonists in the American
Revolution poked fun at their adversaries with the song. But
wouldn't you know it! The Americans not only shot from
behind trees at the Redcoats marching in the open in
formation, they also turned their own song against the
British troops, making of them not macaroni but mincemeat.

(Source: JUST CURIOUS, JEEVES by Jack Mingo and Erin Barrett)

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 111 of 116: Marcia  (MarciaH) * Fri, Feb  9, 2001 (19:50) * 62 lines 

The Enigma cipher machine was used by the German armed forces
during World War II. The Germans believed that their coding
device was impregnable due to its sophisticated nature. It's
rotating rotors were changed regularly, once a day after
World War II began and over three times a day afterward, so
even if the allies captured one of the machines the infor-
mation gained from the machine's capture would be useless to
them. This proved to be a great error for the Nazi's and
helped lead to their defeat in the World War II. The allies
were able to intercept messages and use this knowledge to
their advantage. This information was especially useful in
the North Atlantic and helped turn the tide of the war.

In 1932, the Polish "Buroszfrow" was able to break into the
code with the help of the French. The French provided docu-
ments, stolen by one of their agents, which were then used
for decoding. As war approached in Europe, the Germans began
to change their operating procedures for transmission. They
not only changed the keys and rotors but they increased the
frequency of the changes. When Poland was overrun in 1939,
and France followed a year later, the task was left to the
British to continue the work done by the Polish and French.

The capture of German weather ships and the help of American
intelligence aided the British effort. The use of the enigma
gave the British and Americans a great advantage. By 1942,
they were deciphering an average of 39,000 messages a month
from the Nazi forces. At first, the Allies shared their
information, but not their decoded enigma machines, with the
Soviets. In 1943, the Soviets captured there own machine,
which at first was thought to be a typewriter, and began to
use it. Knowing this, the British then sent them another
machine to go along with the first and began to help the
Soviets. This information was crucial in the Soviet liber-
ation of Nazi held territory, which would cumulate with the
capture of Berlin.

What is really remarkable about the whole thing is the sec-
recy regarding the breaking of enigma. Thousands of people
had access to the Ultra secrets, and the Germans captured
many, yet none of them betrayed those secrets. In all some
30,000 men and women knew of the success in breaking the
codes. But it was not until 1967 that some of the information
came out, and not until 1974, was the whole story told.

The Germans used the enigma throughout the war and from 1926
to 1945, about 100,000 machines were delivered to their forces.
They never suspected the allies had their codes. It is a test-
ament to the men and women of the allied forces that the sec-
rets of enigma never leaked out. Our government and military
are always worried about free citizens leaking information and
that we are not capable of having privileged information. But
citizens can be trusted. In the end, it was the commanders who
wrote books about the enigma, not the ordinary men and women
who worked that finally told the story. The ordinary citizen
had kept their lips sealed.

Sources: The Encyclopedia of Espionage. Norman Polmar and
Thomas B. Allen

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 112 of 116: Conf admin  (cfadm) * Wed, Mar  2, 2005 (14:47) * 20 lines

Site Overview

This site aims to provide a basic outline of important, but too often unknown to the public consciousness, information relating to US foreign policy around the world over the past few decades - information which should perhaps be kept in mind when looking at the current direction the US is taking in its foreign policy. All information is backed up with links to articles / sources from around the web, to allow for quick verification.

A few highlights of recent US Foreign Policy ...

CIA's overthrow of democratic governments in Guatemala, Brazil, Chile, Guyana, Iran, Indonesia and Congo.
CIA's overthrow of Iraq's government in 60's and installation of Saddam.
US terrorism in Nicaragua leading to condemnation by the World Court.
CIA training and support of death squads and repressive secret police in Iran, Indonesia, El Salvador, Chile, Guatemala and Vietnam.

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 113 of 116: Conf admin  (cfadm) * Wed, Mar  2, 2005 (14:48) * 10 lines

The intent of this page is to provide fascinating information about the Natives of North America, that I can almost guarantee you have never heard or thought about before. Unfortunately, this is due to the Euro-Centric nature of our history books. I was spurred to the creation of this page by the most interesting book I have ever read, titled, Lies My Teacher Told Me, by James W. Loewen. I read this book literally slack jawed.

I had thought that I knew a good deal about the history of this country. Well I didn't & wanted to share with you the most interesting facts I found, in the briefest manner possible. I sincerely urge you to read the book however! It is anything but boring & is truly essential reading.

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 114 of 116: Conf admin  (cfadm) * Sun, Mar  6, 2005 (10:18) * 8 lines

footnotes to history

Artificial Islands- For some reason, the late 1960s saw a rash of artificial islands declared independent nations. None of the platform nation projects were successful, and with the clarification of international law under the 1982 Law of the Sea Convention, it appears that individuals, corporations, and other non-state entities may never gain the right to erect new sovereign entities on unclaimed or artificial territory. Well, it was fun while it lasted.

See Abalonia, Atlantis, Minerva, New Atlantis, New Utopia, Isle of the Roses

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 115 of 116: Packy O'Brien  (historian) * Mon, Jan 15, 2007 (18:16) * 22 lines 
Forgotten History of the Western People
From the Earliest Origins
Mike Gascoigne
This book, published in October 2002, covers most of my current research into ancient history.

"It is not often that a really good book comes our way, but Gascoigne’s Forgotten History is certainly one of them." full text...
Bill Cooper, author of After the Flood. Published in Creation, the Journal of the Creation Science Movement, Vol. 13, No. 8, May 2003.

"This book provides a survey of many ancient traditions from the ancient near east, the classical world and the British Isles." full text...
Michael Tunnicliffe, Manchester Ancient Egypt Society.

"...a picture of our past that is very different than the one taught in most schools." full text...
Pat Franklin, Sub-Editor of the Surrey-Hants Star. See also the PDF version.

"When I was given this book, I had a difficult time putting it down... this book is a wonderful accompaniment to other texts and offers a critical look at obscure texts not often discussed in more mainstream history books... a roadmap through people and stories of our roots." full text...
Robin McDonald, Eclectic Homeschool Association.

"This book is an attempt, like some others before it, to survey ancient mythological texts and compare them to Biblical accounts... it makes Jonah a lot more understandable..." full text...
TheologyWeb Campus, Recommended Reading List. See also the archive copy, in case the main forum topic disappears.

"...Mike shows that there is only one true history and that is the history presented in Bible." full text...
Martin Emerson, Light in the Darkness.

 Topic 6 of 11 [history]: Forgotten History
 Response 116 of 116: historian (cfadm) * Mon, Jul 21, 2008 (20:17) * 41 lines 
Colombia protests against Farc kidnappings

Hundreds of thousands Colombians across the world marched to call for an end of the scourge
of kidnapping and the 44-year civil conflict in what was perhaps the greatest demonstration
in this blood-soaked nation's history.

In Paris, former hostage Ingrid Betancourt took the stage and shook her hips to Colombian
music, leading the crowd in chants of "Freedom for all" at a concert dedicated to captives
held by the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (Farc).

The French capital's Place du Trocadero was awash in the red, yellow and blue colours of
the Colombian flag.

Miss Betancourt, the 46-year-old French-Colombian politician who was rescued three weeks
ago in a daring operation carried out by Colombian agents.

"This is a special day for us all," said Ms Betancourt. "Just 20 days ago I was in the
jungle listening to the radio for news from my family, fighting to survive. Now we must
remember those still being held."

Hours later, in Bogota, the Colombian capital, hundreds of thousands massed on the streets.

"This is an historic moment for us," said Cristina Jimenez, 37, a university lecturer, as
she marched. "We are for the first time building a civil society, crying out with one

"Libertad, Libertad (Liberty, Liberty)", was the cry that echoed off the high rises in
Bogota as people marched to reject the kidnapping and violence meted out by Colombia's
Marxist rebels.

Whilst there have been demonstrations in the past the protests were given new impetus by
the successful rescue of Miss Betancourt and 14 other hostages snatched from the hands of
Farc rebels. Twelve 12 Colombians and three US defence contractors were liberated in a
bloodless coup for Oxford-educated president, Alvaro Uribe, who now enjoys 85 per cent
approval ratings and may be positioning himself to run for a third term in office.

Farc are still holding 25 political hostages whom they want to exchange for hundreds of
their comrades in prison. Some of those held have spend more than a decade in their jungle
prisons, chained to trees at night and forced to march constantly to avoid army patrols and
US monitoring aircraft that search relentlessly for their locations. Often forgotten are
around 700 people being held for ransom by the rebel group.

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